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Sample records for adult wistar kyoto

  1. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  2. Fear conditioning fragments REM sleep in stress-sensitive Wistar-Kyoto, but not Wistar, rats

    OpenAIRE

    DaSilva, Jamie K.; Lei, Yanlin; Madan, Vibha; Mann, Graziella L.; Richard J. Ross; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2010-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning is commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of fear learning. Because the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is particularly stress-sensitive, we investigated the effects of a psychological stressor on sleep in WKY compared to Wistar (WIS) rats. Male WKY and WIS rats were either fear-conditioned to tone cues or received electric foot shocks alone. In the fear-conditioning procedure, animals were exposed to 10 tones (800 Hz, 90 dB, 5 sec), each co-terminating with a foot s...

  3. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

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    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  4. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

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    Nam, Hyungwoo; Clinton, Sarah M; Jackson, Nateka L.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs' phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We f...

  5. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hyungwoo eNam; Clinton, Sarah M; Jackson, Nateka L.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs’ phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We f...

  6. Dysfunctional Inhibitory Mechanisms in Locus Coeruleus Neurons of the Wistar Kyoto Rat

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    Bruzos-Cidón, C; Llamosas, N; Ugedo, L.; M. Torrecilla

    2015-01-01

    Background: The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) has functional relevance in several psychopathologies such as stress, anxiety, and depression. In addition to glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs, the activation of somatodendritic α2-adrenoceptors is the main responsible for LC activity regulation. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat exhibits depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and hyperresponse to stressors. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate in vitro the sensi...

  7. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

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    Hyungwoo eNam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs’ phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs’ behavior to that of Sprague-Dawley (SD, Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST. WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness. WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs’ behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e. neonatal handling that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression.

  8. Insulin sensitivity and hemodynamic responses to insulin in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Pître, M; Nadeau, A; Bachelard, H

    1996-10-01

    The insulin-mediated vasodilator effect has been proposed as an important physiological determinant of insulin action on glucose disposal in normotensive humans. The present study was designed to further examine the acute regional hemodynamic effects of insulin in different vascular beds and to explore the relationships between insulin vascular effects and insulin sensitivity during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps in conscious normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The rats were instrumented with intravascular catheters and pulsed Doppler flow probes to measure blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. In WKY rats, the euglycemic infusion of insulin (4 and 16 mU.kg-1.min-1) causes vasodilations in renal and hindquarter vascular beds but no changes in mean blood pressure, heart rate, or superior mesenteric vascular conductance. In contrast, in SHR, the same doses of insulin produce vasoconstrictions in superior mesenteric and hindquarter vascular beds and, at high doses, increase blood pressure. Moreover, at the lower dose of insulin tested, we found a reduction in the insulin sensitivity index in the SHR compared with the WKY rats. The present findings provide further evidence for an association between insulin sensitivity and insulin-mediated hemodynamic responses.

  9. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

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    Ana Isabel Garcia Diaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades.

  10. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein.

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    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminaryin vitroandin vivoimaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  11. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

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    Pardey, Margery C.; Kumar, Natasha N.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Clemens, Kelly J.; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive R...

  12. Avoidance Perseveration During Extinction Training in Wistar-Kyoto Rats: An Interaction of Innate Vulnerability and Stressor Intensity

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    Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C.H.; Beck, Kevin D.; Minor, Thomas R.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Given that avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats may be a good model of anxiety vulnerability for their hypersensitivity to stress and trait behavioral inhibition. Here, we examined the influence of strain and shock intensity on avoidance acquisition and extinction. Accordingly, we trained WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in lever-press avoidance using either 1.0-mA or 2.0-mA foot-shock. After extinction, neuronal activation was visualized by c-Fos for over...

  13. Greater hypertrophy in right than left ventricles is associated with pulmonary vasculopathy in sinoaortic-denervated Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao CY; Cai GJ; Tao X; Xie HH; Su DF

    2005-01-01

    1. Biventricular hypertrophy has been described in a high blood pressure variability (BPV) model of sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) rats without systemic hypertension. To explore the possible involvement of the lung in SAD-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), we examined lung morphology, in addition to systemic haemodynamics and ventricle morphology, in Wistar-Kyoto rats 32 weeks after SAD. 2. In Wistar-Kyoto rats 32 weeks after SAD, there existed a substantial elevation in BPV, with no change in the average level of arterial pressure. Biventricular hypertrophy following SAD was characterized by a greater hypertrophy in right than left ventricles; both absolute and normalized right ventricular weights were significantly increased by 22 and 27%, respectively, and only normalized left ventricular weight was significantly increased by 12%. No infarcts were found in any ventricles examined. 3. In the lung, the most prominent change following SAD was pulmonary vasculopathy, including wall thickening, perivascular fibrosis and cell infiltration. In pulmonary arteries with an internal diameter of 70-130 microm, the external diameter, wall thickness and wall thickness to internal diameter ratio were increased in SAD compared with control rats. 4. There was no correlation between right and left ventricular weights. In contrast with BPV-correlated left ventricular weight, right ventricular weight was correlated with the wall thickness of the pulmonary artery, but not with BPV. 5. These findings suggest that greater RVH following SAD is associated with pulmonary vasculopathy, but is not secondary to the left ventricular problems or high BPV.

  14. Strain- and context-based 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and anxiety behaviour in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi Madhava Rao; Monika Sadananda

    2015-09-01

    Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are influenced by immediate, prior contexts and have emerged as important indicators that monitor an individual’s ‘state’. They also index direct reflections of inherent ‘trait’ and are suggested to constitute non-invasive read-outs of pathological conditions. Analysis of USVs emitted under particular contexts could help discern strain-specific differences and existence of individual USV profiles. USVs of the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) strain, a putative model of depression, could indicate social communication deficits. In the cage, USV emission was significantly reduced in WKYs. An elevated plus maze exposure led to no change in USV emission in WKYs, while it significantly reduced USVs in Wistars. Re-exposure induced strain-specific differences in behaviour and total calling time. Sonographic patterns indicated that the predominant USV subtype were flat 50 kHz USVs. EPMexposure induced a reduction in peak amplitude in WKY USVs and in USV length in both strains. USV peak frequency and amplitude, genetically determined spectral features, were strain-specific, while bandwidth and temporal features such as total calling time and USV duration were context-dependent. WKY USVs demonstrated characteristic spectral structures such as increased call length and reduced peak frequency while other parameters were not quantitatively different, reflecting the shared phylogeny between Wistars and WKYs.

  15. TGF-mediated oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats

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    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    A highly sensitive oscillatory tubulo-glomerular feedback (TGF) response has previously been demonstrated in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such as oscillating TGF-response could be elicited in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and genetically...... hypertensive rats (SHR) and furthermore if any differences in the TGF-response characteristics between SHR and WKY rats could be detected. The closed loop function of the TGF-system was studied. In 12-18-week-old WKY rats regular oscillations in the intratubular pressure occurred spontaneously. The median...... fluid (ATF). When furosemide was added to the ATF in a concentration of 0.1 mM, the oscillations were abolished in both strains of rats. It is concluded that, in both strains of rats the oscillatory phenomena depend upon TGF activity. It is suggested that the irregular pattern of the oscillations...

  16. Upregulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus-prefrontal cortex serotonin system by chronic treatment with escitalopram in hyposerotonergic Wistar-Kyoto rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamada, Makiko; Kawahara, Yukie; Kaneko, Fumi; Kishikawa, Yuki; Sotogaku, Naoki; Poppinga, Wilfred J.; Folgering, Joost H. A.; Dremencov, Eliyahu; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats are sensitive to chronic stressors and exhibit depression-like behavior. Dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonin (5-HT) neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) comprise the important neurocircuitry underlying the pathophysiology of depression. To evaluate the DRN-PFC 5

  17. Dysfunction in fatty acid amide hydrolase is associated with depressive-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats.

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    K Yaragudri Vinod

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD. Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder.

  18. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

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    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

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    Jennifer L. Cornish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®. With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day or distilled water (dH2O. The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  20. ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF LOW KETAMINE DOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED HIPPOCAMPAL AMPA/NMDA RECEPTOR DENSITY RATIO IN FEMALE WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizabi, Yousef; Bhatti, Babur H; Manaye, Kebreten F; Das, Jharna R; Akinfiresoye, Luli

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical as well as limited clinical studies indicate that ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, may exert a quick and prolonged antidepressant effect. It has been postulated that ketamine action is due to inhibition of NMDA and stimulation of AMPA receptors. Here, we sought to determine whether ketamine would exert antidepressant effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression and whether this effect would be associated with changes in AMPA/NMDA receptor densities in the hippocampus. Adult female WKY rats and their control Wistar rats were subjected to acute and chronic ketamine doses and their locomotor activity (LMA) and immobility in the forced swim test (FST) were evaluated. Hippocampal AMPA and NMDA receptor densities were also measured following a chronic ketamine dose. Ketamine, both acutely (0.5–5.0 mg/kg ip) and chronically (0.5–2.5 mg/kg daily for 10 days) resulted in a dose-dependent and prolonged decrease in immobility in the FST in WKY rats only, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in this model. Chronic treatment with an effective dose of ketamine also resulted in an increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density ratio in the hippocampus of WKY rats. LMA was not affected by any ketamine treatment in either strain. These results indicate a rapid and lasting antidepressant-like effect of a low ketamine dose in WKY rat model of depression. Moreover, the increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density in hippocampus could be a contributory factor to behavioral effects of ketamine. These findings suggest potential therapeutic benefit in simultaneous reduction of central NMDA and elevation of AMPA receptor function in treatment of depression. PMID:22521815

  1. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  2. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats

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    Ilangkovan M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Menaga Ilangkovan, Ibrahim Jantan, Mohamed Ahmed Mesaik, Syed Nasir Abbas BukhariDrug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05. Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A–stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01, there was a significant decrease in the (% expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T

  3. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  4. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waqas Ahmad, Ibrahim Jantan, Endang Kumolosasi, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Tinospora crispa (TC has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 µg/mL and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL, and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01. Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ and Th2 (IL-4 cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with

  5. Exposure to morphine-associated cues increases mu opioid receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Torry S; Beck, Kevin D; Cominski, Tara P; Bobzean, Samara A M; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V; Servatius, Richard J; Perrotti, Linda I

    2016-10-15

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability as it exhibits pronounced behavioral inhibition, passive avoidance, exaggerated startle response, enhanced HPA-axis activation, and active avoidance that is resistant to extinction. Accumulating evidence suggests that WKY rats respond differently to rewarding stimuli when compared to outbred strains of rat. Conditioned responding to drug-associated cues is linked with alterations in the activation of mu opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa opioid receptors (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, alterations in KOR expression/activation in the NAc of WKY rats are implicated in the regulation of some of the components that make up the unique behavioral phenotype of this strain. The purpose of this study was to extend upon previous work from our laboratory by investigating conditioned morphine reward in adult male WKY and SD rats, and to examine levels of KOR mRNA and MOR mRNA in the NAc at baseline and after acquisition of morphine CPP. Our results demonstrate that SD rats displayed morphine-induced CPP to each of the six doses of morphine tested (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10mg/kg). Interestingly, WKY rats demonstrated CPP for only the 1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg doses, yet no preference at the lowest (0.5mg/kg) or highest (7.5 and 10mg/kg) doses. qPCR analysis of MOR and KOR in the NAc revealed no strain differences in basal levels of MOR, but higher levels of KOR in WKY rats compared to those of SD rats. Interestingly, after completion of the CPP task, WKY rats had overall higher levels of NAc MOR mRNA compared to SD rats; the initial basal differences in NAc KOR levels persisted without change due to CPP in either strain. These results demonstrate that the WKY rat exhibits a unique pattern of behavioral responding to morphine and implicates differences in NAc KOR signaling as a potential source of aversion to higher doses of morphine. Additionally, the CPP-induced upregulation of

  6. Prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone 178-199 immunoreactivity is altered in the hypothalamus of the Wistar-Kyoto strain of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Solberg, L C; Redei, E E; Handa, R J

    2001-09-21

    The rat prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) 178-199 is derived from prepro-TRH by the actions of the endopeptidases, prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) and PC2. PPTRH 178-199 attenuates the synthesis and secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting an inhibitory action on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. This peptide also acts centrally to increase activity and decrease anxiety related behaviors. To elucidate the involvement of this peptide in these functions, we have compared the expression of PPTRH 178-199, PPTRH mRNA, and PC1 and PC2 mRNAs in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar strains of rat. WKY rats have been shown to possess neuroendocrine abnormalities (HPA hyper-activity) and hyper-emotional behavioral characteristics. Immunohistochemical analysis of PPTRH 178-199 demonstrated significant strain differences in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the parastrial nucleus (PSN). WKY rats had significantly greater numbers of immunoreactive (IR) cell body profiles (PHPA axis and the hyper-emotional behavioral characteristics seen in this rat strain. Such data fit with the hypothesis that PPTRH 178-199 is involved in the regulation of the HPA axis and behavior. PMID:11549391

  7. Estudo do efeito da amiodarona sobre o peso corpóreo e sobre determinantes morfológicos e citopatológicos do pulmão em ratos machos e fêmeas das linhagens Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto e SHR Study on the effect of amiodarone on the body weight and on lung morphologic and cytopathologic parameters of male and female Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto, and SHR rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAIS THOMAZ QUELUZ

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A maioria dos estudos experimentais sobre a toxicidade pulmonar induzida por amiodarona tem sido realizada em ratos machos da linhagem Fischer-344. Objetivos: Investigar o efeito da amiodarona sobre o peso corpóreo e sobre determinantes morfológicos e citopatológicos do pulmão em outras linhagens de ratos de ambos os sexos. Métodos: Grupos de ratos machos e de fêmeas das linhagens Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY e espontaneamente hipertenso (SHR receberam, por gavagem, durante quatro semanas, 175mg/kg/dia de amiodarona em suspensão salina. Os grupos controles receberam apenas salina. Foram estudados ganho de peso corpóreo, celularidade total e diferencial do lavado broncoalveolar (LBA e histopatologia dos pulmões. Resultados: Mortalidade pela amiodarona foi observada nos ratos WKY tratados, sendo maior em machos. Animais SHR tratados de ambos os sexos apresentaram o menor ganho de peso entre as linhagens estudadas. Ratos machos Wistar e SHR tratados apresentaram maior ganho de peso do que as fêmeas das suas respectivas linhagens. O LBA de ratos SHR tratados de ambos os sexos era hemorrágico. A celularidade do LBA foi maior em machos tratados (WKY > Wistar > SHR. Entretanto, nos machos e fêmeas WKY a contagem diferencial mostrou o menor percentual de macrófagos e o maior de neutrófilos entre as três linhagens. Macrófagos do LBA de ratos Wistar tratados apresentavam fosfolipidose, enquanto a maioria dos macrófagos de ratos SHR tratados eram normais. No exame anatomopatológico dos pulmões, não houve diferenças entre os sexos e não foi observada pneumonite. Em ratos Wistar o exame foi caracterizado pela acentuada quantidade de macrófagos "espumosos" intra-alveolares, em ratos WKY, por inúmeros abscessos intraparenquimatosos e em ratos SHR, pela hemorragia alveolar. Conclusões: 1 a amiodarona induz em ratos Wistar maior quantidade de macrófagos espumosos do que nas linhagens WKY e SHR, embora no modelo utilizado eles

  8. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

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    María Eugenia Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily, chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight, mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone, or control treatment (without stress for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  9. Effects of Total Flavonoids of Hippophae Rhamnoides L. on Intracellular Free Calcium in Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fu; CHEN Wei; HUANG Pan-hua; HUANG Bo; HU Chun-yan; JIANG Qing-yuan; LU Zhen-guo; LU Ming; WANG Mei-hua; GONG Min; QIAO Chun-ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of total flavonoids of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (TFH),quercetin (Que) and isorhamnetin (Isor) on the intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ]i) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Methods: Fluo 3-acetoxymethylester(Fluo-3/AM) was used to observe the effects of TFH (100mg/L) and its essential monomers, namely Que (10-4mol/L) and Isor (10-4mol/L) on changes of [Ca2+] i in cultured SHR and WKY VSMC (abbr. to Ca-SHR & Ca-WKY) following exposure to high K+, norepinephrine (NE) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ ), and to compare with the effects of verapamil (Ver). Results: (1) TFH, Que and Isor had inhibitory effects on resting Ca-SHR (P<0.05), but had no significant effects on Ca-WKY (P>0.05). (2) High K+ could increase Ca-SHR more significantly than Ca-WKY (P<0.05); TFH, Que and Isor could inhibit the elevation of [Ca2+ ]i induced by high K+-depolarization, with the effects similar to that of Ver, and the effect on Ca-SHR was more significant than that on Ca-WKY ( P<0.05). (3) NE and Ang Ⅱ could increase Ca-SHR more significantly than Ca-WKY ( P<0.05), TFH, Que and Isor had remarkably inhibitory effect on the elevation of Ca-SHR and Ca-WKY induced by NE or Ang Ⅱ. (4) In the absence of extracellular Ca2+ , TFH, Que and Isor also had certain inhibitory effect on Ca-SHR and Ca-WKY induced by NE, and the effect on the former was more significant than that on the latter( P<0.05). Conclusion: TFH, Que and Isor might decrease the levels of [Ca2+ ]i in VSMCs by blocking both voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDC) and receptoroperated calcium channels (ROC) in physiological or pathological state, which may be one of the important mechanisms of their hypotensive and protective effects on target organs in patients with hypertension.

  10. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and ionized Ca2+ on 45Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of several regulators of whole animal Ca2+ homeostasis on 45Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was examined. Exposure of confluent cells to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.50 mM ionized Ca2+ in serum-free medium for seven days resulted in increased 45Ca uptake at the higher concentrations of Ca2+ in cells of the SHR but not the WKY. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (1 ng/ml) for 7 days caused enhanced influx in cells from both the SHR and WKY while parathyroid hormone (1-34) (1 ng/ml) was without effect. The data indicate that humoral factors that serve to regulate whole animal Ca2+ homeostasis may also play a role in the regulation of Ca2+ metabolism of the vascular smooth muscle cell

  11. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity correlates with cortical perfusion parameters determined by bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Shane; Rouine, Jennifer; McIntosh, Allison; Kerskens, Christian; Harkin, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in astrocyte number and function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric disorders. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in the animal laboratory has enabled an investigation of the relationship between pathological and neuroimaging markers in animal models. However the physiological processes which underlie these markers and their role in mediating behavioural deficits is still poorly understood. Rodent models have provided us with important insights into physiological and cellular mechanisms which may mediate anxiety and depression-related behaviours. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a strain which endogenously expresses highly anxious and depressive-like behaviours and has previously been reported to exhibit alterations in immunoreactivity for the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in brain sub-regions relative to more stress resilient out-bred strains. Here we report that the depressive and anxiety-like behaviours exhibited by the WKY rat strain are associated with alterations in brain morphology including a decrease in hippocampal volume, coupled with reduced resting state frontal cortical perfusion as assessed by MR bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) relative to the out-bred Wistar strain. Pre-limbic cortical GFAP immunoreactivity and astrocyte cell number were positively correlated with cortical blood perfusion in the WKY strain. These experiments provide a link between pathological and neuroimaging markers of aberrant astrocytic function and add validity to the WKY rat as a model for co-morbid anxiety and depression. PMID:27068181

  12. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia de Souza Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta; Juliana Castro Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol,...

  13. Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats

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    A.A. Okesina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR, the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group. The control group A received phosphate buffered saline orally, with the aid of a cannula. 1 mL of 50% ethanol was administered orally, by a cannula, to produce the gastric lesion in group B (n = 8. And in the group C, 500 mg/kg body weight of paw paw leaf extract was administered orally, with a cannula, twelve hours after ethanol administration to the rats. This experiment lasted for twenty one consecutive days. The result showed that TBARS in gastric mucosa as an index for oxidative stress level was significantly increased after ethanol administration. CPL did not reduce significantly the levels of TBARS in the gastric mucosa. G-6-PDH activity was significantly increased in gastric mucosa after ethanol administration, but in rats treated with CPL, a reverse of G-6-PDH activity was observed. Ethanol induced a remarkable and significant decrease of GPx activity in gastric mucosa, whereas CPL induced a significant reversion of ethanol’s effect on the enzyme. The results therefore demonstrate that CPL treatment exerts antioxidant effects on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats.

  14. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  15. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  16. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  17. Renoprotective effects of moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats

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    Ezejindu D. N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is one of several nutritional supplements giving wide spread popularity in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats. 24 apparently healthy adult wistar rats weighing between190- 230kg were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.3ml of distilled water orally. The experimental groups B, C & D received 0.5ml, 0.6ml &0.7ml of Moringa oleifera extract orally respectively. The administration lasted for twenty one days. The animals were weighed, sacrificed using chloroform vapour. The kidney tissue were removed, weighed and trimmed down for histological studies. Result of this study showed non-distortion of the kidney cells. The findings of this study suggest that chronic Moringa oleifera consumption may not put the kidneys at risk of adverse histopathological conditions.

  18. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  19. Absence of mutagenic effect of Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract on adult wistar rats in vivo

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an assessment of the dominant lethality of Mikania glomerata in male Wistar rats. Adult male received 1 mL of M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose level of 3.3 g/kg body weight for 52 days and were mated with untreated females for seven weeks (group 1 or one week prior to the beginning of treatment and on the week following the end of treatment (group 2. The parameters analyzed were: number of implanted embryos, resorptions and corpora lutea; mating, gestation, preimplantation loss, implantation and resorption indexes (group 1; number of offspring and weaning animals (group 2. The administration of M. glomerata did not show any impairment of fertility and no significant difference in the parameters analyzed, suggesting an absence of mutagenic effect on Wistar rats.Mikania glomerata é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular, cujas folhas possuem flavonóides e cumarina. Essas substâncias, segundo a literatura, interferem na fertilidade de cães e ratas, respectivamente. O presente trabalho faz um estudo do teste do letal dominante com M. glomerata em ratos Wistar. Animals adultos foram tratados com 1 mL de extrato hidroalcoólico de M. glomerata na dose de 3.3 g/kg de peso corporal durante 52 dias. Os animais foram acasalados com fêmeas não tratadas por sete semanas (grupo 1 ou uma semana antes do início do tratamento e na semana seguinte ao término do mesmo (grupo 2. As variáveis analisadas foram: números de embriões implantados, reabsorções e corpos lúteos, índices de acasalamento, gestação, perda pré-implantação, implantação e reabsorção (grupo 1; número de filhotes nascidos e de animais desmamados (grupo 2. A administração de M. glomerata não interferiu com a fertilidade dos animais e não foram observadas alterações significativas das variáveis analisadas, o que sugere a ausência de efeito mutagênico em ratos Wistar por parte dessa planta.

  20. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  1. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  2. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  3. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale; Osonuga Ifabunmi Oduyemi; Osonuga Ayokunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats.Methods:moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum.Result:Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.Conclusion:Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  4. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  5. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Puran Badkoobeh; Kazem Parivar; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Seyed Davood Hosseini; Alireza Salabat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including...

  6. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  7. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

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    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  8. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

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    Oboma, Yibala .I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26 adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6 and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal injection of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sacrifice was carried out on 24hrs, 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. Tissues collected were prepared for histology using heamatoxylin and eosin staining techniques while serum lipid profile, glucose level, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde (MDA and liver enzymes were analyze using Selectra and micro Elisa. RESULT: High doses (500mg/kg and prolonged exposure to the extract resulted in spectrum effects. Prolonged and increase concentration of extract administration causes increase in body weight and is statistically significant at P<0.05, t=35 and df=8, decrease in lipid profile, creatine kinase (CK-MB, malondialdehyde (MDA, liver enzymes and glucose at both higher and lower doses of 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively. Photomicrograph with magnification of x400, show normal histology of the heart and liver. CONCLUSION: Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera show a potential anti-hyperglycemia and antilipidemic properties with no notable hepatotoxicity and cardiac injury. This study supports the popular sayings about the tradomedicinal use of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  9. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  10. Moving beyond Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2000, just after the presidential elections in the United States, negotiators will meet in The Hague at the sixth meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP6) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Chang the Kyoto Protocol on global climate change at COP3, which was held in Kyoto in December 1997. Intense negotiations over the intervening period have focused on how to implement the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has been signed by 84 countries but not ratified by any of the key countries, and ratification does not appear to be imminent, especially in the United Sates, where the Senate has registered its strong opposition. (author)

  11. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O.Eweka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups.The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the medial geniculate body showed some cellular degenerative changes, autophagic vacuoles with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections. These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the medial geniculate body (MGB. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the MGB of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  12. A future for Kyoto?

    OpenAIRE

    Guesnerie, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This text is based on the English translation of extracts from a report to an advisory economic group to the French Prime Minister (Conseil d'Analyse Economique). This report was presented on July 2002 and published in 2003, (Guesnerie(2003). These extracts have been chosen and reorganised to provide an assessment of the future of the Kyoto protocol, as emphasized in the title. The sections successively treat: the present flaws of the Kyoto protocol, the improvement in design that can be thou...

  13. Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats

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    Candasamy Mayuren

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52.Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52.Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically at

  14. Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis. PMID:27078690

  15. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (Pworms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing apoptosis and host interactions in schistosome infection.

  16. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  17. The Perinatal Effects of Lithium Carbonate on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal in Adult Female Wistar Rats

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    ebrahim hosseini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Lithium is the metal used in bipolar disorder treatment.  As for the prevalence of the disorder infertility (childbearing age and the use of lithium, this study aimed at studying the effects of drugs on histological changes, and the ovarian function in the first generation of adult female offspring was performed. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 40 pregnant mice were divided into 5 groups of 8, including a control group. The control and the experimental groups consumed three dosages of 60, 120, and 180 mg/kg lithium carbonate for 21 days. At the end of the sixth week postpartum, 10 mice were randomly selected from the offspring in each group and were then phlebotomized in order to measure the estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH hormones. Their ovaries were removed, and after preparing and staining the tissue sections, the types of follicles were counted. The results were analyzed using SPSS-18 software and ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Finally, the significant difference of data P  0/05 was considered. Results: The results showed that lithium caused a significant increase in the number of atresia follicles and a reduction in primordial, primary, and secondary follicles, graph and corpus luteum, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH hormones in the first generation offspring at P≤ 0/05. Conclusion: Using lithium during pregnancy led to an increase in the atresia follicle and a decrease in other follicles in the first generation offspring; moreover, the sex hormone levels also decreased probably due to the reduction in the follicle and corpus luteum.

  18. Effects of Calendula officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood sugar, LDL, HDL and Total cholesterol in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Adult male wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahmoodi; A. Azimi; Shahidi, S

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: It’s very important to decrease the glucose level and lipid’s serum in diabetes patients by using medicinal plants. In the present study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis on blood glucose, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol in diabetic rats was examined. Methods: In this experimental study, thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, diabetic and diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis (100, 150...

  19. Histopathological effects of sub-chronic lamivudine-artesunate co-administration on the liver of diseased adult Wistar rats

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    Temidayo Olutoyin Olurishe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lamivudine and artesunate are sometimes co administered in HIV-malaria co morbidity. Both drugs are used concurrently in presumptive malaria treatment and simultaneous HIV post exposure prophylaxis. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lamivudine-artesunate co administration on the histology of the liver of diseased adult Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of rats of both sexes were used for the study and placed on feed and water ad libitum. Disease state consisted of immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide, and infection with Plasmodium berghei. Group 1 animals served as vehicle control, while group 2 were the diseased controls. Group 3 animals received 20 mg/kg lamivudine for three weeks, while group 4 similarly received 20 mg/kg Lamivudine but also received 10 mg/kg artesunate from day 12. Animals in group 5 received 10 mg/kg artesunate from day 12. All drugs were administered intraperitoneally. The animals were treated for twenty-one days, at the end of which they were sacrificed and their livers fixed in 10% formalin for histological studies. Result: Results from the study show the presence of regions of focal necrosis and perivascular cuffing with animals that received artesunate. Hemosiderosis was a common feature in all the parasitized groups, while fatty degeneration was observed in the group that received artesunate alone. Conclusion: Concurrent lamivudine-artesunate administration resulted in some histopathological changes in the liver. This study suggests there may be considerable histological changes with repeated occurrence of malaria and immunosuppression that may warrant intermittent lamivudine-artesunate administration, and may require evaluation as well as monitoring of liver function during such therapeutic interventions.

  20. Histological effects of long term consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Nutmeg is commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol. The effect of chronic consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Aim : The objective is to observe any possible histological changes. Materials and Methods : Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were equally and randomly assigned into two treatment groups [A] and [B]; and untreated Control group [C] of (n = 8 per group. The rats in the treatment groups [A] and [B] were respectively given 1g and 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for the thirty-two days period. All rats were fed with grower′s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on day thirty-three of the experiment, medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out from the brain and quickly fixed in 10% formol-saline for histological study. Results : The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A & B showed some cellular degenerative changes like hypertrophy, sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, and vacuolation in the stroma of the treated medial geniculate body relative to those in the control group. Conclusion : Long term consumption of nutmeg may have adverse effect on microanatomy of medial geniculate body, which could negatively impact on the auditory sensibilities. Further research, including human observational studies, aimed at corroborating these observations is recommended.

  1. Histological effects of long term consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutmeg is commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol. The effect of chronic consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Aim: The objective is to observe any possible histological changes. Materials and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were equally and randomly assigned into two treatment groups [A] and [B]; and untreated Control group [C] of (n = 8 per group. The rats in the treatment groups [A] and [B] were respectively given 1g and 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for the thirty-two days period. All rats were fed with grower’s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on day thirty-three of the experiment, medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out from the brain and quickly fixed in 10% formol-saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A & B showed some cellular degenerative changes like hypertrophy, sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, and vacuolation in the stroma of the treated medial geniculate body relative to those in the control group. Conclusion: Long term consumption of nutmeg may have adverse effect on microanatomy of medial geniculate body, which could negatively impact on the auditory sensibilities. Further research, including human observational studies, aimed at corroborating these observations is recommended.

  2. Kyotos helte og skurke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    USA blev på Kyoto-konferencen i december kritiseret af energi- og miljøminister Svend Auken for at ville tjene på et globalt CO2-marked. Men håndhæves dette effektivt af FN, kommer det alle til gode. Et globalt CO2-marked kan blive et banebrydende styringsmiddel, som kan løse globale miljøproblem...

  3. Efeito do uso de pentoxifilina no período neonatal sobre a produção espermática em ratos Wistar adultos Effect of pentoxifylline during neonatal period on spermatic production in adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A.P. Moraes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se doses crescentes de pentoxifilina em ratos Wistar neonatos visando aumentar a produção espermática em animais adultos. Trinta e sete animais foram distribuídos de acordo com os tratamentos: não tratados (n=10 e tratados com 1mg/kg (n=10, 5mg/kg (n=9 e 10mg/kg (n=8 de pentoxifilina (IP. Aos 90 dias, os animais foram anestesiados e perfundidos intracardiacamente com solução fixadora. Os testículos foram processados rotineiramente para inclusão em resina plástica à base de glicol metacrilato. Cortes histológicos de 4µm de espessura foram corados em azul de toluidina/borato de sódio a 1% e analisados histometricamente. O número de células de Sertoli por secção transversal diminuiu nos grupos tratados com 5mg/kg e 10mg/kg em relação aos grupos controle e tratado com 1mg/kg. O índice de células de Sertoli aumentou nos animais tratados com 5mg/kg em comparação aos do grupo-controle. A utilização da pentoxifilina não foi capaz de induzir aumento na população das células de Sertoli e produção espermática em ratos adultos.Increasing doses of pentoxifylline were administrated to newborn Wistar rats in order to augment Sertoli cell number and sperm production in the adult rats. Thirty-seven neonate Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: control (n=10 and treated with 1mg/kg (n=10, 5mg/kg (n=9, and 10mg/kg (n=8 of pentoxifylline. At 90 days, the animals were submitted to anesthesia and intracardiac perfusion. Testes were colleted and routinely processed for inclusion in plastic resin with glycol methacrylate. Histological sections (4µm were stained in toluidine blue/sodium borate (1% and analyzed. Number of Sertoli cell per transversal section of seminiferous tubule had significant reduction in the groups treated with 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg of pentoxifylline as compared to control and the group that received 1mg/kg (P<0.05. The Sertoli cell index significantly increased in the group treated with 5mg

  4. Requiem for Kyoto: An Economic Analysis of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhaus, William D.; Joseph G. Boyer

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses the newly developed RICE-98 model to analyze the economics of the Kyoto Protocol. It analyzes versions of the Kyoto Protocol that have different approaches to trading emissions rights and compares these with efficient approaches. The major conclusions are: (a) the global cost of the Kyoto Protocol is $716 billion in present value, (b) the United States bears almost two-thirds of the global cost; and (c) the benefit-cost ratio of the Kyoto Protocol is 1/7. Additionally, the emi...

  5. EFFECTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ON LIVER FUNCTION OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko Vitalis C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the hepatotoxic effect of mercury chloride and effects of zingiber officinale on this hepatotoxicity. These were carried out via estimation of liver function tests. Fifteen adult wistar rats were used for the experimental investigations. They were grouped into three: groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Animals in group 1 served as the control group. Group 2 consists of rats administered with mercuric chloride (5mg/kg body weight through intraperitoneal injection. Group three consists of rats administered with mercuric chloride (5mg/ kg body weight through intraperitoneal injection and fed with diet supplemented with ginger. The experimental period lasted for twenty days. The rats were sacrificed on the twentieth day after being starved for twelve hours. The blood samples collected by cardiac puncture and placed in appropriately labeled bottles for the various assays.The data obtained was analyzed using the students' t-test distribution. Means of the data was obtained and recorded as mean + standard deviation. There was an increase in the weight of the rats in the control group. There was a decrease in the mean weight of the rats treated with mercury only while in the rats treated with mercury and ginger, there was an increase in the mean weight. The bilirubin level of the rats treated with mercury is significantly higher (P0.05 between the rats in the control group and the rats treated with mercury and ginger. The aspartate aminotransaminase level, alanine aminotransferase level and alkaline phosphatase level are significantly lower (P<0.05 in the rats of the control group than both the rats treated with mercury only and the ones treated with mercury and ginger. These were lower in the rats treated with ginger than the rats treated with mercuric chloride alone. These reduction is however not statistically significant and it presents that these could be dosage related.These results indicate that mercuric

  6. Kyoto report card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-17

    This report states that Canada can meet its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, but the challenge is whether the current plan will allow the country to get there. The Three Step Plan to Kyoto was published on November 22, 2002, and described a series of vague initiatives designed to reduce the country's emission of greenhouse gases. Long term vision seems to be the major problem with this Plan. It was argued that the Plan would not provide the required momentum to get Canada past the end of this Kyoto period and would be considered a failure even if the targets are met. By comparison, the United Kingdom is committed to a 60 per cent reduction by 2050, while Germany is aiming at a 40 per cent reduction. It was recommended that the federal government announce a long term goal of a 50 per cent reduction of Canada's total greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. Some of the measures proposed for the development of the long term vision were: (1) work with Ontario to ensure that the electricity needs of its residents are met with environmental integrity and environmental sustainability, and shutdown coal-fired power plants in the province, (2) recognize the role of regulation by increasing and expanding energy efficiency initiatives and retrofit programs to all sectors, (3) proclaim the Motor Vehicles Fuel Consumption Act of 1981 regulating an increased fuel efficiency standard for Canadian vehicles, (4) recognize emission savings from the deployment of cogeneration and establish a program to assist industry to take advantage of this technology, (5) rethink the current Large Industrial Emitters plan and develop a comprehensive carbon trading scheme, with upstream caps applicable to all sectors, and (6) join all other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and invest in urban transit. refs., tabs.

  7. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model. PMID:25120202

  8. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the increased risk for the development of alcoholism seen in teens that begin drinking at an early age. The present study evaluated the acute and protracted (hangover) effects of ethanol in adolescent (P33–P40) and adult (P100–P107) Wistar rats, using the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Six minutes of EEG was recorded during waking, 15 min after administration of 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg ethan...

  9. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  10. Climate policy after Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Convention recommends reductions in emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, to mitigate the rate of climate change. Lively debate has taken place in many countries, not least over the political and economic implications. The basis for the Kyoto discussions was a set of studies commissioned, compiled and published by the UN's International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). At first glance this scientific foundation plainly shows that significant climate change will occur unless emissions of greenhouse gases are sharply curtailed. On closer examination, the scientific evidence provided in the IPCC material is far from clear. Reputable scientists have expressed critical views about the interpretation of the scientific results and, even more, of the way the material is being used for policy purposes. The main purpose of this book is to voice this critique. To give the reader some context, a central section from the IPCC's basic document is presented first. There follow nine papers, by prominent natural and social scientists, in which the reasons for their sceptical attitudes are developed. A final paper by Professor Bert Bolin, chairman of the IPCC during the time when most of the material was produced, provides a response and commentary to the critique. The aim of the editor and authors, in presenting the material in this way, rather than as a polemical tract, is to leave open to the reader the question: Is global warming a consequence of man's activities, or are there other reasons; if so, is adopting policies with significant economic consequences, a reasonable response? (Author)

  11. Stimulus Processing and Associative Learning in Wistar and WKHA Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chess, Amy C.; Keene, Christopher S.; Wyzik, Elizabeth C.; Bucci, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed basic learning and attention abilities in WKHA (Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive) rats using appetitive conditioning preparations. Two measures of conditioned responding to a visual stimulus, orienting behavior (rearing on the hindlegs) and food cup behavior (placing the head inside the recessed food cup) were measured. In Experiment 1, simple conditioning but not extinction was impaired in WKHA rats compared to Wistar rats. In Experiment 2, non-reinforced presentations of the vis...

  12. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N

    2013-12-01

    Age-related differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the increased risk for the development of alcoholism seen in teens that begin drinking at an early age. The present study evaluated the acute and protracted (hangover) effects of ethanol in adolescent (P33-P40) and adult (P100-P107) Wistar rats, using the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Six minutes of EEG was recorded during waking, 15 min after administration of 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol, and for 3 h at 20 h post ethanol, during the rats' next sleep cycle. Significantly higher overall frontal and parietal cortical power was seen in a wide range of EEG frequencies in adolescent rats as compared to adult rats in their waking EEG. Acute administration of ethanol did not produce differences between adolescents and adults on behavioral measures of acute intoxication. However, it did produce a significantly less intense acute EEG response to ethanol in the theta frequencies in parietal cortex in the adolescents as compared to the adults. At 20 h following acute ethanol administration, during the rats' next sleep cycle, a decrease in slow-wave frequencies (1-4 Hz) was seen and the adolescent rats were found to display more reduction in the slow-wave frequencies than the adults did. The present study found that adolescent rats, as compared to adults, demonstrate low sensitivity to acute ethanol administration in the theta frequencies and more susceptibility to disruption of slow-wave sleep during hangover. These studies may lend support to the idea that these traits may contribute to increased risk for alcohol use disorders seen in adults who begin drinking in their early teenage years. PMID:24169089

  13. GAME ANALYSIS OF KYOTO AND POST-KYOTO SCHEMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruo Imai [Kyoto Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-09-30

    Kyoto protocol, put in force in Feb. 2005, is criticized from both sides, those demanding a stricter target for GHG (green house gas) emission reduction on the one side, and those claiming for more flexible and comprehensive controls of the emission on the other side, for its modest target and narrow coverage. Even though its value could be that of a mere precedent and experimentation, Kyoto protocol includes very special experimentation to assist the world wide cooperation for a mitigation of climate change, i.e. the introduction of three mechanisms, emissions trading, joint implementation, and clean development mechanism (CDM). Together, they are called Kyoto mechanisms. Evaluation of mechanisms is one important role of microeconomics and the game theory is a major tool for it. We shall scrutinize these mechanisms from such viewpoint. A special attention is placed on CDM, as it is the novel mechanism introduced by Kyoto protocol, and gives a unique link between Annex I nations (mostly developed countries) and non-Annex I nations (mostly developing countries). Next, we examine some of the currently proposed schemes after 2013, the post Kyoto schemes. One of the chief issues is the possibility of making a comprehensive agreement including both the USA and large developing countries with rapidly increasing emission levels of GHG like China and India. Adding to these, not only the proposed schemes themselves, but the process of negotiation itself inspired several researches in cooperative game theory and in particular, coalition formation theory. We shall touch upon this issue separately, and examine how successfully they predicted the outcome leading to Kyoto, retrospectively. Finally, we end our discussion with a brief consideration over the underlining normative argument concerning these schemes.

  14. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  15. Characterization of the myenteric neuronal population and subpopulation of the duodenum of adult wistar rat fed with hypoproteic chow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M.G. Sant'Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of severe protein malnutrition (4% on myenteric neurons of Wistar rat duodenum, in relation to a standard 22%-protein diet for rodents, were assessed in this study. Segments of the duodenum from 10 rats from each nutritional group were submitted to the elaboration of whole mounts - 5 stained with Giemsa to determine the total population of myenteric neurons and the others stained by a histochemical method to detect nervous cells through the NADPH-diaphorase enzyme activity for studying the subpopulation of nitrergic neurons. The area of 100 neurons per animal, totalizing 2,000 neurons, were randomly measured by using the Image Pro-Plus®software. Malnourished rats presented 34.38% lower body weight and 10.60% duodenum length reduction when compared to the control group. Quantitative analysis demonstrated no significant differences between control and malnourished group by using Giemsa; however, as the organ reduction was not followed by an increase inversely proportional to the density of neurons, the condition imposed suggests the loss of neurons from the total population. Nevertheless, through NADPH-d histochemistry, there was a neuronal density increase for the malnourished group. There was no significant difference between the groups for both techniques with respect to the morphometric analysis of the body cell.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da desnutrição protéica severa (4% sobre os neurônios mientéricos do duodeno de ratos Wistar, comparando-se a uma dieta padrão para roedores de 22% de proteína. Para este estudo, segmentos do duodeno de 10 ratos de cada grupo nutricional foram submetidos à elaboração de preparados de membrana, sendo cinco corados pelo método de Giemsa, para estimar a população mientérica total e os demais corados pelo método histoquímico de evidenciação de células nervosas, por meio da atividade da enzima NADPH-diaforase para estudo da subpopulação de neurônios nitr

  16. Kyoto protocol on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports a short overview of main points of Kyoto protocol to United Nations Framework Convention on climate Change and of some options still to be defined, evolutions of Italian emissions with respect to other European countries, check of decree by inter ministerial committee on economic planning on national plan to reduce emissions

  17. Kyoto valed prioriteedid / Bjorn Lomborg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lomborg, Bjorn

    2005-01-01

    Raamatu "Skeptiline keskkonnakaitsja" autor ütleb, et Kyoto protokolliga kulutab maailm 150 miljardit aastas, tehes vähe heategusid. ÜRO on seisukohal, et poolega sellest summast suudaksime hankida puhta joogivee, kanalisatsiooni, elementaarse tervishoiusüsteemi ja hariduse igale inimesele maailmas

  18. The Kyoto Protocol and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘巧云

    2005-01-01

    The kyoto Protocol is an agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on CLimate Change (UNFCCC)2,an international treaty on global warming .It is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% compared to the level of 1990 during the 2008-12 period.

  19. Macro-quantitative Analysis of Kyoto Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoichi Komiyama

    2007-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, as adopted at the Third Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), has introduced the Kyoto Mechanism (including the Emissions Trading, Joint Implementation, and Clean Development Mechanism systems) to promote the efficient achievement of greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Calls have grown for global efforts to enhance the Kyoto Mechanism. This study represents a quantitative analysis of the Kyoto Mechanism, taking advantag...

  20. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  1. Kyoto: protocol on climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 3rd Conference of the Signatory States to the United Nations Climate Framework Convention held in Kyoto, the so-called Kyoto Protocol on the UN Climate Framework Convention was adopted unanimously, after two years of difficult and complex negotiations, on December 11, 1997. The protocol for the first time includes legally binding obligations for the industrialized countries requiring them to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 by a total of 5.2% relative to the 1990 level. In meeting this obligation, the industrialized countries assumed different levels of reduction and limitation, respectively. Thus, e.g., the EU countries accepted a Communitywide reduction by 8%, while the USA is obliged to reduce by 7% and Japan by 6%. (orig.)

  2. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Brielle V; Blair, Hugh T; Vickers, Mark H; Dittmer, Keren E; Morel, Patrick C H; Knight, Cameron G; Firth, Elwyn C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  3. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle V Rosa

    Full Text Available Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively. At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01 and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02; however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during

  4. The Kyoto Mechanisms and Technological Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Climate change response, including implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. One of the important agreements in several declarations, including the Kyoto protocol, has been to promote and coordinate the collaboration between the countries in the necessary technological development. The paper encourage that the Kyoto mechanisms will be used for acceleration of the necessary technical innovation in Denmark.

  5. The Kyoto Mechanisms and Technological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Climate change response, including implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. One of the important agreements in several declarations, including the Kyoto protocol, has been to promote and coordinate...... the collaboration between the countries in the necessary technological development. The paper encourage that the Kyoto mechanisms will be used for acceleration of the necessary technical innovation in Denmark....

  6. Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

  7. Kyoto protocol: the unfinished agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groups and negotiations at the Third Conference of Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto are described. The lobbying groups included: the fossil fuel industry; the environmentalist groups. the Europeans; the Developing world; and the USA. The compromise reached. The author considered that all countries should be involved in the reduction of emissions, but this may best be done by transferring highly efficient new technologies to developing countries, thus leapfrogging the older highly polluting type of plant. Funds for the leapfrogging could best be provide by carbon taxes, permits would not raise revenue in the same way. Carbon taxes could also be used to fund environmental protection or restoration initiatives. Any new institutions should be flexible in their approach. 46 refs

  8. How to make progress post-Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides papers presented during the workshop on ''how to make progress post-Kyoto'', hold at the French Institute of International Relations (IFRI) in Paris on march 19, 2003. The following topics were presented: reflections on Kyoto, guidance for the future, how to make progress post-kyoto, the lessons from the past; the Bonn voyage; US climate policy after Kyoto, elements of success; preparing for widening and deepening the kyoto protocol; capping emissions and costs; absolute versus intensity-based emissions caps; intensity targets in perspective; negotiating commitments for further emission reductions; exploring new tools; defining meaningful participation of developing countries in climate change mitigation; economic and environmental effectiveness of a technology-based climate regime; US participation in the linkage between research and development and climate cooperation; designing a technology strategy; ''greening'' economic development; some critical comments post-Kyoto; the foreign policy perspective of climate negotiations; Kyoto and the double spiral; burden-sharing rules for stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations and their equity implications. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Russian Federation and the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Douma, Wybe; Ratsiborinskaya, Daria

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis book brings together the results of two conferences: 'The Kyoto Protocol and beyond: A legal perspective', organised by the University of Siena on 10-11 June 2006, and 'Tackling Climate Change: An appraisal of the Kyoto Protocol and options for the future', held at the T.M.C. Asser Institute in The Hague on 30-31 March 2007. These conferences focused on the legal aspects of the Kyoto Protocol implementation and the post-2012 regime. Experts in European and international envir...

  10. Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

  11. Forests and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, D.C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation referred to carbon sinks in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Policy issues, opportunities and challenges were discussed. The slides summarized the environmental potential of carbon sink projects, the current status of carbon sinks in the CDM, and strategies towards a CDM carbon sink. The Nyakach, Kenya biomass enhancement case study was presented, along with the Colombian Andean biodiversity corridor reforestation project. Potential sink projects were described as those resulting in direct reduction of emissions. These include reducing deforestation by protecting forests from being converted to agriculture, by protecting forests from the impacts of human activities, and by substituting biomass energy sources for fossil fuels. Indirect reduction of emissions via sequestration involves restoring natural forests in deforested or degraded areas and expanding agroforests and plantations. The co-benefits of carbon sink projects are biodiversity and socio-economic benefits. Under the Bonn Agreement, afforestation and reforestation projects are eligible under the CDM. Credits are limited to 1 per cent of Annex 1 party's base year emissions per year. The important elements of the Marrakech Accord are the prompt start of the CDM, as well as modalities and procedures.

  12. The Kyoto Protocol: Can We Meet?

    OpenAIRE

    Boromisa, Ana-Maria; Tišma, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Integration into the EU is one of strategic foreign policy goals of Croatia. Before accession, Croatia has to align with the EU policies and legislation. The European Commission in its Croatia 2007 Progress report identified ratification of the Kyoto Protocol as progress regarding environmental chapter of accession negotiations. By ratifying the Kyoto Protocol in May 2007 Croatia pledged to reduce greenhouse gases by 5% in the first commitment period, 2008-2012, from the amount released into ...

  13. Dynamic consistency problems behind the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ha-Duong, Minh; Hourcade, Jean Charles; Lecocq, Franck

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the economic rationale behind both the quantitative targets and the flexibility mechanisms adopted in the Kyoto Protocol. It synthesises some theoretical dimensions of the debate about the so-called "when flexibility" of climate policies, explaining the importance of the interplay between uncertainty and technico-economic inertia. Numerical results shows that the aggregate Kyoto abatement target is consistent with a stochastic dynamic optimum in which a 450 ppm concentrati...

  14. Kyoto and the carbon content of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Aichele, Rahel; Felbermayr, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    A unilateral tax on CO2 emissions may drive up indirect carbon imports from non-committed countries, leading to carbon leakage. Using a gravity model of carbon trade, we analyze the effect of the Kyoto Protocol on the carbon content of bilateral trade. We construct a novel data set of CO2 emissions embodied in bilateral trade flows. Its panel structure allows dealing with endogenous selection of countries into the Protocol. We find strong statistical evidence for Kyoto commitments to affect c...

  15. Economics of the Kyoto Protocol for Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golub, D.D.; Strukova, E. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The authors propose a careful analysis of the economic consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for Russian economic recovery. They review a different GHG forecasts for Russia and develop a new forecast for uncertain GDP growth and the changing elasticity of GHG emissions per GDP. As the rate of growth remains uncertain, elasticity could change over time, as well as the fuel mix. They apply the Monte-Carlo method to simulate these uncertainties and to produce a reasonable interval for CO{sub 2} emissions in 2010. The probability of Russia exceedings its Kyoto emissions budget is essentially zero. They also discuss the benefits for Russia from the Kyoto Protocol, and more generally from the implementation of GHG mitigation policy. Ancillary benefits from Kyoto Protocol implementation will bring essential reductions in risk to human health. On the other hand, potential negative changes in the fuel mix and GDP structure, as well as a slowing of the innovation process, could exacerbate the existing health problems. Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol may bring much tougher commitments to Russia. In conclusion the Kyoto Protocol is the best possible deal for Russia. 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Klimadiplomatiets afveje i Kyoto-processen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Operationaliseringen af de i 1992 i Rio indgåede forpligtelser i forhold til UNFCCC (FNs Rammekonventionom klimaforandringerne) blev siden COP3 i Kyoto under dominerende indflydelse af USAs forhandlere. Kritik af resultaterne kom allerede i 1998 fra den tyske regerings rådgivere i WGBU, men blev...... tilsidesat. Efter USAs vægring mod at ratificere Kyoto-aftalen burde cirkusset have standset for at undgå de huller, der viser sig f.eks. hvad angår international handel med skovbaserede brændsler, hvor regnskabet ikke går op. En Plan B ligesom den tidligere forhandler fra EU-side i Kyoto, Jørgen Henningsen...

  17. The Kyoto mechanisms and technological innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark...... managed to stabilize primary energy supply, and CO2 emissions decreased by 10%, during a period of 20 years. However, after the introduction of the Kyoto Mechanisms, Denmark has changed its strategy. Instead of continuing the domestic CO2 emission controls, Denmark plans to buy CO2 reductions in other...... countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation....

  18. Elemental concentration analysis in brain structures from young, adult and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, R.F.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Jesus, E.F.O. de [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); University of Rio de Janeiro State, Physics Institute, RJ (Brazil); Carmo, M.G.T. do [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Nutrition Institute, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, S. [University of Campinas State, Civil Engineering Department, SP (Brazil); Rocha, M.S. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, A.M.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Histology and Embryology, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues are of great importance since trace elements are involved in a number of metabolic and physiological processes in the human body, and their deficiency and excess may lead to different metabolic disorders. In this way, the main goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentration in different brain structures, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, visual cortex and hippocampus, from Wistar female rats (n = 15) with different ages: 2, 8 and 48 weeks. The measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Light Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In the entorhinal cortex, the following elements decreased with age: Zn, S, Cl, K, Ca and Br. In the temporal cortex, Ca, Fe and Br levels increased with aging and on the other hand, P, S, Cl, K and Rb levels decreased with aging. In the visual cortex almost all the elements decreased with aging: Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni and Zn. In the hippocampus, in turn, most of the elements identified, increased with aging: Al, P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The increase of Fe with aging in the hippocampus is an important fact that will be studied, since it is involved in oxidative stress. It is believed that oxidative stress is the one of the main causes responsible for neuronal death in Parkinson's disease.

  19. Impaired Spatial Memory Performance in Adult Wistar Rats Exposed to Low (5-20 cGy) Doses of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Richard A; Jewell, Jessica S; Miller, Vania D; Davis, Leslie K; Hadley, Melissa M; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged deep space missions to planets and asteroids will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation, comprised of low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiations, high-energy protons and high-Z and energy (HZE) particles, such as (56)Fe nuclei. In prior studies with rodents exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses likely to be encountered during deep space missions (importance of incorporating quantitative measures of interindividual variations into next generation risk assessment models of radiation risks on neurocognition. In this study, 269 male proven breeder Wistar rats were exposed to 1 GeV/n (56)Fe at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cGy, and tested for spatial memory performance on the Barnes maze at three months after exposure. The radiation response data were compared using changes in mean cohort performance and by the proportion of poor responders using the performance benchmark of two standard deviations below the mean value among the sham-irradiated cohort. Acute exposures to mission-relevant doses of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe reduced the mean spatial memory performance at three months after exposure (P change in performance, compared to the distribution of sham-irradiated animals. Our findings suggest that individualized metrics of susceptibility or resistance to radiation-induce changes in neurocognitive performance will be advantageous to the development of probabilistic risk assessment models for HZE-induced neurocognitive impairment. PMID:26943453

  20. Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

  1. Teadlased : USA liitub Kyoto protokolliga / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA ja Austraalia on ainsad riigid, mis pole Kyoto protokollile alla kirjutanud. Princetoni ülikooli professori Michael Oppenheimeri arvates võib USA president George W. Bush oma seisukohti keskkonnaküsimustes muuta, sest teiseks ametiajaks valitud presidendid ei pea mõtlema uuele kampaaniale ning püüavad enne Valgest Majast lahkumist oma mainet maailma silmis parandada

  2. From Kyoto to Copenhagen and back again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Henrik

    This paper presents a framework for measuring cooperation in terms of whether parties reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by more than what they would have done unilaterally, i.e. in the absence of international targets. The framework is applied to the Kyoto Protocol. The findings suggest...

  3. The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Redek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, was adopted and entered into force in 2005. But several countries, including the USA, have had doubts about the potential negative consequences of the planned 5% global joint reduction of GHG. However, studies generally show that on a macroeconomic level: (1 welfare loss in terms of GDP and lost growth in EU is low; (2 it differs among economies; and (3 permit trading and permit price (in either global or regional markets is highly correlated with the welfare loss. The main objective of the paper is to describe the attitudes and responses to the Kyoto Protocol from a global perspective. The paper has three objectives. First, to provide an overview of global greenhouse gas emissions and the big drivers behind these emissions. Second, to present where different countries, both developed and less developed countries, such as India, China and the countries of South-east Europe currently stand as regards their efforts to achieve the Kyoto Protocol requirements. Third, to analyse the responses and attitudes to the Kyoto Protocol from a country development perspective.

  4. Venemaa avas tee Kyoto protokolli jõustumiseks / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Kuigi USA on 1997. aastal sõlmitud globaalse soojenemise vastu suunatud Kyoto protokolli vastu, võib see rakenduda, sest Venemaa valitsus kiitis 30. septembril leppe heaks. Lisa: Venemaa Kyoto protokolli kaalukeelena

  5. EU CLIMATE POLICY FROM KYOTO TO DURBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANDREEVSKA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The risks posed by climate change are real and its impacts are already taking place. The biggest challenge about climate change is that there is no one single answer, no one single solution. This characteristic, together with the long history of political frictions and disputes worsened by environmental stresses suggests that global climatic changes have the potential to exacerbate existing international tensions. On December 31, 2012, the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period will expire. Unless states agree to a second commitment period, requiring a further round of emissions cuts, the Protocol will no longer impose any quantitative limits on states' greenhouse gas emissions. Although, as a legal matter, the Protocol will continue in force, it will be a largely empty shell, doing little if anything to curb global warming. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol negotiations, which focused exclusively on developed country emissions, the ongoing negotiations on a post-2012 climate change regime have also addressed developing country mitigation actions, without which a solution to the climate change problem is impossible. This has made the current negotiations as much between developed and developing countries as between the U.S. and the European Union. Key issues include: Legal Form; Regulatory approach; and Differentiation. By the Durban conference in December 2011 the EU needs to decide whether - and how - it will sign-up to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. This article focuses on the European Union needs to decide whether – and – how it will sign- up a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. Because asking, whether others will act is the wrong question. The real question is whether signing- up to some form of second Kyoto commitment period will support Europe’s fundamental interests.

  6. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 3 - The Kyoto Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian view of the Kyoto Mechanisms -- the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI), and International Emissions Trading (IET) are reiterated. In brief, Canada wants to make sure that countries have ready access to these Kyoto Mechanisms and that they will work without undue constraints. It is also made clear that Canada wishes to make use of the provisions of the Protocol that allow countries to achieve environmental goals at lower costs

  7. Kyoto: silver bullet or the great train robbery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeIuliis, N. [CONSOL Energy, Inc. (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The paper addresses the controversies surrounding the Kyoto Protocol, arguably one of the most highly contested international environmental agreements ever. It addresses the issues: will Kyoto's provisions have a significant impact on global warming?, how should one view the current US position? what are the relative economic impacts of Kyoto if global warming is not a threat? 32 refs., 3 photos.

  8. Differential Mechanisms of Ang (1-7)-Mediated Vasodepressor Effect in Adult and Aged Candesartan-Treated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, E S; K. M. Denton; Widdop, R. E.; Bosnyak, S.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7)) causes vasodilator effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) via angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT2R). However, the role of vascular AT2R in aging is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of aging on Ang (1-7)-mediated vasodepressor effects and vascular angiotensin receptor localization in aging. Blood pressure was measured in conscious adult (~17 weeks) and aged (~19 months) normotensive rats that received drug combinati...

  9. A Comparative Study on the Effects of Glutathione and Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. on Thioacetamide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Adult Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids play significant role in the treatment of many diseases. Green tea (Camellia Sinensis L. is a common beverage all over the world with antioxidant and detoxification effects related to the presence of flavonoids and catchins. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of green tea on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 64 male Wistar rats were allocated to eight groups. The control group received a normal diet alone, sham group received normal saline, hepatotoxic group received thioacetamide (50 mg/kg thioacetamide for three days, other groups received a thioacetamide for three days and the alcoholic extract of bgreen tea, at minimum (50 mg/kg, moderate (100 mg/kg, and maximum (200 mg/kg doses, glutathione (250 mg/kg, green tea (200 mg/kg with glutathione (250 mg/kg for 21 days (i.p.. After that, blood samples were drawn and the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin, as liver injury indices, were measured. Results: The decrease of aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the receptors of different dosages of green tea and glutathione was significant compared with the group treated by thioacetamide. Also, a significant increase was observed in total protein and albumin of serum in green tea receptors compared with thioacetamide group. Conclusion: The study results show the protective effect of green tea on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity which is likely caused by the antioxidant effect of polyphenol compounds controlling thioacetamide activity which in turn controls the cytochrome P450 activity and neutralization of free radicals.

  10. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  11. Clean energy exports and the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed Canada's attempt in international negotiations to gain credits for energy exports that may result in greenhouse gas emission reductions in the United States. It examined how well founded this position is from an environmental perspective and in terms of international equity and political reality. The author emphasized that the clean energy export issue does not provide a legitimate reason to delay Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, and cautioned that further renegotiation of Kyoto targets for the first commitment period would not be practical and would jeopardize Canada's international standing. The author did note, however, that for the second commitment period, this issue could be reintroduced. Although the problem can potentially be resolved by granting credits to producers and exempting emissions, it was suggested that the most effective approach would be for countries to factor energy export considerations into their negotiating positions

  12. The obscure future of the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tsayem Demaze, Moise

    2013-01-01

    Since it came into effect in 2005 followed by its first period of application from 2008 to 2012, the Kyoto protocol has been subject to debates and international negotiations about its post-2012 future. Many grey areas persist, even though the Durban conference, held in December 2011, and the Doha conference, held in December 2012, ratified the principle of a second period of application of the protocol and started negotiations for a new international treaty supposed to come into effect in 2020.

  13. The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tjaša Redek; Matjaž Koman; Polona Domadenik; Andreja Cirman

    2009-01-01

    The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG) have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, ...

  14. The Kyoto Protocol : a Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    International concern about climate change has led to the Kyoto Protocol, negotiated in 1997, which contains legally binding emission targets for industrialized countries to be achieved during the commitment period 2008-2012. While proponents of the Protocol celebrate it as a breakthrough in international climate policy, opponents criticize that its approach, namely setting targets and timetables for emission reductions, is seriously flawed. This paper provides a critical assessment of the Pr...

  15. Emission trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    On 11 December 1997, delegates to the third conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed upon the Kyoto Protocol. The protocol sets binding emission targets for developed nations (Annex B countries). The Protocol states that Annex B countries may participate in emission trading. The rules for emission trading are to be discussed at the fourth Conference of the Parties in November 1998. differentiation of targets among countries, but not in any system...

  16. Nuclear energy and the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the application of its 'flexible mechanisms' are at the forefront of energy policy debates in most OECD countries. The potential role of nuclear energy in this context is viewed very differently and assessed against various criteria by the range of stakeholders in governments and civil society according to their interests and priorities. This book provides key facts concerning nuclear energy and the Kyoto Protocol. It highlights the challenges and opportunities for the future development of nuclear energy in the context of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and more broadly in alleviating the risks of global climate change. The report will be of interest to energy policy makers and senior experts in the field as well as to members of civil society eager to better understand the issues raised within the debate on the role of nuclear energy in sustainable development. It will assists in making the necessary trade-off involved in addressing global climate change concerns. (authors)

  17. Differential Effect of the Dopamine D3 Agonist (±-7-Hydroxy-2-(N,N-di-n-propylamino Tetralin (7-OH-DPAT on Motor Activity between Adult Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rats after a Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Guzmán-Velázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL has been widely used as an animal model for schizophrenia. Rats with an nVHL show several delayed behavioral alterations that mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Sprague-Dawley (SD rats with an nVHL have a decrease in D3 receptors in limbic areas, but the expression of D3 receptors in Wistar (W rats with an nVHL is unknown. The 7-Hydroxy-2-(N,N-di-n-propylamino tetralin (7-OH-DPAT has been reported as a D3-preferring agonist. Thus, we investigated the effect of (±-7-OH-DPAT (0.25 mg/kg on the motor activity in male adult W and SD rats after an nVHL. The 7-OH-DPAT caused a decrease in locomotion of W rats with an nVHL, but it did not change the locomotion of SD rats with this lesion. Our results suggest that the differential effect of 7-OH-DPAT between W and SD rats with an nVHL could be caused by a different expression of the D3 receptors. These results may have implications for modeling interactions of genetic and environmental factors involved in schizophrenia.

  18. Maternal Separation during Breastfeeding Induces Gender-Dependent Changes in Anxiety and the GABA-A Receptor Alpha-Subunit in Adult Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando León Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Different models of rodent maternal separation (MS have been used to investigate long-term neurobiological and behavioral changes, associated with early stress. However, few studies have involved the analysis of sex-related differences in central anxiety modulation. This study investigated whether MS during breastfeeding affected adult males and females in terms of anxiety and brain GABA-A receptor-alpha-subunit immunoreactivity. The brain areas analyzed were the amygdale (AM, hippocampus (HP, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, medial preoptic area (POA and paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7∶00 h with access to water and food ad libitum. Animals underwent MS twice daily during the dark cycle from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21. Behavior was tested when rats were 65-70 days old using the elevated plus maze and after brains were treated for immunohistochemistry. We found that separated females spent more time in the open arms and showed more head dipping behavior compared with controls. The separated males spent more time in the center of the maze and engaged in more stretching behavior than the controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that separated females had less immunostained cells in the HP, mPFC, PVN and POA, while separated males had fewer immunolabeled cells in the PFC, PVN and AM. These results could indicate that MS has gender-specific effects on anxiety behaviors and that these effects are likely related to developmental alterations involving GABA-A neurotransmission.

  19. The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during...... the 1999 conference in Buenos Aires. Nothing was decided at this conference, leaving open the question of how emission trade is supposed to take place. Therefore, this article aims to propose a design which is both politically and administratively feasible. It may, as such, catch the interest of both...

  20. Expensive quotas to meet EU's Kyoto targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important climate measures taken by the EU is to set up an internal market to trade emission credits for greenhouse gases from 2005. According to researchers at The Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research at the University of Oslo, the quota price in the new EU market must be about 100 USD per tonne of CO2 if the present (April, 2004) member countries are to reduce their own emissions down to the level of the Kyoto target without other measures

  1. Let's focus on sustainability, not Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses how to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of fossil fuels -- oil, natural gas, and coal -- in a less painful way than that called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Adopting a 1,000-gigatonne global carbon budget for years 1991 to 2100 and a peak annual carbon emission level of 11 gigatonnes between years 2030 and 2040 will buy the time to develop and deploy low- and zero-carbon emission technologies while deferring the controversial issue of the compliance of developing countries

  2. The Kyoto protocol : Russian opportunities: OIES paper: RIIA Briefing Note

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Benito

    2004-01-01

    Much, possibly too much, of the most recent debate on Russian ratification of the Kyoto Protocol has centred around the issue whether the Kyoto emission limit would hinder Russian economic growth, particularly in the context of the ambitious decadal Russian growth targets. The aim of this paper is to return the focus of the debate to the opportunities which the Kyoto Protocol could afford the Russian economy and which would be lost if Russia fails to grasp them by bringing the ...

  3. Economic and environmental impacts of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Böhringer; Carsten Vogt

    2003-01-01

    In 2003 the Kyoto Protocol, which imposes legally binding greenhouse gas emission constraints on industrialized countries, is likely to enter into force. The Protocol has been celebrated as a milestone in climate protection, but standard economic theory casts doubt that it will go beyond symbolic policy. In this paper, we show that the final concretion of the Kyoto Protocol is consistent with the theoretical prediction: Kyoto more or less boils down to business-as-usual without significant co...

  4. Antioxidant effects of magnesium in reducing oxidative stress by injected via an intraperitoneally carbon tetrachloride in the Wistar male adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introdaction & aim: Magnesium playes an important role in the structure and cell metabolism. In this research , anti oxidant effects of magnesium sulfate against oxidative stress effects of was investigated Methods: In this experimewtal study 36 male adults rats were placed into4 groups, with nine rats in each group. Treatment was then carried out as follows. Group I received olive oil (intraperitoneally and distilled water (intragastrically, and served as the untreated control animal group. Group II was the hepatotoxicity group that was given a suspension of (i.p., 0.5 mL/kg b.wt, 50% in olive oil, twice a week. Groups III received dissolved in distilled water daily via an intragastric tube(.0.15M g/kg b.wt.Groups IV were the treatment group that received dissolved in distilled water daily, via an intragastric tube 0.15 g/kg b.wt.,with (i.p., 0.5 mL/kg b.wt., 50% in olive oil twice a week. After a 28-day treatment period, the animals were deprived of food overnight, anesthetized by exposure to diethyl ether, and then sacrificed by decapitation. Blood ws collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and used for liver marker assays. Levels of ALT, AST ALP and GGT were estimated using commercial kits. The liver homogenates were used for the assay of SOD .All data were expressed as means S.E.M. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The criterion for statistical significance was p<0.05. Results:In the -treated control group, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT were significantly increased as compared with the untreated control group. In contrast, the group that also received mgso4 Showed signifi cantlyless elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT. compared to normal levels. Liver SOD activity in -treated rats was decreased significantly when compared with the the control group. Treatment with protected this enzyme activity. Conclusion:The results of this study showed that magnesium sulfate

  5. Kyoto protocol: at last the agreement has been reached; Protocole de Kyoto: un accord enfin conclu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After more than 3 years of negotiations, 180 countries agreed at Bonn on the application of the Kyoto protocol to fight the climatic warming. The main aspects of this agreement are discussed: the carbon wells, the tools of the pollution control for the developed countries and the financial help to the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  6. Austraalia uus valitsus ühines Kyoto lepinguga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Austraalia uus peaminister Kevin Rudd ratifitseeris kasvuhoonegaaside õhkupaiskamist piirava Kyoto lepingu. Austraalia senine valitsus on olnud seisukohal, et heitgaaside piiramine kahjustab riigi majandust

  7. Global post-Kyoto scenario analyses at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Scenario analyses are described here using the Global MARKAL-Macro Trade (GMMT) model to study the economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Convention on Climate change. Some conclusions are derived in terms of efficient implementations of the post-Kyoto extensions of the Protocol. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  8. Applying fuzzy parametersin pricing financial derivatives inspiredby the kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Nowak; Maciej Romaniuk

    2009-01-01

    The emission trading is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol. An appropriate market and the market of financial derivatives for allowances will be established. Using the neutral martingale method and Monte Carlo simulations, we propose a stochastic model with a pricing formula, which may be useful for an evaluation of derivatives inspired by the Kyoto Protocol.

  9. The Kyoto protocol and carbon fixation. Gold and green forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the implications of the Kyoto protocol on forests. It deals with the global deforestation, problems of measuring carbon fixation, implications of variations in the carbon dioxide levels and emission reductions. There are referrals to the Kyoto protocol, short surveys of the status of the global forests and of the controversial activities of the firm Norwegian Tree Farms, in Tanzania

  10. Kosten en gevolgen bij de toepassing van de Kyoto Mechanismen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor AOG de; Bollen JC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    Unrestricted use of the Kyoto Mechanisms yields substantial cost savings on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Annex-I emission trading can cut compliance costs by more than a third while global trading can further reduce costs to a fraction of the amount without emission trading. In absolute

  11. Kyoto leppe jõustumine toob Eestile kasu / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Kyoto protokollist, mis kohustab sellega ühinenud riike vähendama kasvuhoonegaase. Eesti võttis endale leppe ratifitseerimisel kohustuse vähendada aastaks 2012 heitekogust 1990. aastaga võrreldes 8%. Lisa: Eestile Kyoto lepe raskusi ei valmista

  12. What the Kyoto Protocol means for Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only impediment to the Kyoto protocol entering into force now is the Russians. The only global agreement to save climate, which has been ratified by 110 countries, is still in limbo. This article presents an up-to-the-minute analysis of the reasons. The history of progress up to and back from ratification is summarised, including the latest facts from early June 2003. The views of all relevant ministries, business, Parliament and the general public are briefly presented, as are the intentions and/or plans. It is clear that there is progress toward ratification, but serious opposition still exists. The selfish interests of agencies, clumsy bureaucracy and misunderstandings should and can be overcome

  13. May the Kyoto protocol produce results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A not well managed drastic reduction of greenhouse emissions might result in significant decrease of living standards, but without such reduction efforts, climate change might have five to twenty times higher costs. Thus, while indicating estimated consequences or evolutions of greenhouse emissions and temperature, the author stresses the need of emission reduction. She discusses the role of economic instruments which can be used in policies aimed at the struggle against climate change. She recalls the emission reduction commitments specified in the Kyoto protocol, discusses the present status, operation and results of the international emission trading scheme, the lessons learned after the first years of operation, comments the involvement of emerging countries in relationship with another mechanism defined in the protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism

  14. Kyoto discord: who bears the cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions are up 20 per cent, meaning that Canada must reduce its emissions by 30 per cent between 2005 and 2010 to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Ottawa has indicated that no one sector of the economy should bear the burden of this adjustment. The energy production sector accounts for almost 40 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions. Our per capita emissions have risen 50 per cent faster than emissions in the United States. The authors compared our situation to that of Europe, where only a 5 per cent reduction is required, which can be explained by high taxes on energy users, and the closure of obsolete East German capacity which led to reductions of 100 million tonne in carbon dioxide emissions. Transportation is the second largest generator of greenhouse gas emissions with approximately 16 per cent. A quick overview of the energy sector was provided, touching on topics such as electric power generation, including coal-fired electrical production, and tar sands with its increasing importance to Canada's economy. Ottawa has released a plan in October 2002, where it indicates that industrial emitters will be required to cut 80 million tonnes through investments in more efficient technology. Tighter vehicle fuel and home insulation standards would account for 35 to 40 million tonnes of reduction, and 40 million tonnes would come from agriculture and forest management. It means there is a 60 million shortfall, and the tar sands industry will more than likely have to adjust, raising investor uncertainty over further development in that area. Climate change is unlikely to be modified by meeting the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors questioned whether the government shouldn't instead devote its resources to addressing the actual impact of climate change. 9 figs

  15. From Kyoto to The Hague - European perspectives on making the Kyoto Protocol Work

    OpenAIRE

    Metz B; Faber A; Berk MM; Kok MTJ; Minnen JG van; Moor A de; MNV; NOP

    2000-01-01

    Verslag van de 2e Klimaatbeleid workshop in het kader van EFIEA, gehouden in Amsterdam van 18-19 april 2000. Over een aantal van de belangrijkste onderwerpen voor COP6 (Den Haag) werd hier gediscussieerd met wetenschappers, beleidsmakers en belanghebbenden: EU leiderschap, Kyoto Mechanismen, binnenlandse implementatie maatregelen en putten (sinks). De workshop en het rapport dienen ter voorbereiding voor COP6 in november 2000.

  16. Kyoto, coal and sharing the cost burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Rio Treaty) at their first conference in 1995 agreed that the commitments entered into under the Convention were 'not adequate' to achieve its objective. These nations determined to proceed to strengthen those commitments under a protocol to be prepared for the third conference at Kyoto. Also it was to contain 'quantified emissions limitation objectives' (binding targets) on the industrial countries. For such targets to be consistent with Australia's interests, they would need to recognise Australia's relatively fast population and economic growth (both of which imply relatively faster growth in emissions), the increasing preponderance of energy intensive industries in the Australian economy, and our dependence on the export of energy intensive manufactures (like aluminium and other metals) and direct export of fossil fuels (including coal and natural gas). Major parties to the protocol negotiations - the USA and the EU - were advocates of uniform percentage emissions reductions from 1990 levels. Uniform percentage reductions, however intuitively appealing, impose widely different costs on different parties on account of their different circumstances. Australia would have been penalised by uniform reductions because our projected business-as-usual emissions trajectory is relatively steep, and measures adopted internationally to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions impact disproportionately on this economy (notably on account of reduced demand for Australian coal). The accompanying charts depict ABAREs 'less stringent' emissions scenario - addressing a goal of stabilising industrial countries' emissions of C02 rather than reducing them. ABARE's simulation for Australia by sector shows big negative impacts on output of non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, and coal. The metals industries, directly or indirectly are the coal industry's most important domestic customers. It is argued that because of the impact of

  17. What will be the fate of the Kyoto protocol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    n this paper authors deal with the Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 as well as with Kyoto protocol. For the Slovak Republic the Convention on Climate Change took effect in November 1994. For Slovakia arised from Kyoto Protocol to the Convention, that in the period of 2008-2012 the level of emissions cannot exceed the amount from 1990, reduced by 8 per cent (as well as whole Europe). In the next part authors describe mechanisms of flexibility in the frame of Kyoto protocol, principles for realisation of trade with greenhouse carbon dioxide and supported projects. (author)

  18. Emission Trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    1998-12-01

    This report discusses the potential gains from emission trading and raises some crucial questions. It shows that the total costs of the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced by about 95% through emission trading. Emission trading is an option also in the domestic arenas. The governments of the Annex B countries may allocate emission quotas to local enterprises as emission permits. Thus new markets for greenhouse gas emission quotas may emerge, domestically and internationally. It is emphasized that emission trading at the national and international levels must be discussed separately. The Nordic governments, for example, will find several good reasons for supporting emission trading at the international level if not necessarily domestically. The Nordic countries have already implemented domestic taxes on CO{sub 2} emissions and this tax policy could be sustained while these governments support and take part in emission trading at the international level.The report also considers a possible side effect of emission trading: free emission trading among Annex B countries could reduce the total abatement compared to a non-tradable policy as a consequence of the fact that some of the countries that are in transition to a market economy may be given emission limitations above their business-as-usual emissions. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, M; Goto, S

    2000-01-01

    KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www. genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  20. Kyoto report card presented on the first anniversary of the Kyoto Protocol entering into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-16

    The report examined Canada's plans, policies and implementation of programs relating to the Kyoto Protocol. The report was divided into 4 sections which considered: (1) the present political situation in Canada and its implications for the Kyoto Protocol, (2) the progress in Canadian leadership at the Montreal International Climate Conference, (3) the new measures contained in Project Green, and (4) recommendations to the new government. There has been significant government and industry investment in programs to meet Canada's target, which have laid the groundwork for creating and deploying technologies that will lead to greater energy efficiency in Canadian industry. Project Green will use the Canadian Environmental Protection Act to control emissions from large industrial polluters starting in 2008, and the plan includes a Climate Fund to purchase emission technology. A Partnership Fund will offer funding to all provinces that come forward with emission reduction plans. Canada showed strong leadership at the Montreal International Climate Conference. However, federal programs to reduce emissions have barely started. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased by 24 per cent above 1990 levels, and emissions from Canadian oil and gas production have risen significantly, with large increases in emissions noted from Canada's electricity sector. No agreement on specific provincial action within Kyoto has been reached. Recommendations for the new government include setting an example for Canadians by bringing an energy audit team and leading a demonstration project for action to reduce energy waste in the government; Moving ahead with the Clean Air Strategy; re-designing the Climate Fund to deploy innovative Canadian technology; requiring a 30 per cent reduction in GHG emissions by 2015 from cars and light trucks; strengthening building codes; and regulating GHG under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Various financial incentives, programs

  1. Present status of BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, we have two facilities for BNCT such as a reactor-based and an accelerator-based neutron source. In this article, we will present the characteristics overview of both facilities. (author)

  2. The potential contribution of sinks to meeting Kyoto Protocol commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missfeldt, F.; Haites, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the climate convention makes provision for sink enhancement activities to contribute to meeting the greenhouse gas emissions limitation commitments of industrialised countries. This paper analyses the potential contribution of sink enhancement activities to meeting commitments...

  3. Mechanization of Library Procedures at the Kyoto Sangyo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Hugo

    1974-01-01

    When the new Kyoto Sangyo University library found itself with a large backlog of uncataloged books it turned to the computer. The library now has computerized cataloging, acquisitions, periodicals processing, circulation, and information retrieval. (LS)

  4. On the farsighted stability of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Eyckmans

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the coalitional stability of the 1997~Kyoto Protocol on the emissions of greenhouse gases. Unlike conventional coalition stability tests we assume that potential deviators are farsighted in the sense of Chwe~(1994) and take into account possible subsequent deviations by the remaining players. In the empirical part of the paper, a Partial Agreement Nash Equilibrium w.r.t. to the Kyoto coalition is computed with a stylized dynamic integrated assessment model that resembl...

  5. From Kyoto to Copenhagen: Meeting the Climate Change Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Gaisford, James D.

    2010-01-01

    In spite of some superficial success in achieving its overall global target, there has been much disillusionment with the progress on climate change since the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in 1997. The key problems in addressing GHG emissions under the Kyoto Protocol have been the incomplete coverage across countries and lack of credibility. While significantly more onerous reduction commitments should be expected and required of developed countries in the name of economic fairness, GHG emiss...

  6. KYOTO PROTOCOL- THE SOLUTION TO THE CLIMATE CHANGE PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Stanisoara

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the subject to a particularly important Protocol: Kyoto Protocol from 1997 entered into force on 15 February 2005. It aims to limit emissions of six greenhouse gases. In short, the Kyoto Protocol commits industrialized countries to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions based on the principles of the Convention. The Convention itself only encourages countries to do so. Under the Protocol, the European Community has committed to reduce b...

  7. Will The Kyoto Protocol Affect Growth in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Lecocq, Franck; Shalizi, Zmarak

    2004-01-01

    In light of the recent argument that rapid economic growth in Russia over the next decade, might result in emissions higher than the Kyoto target, thereby putting much-needed growth at risk, the authors revisit the discussion on the costs and benefits of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia. They conclude that even under a very high economic growth assumption, and even under very c...

  8. The Challenges of Complying with the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence on the economic impact on Canada of complying with its commitment to reduce Greenhouse Gases by 6 per cent from 1990 levels under the Kyoto Protocol. It concludes that this would be extremely burdensome given the diverging trends of GHG emissions and the targets. And it notes that Canada may have no option other than to give the required notice under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that it is withdrawing from the Kyoto Protocol.

  9. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol without Russian participation

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Knut H. Alfsen

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: All Annex B parties but Russia, Australia and USA, have ratified the Kyoto Protocol so far. It is still an open question whether Russia will ratify and secure that the Protocol enters into force. This paper therefore analyzes consequences of some proposed alternatives if the Russians decide not to ratify. The paper focuses on two cases where a limited number of the remaining Annex B parties respond to Russian withdrawal by the establishment of a new "mini-Kyoto" agree...

  10. Does the Kyoto Protocol Agreement matters? An environmental efficiency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses both conditional and unconditional Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models in order to determine different environmental efficiency levels for a sample of 110 countries in 2007. In order to capture the effect of countries compliance with the Kyoto Protocol Agreement (KPA), we condition the years since a country has signed the agreement until 2007. Particularly, various DEA models have been applied alongside with bootstrap techniques in order to determine the effect of Kyoto pro...

  11. Implementing the Kyoto protocol : the role of environmental agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Torvanger, Asbjørn; Skodvin, Tora

    1999-01-01

    Voluntary agreements between an industry or a company and the government to regulate various environmental impacts is a popular policy tool in many OECD countries. Since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 1997 there has been a discussion of choice of policy tools to implement the Protocol in many industrialized countries. Not enough parties to make it enter into force have yet ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but ma...

  12. NF 3 , the greenhouse gas missing from Kyoto

    OpenAIRE

    PRATHER, MICHAEL J.; Hsu, Juno

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) can be called the missing greenhouse gas: It is a synthetic chemical produced in industrial quantities; it is not included in the Kyoto basket of greenhouse gases or in national reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and there are no observations documenting its atmospheric abundance. Current publications report a long lifetime of 740 yr and a global warming potential (GWP), which in the Kyoto basket is second only to SF6...

  13. Status of AMS system of Kyoto University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Tazawa, Yuji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Seiji; Hirose, Masanori; Ogino, Koya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    We are developing Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) using 8 MV tandem accelerator of Faculty of Science, Kyoto University to measure long life heavy radio-isotope with high sensitivity. The multi target sputter ion source mounted 59 samples. A slit was installed in front of negative ion source to decrease beam emittance. The 3 {mu}m aluminum foil was used to separate {sup 13}C{sup 4+} and {sup 14}N{sup 4+}, {sup 7}Li{sub 2}{sup 4+} in the silicon semiconductor detector. Successive injection is realized by changing the magnetic field of injection section. The test sample was at first to become CO{sub 2}. After purification, it was de oxidized by Hydrogen with Fe catalysis. The ratio of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C was obtained after estimation of the ion permeability efficiency. The tandem accelerator was not exclusive for the mass spectrometer. Therefore, we installed the second stripper (5 {mu}m Mylar) between the 90 degrees analyzing magnet and the steering magnet to cancel out background signals. After all, this modification enabled to measure {sup 14}C by successive injection method. The reproducibility of data is less than 1 - 2 %, which is mainly due to the fluctuation of the electric current measurement. The chain operation time is about 2500 hours in a year. Meantime, the main trouble is a deterioration of cooling water quality. Exchanges of pipes and cleaning by chemicals were needed after the deterioration of water quality. Further optimization of detector system is being continued to increase sensitivity. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    The Beyond Kyoto conference in Aarhus March 2009 was organised in collaboration with other knowledge institutions, businesses and authorities. It brought together leading scientists, policy-makers, authorities, intergovernmental organisations, NGO's, business stakeholders and business organisations. The conference was a joint interdisciplinary project involving many academic areas and disciplines. These conference proceedings are organised in central and recurring themes that cut across many debates on climate change, the climatic challenges as well as the solutions. In the front there is a short presentation of the conference concept. Part I of the proceedings focuses on issues related to the society - covering climate policy, law, market based instruments, financial structure, behaviour and consumption, public participation, media communication and response from indigenous peoples etc. Part II of the proceedings concerns the scientific knowledge base on climate related issues - covering climate change processes per se, the potential impacts of projected climate change on biodiversity and adaptation possibilities, the interplay between climate, agriculture and biodiversity, emissions, agricultural systems, increasing pressure on the functioning of agriculture and natural areas, vulnerability to extreme weather events and risks in respect to sea-level rise etc. The conference proceedings committee consists of four professors from Aarhus University: Jens-Christian Svenning, Jørgen E Olesen, Mads Forchhammer and Ellen Margrethe Basse. Aarhus University's Climate Secretariat has had the overall responsibility for coordinating the many presentations, as well as the practical side of arranging the conference and supporting the publication of papers. As Head of the Climate Secretariat and Chair of Aarhus University's Climate Panel, I would like to thank everyone for their contribution. This applies both to the scientific and the practical efforts. Special thanks to

  15. Kyoto's enemy : the american oil industry's influence in the signing and non-ratification of the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This study is an empirical and theoretical analysis of the influence obtained by the American oil industry in the United States decision to first sign and then not ratify the Kyoto Protocol. The purpose of the study is to explore and measure the influence the industry managed to obtain and then compare the period before the signing to the period between the signing and the decision to not ratify Kyoto. By employing theoretical framework, the empirical data collected wi...

  16. De kleine vraagbaak van het Kyoto Protocol : vragen en antwoorden over ontstaan, inwerkingtreding en uitvoering van het Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, M.; Bollen, J; Dorland, van, G.J.; Eickhout, B.; Gaast, van der, A.; Gijsen, A.; Heij, B.J.; Jansen, B.; Meer, van der, D

    2005-01-01

    Bij gelegenheid van de officiële inwerkingtreding van het Kyoto-protocol hebben Wageningen UR, KNMI, RIVM, NWO, VU en ECN een handzaam boekje uitgegeven met antwoorden op alle vragen die u maar over de zin en onzin van Kyoto kunt bedenken. Het boekje legt uit wat het protocol inhoudt en wat het betekent voor milieu, economie en samenleving. Ook het jargon dat door klimaatonderzoekers en in het internationale onderhandelingscircuit wordt gebruikt, wordt in begrijpelijke bewoordingen

  17. May the Kyoto protocol produce results?; Le protocole de Kyoto peut-il produire des resultats?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, M.

    2009-07-01

    A not well managed drastic reduction of greenhouse emissions might result in significant decrease of living standards, but without such reduction efforts, climate change might have five to twenty times higher costs. Thus, while indicating estimated consequences or evolutions of greenhouse emissions and temperature, the author stresses the need of emission reduction. She discusses the role of economic instruments which can be used in policies aimed at the struggle against climate change. She recalls the emission reduction commitments specified in the Kyoto protocol, discusses the present status, operation and results of the international emission trading scheme, the lessons learned after the first years of operation, comments the involvement of emerging countries in relationship with another mechanism defined in the protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism

  18. The Kyoto Protocol under the Climate Convention: commitments and compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the Third Conference of the Parties of the climate convention - CoP III, December 1997 in Kyoto - came the Kyoto Protocol: sharp, quantitative greenhouse gas emissions commitments that tightened up the Climate Convention. These are explicit commitments that reveal the tension between the attack on the problem and the limitations of traditional principles of international law, such as sovereignty, territoriality and equality. The implementation of the commitments into national legislation demands a close collaboration between international and national legal experts, with a knowledge of both environmental law and economic law, in the widest sense. The article surveys what has been or has yet to be regulated by the parties to the Kyoto Protocol in regard to the compliance of the Protocol commitments, and presents the current situation. The authors propose a number of suggestions

  19. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  20. Just transition : a labour perspective on the Kyoto jobs debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) represents workers in the oil, gas, petrochemicals, electricity, uranium and related industries. In a recent national convention in 2002, the CEP voted to support ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The decision was made after an 18 month process that included research, debate, and a look at their responsibilities to defend members in addressing environmental issues. This paper presents a labour perspective of the impact of the Kyoto Accord and the Canada Climate Change Action Plan. It was emphasized that a broad social analysis is needed to understand the implications of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol on labour and society. The CEP seriously considered the claims made by the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters Association which predicted major job losses resulting from ratification of Kyoto. It also examined the link between energy supplies and the opposition by some energy industries to the Kyoto Protocol. The CEP decided that responsibility to the environment must come before concerns over economic impacts on members, but by the same token did not accept claims of major job losses. The Analysis and Modeling Group of the National Climate Change Process has projected that 1.26 million new jobs will be created in Canada over the period 2002 to 2010, which is 60,000 less jobs than would have been created in the Business as Usual Scenario. It was emphasized that the impacts of Kyoto compliance on Canada will be modest in comparison with the normal activities of a trillion dollar economy. 5 refs., 1 tab

  1. The Kyoto protocol and nuclear power: two views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol is a very complex issue and there has been much in the press. We will concentrate, therefore on giving you an idea of where we are going in the future. In order to see where we are going on this process, we have to see where we came from. To understand where we came from, we have to understand that there is a science based problem - namely climate change - that was identified in the mid 1980's and led to the first fundamental process. The Kyoto Protocol gave a precise blueprint for giving industrialized countries general targets, and left out developing countries

  2. Kyoto protocol and its implementation in pakistan: hurdles and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 Kyoto protocol was adopted at the third session of Conference of the parties of UNFCC in Kyoto, Japan. This protocol restricts the industrialized countries and those in transition to a market economy agreed to limit or reduce their emissions. In Pakistan the government is also taking steps to reduce the pollution. This paper discusses the possible low carbon emitting electricity generation options by keeping in view the current energy scenario of Pakistan and the new energy policy announced by the Government of Pakistan for renewable energy promotion. (author)

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions and the role of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroki; Okada, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    Our study empirically investigates the effects of the Kyoto Protocol’s quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments on various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as CO2, CH4, N2O and other greenhouse gases, consisting of HFCs, PFCs and SF6. These GHG emissions are considered to be the main source of global warming issues and 39 countries approved to meet the commitments by ratifying the Kyoto Protocol. Our empirical analysis is based on the STIRPAT model, the stochastic version of...

  4. Ocean iron fertilization in the context of the Kyoto protocol and the post-Kyoto process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocean iron fertilization is currently discussed as a potential measure to mitigate climate change by enhancing oceanic CO2 uptake. Its mitigation potential is not yet well explored, and carbon offsets generated through iron fertilization activities could currently not be traded on regulated carbon markets. Still, commercial interests in ocean iron fertilization already exist, which underlines the need to investigate a possible regulatory framework for it. To this end, I first discuss important basic aspects of ocean iron fertilization, namely its scientific background, quantitative potential, side effects, and costs. In a second step, I review regulatory aspects connected to ocean iron fertilization, like its legal status and open access issues. Moreover, I analyze how the regulations for afforestation and reforestation activities within the framework of the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be applied to ocean iron fertilization. Main findings are that the quantitative potential of ocean iron fertilization is limited, that costs are higher than initially hoped, and that potential adverse side effects are severe. Moreover, the legal status of ocean iron fertilization is currently not well defined, open access might cause inefficiencies, and the CDM regulations could not be easily applied to ocean iron fertilization.

  5. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol; La mise en oeuvre du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    The Rio Earth summit in 1992 has been the starting point of an international awareness about the global risk of climatic change. At this occasion, the richest countries committed themselves to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions and to reach by the year 2000 an emissions level equivalent to the one of 1990. The Kyoto protocol in 1997 has permitted to convert this will into juridically constraining quantitative commitments. In 2005, Russia ratified the protocol while in 2001 the USA refused to do so. Because the commitments signed are ambitious, flexibility mechanisms have been implemented: 'emission permits' (emissions trading), 'joint implementation' allowing the investments abroad for greenhouse gases abatement in another developed country, and 'clean development mechanisms' when investments are made in a developing country. The Marrakech conference of December 2001 has permitted to fix up the eligibility criteria of projects belonging to the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The effective implementation of these mechanisms still raises technical difficulties to evaluate and measure the effective abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  6. The effects of early-life predator stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  7. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  8. The Kyoto Protocol and the coal industry in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article is studied the possible incidence of the commitments reached in the Kyoto Protocol on the coal market, making emphasis in the Colombian case. Projections, made in a study of Hill y Associates, points out that in a scenario of greenhouse gases emissions reduction, the market of the thermal coal will be seriously affected by the incidence on their demand

  9. Japanese approaches to meeting the requirements of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the commencement of Japan's civil nuclear programme in 1966, the importance of nuclear power as an energy source has been growing. This paper discusses Japan's current and future nuclear policy and the issues that will have to be resolved to achieve the twin goals of sufficient energy generation and meeting the requirements of the Kyoto protocol. (author)

  10. Will markets direct investments under the Kyoto Protocol ?

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F.; Breustedt, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Under the Kyoto Protocol, countries can meet treaty obligations by investing in projects that reduce or sequester greenhouse gases elsewhere. Prior to ratification, treaty participants agreed to launch country-based pilot projects, referred to collectively as Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ), to test novel aspects of the project-related provisions. Relying on a 10-year history of proje...

  11. Smoke and mirrors: the Kyoto Protocol and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is considered a necessary first step toward an effective future climate accord. As argued in this paper, however, the protocol will likely fail because it has too many loopholes, inadequate governance structures, and insufficient compliance provisions. This view is supported by ca

  12. Mapping Land Use Changes for the Kyoto Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birger Faurholt

    Kyoto-rapportering til De Forenede Nationers rammekonvention om klimaændringer (UNFCCC) omfatter en sammenligning af arealanvendelsen i 1990, 2005 og 2008-2012, som er nødvendig for at identificere de ændringer i arealanvendelsen og til at beregne de mulige ændringer i kulstoflagrene. For at udføre...

  13. Making it work: Kyoto, trade and politics : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document, the author examines the constraints that would be placed on policy makers in the event of the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, and how it would affect trade agreements and federalism in Canada. A description of the Protocol and the concessions (carbon sinks and international emissions trading) gained by Canada are presented at the beginning of the document. The author offers several conclusions that could disturb both proponents and opponents of the Kyoto Protocol. It is said that the implementation of Kyoto can take a route other than that of drastic domestic emissions reductions, and this position is explored in the second section. The author indicates that corporate competitiveness could be boosted by strict environmental regulations. A range of policies that could be adopted by Canada, as proposed by numerous organizations, are highlighted in the third section of the document. The point of the World Trade Organization and the constraints imposed are not necessarily preventing all types of actions. However, the author is of the opinion that the North America Free Trade Agreement represents a real threat to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, it is indicated that Canada requires a national electricity policy, where big hydro utilities and public investment have major roles to play

  14. REPEATED TREATMENTS WITH DOXORUBICIN CAUSES ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) CHANGES AND INCREASED VENTRICULAR PREMATURE BEATS IN WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anthracycline anti-neoplastic drug used to treat tumors. However it has been implicated in irreversible cardiac toxicity via the generation of a proxidant semiquinone free radical, which often results in cardiomyopathy and changes in the ECG. Ac...

  15. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad W; Jantan I; Kumolosasi E; Abbas Bukhari SN

    2015-01-01

    Waqas Ahmad, Ibrahim Jantan, Endang Kumolosasi, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed t...

  16. A single inhalation exposure to acrolein desensitizes baroreflex responsiveness in Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterial baroreflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that regulate blood pressure (BP) by changing heart rate (HR) and vasoconstriction. Increases in BP reflexively cause HR to decrease, whereas decreases in BP depress the baroreflex and cause HR to rise. As such, baro...

  17. Signal transduction pathways involved in particulate matter induced relaxation in rat aorta--spontaneous hypertensive versus Wistar Kyoto rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagate, Karim; Meiring, James J; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Cassee, Flemming R; Borm, Paul J A

    2006-01-01

    Previously we reported that in vivo exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces vasodilatation in rat aorta. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the intracellular messengers involved in PM-elicited vasodilatation in aortas from spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive

  18. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive ana...

  19. Analyzing the economic cost of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol commitments under alternative assumptions regarding technology and technical change. Real GDP is modeled as a function of the capital, labor, and energy inputs. The analysis is based on data for 23 Annex 1 countries from 1965 to 1999. Two important results emerge. First, the standard assumption of Hicks neutral technical change and time and scale independent output elasticities is not supported by the data. Second, when technical change is allowed to be biased in favor of the energy and capital inputs, and when the output elasticities vary with the level of factor use and over time, the loss in real GDP due to the Kyoto commitments rises substantially. On average, the loss in real GDP is one and a half times higher than obtained under the standard assumptions. 26 refs

  20. Tropical deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. An editorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil); Schwartzman, S. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Curran, L. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Nobre, C. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The current annual rates of tropical deforestation from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four-fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of Protocol to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' with the climate system. We propose the novel concept of 'compensated reduction', whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a previously determined historical level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future. Such a program could create large-scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the continuity of the Protocol beyond the 2008-2012 first commitment period.

  1. Tropical Deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. An Editorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM Belem (Brazil); Schwartzman, S. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Nepstad, D. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Curran, L. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Nobre, C. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    The current annual rates of tropical deforestation from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four-fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of Protocol to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' with the climate system. We propose the novel concept of 'compensated reduction', whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a previously determined historical level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future. Such a program could create large-scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the continuity of the Protocol beyond the 2008-2012 first commitment period.

  2. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokharel, Shaligram [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore)]. E-mail: Shaligram@pmail.ntu.edu.sg

    2007-04-15

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed.

  3. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  4. Developing country's perspective on COP3 development (Kyoto Protocol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to search for possible solutions on the issue of burden sharing and, in particular, the involvement of developing countries. For this, we review the Kyoto Protocol and consider major driving forces and indicators of climate change negotiation. Then we propose three candidate solutions for burden sharing and, in light of the observation of major driving forces and indicators, present a form of the involvement of developing countries. (author)

  5. Kyoto Protocol Objectives in Croatia Energy Planning: Nuclear Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatia as an Annex I country of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and a country that has pledged in the Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce its greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 5% from the pre-transition level by the budget period 2008-12, will have to envisage a new energy strategy. Compared to the energy consumption collapse in some transitional countries like Russia and Ukraine, Croatia has passed through a relatively limited long term reduction of GHG emissions since 1990 because of higher efficiency of its pre-transition economy. It is expected that in case of business as usual scenario it will breach the Kyoto target in 2003 since the demand for energy will be high, especially as the income continues to rise, particularly in domestic use for heating, for transport and for electricity generation. Several scenarios of developing energy system are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions. The energy sector that will most probably be the most influenced by the UNFCCC objectives is electricity generation. Several scenarios are compared. The cost-effective scenario expects a mixture of coal and gas fired power plants to be built to satisfy the new demand and to replace the old power plants that are being decommissioned. More Kyoto friendly scenario envisages the construction of mostly nuclear power plants in the future, while decommissioning the old ones as planned, and is compared to the others from the GHG emissions point of view. The conclusion is that by measures tackling only electricity generation it will not be possible to keep GHG emission under the Kyoto target level, but that choosing the nuclear option might reduce significantly the cost of compliance. (author)

  6. Smoke and mirrors: the Kyoto Protocol and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kooten, van, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is considered a necessary first step toward an effective future climate accord. As argued in this paper, however, the protocol will likely fail because it has too many loopholes, inadequate governance structures, and insufficient compliance provisions. This view is supported by case studies of Canada, Japan, and the Netherlands. These countries are unlikely to achieve their self-imposed targets, or, if they do, the costs of compliance will be unacceptably high. Consequently...

  7. Kyoto protocol cooperation: does government corruption facilitate environmental lobbying?.

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Per G.; Neumayer, Eric; Ujhelyi, Gergely

    2007-01-01

    Does environmental lobbying affect the probability of environmental treaty ratification? Does the level of government corruption play a role for the success of such lobbying? In this paper, we propose that a more corruptible government may be more responsive to the demands of the environmental lobby. We use several stratified hazard models and panel data from 170 countries on the timing of Kyoto Protocol ratification to test this hypothesis. We find that increased environmental lobby group ac...

  8. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 4 - Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian interpretation of compliance is described, emphasizing Canada's determination to work with other countries to build a clear set of rules to govern the conduct of those who participate in these new international instruments and international markets. The Canadian view is that a compliance regime that will facilitate compliance and offers countries significant incentives to take their commitments seriously is critical in providing the legal certainty for the Kyoto mechanisms to work

  9. Emissions Trading, Capital Flows and the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We use an econometrically estimated multi-region, multi-sector general equilibrium model of the world economy to examine the effects of the tradable emissions permit system proposed in the 1997 Kyoto protocol, under various assumptions about that extent of international permit trading. We focus, in particular, on the effects of the system on international trade and capital flows. Our results suggest that consideration of these flows significantly affects estimates of the domestic effects of t...

  10. An evaluation of business implications of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Torvanger, Asbjørn

    2001-01-01

    This report has been commissioned by Norsk Hydro ASA and written in November-December 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, particularly the seventh Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention in Marrakech, Morocco, in October/November 2001, and to provide an evaluation of what the finalized Kyoto Protocol means for business. The report is organized as a collection of slides with supporting text explaining the backgr...

  11. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J.; David Y Graham; El-Omar, Emad M.; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels ...

  12. Polarized ionic source of the tandem accelerator in Kyoto University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Kuwamoto, Shuichi; Takahashi, Seiji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    1997-02-01

    A polarized ion source developed under the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics was transferred to the tandem accelerator in Kyoto University at beginning of 1993 to constitute a displacement of incidence into the accelerator. This was an atomic beam type polarized ion source, which is designed to adopt permanent magnets for 6 poles magnet to polarize the electron, to take out atomic nucleus on a shape of positive ion by ECR ionizer after transferring its polarization through transition using radio frequency (RFT), to make it negative ion by charge conversion using alkaline metal vapor, and to put it into the tandem accelerator. Test of the positive ion was finished at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics, and test in Kyoto University was required after its negative ionization. As the estimated cost was unsufficient and entrance into the ion source facility in the tandem accelerator building was limited in Kyoto University, step of development was slow. Here is reported on present state of the ion source which is now operating stably. (G.K.)

  13. The Project Based Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Credible Instruments or Challenges to the Integrity of the Kyoto Protocol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi Waldegren, Linn

    2006-03-15

    The project based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are innovative instruments which allow projects to earn credits for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The credits can in turn be used by countries to reach their emissions targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. The Project based mechanisms are known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI). If the project based mechanisms are to be effective policy instruments they must ensure the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol, and their ability to promote and prove real emission reductions is critical. The environmental credibility of the project based mechanisms will also ensure their ability to promote cost effectiveness. Key concepts in this context are environmental and project additionality, and their role and value for the project based mechanisms are analyzed. Environmental additionality is established by comparing a project's emissions to a baseline. The baseline's credibility is thus vital. The concept of project additionality is somewhat controversial, but is nonetheless of equal importance. The case studies of CDM approved methodologies (AMs) and proposed projects suggest that there are credibility issues that need to be addressed if the project based mechanisms are to promote real emissions reductions.

  14. Discussions from the Leaders' Roundtable on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaders from a variety of sectors came together to discuss 4 options put forward in the 'Discussion Paper on Canada's Contribution to Addressing Climate Change', released on May 15, 2002. Their objective was to provide the federal and Alberta environment ministers with feedback prior to the federal and provincial conference on the Kyoto Protocol which sets targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Canada's target is to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2008-2012, which translates to a 240 megatonne reduction per year. In 2001, the United States withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol, and many Canadians are divided on the issue of whether Canada should ratify the Protocol and how the target can be achieved. The federal government has proposed the following 4 options to meet the target: (1) all fossil fuel producers and importers enter a cap-and-trade emissions trading system, (2) targeted measures including regulation, fiscal measures, and investments in technology and best practices to promote emission reductions by consumers and industries, (3) mixed approach of domestic trading for large final emitters, targeted measures and purchase of international pollution permits by government and business, and (4) modified mixed approach of emissions permits, targeted measures and credits to Canada for clean energy exports. The majority of leaders at the roundtable felt that Canada should design a fifth option that would commit the government to reducing GHGs without ratifying the Kyoto Protocol. They also suggested that there is a need for better analysis of the economic impacts and that the financial sector must participate in the analysis

  15. The Kyoto protocol. Fine, but not yet enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although one must be satisfied with the emission targets as agreed upon by the so-called Annex-I countries (mainly OECD and Middle- and East-Europe) during the conference on the Kyoto protocol in Japan, December 1997, there is still a lot to be desired. Some of the tools for the Annex-I countries to realize the targets are taking energy saving measures in the individual countries, tradeable emission rights, and joint implementation (also known as Clean Development Mechanism). 1 ill., 2 refs

  16. Canada's nuclear industry, greenhouse gas emissions, and the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Other nations also committed to varying degrees of reduction. The Protocol includes provisions for credit to the 'developed' counties for initiatives which lead to greenhouse gas reduction in the 'developing' countries and for the sharing of credit between 'developed' countries for projects undertaken jointly. The rules and details for implementation of these guidelines remain to be negotiated. We begin our study by establishing the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions already avoided by the nuclear industry in Canada since the inception of commercial power plants in 1971. We then review projections of energy use in Canada and anticipated increase in electricity use up to the year 2020. These studies have anticipated no (or have 'not permitted') further development of nuclear electricity production in spite of the clear benefit with respect to greenhouse gas emission. The studies also predict a relatively small growth of electricity use. In fact the projections indicate a reversal of a trend toward increased per capita electricity use which is contrary to observations of electricity usage in national economies as they develop. We then provide estimates of the magnitude of greenhouse gas reduction which would result from replacing the projected increase in fossil fuel electricity by nuclear generation through the building of more plants and/or making better use of existing installations. This is followed by an estimate of additional nuclear capacity needed to avoid CO2 emissions while providing the electricity needed should per capita usage remain constant. Canada's greenhouse gas reduction goal is a small fraction of international commitments. The Kyoto agreement's 'flexibility mechanism' provisions provide some expectation that Canada could obtain some credit for greenhouse gas

  17. Carbon emissions: the economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3 per cent with respect to 1990 values by 2008 - 2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions. (author)

  18. The Kyoto Protocol : Canada's risky rush to judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlined the 4 proposed policy options to implement the Kyoto Protocol in Canada and presented reasons why the Canadian timetable to ratify the Kyoto Protocol is an unrealistic and unsound policy. The Canadian Prime Minister will ask Parliament to ratify the agreement before the end of 2002 but the authors claim that before any decision regarding ratification is made, the government should cost out all relevant options, under all reasonable contingencies. For policy purposes, this paper focuses on reductions of carbon dioxide. Canada's obligation is to reduce them 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2010, but because of economic growth, emissions among participating countries may be 30 per cent above their aggregate target. In addition, the withdrawal of the United States means that about two-thirds of the world's emissions are not covered by Kyoto. The first policy option involves the selling of emission permits covering about 80 per cent of domestic emitters. It results in 16 MT of domestic emissions reductions being accomplished and 128 MT of foreign permits being purchased. This first option is considered to be the least costly of the four. The second option relies on command-and-control measures in which 104 MT worth of new targeted measures are forced through. Although the government has not provided cost estimates for option 2, it is likely to be much more costly than option 1. The third option slightly adjusts the mix of permits trading and command-and-control measures, and distributes the permits freely instead of selling them. Only the large emitters are involved in the trading system, covering 40 per cent of domestic emission sources. The cost of emissions reductions would be lower than under option 1. The fourth and final option combines tradable permits systems in which only large emitters are involved, but where permits are distributed according to sectoral emission reduction costs, expected future emission growth rates as well as economic

  19. Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichilnisky, G. [Columbia Univ., New York (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade

  20. An evaluation of business implications of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been commissioned by Norsk Hydro ASA and written in November-December 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, particularly the seventh Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention in Marrakech, Morocco, in October/November 2001, and to provide an evaluation of what the finalized Kyoto Protocol means for business. The report is organized as a collection of slides with supporting text explaining the background and contents of each slide. (author)

  1. Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade public goods have been shown to require a

  2. Options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Niklas; Phylipsen, Dian; Ullrich, Simone; Blok, Kornelis

    2005-02-15

    This study assesses available options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The study includes the following sections: An introduction, an overview of proposals and establishing a network, analysis of interests of countries, selected country case studies, an overview of the issues to be considered, options for adaptation to climate change, a new approach ''Common but Differentiated Convergence'', an update of the Triptych approach, a comprehensive compromise proposal, the comparison of emission allowances under various approaches and a negotiation strategy for the EU and Germany. (orig.)

  3. Kyoto II und 'Houston Protokoll' - neue Impulse für die internationale Klimapolitik

    OpenAIRE

    Udo E. Simonis

    2007-01-01

    "The 'Kyoto Protocol', as the first and only implementation mechanism under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), will expire by the year 2012. There are, however, many good reasons not to abandon this multilateral approach to climate change, but to soon go for a new round - 'Kyoto II'. In doing so, the treaty must be thoroughly scrutinized for its deficiencies, as regards targets, instruments, and institutions. Particularly, and for various reasons, the Kyoto Protocol which...

  4. The Effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol and Consummating the Legal Institution for International Technology Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongfa Ma

    2010-01-01

    Kyoto Protocol has several provisions and established mechanisms concerning technology transfer which is supposed to favoring technology transfer for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the world. However, mainly due to the flaws of the provisions and mechanisms, the environmentally sound technologies have not been transferred as smoothly as possible to realize the Kyoto Protocol’s objectives. Therefore, the international community shall take the effectiveness of Kyoto Protocol...

  5. Kyoto II and 'Houston Protocol' - on the future of international climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Udo E. Simonis

    2007-01-01

    "The 'Kyoto Protocol', as the first and only implementation mechanism under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), will expire by the year 2012. There are, however, many good reasons not to abandon this multilateral approach to climate change, but to soon go for a new round - 'Kyoto II'. In doing so, the treaty must be thoroughly scrutinized for its deficiencies, as regards targets, instruments, and institutions. Particularly, and for various reasons, the Kyoto Protocol which...

  6. Kyoto and Carbon Leakage: An Empirical Analysis of the Carbon Content of Bilateral Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Aichele, Rahel; Gabriel J. Felbermayr

    2011-01-01

    Has the Kyoto Protocol induced carbon leakage? We conduct the first empirical ex-post evaluation of the Protocol. We derive a theoretical gravity equation for the CO2 content of trade, which accounts for intermediate inputs, both domestic and imported. The structure of our new panel database of the carbon content of sectoral bilateral trade flows allows controlling for the endogenous selection of countries into the Kyoto Protocol. Binding commitments under Kyoto have increased committed count...

  7. Inertia in the North American Electricity Industry: Can the Kyoto Protocol Objectives Be Realistically Met?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Christiane; Lafrance, Gaëtan; Duocet, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    If they are to be attained, the objectives set in the Kyoto Protocol will impose fundamental changes on the structure of North America's economy. This text highlights the extent of the Kyoto challenge by clearly describing the historical inertia in terms of total market shares for different production technologies of the North American electricity industry. It also compares two potential scenarios of the industry changes needed to attain the Kyoto objectives. The results obtained suggest that...

  8. Kyoto and Beyond: How the banking rule affects emission, cost and price

    OpenAIRE

    Kvamme, Lars

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate numerically how three different scenarios of a Post-Kyoto agreement for the commitment period 2013-2017 affect the overall emission abatement, the cost of compliance and the price for emission permits in both the Kyoto (2008-2012) and the Post-Kyoto periods. The scenarios affect both periods through the banking rule; one of the compliance rules governing the emission trade mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol. In my results, banking reduces the overall cost of abatemen...

  9. Estimates of the Costs of Kyoto-Marrakesh Versus The McKibbin-Wilcoxen Blueprint

    OpenAIRE

    McKibbin, Warwick J.; Peter J. Wilcoxen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we update our earlier estimates of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol using the G-Cubed model, taking into account the new sink allowances from recent negotiations as well as allowing for multiple gases and new land clearing estimates. Rather than comparing this to the original Kyoto Protocol as other studies have done, we compare the estimates from the current Kyoto Protocol to a realistic alternative to the Kyoto Protocol outlined by McKibbin and Wilcoxen ( 1197a, 1997b, 2002). A ...

  10. The compatibility of flexible instruments under the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compatibility of the Kyoto Protocol flexible instruments and the lessons that can be learned form the AIJ-phase (AIJ stands for Activities Implemented Jointly) are discussed. The key point to be made is that there may be various applications of flexible instruments which can create situations where the various instruments would crowd out each other. On the other hand, applying flexible instruments may create a leverage for Parties in terms of achieving domestic environmental objectives. In addition, several issues related to the implementation of Joint Implementation (JI) , Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and international emissions trading are discussed. The issues concern mainly those that have been included in the working programme on flexible instruments for CoP4 and CoP5 (CoP stands for Convention of Parties). As such the report discusses the consequences of possible negotiations outcomes at CoP for the effectiveness of flexible instruments, Parties' capabilities to achieve their Kyoto Protocol commitments cost-effectively, and the role of the private sector on the national and international credits markets(s). 106 refs

  11. Implementing the Kyoto Protocol. The role of environmental agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Skodvin, Tora

    1999-09-01

    This report examines under what circumstances voluntary agreements to curb greenhouse gas emissions could be an attractive policy option from the government`s perspective. The report begins by defining the term Environmental Agreement (EA) and then explores EAs in three steps: (1) Advantages and disadvantages of EAs compared to other policy tools (direct regulation, taxes and tradable permits), based on theoretical studies and experience from practical use, (2) The potential of EAs as an international policy tool, either in a bilateral or regional setting, (3) The attractiveness of EAs to implement the Kyoto Protocol, and the relation to joint implementation and international emissions trading. The main conclusions are: (1) Experience from OECD countries suggests that EAs are most attractive as a supplement to traditional command and control, or to market-based policy tools. (2) Skillful design of EAs can improve their efficiency. (3) Bilateral EAs is an interesting policy option to regulate pollution from other countries. (4) Regional EAs are rare but could have important advantages. (5) EAs can play a role in a soft transition stage from traditional command and control to domestic emission trading, and further on to a Kyoto Protocol regime of emission trading and joint implementation. 52 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbonmarket, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex,dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. Themodeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared.Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reductionrequirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA' s withdrawal. Totalcosts vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs wouldsharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigationstrategies drops to only 0-16%.

  13. Tubulo-glomerular feedback response: enhancement in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats and effects of anaesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1989-01-01

    Open-loop tubulo-glomerular feedback (TGF) responses were measured in halothane anaesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley rats (SPRD), and in inactin anaesthetized SPRD. Proximal intratubular free flow pressures (FFP) (13.8-14.7 mm Hg...

  14. Effects of perinatal ethinyl estradiol exposure in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag;

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation and...... lactation with 0, 5, 15 or 50μg/kg bw/day of ethinyl estradiol.This potent estrogen was found to induce an increased number of nipples and reduced ovary weight in female offspring. Malformations of female genitalia were found in young as well as adult offspring, as an increased AGD was seen at birth and a...

  15. Dōmo arigatō Kyoto: four key lessons from the Kyoto Protocol for a new agreement in Paris 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Romain; Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    The results from the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (KP) show that developed countries fulfilled their commitments through varied strategies. However, the Kyoto protocol did not manage to stabilize global GHG concentrations; furthermore its direct impact on domestic emissions reductions is unclear. Nevertheless, the KP has likely paved the way for a low-carbon transition by establishing international standards on emissions monitoring and on emission reductions projects. Yet, do...

  16. Una aproximació al protocol de Kyoto i al desenvolupament sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Associació Ide@Sostenible

    2005-01-01

    Davant de la perspectiva de l’entrada en vigor de l’anomenat protocol de Kyoto el passat 16 de Febrer, es fa necessari analitzar què és el protocol de Kyoto i quin paper hi juga realment el Desenvolupament Sostenible, per a esbrinar el perquè de tot plegat.

  17. Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations, UN

    1998-01-01

    Full text of the Kyoto Protocol adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The Protocol sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

  18. Venemaa vehib Kyoto trumpässaga / Jüri Piirisild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirisild, Jüri

    2004-01-01

    1997. aastal vastuvõetud Kyoto protokoll, mis peaks panema piiri Maa atmosfääri saastamisele ja sellega otseselt seotud kliima soojenemisele, pole siiani vajalikku arvu ratifitseerimisallkirju saanud. Kui Venemaa lepingule alla kirjutab, saab vajalik arv allkirju kokku ning Kyoto lepingu täitmine muutub kohustuslikuks

  19. Non-Kyoto radiative forcing in long-run greenhouse gas emissions and climate change scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, S.K.; Kriegler, E.; Bibas, R.; Calvin, K.; Popp, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Weyant, J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate policies must consider radiative forcing from Kyoto greenhouse gases, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone that result from air pollutants. Non-Kyoto forcing constituents contribute negative, as well as positive forcing, and overall increases in tota

  20. Estimating the size of the potential market for the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol incorporates three flexibility mechanisms to help Annex I countries to meet their Kyoto targets at a lower overall cost. This paper aims to estimate the size of the potential market for all three mechanisms over the first commitment period. Based on the national communications fro

  1. Dutch activities with respect to the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Kyoto Protocol three flexible instruments are embodied: joint implementation, clean development mechanism and emission trading. As far as joint implementation is concerned the Dutch are in the lead. After five years of try outs, the Economic Department is investing in real programs via the Erupt Program. This means the Dutch Government is buying a reduction of carbon dioxide using a European tender. The industry, which is using much energy, is very interested in the trade in emissions. Some companies are already trading with each other in greenhouse emissions. The Gets-program overlooks the results of trading in emissions on a European level. The outcome is promising: trading in emission can lead to a decrease of the emissions in times of economic growth

  2. The emperor's new clothes. Redressing the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US President Bush repudiated the Kyoto Protocol because, in his view, it is 'fatally flawed in fundamental ways'. This paper evaluates seven proposals to redress the protocol according to their potential to deal with three key issues that have reinforced US intransigence: hot air, cost uncertainty and developing country participation. It argues that negotiations on intensity targets hold the most promise. Because intensity targets limit hot air, but do not limit economic growth, and a high variance of carbon intensity exists among countries with similar GDP per capita, intensity targets based on best practice levels might be agreeable to developing countries and the US. If a protocol specifying such targets were implemented, less warming would be associated with larger world GDP than would otherwise be the case, and countries' carbon intensity and emissions per capita would tend to converge to best practice levels at every stage of development

  3. Positron beam facility at Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2014-04-01

    A positron beam facility is presently under construction at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A cadmium (Cd) - tungsten (W) source similar to that used in NEPOMUC was chosen in the KUR because Cd is very efficient at producing γ-rays when exposed to thermal neutron flux, and W is a widely used in converter and moderator materials. High-energy positrons are moderated by a W moderator with a mesh structure. Electrical lenses and a solenoid magnetic field are used to extract the moderated positrons and guide them to a platform outside of the reactor, respectively. Since Japan is an earthquake-prone country, a special attention is paid for the design of the in-pile positron source so as not to damage the reactor in the severe earthquake.

  4. From Kyoto to Bonn: implications and opportunities for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the need for the uptake of renewable energy sources to increase to meet the commitments made in Bonn in July for compliance with the Kyoto Protocol. The article is presented under the sub-headings of: (i) the Bonn Agreement; (ii) implications and opportunities for renewable energy; (iii) the commercialisation and mainstreaming of renewable energy technologies; (iv) greenhouse gas-reducing projects (v) renewable portfolio standards and renewable certificate trading programmes; (vi) increased funding for product and technology development; (vii) emissions trading; (viii) domestic legislation and initiatives; (ix) regulatory effects in Annex I countries specifically impacting renewable energy (UK, Germany, Australia, EU Renewable Energy Law) and (x) US efforts in the absence of a national climate policy

  5. Karl Popper: antes y después de Kyoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti, Gabriel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En su último libro sobre Karl Popper, Mariano Artigas plantea una hermenéutica revolucionaria: muestra que la ética de Popper es el fundamento de su epistemología, y que el fundamento de esa ética está lejos del «conjeturalismo» que suele atribuirse a Popper. Artigas analiza qué significa en Popper la «fe irracional en la razón» y utiliza, como fuente inédita, el dramático relato que hace Popper de su relación con W. W. Bartley, por primera vez, en Kyoto, en 1992. Sea cual fuere la opinión del lector, el libro de Artigas divide la hermenéutica de Popper en un antes y un después.

  6. A climate change plan for the purposes of the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    In response to concerns about climate change, the Government of Canada is taking comprehensive actions to reduce Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. This document constituted the climate change plan for 2008 that the Canadian government was required to publish under section 5 of the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act. The report provided background information on the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act and outlined Canada's Kyoto Protocol targets and obligations. It also presented Canada's greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 and discussed the economics of the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act. Actions to address climate change as well as provincial territorial collaboration and action were also outlined. Timelines for achievement of emissions targets were presented. It was concluded that with this document, the Minister of the Environment has responded to the publication requirements of section 5 of the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act. The action plan was found to be a realistic, balanced and achievable plan. refs., tabs.

  7. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability.

  8. From Kyoto to Copenhagen: Rethinking the Place of Flexible Mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol's post 2012 Commitment Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola S. Olawuyi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Amidst debates between the North and the South, Emission Trading (ET, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, and Joint Implementation (JI were adopted as flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. These mechanisms allow developed countries to meet their emission reduction targets by investing in clean projects in other countries of their choice. The implementation of these mechanisms have however been faced with many problems which cast doubts on their efficacy as viable options for combating climate change. One main criticism of these mechanisms is that they lead to a trade off between sustainability and emission reduction. This paper examines the efficiency of these mechanisms in combating climate change. It reviews the main criticisms of the flexibility mechanisms in an attempt to answer the question whether the flexibility idea should still be retained as part of the post 2012 commitments. While arguing in favor of flexibility, this paper offers ideas on how their effectiveness can be enhanced in the post 2012 commitment period.

  9. Kyoto and the economics of global warming; Kyoto et l'economie de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesnerie, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report sheds light on the economic issues surrounding climate change. The objective is to fuel a longer term reflexions. The greenhouse effect raises many questions dealing with economic policy. In particular what is the right agenda for action taking into account the low reversibility of the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases? What about the Kyoto protocol architecture? How to deal with countries that will not participate in the effort for controlling emissions, while enjoying the benefits of the preservation of the climate, a collective good? How to protect the competitiveness of countries that impose environmental constraints on their producers? This report is then discussed by P. Champsaur and A. Lipietz. (A.L.B.)

  10. Stopping global warming : towards a low-carbon Canada : Kyoto report card 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This fourth Kyoto report card prepared by the Sierra Club of Canada examined Canada's plans, policies and implementation of programs relating to the Kyoto Protocol. The report card presented a vision for a low-carbon future and summarized why the Kyoto Protocol is the basis for achieving that future. Progress achieved by other countries in reducing carbon pollution was also highlighted. It was noted that in 2006, Canada eliminated several programs for clean energy, energy efficiency, and funding for provincial climate initiatives. Although many of the programs were relaunched in early 2007, Canada still lags in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This report stated that there is no indication that the government plans to raise these programs to levels needed to meet long term targets. Moreover, the government has committed to a five fold increase in tar sands oil production, which would significantly increase Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. This report also presented a hypothetical case study of the life of a Kyoto friendly Canadian family. A ten-pointed plan for meeting Canada's Kyoto Protocol target was also outlined. It was emphasized that other countries have shown that Kyoto Protocol emission reduction targets can be achieved. The Sierra Club of Canada claims that Canada's Kyoto Protocol targets can still be met by 2012 without damaging the economy, assuming that federal leadership builds on the social consensus that meeting these targets is a top priority for the country. 28 refs.

  11. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  12. [Approach to Teaching Kampo Medicine at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    An approach to educating our pharmaceutical students about Kampo medicine in the six-year system of undergraduate pharmacy education at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University is introduced, including the author's opinions. Curriculum revisions have been made in our university for students entering after 2012. In teaching Kampo medicine at present, a medical doctor and an on-site pharmacist share information difficult to give in a lecture with the teaching staff in my laboratory. For example, before the curriculum revision, we conferred with a pharmacist and a doctor in the course "Kampo Medicine A, B" for 4th year students, in which students were presented a basic knowledge of Kampo medicine, the application of important Kampo medicines, combinations of crude drugs, etc. Further, in our "Introduction to Kampo Medicine" for 6th year students, presented after they have practiced in hospitals and community pharmacies, we again lecture on the pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicines, on "pattern (Sho)", and on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research studies of important Kampo medicines. After our curriculum revision, "Kampo Medicine A, B" was rearranged into the courses "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" and "Clinical Kampo Medicine". "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" is now provided in the second semester of the 3rd year, and in this course we lecture on the basic knowledge of Kampo medicine. An advanced lecture will be given on "Clinical Kampo Medicine" in the 6th year. We are searching for the best way to interest students in Kampo medicine, and to counteract any misunderstandings about Kampo medicine.

  13. Political realities and economic realities towards a Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current climate change commitments and the negotiating positions of Annex I countries were discussed. It was pointed out that the energy sector is not homogeneous and therefore, climate change should focus on the areas all over the world which are most sensitive to a carbon value. It was also noted that while the present time is ripe for action on climate change, actions should not take place at any cost. A scenario based on the three principal functions of energy, i.e. to supply mobility, electricity and heat was proposed. It was claimed that this proposal had the potential to bridge the gap between the political reality of Kyoto and the economic realities of the energy sector. The essence of the proposal centred around the concept of 'carbon value'. The effect of establishing carbon values for each of the different energy services worldwide, was discussed. Various mechanisms for establishing carbon values, such as emission trading, joint implementation with non-Annex I parties, penalties for non-compliance, mitigation efforts in least-cost options, were also reviewed

  14. Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Ezi; Mehran Hosseini; Mahsa Hassanzadeh-Taheri; Farnaz Jahani; Mohammad Afshar; Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF) enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were random...

  15. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 2 - Removing carbon dioxide: credit for enhancing sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's position regarding carbon sinks is explained in some detail, explaining the reasons why Canada favours a formal recognition of a comprehensive approach to forest management and the inclusion of agricultural soils in the Kyoto Protocol

  16. Kyoto protocol at the convention of united nations about the climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engagements to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by industrialized countries at Kyoto on the 10. of December 1997 are explained and discussed. The text of the agreement is given in its entirety. (N.C.)

  17. WW instituudi direktor Christopher Flavin : Kyoto protokoll viiakse ellu Bushita / Christopher Flavin ; interv. Tarmo Virki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Flavin, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    World Watch Instituudi direktor leiab, et maailm vajaks globaalset keskkonnaorganisatsiooni, mis tasakaalustaks Maailma Kaubandusorganisatsiooni mõju. Euroopa Liit ja Jaapan suudavad Kyoto protokolli ratifitseerimise ellu viia ka ilma USA-ta. Lisa: Tuumaenergia pole lahendus

  18. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  19. Report: demonstrable progresses of the France according the Kyoto protocol; Rapport: progres demontrables de la France selon le protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document constitutes the report of the France on the demonstrable progresses according the application of the 3 article of the Kyoto protocol. The first chapter is a description of the french climatic policy, as the second presents the tendencies and the projections concerning the greenhouse effect gases emissions. The chapter 3 details the policies effects and the measures ( energy, transport, industry and wastes). The last chapter is devoted to the respect of the other engagements articles 10 and 11 of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

  20. From small to insignificant : climate impact of the Kyoto Protocol with and without US

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    American president George W. Bush has declared that he will not ask the Senate to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. This commentary explores the potential impact of implementing the Kyoto Protocol without the participation of the United States. Because, in practice, the United States would have taken on a relatively large share of the Protocol’s abatement commitments, we conclude that implementing the Protocol without the participation of United States will lead to significantly less reductions in g...

  1. The Kyoto Protocol without USA and Australia - with the Russian Federation as a strategic permit seller

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: After the U.S. and Australian withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, and the extension of national quotas in the Bonn- and Marrakesh-agreements, meager environmental effects and a low price of emission permits is likely to be the outcome of implementation. This paper provides an analysis of these prospects for the Kyoto Protocol and the international permit market based on different assumptions related to the baseline scenario. Possible strategic behavior in the permit market is emp...

  2. From small to insignificant: Climate impact of the Kyoto Protocol with and without the US

    OpenAIRE

    Hagem, Cathrine; Holtsmark, Bjart

    2001-01-01

    American president George W. Bush has declared that he will not ask the Senate to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. This commentary explores the potential impact of implementing the Kyoto Protocol without the participation of the United States. Because, in practice, the United States would have taken on a relatively large share of the Protocol’s abatement commitments, we conclude that implementing the Protocol without the participation of United States will lead to significantly less reductions in g...

  3. From the Kyoto Protocol to the fossil fuel market: A model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart

    1998-01-01

    Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol will change the energy markets. The resulting price shifts will represent important terms-of-trade changes. The paper explores how the different countries’ relationship to the fossil fuel markets will cause variations in the costs from implementation of Kyoto Protocol. The paper furthermore analyses how the geographical distribution of abatement efforts will be altered if emission trading is allowed. According to the presented analysis Russia and the ...

  4. Kyoto and liberalization ongoing transformation of the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COGEN Europe believes that the single most important influence on the electricity sector in the future will be the policy response to climate change and that cogeneration offers one of the very best, prospects for cutting emissions in the power sector. In the EU, cogeneration was put at the head of the list of Policies and Measures laid down before Kyoto as the means of achieving its then progressive target of a 15% reduction in emissions by 2010 over 1990. COGEN Europe has estimated that EU-15 as a whole could reach a 30% cogeneration share of total electricity production by 2010. Indeed, three of the 15 countries have already reached 30% (Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland). On a conservative basis this would save 221 Mt of CO2/yr by 2010, or 46% of the EU 15% negotiating target agreed in 1997. This also represents 30% of the 'gap' between the achievement of the 15% target and the 8% increase in emissions anticipated for 2010 in the absence of abatement measures. Most, if not all, of these savings would be based on zero or negative cost investments. COGEN Europe supports the trend towards liberalization and the European Commission's efforts to introduce competition into electricity and gas markets for the simple reason that they provide the best means to remove market and monopoly barriers to the development of high efficiency cogeneration. This paper presents a COGEN Europe vision for meeting and overcoming the challenges of global climate change - and some suggestions for governments which can help them achieve that elusive double dividend: environmental improvement and economic competitiveness. Governments should: where possible use the market to achieve your environmental objectives; avoid detailed regulation; avoid subsidizing pollution; set clear and ambitious CO2 objectives; redouble political pressure to achieve international consensus on internalization of environmental costs

  5. Effect of Nanosilver Particles on Alanin Amino Transferase (ALT) Activity and White Blood Cells (WBC) Level in Male Wistar Rats, In Vivo Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Naghsh; Ali Noori; Heydar Aqababa; Samira Amirkhani-Dehkordi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nanosilver is extensively used in medical equipment. Given the importance of white blood cells (WBC) in the immune system and liver cells in the body detoxification, this study has examined the effects of nanosilver particles on the white cell count and ALT liver enzyme in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male Wistar rats, provided from Pasteur Institute of Tehran. Nanosilver particles with concentrations of 50, 100, 200 an...

  6. Activation of autophagy improves neuron injury after the restoration of spontaneous circulation from ventricular fibrillation in wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of activation of autophagy on cerebral injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR)in Wistar rats.Methods At first 36healthy adult male Wistar rats were induced to suffer ventricular fibrillation(VF)by an external transthoracic alternating electricity current shock for 7 minutes and then received CPR.Before VF(0)and at 1 h,2 h,4 h,8 h and 12 hours after the restoration of spontaneous circulation(ROSC)from VF,cerebral cortex were harvested to

  7. Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed M. Sulaiman; Mohammed Y. Fatihu; Joseph O. Ayo; Suleiman F. Ambali; Muftau Shittu; Lukuman S. Yaqub

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg); group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg); group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50), while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were ...

  8. Aloe vera toxic effects: expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in testis of Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Asgharzade; Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei; Amin Mirzaeian; Somaye Reiisi; Loghman Salimzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Nitric oxide (NO), a product of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contributes in germ cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Aloe vera gel (AVG) on male Wistar rat reproductive organ, serum NO level, and expression of iNOS gene in leydig cells. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=36) were used for experiments in three groups. The experimental groups were orally administered with the AVG extract solution once-daily as follow: 150 mg.kg-...

  9. An economic assessment of the Kyoto Protocol using a global model based on the marginal abatement costs of 12 regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, ZhongXiang

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism to help Annex 1 countries to meet their Kyoto targets at a lower overall cost. Using a global model based on the marginal abatement costs of 12 countries and regions, this paper estimates the contributions of the three Kyoto flexibility mechanisms to meet the total greenhouse gas emissions reductions required of Annex 1 countries under the three trading scenarios respectively. Our resul...

  10. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

  11. Monte Carlo analysis of the accelerator-driven system at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Kyeong; Lee, Deok Jung [Nuclear Engineering Division, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Chul [VHTR Technology Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pyeon, Cheol Ho [Nuclear Engineering Science Division, Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Shin, Ho Cheol [Core and Fuel Analysis Group, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    An accelerator-driven system consists of a subcritical reactor and a controllable external neutron source. The reactor in an accelerator-driven system can sustain fission reactions in a subcritical state using an external neutron source, which is an intrinsic safety feature of the system. The system can provide efficient transmutations of nuclear wastes such as minor actinides and long-lived fission products and generate electricity. Recently at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI; Kyoto, Japan), a series of reactor physics experiments was conducted with the Kyoto University Critical Assembly and a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator, which generates the external neutron source by deuterium-tritium reactions. In this paper, neutronic analyses of a series of experiments have been re-estimated by using the latest Monte Carlo code and nuclear data libraries. This feasibility study is presented through the comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with measurements.

  12. Market-based implementation of Kyoto commitments: how the financial/insurance sector can support industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in the context of the Framework Convention on Climate Change will probably lead to economic winners and losers in various sectors of the economy. Especially carbon intensive industries will need to develop hedging strategies to prevent potential negative effects and to optimise market opportunities. Such strategies can be based on technological innovation, market and product diversification, and on financial/legal offsets. The Kyoto Protocol has introduced new market-based instruments, which can, in a near future provide such hedging opportunities. These include joint implementation, the so-called clean development mechanism, and international emissions trading. The financial services and insurance sector are the natural partners of industry in designing tailored hedging strategies. It is recommended that industry, financial services and insurance companies take a more proactive role in further developing the market-based instruments established by the Kyoto Protocol. (Author)

  13. Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO2-emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO2-emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO2-emission prices over Euro 15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies)

  14. The roles of parties with different commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and implications for NAFTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A government perspective on climate change negotiations was presented with particular reference to Canada's cleaner energy exports, the Kyoto mechanism and the second commitment period. The author emphasized the importance of cleaner energy exports for Canada, although progress is likely to be slow in this area because of the opposition among other Parties. Whatever approach the United States takes to trading, it must be compatible with the Kyoto Protocol. Eligibility for trading in North America was discussed with reference to what effect Canada's ratification of the Protocol would have on energy exports. It was noted that if Canada ratifies, it could be both a buyer and a seller, whereas the United States could only buy and Mexico could only sell. The author also suggested that developing countries or major emitters should take on commitments in order to provide greater compatibility in the North American context, especially if the United States rejoined the Kyoto Protocol

  15. Emission Trading and the Kyoto protocol: Are they efficient economic instruments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a tradeable permits market for green house gases -GHG- emissions to reduce the costs of meeting the Protocol obligations. Economic theory provides the arguments to support the creation of GHG tradeable permits. Several economic researches have shown that vis-a-vis command and control regulations, tradeable permits induce economic agents to achieve environmental goals at a minimum cost. However, the conditions to minimize costs through tradeable permits are stringent. Tradeable permits require well functioning markets, e.g. perfect competition and perfect information. The tradeable permits market created by the Kyoto Protocol hardly meet these necessary conditions. Some countries like Japan, Great Britain and the United Stated are large emitters and thus may exert market power. Price manipulation may have implications over the static and dynamic efficiency of the permits. This paper takes a first look to the consequences of imperfect markets on the tradeable permit system of the Kyoto Protocol

  16. Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO2-emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO2-emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO2-emission prices over EUR15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies). (author)

  17. Energy Efficient Service Delivery in Clouds in Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Lucanin, Drazen; Mastelic, Toni; Brandic, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is revolutionizing the ICT landscape by providing scalable and efficient computing resources on demand. The ICT industry - especially data centers, are responsible for considerable amounts of CO2 emissions and will very soon be faced with legislative restrictions, such as the Kyoto protocol, defining caps at different organizational levels (country, industry branch etc.) A lot has been done around energy efficient data centers, yet there is very little work done in defining flexible models considering CO2. In this paper we present a first attempt of modeling data centers in compliance with the Kyoto protocol. We discuss a novel approach for trading credits for emission reductions across data centers to comply with their constraints. CO2 caps can be integrated with Service Level Agreements and juxtaposed to other computing commodities (e.g. computational power, storage), setting a foundation for implementing next-generation schedulers and pricing models that support Kyoto-compliant CO2 trading ...

  18. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol-Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulphide (H2S is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR.There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05 in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05 in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05 plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II and noradrenaline (NA but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH. Exogenous administration of H2S augmented the reduced renal cortical blood perfusion in the LVH state.

  19. Inter-Strain Differences in Default Mode Network: A Resting State fMRI Study on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat and Wistar Kyoto Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Min Huang; Yi-Ling Wu; Shin-Lei Peng; Hsu-Hsia Peng; Teng-Yi Huang; Kung-Chu Ho; Fu-Nien Wang

    2016-01-01

    Genetic divergences among mammalian strains are presented phenotypically in various aspects of physical appearance such as body shape and facial features. Yet how genetic diversity is expressed in brain function still remains unclear. Functional connectivity has been shown to be a valuable approach in characterizing the relationship between brain functions and behaviors. Alterations in the brain default mode network (DMN) have been found in human neuropsychological disorders. In this study we...

  20. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Leslie C., E-mail: shark009@umn.edu [Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Radin, M. Judith, E-mail: radin.1@osu.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, 1925 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heller, Lois, E-mail: lheller@d.umn.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School—Duluth, 1035 University Drive, Duluth, MN 55812-3031 (United States); Rogers, Lynette K., E-mail: Lynette.Rogers@nationwidechildrens.org [Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, 700 Childrens Drive, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Tobias, Anthony [Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Matise, Ilze, E-mail: imatise.vh@gmail.com [Veterinary Population Medicine Department, University of Minnesota, 1365 Gortner Ave, St Paul, MN (United States); Wang, Qi, E-mail: wangx890@umn.edu [Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI), University of Minnesota, 717 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Apple, Fred S., E-mail: apple004@umn.edu [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hennepin County Medical Center and University of Minnesota, 701 Park Ave S, Minneapolis, MN USA (United States); McCune, Sylvia A., E-mail: sylvia.mccune@skybeam.com [Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 354 UCB, Clare Small 114, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: • Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. • Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. • Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased in response to doxorubicin in SHR and SHHF. • Altered leukotriene metabolism may contribute greater toxicity in SHR vs. SHHF rats.

  1. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: • Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. • Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. • Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased in response to doxorubicin in SHR and SHHF. • Altered leukotriene metabolism may contribute greater toxicity in SHR vs. SHHF rats

  2. THE ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MITOCHONDRIA IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED CARDIOPULMONARY INJURY IN STROKE PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHRSP) AND WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have associated PM exposure with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and this effect seems to be enhanced in populations with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. One hypothesis for this exacerbation is that the higher underlying level of oxidative st...

  3. A quartet of speculative impact scenarios of Kyoto Protocol implementation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation was intended to stimulate thought about the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The author proposes four potential scenarios for the Canadian economy under the Kyoto Protocol and offers speculation regarding the ramifications of non-compliance. The author notes that Canada's expectation of achieving a greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target of 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012-2015 was based on achieving credits for actions already taken, for clean energy exports to the United States, and for carbon sequestration. These actions have been largely rejected by the international community and the issue of ratification is still questionable in several developed and developing countries. This presentation outlined the following 4 scenarios and presented their impacts, assumptions underlying estimates, and scenario probability: (1) Kyoto within international trading and clean energy exports; (2) Kyoto with only internal trading; (3) Kyoto without trading; and (4) Kyoto without immediate action. The first scenario, although deemed unlikely, has a high potential for attaining reductions through sequestration, as well as a high potential for technology and energy transfer. The second scenario is considered possible, but unlikely. It assumes that least cost solutions are less available and biological sequestration credits are unlikely. The third scenario is considered to be more probable than the first two, but no mechanism exists to find or promote least cost solutions. Sequestration would be more available in some provinces than in others. The fourth and final scenario is considered to be the most probable, with investment into existing energy efficiency programs. The author cautioned that the actions taken by the current government may lead Canada into failure to attain greenhouse gas obligations, which in turn could be used by climate alarmist groups to justify implementation of the third scenario. 7 refs

  4. Protocolos de Montreal e Kyoto: pontos em comum e diferenças fundamentais Montreal and Kyoto Protocols: common points and essential differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darly Henriques da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os Protocolos de Montreal e Kyoto, tratados internacionais de defesa do meio ambiente e da vida, controlam gases que provocam o buraco na camada de ozônio e o efeito estufa, respectivamente, resultantes de atividades industriais e uso da terra. O artigo enfatiza pontos comuns e diferenças entre eles, fornecendo atualização dos protocolos.Montreal and Kyoto Protocols, international treaties, aim at safeguarding the environment and life by controlling the use of gases which deplete the ozone layer and cause the greenhouse effect, respectively, due to industrial and land use activities. The article highlights common points and differences and provides an update discussion about the protocols.

  5. Effects of dopamine agents on a schedule-induced polydipsia procedure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat and in Wistar control rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Íbias, Javier; Miguéns, Miguel; Pellón, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been proposed as an animal model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically develops excessive patterns of response under most behavioural protocols. Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is the excessive water consumption that occurs as a schedule effect when food is intermittently delivered and animals are partially food- but not water-deprived. SIP has been used as a model of excessive behaviour, and considerable evidence has involved the dopaminergic system in its development and maintenance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the most common psychostimulants used in ADHD treatment on SIP, comparing their effects in SHRs with rats from control populations. SHR, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar rats were submitted to a multiple fixed time (FT) food schedule with two components: 30 s and 90 s. The acute effects of different dopaminergic compounds were evaluated after 40 sessions of SIP acquisition. All animals showed higher adjunctive drinking under FT 30 s than FT 90 s, and SHRs displayed higher asymptotic SIP levels in FT 90 s compared to WKY and Wistar rats. SHRs were less sensitive to dopaminergic agents than control rats in terms of affecting rates of adjunctive drinking. These differences point to an altered dopaminergic system in the SHR and provide new insights into the neurobiological basis of ADHD pharmacological treatments. PMID:27296274

  6. How well did the Kyoto Protocol work? A dynamic-GMM approach with external instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Grunewald, Nicole; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on CO2 emissions. With this aim a dynamic panel data model is estimated for a cross-section of 213 countries over the period 1960 to 2009. The model, based on a STIRPAT approach, also integrates the EKC approach and specifically considers the endogeneity of the policy variable. To sort out causality the number of financed CDM projects is used as an external instrument. The main results indicate that obligations from the Kyoto Protocol have ...

  7. Dismantling of a Breakthrough: The Kyoto Protocol – Just Symbolic Policy!

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Vogt, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    We show that U.S. withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol is straightforward under political economy considerations. The reason is that U.S. compliance costs exceed low willingness to pay for dealing with global warming in the U.S. The withdrawal had a crucial impact on the concretion of the Protocol prior to its likely ratification at the end of 2002. Remaining non-EU Parties to the Kyoto Protocol gained veto bargaining power and, thus, were successful in asserting far reaching concessions from t...

  8. The role of nuclear energy in Lithuania under various post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: dalia@mail.lei.lt

    2008-07-15

    The article aims to evaluate the potential role of nuclear energy in Lithuania under various post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. Seeking to achieve this target the analysis of possible energy sector development scenarios in Lithuania was performed and CO{sub 2} emission projections for these scenarios were developed. The analysis of post-Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures was performed and the requirements of these possible climate change mitigation regimes for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in Lithuania were assessed. Based on these assessments the potential role of new nuclear power in Lithuania was identified under various future climate change mitigation regimes.

  9. Climate change ratification of the Kyoto Protocol : clearing the air on the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change would commit Canada to limit emissions of greenhouse gases to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. The Canadian Chamber of Commerce has outlined the following 3 key prerequisites that the federal government should and will have in place before any decision on ratification is made: (1) a detailed plan for achieving the Kyoto reductions, (2) a detailed analysis of environmental and economic impacts associated with Kyoto implementation, and (3) consultations with all stakeholder and the Canadian public once the plan has been released. Currently, Canadian businesses are taking voluntary actions to reduce industrial sector emissions through programs such as the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation. Between 1990 and 1999, industrial sector emissions fell by 6 per cent. However, it was emphasized that despite these efforts, the gap between Canada's Kyoto target and its current greenhouse gas emissions continues to grow because of population and economic growth and rising exports. At the current rate of growth, it is estimated that meeting the Kyoto target could cost the economy up to $30 billion in 2010. The paper also discusses the implementation of key flexibility mechanisms such as carbon sinks, Joint Implementation, the Clean Development Mechanism and credits for export of cleaner energy to the United States, a non-Kyoto country. It is argued that ratification of Kyoto could hurt investments and impact jobs in Canada by making Canadian industries uncompetitive relative to their American counterparts. It is emphasized that full participation by the Canadian public is required in adapting to major lifestyle changes to reduce the use of fossil fuels and other sources of greenhouse gases. In conclusion, the Canadian Chamber of Commerce does not believe that the Kyoto Protocol is the most effective and efficient way of moving forward on the climate change issue and recommends that the federal government develop a made

  10. Inborn Stress Reactivity Shapes Adult Behavioral Consequences of Early-Life Maternal Separation Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C.; Jackson, Nateka; Clinton, Sarah M.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life experience strongly impacts neurodevelopment and stress susceptibility in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS), an established model of early-life adversity, has been shown to negatively impact behavioral and endocrine responses to stress in adulthood. However, the impact of MS in rats with heightened inborn stress susceptibility has not been fully explored. To address this issue we conducted MS in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of comorbid depression and anxiety, and Wist...

  11. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  12. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Issy

    Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  13. Steroidogenetic and Spermatogenetic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Phragmanthera capitata in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapah Pièrre Takem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate steroidogenetic and spermatogenetic activities of aqueous extract of Phragmanthera capitata (AEPC in male Wistar rats. Healthy adult male Wistar rats of proven fertility weighing 150-200 g were randomized into three groups with body weights measured weekly. Group I (control received 10 ml/kg saline, Groups II and III (tests received 150 and 300 mg/kg AEPC respectively per oral per day for 60 days. Mating test was assessed from day 55 with cohabitation with coeval females for 5 days with the resulting sired litters counted and pup weights measured. The males were sacrificed; testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostrate were excised and weighed. Epididymal sperm motility (EPM, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR, daily sperm production (DSP, blood testosterone and cholesterol concentrations were measured. Mean weekly body weight as well as weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate revealed no significant change as compared to control. Similarly, no significant changes in EPM, ESR and DSP in test groups were observed. However, cholesterol and testosterone levels were significantly (P <0.05 increased while mating test showed a corresponding significant (P <0.05 increase in pup weight of 28.85±0.76 for 300 mg/kg AEPC as compared to 20.53±0.52 for control. Therefore, AEPC enhances steroidogenetic and spermatogenetic activities in male Wistar rats.

  14. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration

  15. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Issy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  16. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  17. Architecture of the Kyoto Protocol and Prospects for Public Climate Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Wijen (Frank); K. Zoeteman

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOptions for government’s future climate policy are discussed as a function of the architecture of the present regime; the latter is anchored in the Kyoto Protocol, which is aimed at reducing the human impact on climate change. We describe the basic tenets of this agreement, and explain h

  18. Reading the Kyoto Protocol. Ethical aspects of the convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by urging the international community to take measures preventing 'dangerous man-made interference with the climate system'. Since its publication in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol has triggered heated debates among scientists and politicians. According to a number of critics, the questions as to whether global warming is caused by human intervention, and whether taking appropriate measures could reduce the trend, has not yet been conclusively answered. In a limited number of countries, this situation has led to a delay in the ratification process. Only when these disputes were settled in February 2005 the Kyoto Protocol became legally binding on all the signatories. If predictions are accurate, measures have to be taken to prevent a global catastrophe. This leads to another, much overlooked, but no less important question, namely how mankind can be motivated to accept the burden attached to the measures proposed by the Kyoto Protocol; in other words, how do we find and formulate an ethical basis for measures forcing us to sacrifice some of our wealth and riches, for a cleaner, more sustainable world?

  19. Do use the climate policy mechanisms of the Kyoto protocol.. An interview with Hartmut Grass, Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aspects discussed in this interview are of a global and national nature. The global aspects relate to the results of the UN conference in Kyoto in matters of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the national aspects relate to Germany's environmental and energy policy and the current situation in the context of global policy for greenhouse gas abatement. (orig./CB)

  20. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  1. The Kyoto protocol as a social dilemma, Different countries, dillemmas & solutions?

    OpenAIRE

    Blacquiere, Douwe

    2007-01-01

    The seriousness of the negative consequences of climate change depends on the number of countries that decide to ratify and implement the Kyoto protocol. The collective interest is best served by the scenario in which all countries decide to ratify. Howev

  2. Access to finance for community forest management under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Skutsch, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    A previous article in ETFRN News reviewed the potential for funding for forestry under international climate agreements, particularly under the Kyoto Protocol (Skutsch, 2000). Since then, further negotiations have taken place and this article aims at giving an overview of the current situation.

  3. Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol. Together on the road towards a better, controllable environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main questions to be answered in this report concern the control on the compliance of the most important obligations as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol. Also attention is paid to the monitoring and reporting requirements of so-called flexible mechanisms, in particular joint implementation. 29 refs

  4. Museum as an integrated imaging device: visualization of ancient Kyoto cityscape from folding screen artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Oyabu, Umi; Kojima, Michihiro

    2012-03-01

    Museums hold cultural resources such as artworks, historical artifacts, and folklore materials. The National Museum of Japanese History holds over 200,000 of the cultural resources. A role of museum is to exhibit the cultural resources, therefore a museum could be referred to as a visualization device for the information society. In this research, visualization of a history image from cultural resources with interactive user interface will be mentioned. The material focused on is the oldest extant version of a genre of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto in the four seasons, named Rekihaku's "Scenes In and Around Kyoto" designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Over 1,400 people and a lot of residences, temples, and houses are drawn, and those are also information resource telling us about city scenes and people's life in Kyoto at that time. Historical researches were done by using a high resolution digital image obtained by a large scaled scanner, and scanned images are used for computer programs to visualize a history image of ancient Kyoto. Combinations between real materials and information provided by using the computer programs are also described in this research.

  5. An assessment of the EU proposal for ceilings on the use of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism. Because each of the articles defining th

  6. Ihatud ja vihatud Kyoto kliimalepe jõustus viimaks / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Kaheksa aastat peale sõlmimist jõustus Kyoto protokoll ehk ülemaailmne kliimakokkulepe kasvuhoonegaaside õhkupaiskamise vähendamiseks. ÜRO peasekretäri Kofi Annani läkitusest, lepingu nõrkadest külgedest ning kliimalepingu täitmisest. Lisa: Võitlus kasvuhoonegaasidega

  7. Miks on täna jõustuv Kyoto protokoll oluline? / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    1997. aastal vastu võetud Kyoto protokollist, selle üle toimunud läbirääkimistest, leppe ratifitseerimisest riikides. USA vastuseisust leppele. Autori sõnul peaks selleks, et lepe tõesti mõjus oleks, selle eesmärke veelgi karmistama ning seda ka arenguriikidele laiendama. Diagramm: Kasvuhoonegaaside kogused

  8. Annual report of Radiation Laboratory Department of Nuclear Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the collection of the papers presented research activities of Radiation laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University during the 1992 academic/fiscal year (April, 1992 - March, 1993). The 48 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Annual report of Radiation Laboratory Department of Nuclear Engineering Kyoto University for fiscal 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the collection of the papers presented research activities of Radiation Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University during the 1993 academic/fiscal year (April, 1993 - March, 1994). The 47 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães C.M.; Pinge M.C.M.; Yamamura Y.; Mello L.E.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12), unrestrained rats wit...

  11. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwana Afroz; E. M. Tanvir; Nurul Karim; Md. Sabir Hossain; Nadia Alam; Siew Hua Gan; Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac ...

  12. The Kyoto Protocol Emissions Trading Mechanisms - A Model for financing future nuclear development in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of 2001 Romania ratified the Kyoto Protocol (Law 3/2001) thus becoming the first European country to do so. The mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are now opening new ways to sponsor the financing of nuclear projects. In May 2001 Societatea Nationala Nuclearoelectrica S.S. (SNN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and ANSALDO of Italy signed a contract to complete the second CANDU unit at Cernavoda thus giving a new momentum to the nuclear program in Romania. The Government of Romania has indicated its desire to proceed with the completion of the other units on the Cernavoda site and is open to explore every potential financing mechanism to make this a reality. Although the Kyoto Protocol was not ratified by those countries that have the greatest need to reduce emissions, a market for emissions trading has developed, Canada being one of the important players in this market. Since the emission reduction per dollar invested in the Romanian nuclear program would bring much more reduction than the marginal reduction per dollar invested in environmental protection programs in Canada, where the saturation effect is already taking place, we consider that the application of the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms represents a realistic source for a sustainable cooperation of the two countries. This trend is in line with the latest activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper analyzes the impact that the use of emissions credits would have on a typical financing scheme for a future CANDU project in Romania given the present situation and also proposes a model for the structure of the emissions trade that would generate a source of funding for the project. The conclusion is that there is real potential in using Kyoto Protocol mechanisms for financing nuclear development with benefits for both Romania and Canada. (authors)

  13. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

  14. Effects of silver nanoparticle on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes of heart tissue in male wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Noushin Naghsh; Amir Masoud Mashayekh; Samaneh Khodadadi

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: The silver nanoparticles are important in many applications of nanoparticles on human health . The toxicity of silver nanoparticles are not well documented yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes in heart tissue.   Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 adult male wistar rats of 220±20gr were divided in to five groups including control and four experimental groups. The la...

  15. Bali: an agreement in principle for post-Kyoto negotiations but no emissions reduction targets - Panorama 2008; Bali: un accord de principe pour des negociations post-Kyoto mais pas d'objectif de reduction - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Ten years have passed since December 1997, when the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed in Kyoto. It's been a decade of tough international negotiations, leading to the beginnings of an international CO{sub 2} emissions trading market, whose future past 2012 remains uncertain. The December negotiations in Bali may not have produced a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, but they did get all parties to the Convention to sign an agreement in principle to post- Kyoto negotiations.

  16. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN KEFIR BENING TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH PADA TIKUS WISTAR HIPERGLIKEMIA YANG DIINDUKSI STREPTOZOTOCIN (STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judiono Judiono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Hyperglycemia in diabetes caused by excessive free-radicals, which in turn increases reactive oxygen species, reduced immune function and antioxidant, the beta cell damage. Objective: To validate the effects of plain kefir probiotic on blood glucose level in streptozotocin (STZ induced hyperglycemia Wistar rats. Methods: The experiment using randomized pretest-posttest control group design was carried-out on 48 male hyperglycemia Wistar rats induced by 40 mg/kg body-weight of STZ. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: (1 negative control fed ad libitum standard diet, (2 positive control induced by STZ, (3 insulin treated 0.76 UI/200 g body weight, and (4 plain kefir 3.6 cc per day. Kefir is prepared by the use of pasteurized skim milk fermented by kefir commercial inoculums. Blood glucose was measured with Super Glucocard II meter (Arkray, Kyoto, Japan. Results Kefir supplementation 3.6 cc per day had significantly effect on blood glucose reduction after… days. Results showed that blood glucose levels before and after the treatment in each group as follows: in negative control group, before and after the treatment were 92.7 ± 6.6 mgdL and 89.4 ± 5.3 mgdL, respectively; in positive control group, before and after treatment were 263.9 ± 61.7 mgdL and 290.9 ± 99.8 mgdL; in insulin group, before and after the treatment were 286.9 ± 73.2 mgdL and 168.3 ± 53.3 mgdL; and in kefir group, before and after the treatment were 234.0 ± 61.1 mgdL and 147.8 ± 52.6 mgdL. Conclusion: Kefir supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in vivo. Isolation and identification of probiotic involved on biomolecular and to find out the role of specific probiotic originated from kefir in diabetes mellitus are very challenging to be implemented in clinical application. [Penel Gizi Makan 2009, 32(2: 129-136] Key words: probiotic, kefir, diabetes mellitus, hyperglicemia, streptozotocin

  17. Splenotoxic effect of radiographic developer effluent on Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwu, Anthony C.; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Obianuju N. Agba; Albert N. Eteudo; Livinus C. Anikeh; Stephen O. Maduka; Roy C. Uchefuna; Nancy N. Njoku-Oji; Onyeka C. Okonkwo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Histological changes associated with toxicity of radiographic developer effluents on spleen tissues have not been previously studied. The present study therefore aimed at demonstrating the histopathological changes in splenic tissues of Wistar rats following exposure to developer effluent. Methods: Eighteen young Wistar rats weighing 140-220g were used for the study. The animals were divided randomly into three groups of 6 rats each based on the dose of developer effluent admin...

  18. Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibiyeye Yetunde Rukayat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B. The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.

  19. Hematobiochemical changes of lead Poisoning and amelioration with Ocimum sanctum in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Y.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the hematobiochemical changes of chronic lead poisoning in adult male wistar albino rats for a period of twelve weeks. Adult 216 healthy rats were randomly divided into six groups viz. control (groupI, higher dose of lead acetate @60mgs/kg bwt (group II, Lower dose of lead acetate @ 30 mgs / kg bwt (group III, Higher dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group IV, lower dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group V, Ocimum control (group VI. All lead treated and ameliorated groups given Lead acetate/ lead + Ocimum orally for three days in a week for a period of twelve weeks. The mean PCV, Hb, values were reduced significantly (P<0.05 in lead treated rats as dose dependent manner. Where as significant improvement was noticed in Ocimum treated groups Increased TLC and PLC values as dose dependent manner. A significant reduction in PNC was noticed in ocimum treated groups. Significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total protein values, serum glucose and increased creatinine values were observed in lead treated groups as dose dependent . Increased protein & glucose and decreased creatinine values obtained in Ocimum treated groups. The alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in the present study indicates decreased lifespan & fragility of RBC and damage to liver, kidney and Pancreas in lead poisoned wistar albino rats. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 260-263

  20. Kyoto Protocol: Debate on environment and development in the discussions on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic behavior of the planet and its consequences has favored debates about the models of development of the countries responsible for the accelerated deterioration of the atmosphere and of the natural phenomena by these recurrent days. Nevertheless, countries as United States, after signing commitments as the Convention on Climatic Change, refuse to acquire the obligations of the Kyoto Protocol, from fear of undergoing deterioration in their economies. In this setting, where the nation responsible for the emission of approximately 36% of the turned out effect greenhouse gases result of the human action in the planet does not commit itself to adopt restrictive policies to make its models of production but friendly with the nature although these measures begin to be imposed to other nations as determining factors in the international commercial negotiations, seems to be that the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol for developing countries as Colombia is not absolutely beneficial

  1. Progress of Fulfillment of the Kyoto Objectives by the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Calanter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, which is seriously considered by the European Union. In this context, the objective of this paper is to analyze the extent to which the EU has fulfilled its obligations in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, and also to expose the obligations stipulated for the second period (2013-2020. The approach is to display in the first part of the work the fulfillment by the European Union of the Kyoto objectives, and in the second part, to analyze the successful implementation in the EU of the flexible mechanisms provided through the Protocol.

  2. Soil respiration and its role in Russia's terrestrial C flux balance for the Kyoto baseline year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbovoi, Vladimir

    2003-04-01

    This study introduces a transparent, operational model of estimating soil respiration (SR) to meet the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change within a framework of full carbon accounting (Nilsson et al, 2000). By applying this model, we are able to define SR for the Kyoto 1990 baseline year for Russia (3200 Tg C), and establish soil emission thresholds for any spatial units, e.g. vegetation zones and land-use patterns. This model is built upon a fundamental biogeochemical cycle and provides a scientific basis for carbon management. SR comprised about 74% of the photosynthetically assimilated carbon in 1990, with the remainder accounted for in several areas. The carbon flux balance is, therefore, found to be closed for Russia. Our findings suggest that incomplete accounting is the reason for missing carbon globally.

  3. Data base of reactor physics experimental results in Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities belong to the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, and are the versatile critical assembly constructed for experimentally studying reactor physics and reactor engineering. The facilities are those for common utilization by universities in whole Japan. During more than ten years since the initial criticality in 1974, various experiments on reactor physics and reactor engineering have been carried out using many experimental facilities such as two solidmoderated cores, a light water-moderated core and a neutron generator. The kinds of the experiment carried out were diverse, and to find out the required data from them is very troublesome, accordingly it has become necessary to make a data base which can be processed by a computer with the data accumulated during the past more than ten years. The outline of the data base, the data base CAEX using personal computers, the data base supported by a large computer and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions and the impact from Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, Nicole [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada [Jaume I Univ. (Spain). International Economics Institute

    2009-08-15

    In the last two decades increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis this relationship may be described by an inverted-U curve. However, recent evidence rejects the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions in a broad sense. In this paper we aim to investigate whether the EKC behavior for CO2 emissions could be proved on the behalf of institutional regulations. We analyze the driving factors of CO2 for developed and developing countries to test the theory of the EKC in the context of environmental regulations using a static and dynamic panel data model. We consider the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results from this study indicate that the Kyoto obligations have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions in developed and developing countries. (orig.)

  5. A Proposal for the Design of the Successor to the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2008-01-01

    The successor to the Kyoto Protocol should impose national ceilings on rich countries’ greenhouse gas emissions and promote voluntary abatement by developing countries. Our proposal gives signatories the option of exercising an escape clause that relaxes their requirement to abate. This feature helps to solve the participation and compliance problems that have weakened the Protocol. We support the use of carefully circumscribed trade restrictions in order to reduce the real or perceived pro...

  6. Incentives for international environmental co-operation : the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Eirik

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis I have taken a broad view on international environmental co-operation; What are the incentives, obstacles and ways to enhance participation and compliance with international environmental agreements. I have also looked at a more specific issue; The implementation of the “flexible mechanisms” of the Kyoto Protocol, and particularly joint implementation projects between an investor in a developed country and a host in an economy in transition or developing country.

  7. The Kyoto protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol as a treaty under international law is discussed by the author from the angle of a legal expert, addressing e.g. legal provisions or aspects relating to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the relevant legally binding commitments, mechanisms and instruments for performance of the treaty, reporting and other duties, consultative procedures, and sanctions in case of non-compliance as well as supporting measures for non-compliant parties. (orig./CB)

  8. The Kyoto Protocol: a cost-effective strategy for meeting environmental objective?: discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, ZhongXiang

    1999-01-01

    This is an invited discussion on the Manne and Richels’ paper “The Kyoto Protocol: A Cost-Effective Strategy for Meeting Environmental Objective”. It focuses on four issues or questions: distributional realities of the international climate change negotiations, correspondence between geopolitical regional aggregates in MERGE and Annex B countries, implications of the autonomous energy efficiency improvement rates assumed in MERGE on the income elasticity of energy consumption, and market powe...

  9. The Kyoto Protocol and the fossil fuel markets under different emission trading regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Mæstad, Ottar

    2000-01-01

    The consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for the fossil fuel markets depend on which policy instruments that are used in order to reach the emission targets. This paper uses a numerical model to assess the significance of international emission trading for the oil, coal and gas markets. Three different trading regimes are compared. Particular attention is devoted to the EU proposal about limits on acquisitions and transfers of emission permits. We find that the EU proposal will be non-binding f...

  10. CO2 Emissions from Central Canadian Agriculture: Meeting Kyoto Targets and Its Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Manaloor, Varghese

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture sectors dependence on fossil fuel use (both direct and indirect) has increased dramatically over the past decades. Productivity increases have been achieved using technological improvements which use considerable amounts of energy inputs. Concerns about global environmental quality resulted in several countries signing the Kyoto protocol, which came into effect internationally, on February 16, 2005. Canada has made a commitment to the international community to stabilize CO2 emiss...

  11. An assessment of the EU proposal for ceilings on the use of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, ZhongXiang

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism. Because each of the Articles defining the three flexibility mechanisms carries wording that the use of the mechanism must be supplemental to domestic actions, the supplementarity provisions have been the focus of the international climat...

  12. KYOTO: A Wiki for Establishing Semantic Interoperability for Knowledge Sharing Across Languages and Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Andrea; Ronzano, Francesco; Tesconi, Maurizio; Vossen, Piek; Agirre, Eneko; Bond, Francis; Bosma, Wauter; Herold, Axel; Hicks, Amanda; Hsieh, Shu-Kai; Isahara, Hitoshi; Huang, Chu-Ren; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Rigau, German; Segers, Roxane

    2010-01-01

    KYOTO is an Asian-European project developing a community platform for modeling knowledge and finding facts across languages and cultures. The platform operates as a Wiki system that multilingual and multi-cultural communities can use to agree on the meaning of terms in specific domains. The Wiki is fed with terms that are automatically extracted from documents in different languages. The users can modify these terms and relate them across languages. The system generates complex, language-neu...

  13. Vitiligo vulgaris and autoimmune diseases in Japan: A report from vitiligo clinic in Kyoto University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Tanioka, Miki; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Katoh, Mayumi; Takahashi, Kenzo; MIYACHI, YOSHIKI

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the causes of “loss of skin color” in 144 patients, who visited Vitiligo Clinic of Kyoto University Hospital between April 2005 and August 2008. The numbers of patients with generalized and segmental Vitiligo vulgaris were 98 (68.1%) and 26 (18.1%), respectively. Small numbers of the patients suffered from Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, piebaldism, congenital albinism, Hypomelanosis of Ito, post-inflammatory hypopigmentation, white leaf-shaped macules associated with tuberous scler...

  14. Methane emissions from cattle production – Issues in meeting the Kyoto targets.

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfe, John; Zeil, Veronika

    2001-01-01

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that is emitted mainly by livestock, and accounts for about 14% of national greenhouse gas emissions. If Australia is to meet the Kyoto targets, then greater attention is likely to be focused on ways that methane emissions can be reduced. The three main options to reduce methane emissions are to reduce livestock numbers (particularly in rangelands areas), reduce emissions per kilogram of beef produced (by improving feed efficiency and other factors), or to manipula...

  15. The colombian private sector and climate change: the road from kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its profound economic implications, the Kyoto Protocol merits careful study and active, continued participation on the part of the Colombian private sector. The article presents a brief summary of the main elements of the Protocol and its implications for Colombian business. For the business sector in Colombia, Joint implementation has been a key theme in motivating interest and participation on the issue of climate change. Now, after Kyoto, a new instrument has been created, the Clean Development Mechanism, which may permit international investment in forestry and energy projects that reduce greenhouse gas GHG- emissions. The Kyoto Protocol reduces the risk that Colombia need to assume new emissions reductions commitments, and in this new phase it is logical to focus on the opportunities created by the Protocol and the Framework Convention, especially the Clean Development Mechanism. Colombian business leaders should continue to participate actively in the international negotiations that will establish the rules of the game and in the development of private projects in industry, energy and forestry that capture

  16. Nuclear power for greenhouse gas mitigation under the Kyoto protocol: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 43rd regular session of the IAEA General Conference, Member States requested the IAEA to help countries in assessing nuclear power's role in light of global environmental challenges and energy needs. Such assistance should include support for implementing national case studies, and facilitating access to relevant information about nuclear power's role in achieving sustainable development in developing countries and in mitigating GHG emissions. The dissemination of information on CDM is of particular importance to developing countries, so as to enable Member States interested in the mechanism to take an active and informed role in the debate regarding the Kyoto Protocol and eligible CDM technologies. Therefore, the Secretariat organized a series of information seminars, workshops and training courses for Member States on the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and Emissions Trading with particular emphasis on the potential role of nuclear power for GHG mitigation. On request, the Secretariat also provided training and assistance to several Member States in the preparation of national case studies that explore the potential role of nuclear power as a CDM technology. These case studies will be presented by the respective national study teams during this side event at the 44th IAEA General Conference. Within the general criteria included in the Kyoto Protocol, the decision on which technologies are eligible for GHG mitigation under the flexibility mechanisms is a sovereign decision of each country

  17. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced

  18. Turkish support to Kyoto Protocol: A reality or just an illusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term increase in Earth's temperature is known as the global warming or the greenhouse effect. Taking into account the fact that the ice age only involved a global temperature variation of around 4 C, it is clear climate change is arguably one of the greatest environmental threats the world is facing today. The impacts of disruptive change leading to catastrophic events such as storms, droughts, sea level rise and floods are already being felt across the world. In this context, the signing of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 has been argued to be a historic step in reversing the inexorable increase in the emission of the greenhouse gases. The primary achievement of the Protocol has been so-called commitment of countries referred in the Annex I of the Protocol to reduce their emission of GHGs some 5% below their country specific 1990 level. On February 5, 2009, Turkish Parliament ratified an agreement to sign the Kyoto Protocol after intense pressure from both the European Union and international environmental organizations; however, so far it has not taken any step to bring about real reductions in emissions. In short, Turkey simply signed but ignored the Protocol. Present paper investigates Turkish position vis-a-vis Kyoto Protocol and critically questions Turkish policies in that area. (author)

  19. Is the Kyoto Protocol an adequate environmental agreement to resolve the climate change problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of understanding on how to handle the issue of global warming, which is embodied by the Kyoto Protocol, among the various nations of the world reached a point where environmental policy-makers saw a number of possible scenarios to global warming before the last meeting on Climate Change in July 2001 in Bonn: Amendments to the Kyoto Protocol, by changing the current targets and timetable into a long-term view of the global warming issue. The U.S. does not agree with the Kyoto Protocol Therefore, it will not do anything about it in terms of its ratification. A middle ground between the two previous options. The idea is the creation of a new mechanism where nations meet in international environmental for a voluntarily exchange of views with no legal commitments. In order to move forward, we should stop thinking of the global warming issue only in a cost-benefit analysis and instead take more into account public health and safety requirements. Since the U.S. and EU representatives may well find themselves deadlocked again when they meet at the end of October 2001 in Morocco for the next climate change convention, the author would like to make some recommendations at the end of this article. (author)

  20. Performance Test of gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) in Kyoto and ITB Jatinangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, E. J.; Fukuda, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Itakura, M.

    2016-08-01

    Gravity team of ITB, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University plan to carry out super hybrid measurement to monitor Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) injection in Gundih. During preparation stage and baseline survey before injection phase, gravity team analyze gPhone performance. Performance test of gPhone gravimeters in 2014 conducted in Kyoto and Jatinangor (three gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) placed in the same location). The tidal analysis program BAYTAP-G was used to decompose the gravity data into four components (tidal, trend, irregular, and response for auxiliary data). Response component in Kyoto relatively has lower frequency compare to Jatinangor, due to differences of the two measurement location. Response component from the longest time recording data (gPhone #123) give similiar pattern as gPhone #126, while gPhone #127 slightly different. Average standard deviation of the response component of three gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) respectively were 0.8, 1.0, and 1.9 μGal. Best drift achieved from this test show possibility to reach -4 to 5 pGal/day. Although gPhone #126 records different trend, but from tidal analysis comparison shows similiarity with gPhone #123.

  1. Proceedings of the Kyoto international symposium : the jubilee of the meson theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoto international symposium: The Jubilee of the Meson Theory was held at Kyoto International Conference Hall from August 15 to 17, 1985, under the auspices of the Research Institute for Fundamental Physics, the Faculty of Science and the College of Liberal Arts of Kyoto University, in cooperation with many organizations concerned. Meson theory was proposed by Hideki Yukawa in 1935, only a decade after the birth of quantum mechanics. At that time, much confusion prevailed about the applicability of quantum theory. Yukawa's meson theory indicated the right direction for developing particle physics, and established that quantum field theory is the correct theory even inside a nucleus. Thus it may be said that particle physics began with Yukawa's meson theory. The purpose of this symposium was to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Yukawa's meson theory, to review the development of particle physics during these 50 years and the application of meson physics to various fields, and to discuss current topics in particle physics in order to obtain some insight into its future progress in the fundamental theory of space-time and matter. 88 foreign physicists from 18 countries and 172 Japanese scientists participated, and 32 interesting talks were given. (Kako, I.)

  2. Consequences of ceilings on the use of Kyoto mechanisms. A tentative analysis of cost effects for EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To safeguard that domestic actions will be taken to meet commitments, the Kyoto Protocol suggests that domestic action should be the main means for reaching the reduction commitments. Imposing ceilings on the purchase of emission reductions is one of the ways to limit the net use of Kyoto mechanisms. Several kinds of ceilings have been suggested. This analysis gives some insight into the cost consequences for EU Member States that result from different types of ceilings for Kyoto mechanisms. The impacts of ceilings can be very large but the precise impact is difficult to estimate due to uncertainties about the price of emission reductions and the price elasticity of the supply of emission reduction. Consequently, decisions on ceilings on the use of Kyoto mechanisms need to be taken with great care. 7 refs

  3. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Rosenquist, A.; Milne, A. K.; Dobson, M. C.; Qi, J.

    2000-01-01

    An International workshop was held to address how remote sensing technology could be used to support the environmental monitoring requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. An overview of the issues addressed and the findings of the workshop are discussed.

  4. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  5. Reduced hippocampal GABAergic function in Wistar audiogenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Drumond

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance within the underlying neural network. This study evaluated inhibitory γ-amino-butyric acid (GABAergic modulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of male Wistar rats and Wistar audiogenic rats (aged 90 ± 3 days, a strain of inbred animals susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spike complexes in response to Schaffer collateral fiber stimulation were recorded in hippocampal slices before and during application of picrotoxin (50 µM, 60 min, a GABA A antagonist, and the size of the population spike was quantified by measuring its amplitude and slope. In control audiogenic-resistant Wistar rats (N = 9, picrotoxin significantly increased both the amplitude of the population spike by 51 ± 19% and its maximum slope by 73 ± 21%. In contrast, in slices from Wistar audiogenic rats (N = 6, picrotoxin caused no statistically significant change in population spike amplitude (33 ± 46% or slope (11 ± 29%. Data are reported as means ± SEM. This result indicates a functional reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal slices from Wistar audiogenic rats.

  6. Do use the climate policy mechanisms of the Kyoto protocol.. An interview with Hartmut Grass, Hamburg; Innovative Instrumente des Kyoto-Protokolls nutzen.. Interview mit Hartmut Grassl, Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-12-01

    The aspects discussed in this interview are of a global and national nature. The global aspects relate to the results of the UN conference in Kyoto in matters of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the national aspects relate to Germany's environmental and energy policy and the current situation in the context of global policy for greenhouse gas abatement. (orig./CB) [German] Nach der Anfang November in Bonn zu Ende gegangenen 5. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz zur Klimarahmenkonvention bleiben trotz Bewegung die grossen Fragen fuer die Folgekonferenz im naechsten Jahr in Den Haag vorbehalten. Fehlt der akute Zeitdruck, herrscht inzwischen Entlastung an der Klimafront? Welche Rolle spielen Boeden, Wasser und Waelder im Klimageschehen, welche die Methanemission? Und schliesslich: Wo steht Deutschland und welches Gewicht besitzen die flexiblen Instrumente in einer internationalen Klimapolitik? lauten die Themen des 'et'-Interviews mit Klimaforscher H. Grassl. (orig.)

  7. Neonatal proinflammatory challenge in male Wistar rats: Effects on behavior, synaptic plasticity, and adrenocortical stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkina, Anna; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Irina; Freiman, Sofia; Onufriev, Mikhail; Lazareva, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. In the elevated plus maze, no changes could be detected in adolescent rats, however, in the adults the number of entries into the open arms decreased suggesting increased anxiety after NPS. Signs of "behavioral despair" in the forced swim test, expressed in adolescent rats as a trend, became significant in the adults indicating depression-like behavior. In the majority of brain slices from PND 19-PND 33 rats subjected to NPS, deficit of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 field was detected, this deficit being associated with the impaired mechanisms of LTP induction. In the adult rats, NPS enhanced fear conditioning promoting improved formation of the novel context-foot shock association in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm without effect on cued fear conditioning. NPS significantly impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in an elevated corticosterone level maintained in the adolescents but not in the adults and in modified corticosterone response to behavioral sub-chronic stress in both adolescent and adult rats. Thus, NPS induces "perinatal malprogramming" resulting in development of depression-like behaviors, associated with abnormalities in functioning of the HPAA, impaired hippocampal neuroplasticity (LTP) and changes in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. PMID:26851557

  8. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm. PMID:26861177

  9. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  10. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A Komolafe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

  11. Kyoto Protocol implementation in Serbia as precognition of sustainable energetic and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives reasons for low energy efficiency typical of the Serbian economy, which is based on outdated and dirty technologies. The comparison of selected economic indicators and indicators of energy efficiency in both Serbia and the European Union points out the benefits of the Kyoto Protocol implementation due to the growth of competitiveness in the global market. Serbia has no obligation to reduce GHG emissions, the authors point to the proposals whose implementation along with the mechanisms of the Protocol can enable Serbia the access to markets that trade GHG emissions and the access to dedicated funds, self-financing or attracting foreign investments to raise energy efficiency, which will be accompanied by adequate economic benefits. A similar principle can be applied in all countries that are not obliged to reduce GHG emissions. The application of different mechanisms aiming to increase energy efficiency in Serbia, could contribute to the increase of GDP annual growth rate from 5% to 7%, which cannot be achieved by any other economic instrument. Energy efficiency, which is actually a question of competitiveness of each economy, can finance itself through the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol by selling excess emissions resulting from improved energy efficiency. - Research highlights: → Serbia is a country with the outdated technology and low energy efficiency values. → Sustainable economic and energetic growth can be stirred by inserting Kyoto Protocol. → By investing in modern technology Serbia could lessen emission into the atmosphere. → Cut of emission in the atmosphere could help reaching certain carbon credit values. → By selling the carbon credit Serbia could do economic growth of 5-7% on a year level.

  12. [Offsets under the Kyoto Protocol : a perspective on COP 4 negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievements of the Kyoto Protocol were highlighted. These achievements include recognition of the need for Annex 1 countries (developed countries) to define concrete emissions reduction targets to be accomplished by 2012; recognition of specific needs of developing countries; need for measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change; recognition of the need that climate change policies and measures be cost effective; taking into account that economic development is essential for adopting measures to address climate change; recognition of the principle that corporations should promote a supportive and open international economic system leading to sustainable growth; and recognition that measures taken to combat climate change should not lead to unjustifiable discrimination in international trade. If the targets set at Kyoto are achieved, there will be an effective reduction in greenhouse gases of 5.2 per cent in relation to 1990 levels. The meeting in Buenos Aires should focus on strengthening the guidelines for actions agreed upon in Kyoto. Other major issues on the Buenos Aires Conference of Parties (COP 4) agenda should be to discuss ways and means to helping developing countries to deal with climate change issues within their own territories, agreement about definitive status of the Global Environmental Fund, arriving at a more precise definition of the Clean Development Mechanism, and first and foremost the development of credible national systems (i.e. Annex 1 countries) for the estimation of anthropogenic emission sources and removal by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol on the Ozone Layer, and shaping an adequate non-compliance system

  13. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

  14. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

  15. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs. PMID:16539979

  16. Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol: a citizen's guide to the Canadian climate change policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is faced with the important decision of whether it should ratify the Kyoto Protocol. A reference for stakeholders and non-expert interested parties, this document is a guide into the Canadian Climate Change Policy Process. An understanding of climate science is required for climate policy, as is a knowledge of policy options available to overcome the challenges posed by climate change. The situation is further complicated by international and federal-provincial negotiations over the measures that should be implemented, if any. Climate policy affects all aspects of our lives, especially how we produce and use energy. An overview of climate science is provided in the first section, and the relationship between climate and rising temperatures due to greenhouse gas emissions is established. The sources of greenhouse gases in Canada are identified, with a closer look at the current trends. The Kyoto Protocol, if ratified, calls for Canada to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases to six per cent below 1990 levels. It is noted that to date, Canada's emissions have risen 19.7 per cent above 1990 levels. The process underlying the international negotiations associated with the Kyoto Protocol, and especially Canada's role in it, are discussed. Flexibility mechanisms are strongly supported by Canada, such as credits for sinks, international carbon trading and credits for Clean Energy Exports. By approving such measures, the integrity of the Protocol would be considerably weakened. The domestic policy-making environment is examined, presenting key federal, provincial business and environmental players. In addition, the policy process in Canada is described, as well as the decisions made up to September 2002. Bibliographic and contact information is added in the last section of the document. 89 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  17. An assessment of the economic and environmental implications for Canada of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Climate Change Process was launched in April 1998 to examine the feasibility and implications of Canada's commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. The Analysis Modelling Group (AMG) was designated to assess the economic and environmental consequences for Canada in achieving the target. This report summarizes the analytical approach, the assumptions, the results and the main findings of the AMG's efforts to analyse the macro-/micro-economic, social, health and environmental implications of the Kyoto Protocol. The role of the AMG was to provide policymakers with guidance on some issues such as the economic implications of different broad policy approaches, the potential costs of greater access to the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms, the sectoral and regional distributions of emissions reductions, and the degree to which Canada's competitive position could be affected by the achievement of the Protocol. The relative importance of greenhouse gas reduction was also discussed along with a review of actions that offer significant potential for emissions reductions. The AMG examined five policy packages or Paths which are differentiated by different degrees of reliance on specific measures and tradable permit systems and by the imposition of sectoral versus national targets. It was concluded that at the national level, attainment of the target results in sustained, long-term negative economic impacts. In the long run, the reduction in gross domestic product (GDP) relative to the business-as-usual case, ranges from 0 to 3 per cent depending on the path-scenario combination. It was emphasized that it is important to provide perspective on these estimates. 37 refs., 64 figs

  18. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-01-01

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public Hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a full-time pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use x10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis.

  19. The Kyoto Protocol: one more stage in the climate change negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article notices on the internal difficulties that will be generated around the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in developed countries as United States, Canada and Japan, given the position of industries like the vehicles and the energetic, that try to dilate the commitments assumed in December of 1997. It is emphasized in the North American case, taking into account their contribution in the global greenhouse gases emissions and the importance of their participation in an international agreement on the topic of the climate change, assuming a critical position about the Senate's decision of conditioning the agreement's ratification to the assumption of commitments of developing countries

  20. The market for tradable GHG permits under the Kyoto Protocol: a survey of model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gathers results from 25 models of the market for tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol. Due to diverging projections of emissions growth and different modeling approaches, the model results differ substantially. The average market volume is approximately 17 and 33 billion USD under global trading and Annex B trading, respectively. Including non-carbon GHG lowers compliance costs and permit prices. In the absence of the US, permit demand roughly equals 'hot air' from the former Soviet Union. These countries can increase their revenues from selling permits by restricting supply, which raises the permit price. (author)

  1. The market for tradable GHG permits under the Kyoto Protocol. A survey of model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gathers results from 25 models of the market for tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol. Due to diverging projections of emissions growth and different modeling approaches, the model results differ substantially. The average market volume is approximately 17 and 33 billion USD under global trading and Annex B trading, respectively. Including non-carbon GHG lowers compliance costs and permit prices. In the absence of the US, permit demand roughly equals 'hot air' from the former Soviet Union. These countries can increase their revenues from selling permits by restricting supply, which raises the permit price

  2. The obligations of the Kyoto Protocol for Italy and the impact on the national economic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unione Petrolifera shares the Kyoto Protocol that defines the objectives for the developed countries and represents a clear indication for the developing countries that in the near future will become the largest contributors of greenhouse gas emissions. But equally clearly must be stressed that the obligations negotiated by the Environment Ministry for Italy are very strong and not balanced at Community level. Therefore the oil industry asks for measures more balanced at Community level taking into account the results already reached by the Italian energy sector in terms of efficiency and specific CO2 emissions

  3. Improvement of low-temperature irradiation facility at Kyoto University Reactor (KUR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Kanazawa, S.; Nozaki, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Atobe, K.; Kuramoto, E.; Matsumura, K.; Sano, T.

    2001-05-01

    The low-temperature irradiation facility at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) has been upgraded. Cryogenic power has been increased from 37 W to about 58 W at 10 K, and irradiation temperature has been reduced from 20 to 12 K at 5 MW reactor operating power. The maximum fast-neutron flux after these improvements is about 4.77×10 11 n/n cm -2 s -1. Therefore, the maximum fluence of fast-neutrons at the KUR facility is about 1.3×10 17 n cm -2 for the maximum operating time of 77 h per week.

  4. The Global Trend of Energy Saving and Carbon Reducing in Post-Kyoto Protocol Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lun Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with increased focus on extreme global climates, the drastic population growth, and the exhaustion of resources, humanity has a greater need for and reliance on intelligent, technology-enhanced living, as well as more effective means of production. Being sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly is becoming more and more a global priority. Energy saving and carbon reduction are the keys to achieving intelligent living, clean production, and environmental responsibility. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. One hundred and fifty five countries jointly signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC. This treaty and the Conference of the Parties are the origins of the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol became effective in February, 2005, and required 38 industrially developed countries in the European Union and the United States to reduce emissions of six kinds of greenhouse gases, including CO2, from their 1990 levels by a further 5.2%, which equates to about 12.86 billion tons between 2008 and 2012. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC stated in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 [1], issued in 2007, that global warming resulted from anthropogenic global warming (AGW. In addition, AGW further caused extreme climates, melting icecaps, and rising sea levels. Although the causes and effects have been debated among nations, it is undeniable that global warming resulted in the wheat-producing areas of the world moving north, as well as the clear opening of the Northwest Passage, which has facilitated the exploitation of the resources in the polar region. Russia, the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Norway have all longed to benefit from the resources in the polar region. Sustainability and development are now not only environmental issues, but also political and economic battlefields for nations.In 2012, with

  5. Present status of PACS at Kyoto University Hospital: image workstation for clinical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Okajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Ishu; Takahashi, Takashi; Konishi, Junji; Abe, Mituyuki; Gotoh, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiro

    1990-08-01

    The PAC system: KIDS (Kyoto University Hospital Image Database and Communication System) has been expanded to include several major digital imaging modalities such as X-ray CT, MRI, DSA and CR. The fiber optic high-speed local area network and the workstation with quick image handling are newly designed. The system (new KIDS) is intended to achieve a film-less environment in the department of radiology and to evaluate the feasibility of a hospital-wide PAC system. The present status of the system at the end of 1989 including a image workstation installed in a lecture hall for clinical education is described.

  6. The application of Kyoto Protocol in Italy: role and required synergies between central and regional administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, Parties included in Annex I shall report the net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities. To assess these activities, Italy has to define methods to estimate land use change occurring after 31 December 1989. On the other hand, Italy elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goals of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper considers the key-role that central and regional Administrations may have in order to solve some specific problems regarding data collection and management issues.

  7. Hot Air Trading under the Kyoto Protocol: An Environmental Problem or Not?

    OpenAIRE

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The EU is expected to be one of the buyers of emission rights on the international carbon market. However, various policymakers, also in the EU, fear that ‘hot air’ will be sold under the Kyoto Protocol, for instance by the Russian Federation. Based on an institutional law and economics framework, we have tried to find out whether hot air trading should be seen as an environmental problem or not. Two distinctions are crucial: one between a formal and informal interpretation of environmental e...

  8. Development of Wistar rat model of insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ai; Ning Wang; Mei Yang; Zhi-Min Du; Yong-Chun Zhang; Bao-Feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simplified and reliable animal model of insulin resistance with low cost in Wistar rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were treated with a high fat emulsion by ig for 10 d. Changes of the diets, drinking and body weight were monitored every day and insulin resistance was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemicclamp techniques and short insulin tolerance test using capillary blood glucose. Morphologic changes of liver, fat, skeletal muscles, and pancreatic islets were assessed under light microscope. mRNA expressions of GLUT2 and α-glucosidase in small intestine epithelium, GLUT4 in skeletal muscles and Kir6.2 in beta cell of islets were determined by in situ hybridization.RESULTS: KITT was smaller in treated animals (4.5±0.9)than in untreated control Wistar rats (6.8±1.5), and so was glucose injection rate. Both adipocyte hypertrophy and large pancreatic islets were seen in high fat fed rats,but no changes of skeletal muscles and livers wereobserved. mRNA levels of GLUT2, α-glucosidase in small intestinal epithelium and Kir6.2 mRNA in beta cells of islets increased, whereas that of GLUT4 in skeletal muscles decreased in high fat fed group compared with normal control group.CONCLUSION: An insulin resistance animal model in Wistar rats is established by ig special fat emulsion.

  9. Adaptive Optics at Optical Wavelengths: Test Observations of Kyoto 3DII Connected to Subaru Telescope AO188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, K.; Sugai, H.; Shimono, A.; Akita, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) enables us to observe objects with high spatial resolution, which is important in most astrophysical observations. Most AO systems are operational at near-infrared wavelengths but not in the optical range, because optical observations require a much higher performance to obtain the same Strehl ratio as near-infrared observations. Therefore, to enable AO-assisted observations at optical wavelengths, we connected the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII), which can perform integral field spectroscopy, to the second generation AO system of the Subaru Telescope (AO188). We developed a new beam-splitter that reflects light below 594 nm for the wavefront sensors of AO188 and transmits above 644 nm for Kyoto 3DII. We also developed a Kyoto 3DII mount at the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru Telescope. In test observations, the spatial resolution of the combined AO188–Kyoto 3DII was higher than that in natural seeing conditions, even at 6500 Å. The full width at half maximum of an undersampled (1.5 spaxels) bright guide star (7.0 mag in the V-band) was 0.″12.

  10. Adaptive Optics at Optical Wavelengths: Test Observations of Kyoto 3DII Connected to Subaru Telescope AO188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, K.; Sugai, H.; Shimono, A.; Akita, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) enables us to observe objects with high spatial resolution, which is important in most astrophysical observations. Most AO systems are operational at near-infrared wavelengths but not in the optical range, because optical observations require a much higher performance to obtain the same Strehl ratio as near-infrared observations. Therefore, to enable AO-assisted observations at optical wavelengths, we connected the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII), which can perform integral field spectroscopy, to the second generation AO system of the Subaru Telescope (AO188). We developed a new beam-splitter that reflects light below 594 nm for the wavefront sensors of AO188 and transmits above 644 nm for Kyoto 3DII. We also developed a Kyoto 3DII mount at the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru Telescope. In test observations, the spatial resolution of the combined AO188-Kyoto 3DII was higher than that in natural seeing conditions, even at 6500 Å. The full width at half maximum of an undersampled (1.5 spaxels) bright guide star (7.0 mag in the V-band) was 0.″12.

  11. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Barbalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications.

  12. PROTOCOLO DE KYOTO: DEBATE SOBRE AMBIENTE Y DESARROLLO EN LAS DISCUSIONES SOBRE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez S. Liliana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento climático del planeta y sus consecuencias han propiciado debates sobre los modelos de desarrollo de los países responsables del deterioro acelerado del ambiente y de los fenómenos naturales por estos días recurrentes. Sin embargo, países como Estados Unidos, luego de firmar compromisos como la Convención sobre Cambio Climático, rehúsan adquirir las obligaciones del Protocolo de Kyoto, por temor a sufrir deterioro en sus economías. En este escenario, donde la nación responsable de la emisión de aproximadamente 36% de los gases efecto invernadero resultado de la acción humana en el planeta no se compromete a adoptar políticas restrictivas tendientes a hacer sus modelos de producción más amigables con la naturaleza a pesar de que dichas medidas empiezan a ser impuestas a otras naciones como condicionantes en las negociaciones comerciales internacionales, parece ser que la adopción del Protocolo de Kyoto para países en desarrollo como Colombia no es del todo benéfica.

  13. Thirty years of derivation of geomagnetic indices at the WDC for geomagnetism, Kyoto and lessons learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The derivation of AE, Dst and ASY/SYM indices started at the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, in 1978, 1985 and 1990, respectively. Before we started derivation of the AE indices, they were derived at the University of Alaska and then at NOAA. On the Dst index, it was derived and distributed by Prof. Masahisa Sugiura for long time at NASA/GSFC and when he moved to Kyoto University, we succeeded the service. The method of derivation of the AE and the Dst indices had been established when we succeeded derivation and they were rather simple. Most of the problems we had so far relate to obtaining the data used for the derivation. It is essential to get continuous data with high quality, however, it is not so easy for each observatory to keep the quality high under severe conditions in economic, political or technical aspects. International supports such as IAGA resolutions helped very much to improve the situation and continue derivation. Another problem we experienced was the change (or variety) of needs. Progress in space weather research or many new satellite programs requested more quick (or real-time) derivation of the indices, and our efforts were devoted to near real-time data transfer and derivation since middle of 1990's. The efforts still continue under the collaboration with various groups, institutions and observatories. In this talk, we report our current status.

  14. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ''Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs

  15. The Role of Nuclear Energy in Meeting the Kyoto Protocol Commitments of the Croatian Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is analysed here how the Croatian power system can meet its CO2 emission reduction commitments, in case the Kyoto Protocol is ratified. Several scenarios of medium-term power system development are designed, based on the forecasted electricity demand growth and the retirement schedule of the existing power plants. Scenarios differ in natural gas constraints and the treatment of nuclear power (whether nuclear is allowed among expansion options or not). An optimal power system expansion plan for each scenario is found, together with the electricity generation mix and the corresponding SO2, NOx, particulates and CO2 emissions. If the calculated CO2 emissions do not comply with the anticipated Kyoto quota, various measures are simulated (such as early retirement of the high carbon-emitting power plants, or introducing more nuclear power), in order to achieve compliance. Furthermore, the existence of a CO2 cap-and-trade system is assumed, where each ton of CO2 above the allocated quota is charged with a penalty in the range of 5-30 US$. The latter is the expected price range for CO2 emission allowances on the soon-to-be-launched European Union emissions market. The expected yearly costs i.e. revenues associated with the assumed cap-and-trade system are calculated for the period 2008-2012, for the analysed power system development scenarios. (author)

  16. Doing their bit : ensuring large industrial emitters contribute adequately to Canada's implementation of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent educational campaign by the Canadian government made use of the slogan: Climate change. Are you doing your bit? It was meant to encourage every segment of society to accept its air share of responsibility in the fight to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are a major culprit in causing climate change. In December 2002, Canada ratified the Kyoto Protocol, with a commitment to reduce GHGs emissions by 6 per cent below the 1990 level during the period 2008-2012. In 2001, industrial facilities, including electricity generation, were responsible for 53 per cent of GHG emissions in Canada. Between 1990 and 2001, GHG emissions in Canada increased by an average of 18.4 per cent, but emissions from industry increased by 23.3 per cent during that same time period. In November 2002 the Canadian government published a document entitled Climate Change Plan for Canada, which included a blueprint for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Canada. This present document provides an assessment of the scenario developed for reducing GHG emissions by industry, and questions if industry is being asked to do enough. The following are some of the many issues addressed in this document: the use of emissions intensity targets; offset credits for reductions in emissions not covered by covenants; other measures to reduce emissions from large industry; the special case of electricity generation; allocating emission reductions among sectors and companies; use of international emissions trading mechanisms; and, timing issues. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Analyzing the Kyoto Protocol under the Marrakesh Accords. Economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article evaluates the environmental effectiveness and economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol (KP) after the Bonn agreement and the Marrakesh Accords. We will break it down into several components that correspond with major steps in the international process: pre-COP 6 version of the KP, with unrestricted international emissions trading but without sinks; withdrawal of the USA; and decisions on sinks in Bonn and Marrakesh. The Marrakesh Accords bring Annex-I emissions in 2010 without the USA at 0.5% under base-year levels; this corresponds to nearly 2% above the 1990-levels. The US withdrawal has by far the greatest impact in reducing the environmental effectiveness of the KP, whereas the impact of the decision on sinks is comparatively small. The US withdrawal also substantially reduces the permit demand and permit prices will drop dramatically. Hot air becomes increasingly dominant and may threaten the viability of the Kyoto Mechanisms (KM), especially in lower baseline (business-as-usual (BaU)) scenarios. Therefore, banking of hot air is of absolute importance to improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol at moderately higher costs, while enhancing the development of a viable emission trading market. A strategy of curtailing and banking permit supply is also in the interest of the dominant seller, Russia

  18. Increased Energy Efficiency in Slovenian Industry - A Contribution to the Kyoto Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Slovenia the actual fast growth of greenhouse emissions will require substantial efforts to fulfil the target set in Kyoto. The end-use emissions in the in the industrial sectors represented one third of the total CO2 emissions in the country in 1996. The cost-effective potential in the sector for CO2 emission reduction is significant. In the paper, the most important ongoing energy efficiency activities in the industrial sector are presented: information and awareness building, energy advising to larger industrial consumers, energy audition programme, demonstration programme of energy efficiency technologies, financial incentives for energy efficiency investment and the energy efficiency investment fund. A CO2 tax has been in force since 1997. The results of an evaluation of energy efficiency strategies in industry in the frame of the project 'Integrated resource planning for the energy efficiency in Slovenia' are discussed from the viewpoint of greenhouse gases reduction targets set by Slovenia, and a brief information on the ongoing and expected post Kyoto activities and studies is given. The most important points of the future GHG reduction strategy related to industrial sector in Slovenia will be focused on intensified energy efficiency programme, increased combined heat and power production (CHP), and the effects of incentives through the CO2 tax. (author)

  19. INTERNATIONAL POLICY LAW STUDIES OF KYOTO PROTOCOL 1997 ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Indriati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming or Global Warming that occurs is not currently an issue which can be resolved quickly. Need awareness together to solve this problem, because the impact is felt all over the world. Developed countries must be responsible in emission reduction as a form of spirit of shared responsibility and vary, although developing countries will also do the same. This research used the juridical normative approach, with secondary data composed of materials of primary legal materials either law, secondary law materials and materials law tertier as a source of law. Legal political activity is to specify an option regarding objectives and how to be used to achieve the objectives of the law in the community. With regard to the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, the ways of achievement of that goal was left to each country, so that it can be set up in accordance with the conditions of the country concerned. The States parties have not yet fully accept the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 so that the target of emission decline/QELROs listed in article 3 has not been fully achieved.

  20. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. Emission trading and Kyoto's protocol: discussions concerning rules and international coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol of the Climate Convention introduced the possibility to trade greenhouse gas emission reductions among industrialized countries, as a means to reduce the total cost of achieving the agreed emission goals. The rules for this international co-ordination regime are still debated, even if its principle is generally agreed. This article, written before the negotiation in the Hague, summarizes how the notion of emission trading made its way in the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The authors show what economic gains could realistically be expected from emission trading, based on macro-economic modelling results and a simulation of trading in the conditions of the Kyoto Protocol. They stress the critical contribution that emission trading could make, provided that the Protocol's environmental basis is not undermined. In the end, the negotiation collapsed over this issue. Beyond this near-term obstacle, the international emission trading system represents a significant progress towards an efficient resolution of man-made global climate change. (author)

  2. Is the nuclear phaseout compatible with the respect of the Kyoto protocol? The example of Belgium; La sortie du nucleaire est-elle compatible avec le respect du protocole de Kyoto? l'exemple de la Belgique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, A

    2008-12-15

    This document provides data and operations needed to evaluate the impacts of the nuclear phaseout on the respect of the Kyoto protocol. The data are based on the belgium electricity production. The author concludes that the nuclear power plants shutdown will lead to a non respect of the kyoto protocol in unacceptable limits. To respect the protocol, he presents two possibilities: the today nuclear park and the use of 1600 wind turbines of 2 MW, or the improvement of the energy efficiency of the thermal power plants. (A.L.B.)

  3. Kyoto protocol and cogeneration in rural areas: institutional and organizational configuration and perspectives; Protocolo de Kyoto e co-geracao no meio rural: configuracao institucional e organizacional e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Zilmar Jose de; Azevedo, Paulo Furquim de [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (EESP/FGV), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Economia de Sao Paulo], e-mails: zilmar.souza@energiasdobrasil.com.br, pfa@fgvsp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a brief historical record concerning the Brazilian institutional arrangement given to the Kyoto Protocol and, based on the Brazilian emissions profile, discusses general perspectives to the use of the CDM, mainly in projects involving co-generation in the agricultural sector. It is observed high uncertainty about the liquidity and development of the carbon credit market, above all, with reference to the definition of the second period of the Kyoto Protocol commitments. Even so, with the consolidation of the institutional environment, the carbon credit market must become favorable to the projects of co-generation in agricultural sector, especially in countries as Brazil. (author)

  4. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Shagufta Mufti; Jaudah Al-Maghrabi; Essam Abdel Sattar; Ghareib, Salah A; Mosli, Hisham A.; Salah A. Gabr

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every...

  6. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL ( OLEA EUROPEA L.) AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RAT ALBINOS WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Necib, Youcef; Bahi, Ahlem; Zerizer, Sakina; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  7. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L.) Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  8. Policy actions on post-Kyoto protocol framework. Nuclear power generation still doesn't match CDM?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five authors described their views titled as 'Present status of post-Kyoto protocol framework settlement', 'State of nuclear energy in Kyoto-protocol', 'To include nuclear energy into Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)-based on Marrakesh accords', 'Asian development and trend of nuclear power introduction - significance of joint communique of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) ministerial level meeting' and 'Process and issues of establishment of CDM project of nuclear power - assumed case of China of rapid increase of energy demand'. Informal discussion titled 'What needs to include nuclear power generation into CDM?' was recorded. Nuclear power's eligibility requirements for CDM were argued. (T. Tanaka)

  9. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20)g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 r...

  10. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Santhosh Kumar; N. B. Shridhar; J. S. Sanganal; Ambika Das

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organi...

  11. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats

  12. The Kyoto protocol: assessment and perspectives. Towards a new regime up to the climate stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes an analysis within the context of transition of the climate regime from the 'before-2012' regime to the 'post-2020' regime. It first gives an overview of international stakes and context (lack of ambition for climate policy, perspective of an international agreement from 2020). Then, the authors recall the history and achievements of the Kyoto protocol which is the basis of the present climate policy regime. They propose an assessment of actions performed by countries during the first period of the protocol, and focus on the present climate regime elements which are to be safeguarded. They analyse the weaknesses of the present regime, and propose possible improvements for the future post-2020 climate regime

  13. Is it possible to recognize the nuclear energy to realize the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide debate on sustainable development is still going strong and will result in important decisions that will affect the future of nuclear power. It is not easy for the world's nations to agree on adopting a common action plan, especially when they must, approach an issue with consequences that will affect the generations to come. The Kyoto Protocol addresses the promise of reducing greenhouse gases in the developed countries. nuclear power plants supply 16% of the world's electricity, and 83% of the world's nuclear production is concentrated in the industrialized countries. Nuclear power is part of the solution of ensuring sustainable development without increasing contaminating emissions, both for the industrialized countries that are benefiting from its use and for the developing countries that need and seek access to nuclear technology. (Author)

  14. Implementing the Kyoto protocol in Europe: Interactions between international and Community controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographical note presents a book which discusses the coexistence of the Kyoto protocol and of a regional regime within the European Union for the actual application of rules requiring mechanisms of control. The international regime implements a continuous monitoring which combines conventional techniques and more intrusive procedures. The European Community introduced a non-contentious mechanism with a large and strong law basis and sanction ability. The author assesses the ability of the monitoring system as a whole to ensure the very credibility of the Protocol. She also assesses the reliability of international and community economic tools which aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions at a minimum cost. She also discusses the desirable evolutions of the regime of struggle against climate changes

  15. The Kyoto Protocol and the fossil fuel markets under different emission trading regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for the fossil fuel markets depend on which policy instruments that are used in order to reach the emission targets. This paper uses a numerical model to assess the significance of international emission trading for the oil, coal and gas markets. Three different trading regimes are compared. Particular attention is devoted to the EU proposal about limits on acquisitions and transfers of emission permits. We find that the EU proposal will be non-binding for buyers of emission permits but will significantly constrain the sale of emission permits from Eastern Europe. The EU proposal will increase the level of abatement in Annex B countries and will cause a sharp increase in the price of permits compared to the free trade equilibrium. (author)

  16. Approaching the Kyoto targets: a case study for Basilicata region (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Pietrapertosa, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Cosmi, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Fisiche

    2004-02-01

    Approaching the national Kyoto Protocol (KP) targets involves a re-definition of the actual configuration of local energy systems. This study deals with a local scale application of the IEA-MARKAL models generator, in which the anthropogenic system of Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) is investigated to support the definition of coherent long- term strategies and sound climate protection policies. A scenario by scenario analysis points out the behaviour of the optimal mix of fuels and technologies in the presence of carbon dioxide emissions constraints. Trade off curves and reduced costs analyses outline the most effective actions for contributing to the national KP targets, with particular emphasis on the interventions in Civil (Residential, Commercial and Services) and waste management sectors. (author)

  17. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively. PMID:27423022

  18. Europe facing climate change - a border adjustment measure to prepare the after-Kyoto?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the different relationships between the trade framework and that of the struggle against climate change, the authors address the European Union (EU) environmental strategy within the perspective of a multilateral governance of climate changes for the after-Kyoto period. After having recalled what is at stake in a border adjustment measure and outlined the difficulties of implementation of a tax-based solution at a multilateral level, the authors present the available strategies for the EU. Then, they address the strategy based on trade liberalization as incentive to the struggle against climate changes. They discuss the derogation to standard rules and finally propose a governance system between the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) and the WTO

  19. Current Activities of Neutron Imaging Facilities in KUR (Kyoto University Research Reactor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuji; Saito, Yasushi

    Kyoto University research Reactor (KUR) restarted in Spring 2010 with low enriched fuel (20%) after 4 years tentative interruption for fuel conversion. There are two facilities for neutron imaging: 1) B4 port at supermirror neutron guide tube (5x107 n/cm2/s at 5 MW, 1 cmx7.5 cm), 2) E2 port (3x105 n/cm2/s at 5 MW, 15 cm dia.). As we have large experimental space at the end of the guide tube and need small shielding because the neutron flux of KUR is not high, we have very large flexibility in the experimental set up. Thus, experiments in B4 should be specialized in the measurements which require large and/or unconventional equipments to accommodate special sample conditions. The E2 port with the low neutron flux is used for experiments which need very long or frequent machine times.

  20. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Xu, Q., E-mail: xu@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T. [The Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Shirai, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 10{sup 6}/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  1. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 106/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  2. The Kyoto protocol - a victim of supply security? or: if Maslow were in energy politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Christoph W. E-mail: christoph.frei@weforum.org

    2004-07-01

    History suggests that energy policy priorities can be stratified, similar to the way Maslow structured his famous pyramid of human needs. The essay below claims that access to energy, supply security, energy costs, environmental issues and social acceptance are not subject to trade-off, but to a hierarchy that underlies the importance of satisfying lower-order needs before addressing the higher-order needs. The essay demonstrates the hierarchy with an 'energy policy needs pyramid' based on historical evidence. The pyramid is used to analyze the viability of current items of the energy policy agenda. Conclusions indicate that the Kyoto protocol might be a victim of supply insecurity, that OPEC is good for the environment and that environmentalists should make the fight against energy poverty their first priority in order to achieve their overall goals.

  3. The Kyoto protocol - a victim of supply security? or: if Maslow were in energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History suggests that energy policy priorities can be stratified, similar to the way Maslow structured his famous pyramid of human needs. The essay below claims that access to energy, supply security, energy costs, environmental issues and social acceptance are not subject to trade-off, but to a hierarchy that underlies the importance of satisfying lower-order needs before addressing the higher-order needs. The essay demonstrates the hierarchy with an 'energy policy needs pyramid' based on historical evidence. The pyramid is used to analyze the viability of current items of the energy policy agenda. Conclusions indicate that the Kyoto protocol might be a victim of supply insecurity, that OPEC is good for the environment and that environmentalists should make the fight against energy poverty their first priority in order to achieve their overall goals

  4. Fulfilling the Kyoto protocol in Spain: A matter of economic crisis or environmental policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, Spain exceeded by 20.9% the CO2 emissions allowed by the Kyoto Protocol for 2012. The financial and economic crisis has transformed these figures: as production fell so did energy demand and with it CO2 emissions. Will the Spanish economic crisis allow Spain to fulfill its commitments? With this in mind, we have developed an extended input–output model able to forecast energy demand and compute CO2 emissions linked to the consumption of energy goods: petroleum products, gas and coal. The results show that the crisis, and in particularly, the stagnation of the construction industry, is only one of the pillars which help to contain these emissions at −6.81%. The possibility of incorporating environmental policies, new technologies and increases in the price of crude oil in these simulations, means an even greater reduction of emissions than the impact of the crisis (−9.76%). The final result of our most pessimistic/realistic scenario is that, in 2012, Spain will exceed its CO2 emissions, linked to the combustion of energy goods, by only 0.9%. - Highlights: ► We use an extended input–output model to forecast the evolution of CO2 emissions. We evaluate the economic crisis impact on emissions figures (2008–2012). ► The environmental policies are introduced by considering structural trends. ► In our reference scenario, Spain exceeds Kyoto commitments only by 0.9% in 2012. ► The 16.6% emissions reduction is explained by trends (−9.8%) and crisis (−6,8%).

  5. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the Montreal Protocol as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kanter, D.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Grabiel, P.; Moomaw, W.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    While nitrous oxide (N2O) was recently identified as the largest remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer, it is currently regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol due to its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the 1987 Montreal Protocol if they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues for the Montreal Protocol and its parent treaty, the 1985 Vienna Convention, to regulate N2O, as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address its most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to mitigation efforts. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built upon by the Montreal Protocol's existing bodies to implement N2O controls. Given the tight coupling of the nitrogen cycle, such controls would likely simultaneously reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen and hence have co-benefits for ecosystems and public health. Nevertheless, there are at least three major regulatory challenges that are unique and central to N2O control: food security, equity, and the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the Montreal Protocol need not be viewed as a sign of the Kyoto Protocol's failure to adequately deal with climate change, given the complexity of the issue. Rather, it could represent an additional tool in the field of sustainable development diplomacy.lt;img border=0 src="images/B43K-06_B.jpg">

  6. Sustainable development and Kyoto implementation in Canada : the road not taken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Environmental Studies; VanNijnatten, D. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Political Science

    2005-08-01

    All levels of government in Canada have been developing and implementing policy intended to meet their international commitments to sustainable development, to increase the economic and social well-being of the current generation without imposing environmental costs on future generations, particularly in terms of pollution and depletion of nonrenewable resources. The authors discuss why Canada has been unable to meet the challenges of sustainable development and climate change. In particular, they present the obstacles facing the current government's climate change plan. Canada has been a leader in stabilizing global greenhouse gas emissions by hosting the first international conference on the issue. Canada has also been a supporter of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and as a signatory member of the Kyoto Protocol, has committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012. The authors state that Canada's decarbonization efforts will require horizontal integration and synchronization across various policy fields and also innovation in terms of policy instruments. They claim that one of the problems is that governments continue to address environmental, economic and social issues through separate departments, with only limited inter-departmental coordination. Another problem lies in the fact that greenhouse gas emissions and revenues from fossil-fuel extraction are regionally concentrated and the cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol commitment is also unevenly distributed. The authors suggest that the federal government must do 3 things for an effective climate policy: restart the federal-provincial policy process; change its approach to industry through regulation; and, reduce consumption of fossil-fuels by implementing a comprehensive set of economic instruments and incentives. 1 fig.

  7. Kyoto and beyond : the low emission path to innovation and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a scenario in which greenhouse gas emissions in Canada are brought down to half the current levels over the next 28 years, surpassing the Kyoto target and putting Canada on a course for even greater emission reductions in the long term. The rationale for this action is based on information which states that concentration of greenhouses gases in the upper atmosphere will continue to increase until emissions are brought down to about half their current levels on a global basis. Just to stop emissions from growing on a global level would require a reduction of about 50 per cent in Canada. It is noted that achieving the Kyoto targets would not stop atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases from continuing to rise unless they are implemented with a plan to reduce emissions even further for the long term. The design principles that were followed in coming up with a plan to achieve 50 per cent emission reductions include: an energy demand focus; efficiency; renewable energy sources; energy services that are provided by technologies that are environmentally benign; energy services provided at least cost; and diversity of energy sources. It was concluded that the key to achieving sustainable reductions in greenhouse gas emissions is on the demand side of the energy economy, suggesting there is a need for basic changes in the climate policy debate in Canada. Studies have confirmed that technological innovation and energy saving measures can meet environmental objectives while creating economic growth and employment opportunities. It was suggested that these measures could provide economic renewal in regions that are in decline. They will also reduce air pollution which is becoming a major economic and public health issue in several Canadian communities. refs., tabs., figs

  8. International emissions trading: a win/win solution for the challenge of Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, W. [TransAlta Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-04-01

    The contention of this author is that the technology change and capital stock renewal required to meet the Kyoto targets will, in effect, take much longer than the current Kyoto timeframe (2008-2012) would allow. This being the case, plus the fact that a tonne of carbon dioxide is a tonne of carbon dioxide anywhere on the globe, emission offset by cutting emissions elsewhere, or sequestering carbon is the most sensible short-to-medium term solution. With this argument as the base, the paper discusses the economic rationale for international emissions trading (IET), enumerates the experience with emissions trading to date in the United States, the pilot schemes such as GERT, PERT and KEFFI in Canada, and internal trades between subsidiaries. It also describes the role of the U.S. Emissions Marketing Association and the International Emissions Trading Association, reviews existing problems such as the formulation of international rules (at COP 6 in the Hague in November 2000), the level of transaction costs, host countries demand for a percentage of the credits, recipient country rules, types of credits, the potential for trade disputes, enforcement/compliance regimes, banking and credit for early action, buyer vs. seller liability, equity issues, and a host of other as yet unforeseen situations. The paper also examines the workplan of the International Emissions Trading Association and supports its efforts to urge private sector input into international negotiations, promote knowledge and support for emissions trading, build public credibility for the concept, bring together potential buyers and sellers, and build partnerships between developed and developing nations. The paper predicts that following the IETA workplan, international emissions trading could become a multi-billion dollar business by 2010; deliver real and verifiable emission cuts and sequestration; offer industry the least cost option; add to the national credits inventory for Canada and other credit

  9. A project for increasing the rate of participation in mammographic breast cancer screening in Kyoto prefecture to 50%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of participation in breast cancer screening carried out by inspection and palpation associated with mammography in Kyoto Prefecture has been still low. In order to decrease the rate of breast cancer death, a high rate of screening participation must be achieved. We have organized the Kyoto Executive Committee of Pink Ribbon Activity aiming at the goal of achieving a 50% rate of participation in mammography screening by the end of 2010, and undertaken the following campaign activities: performing free screening, distribution and display of posters and leaflets about breast cancer screening, cooperation with various media to spread educational and informative messages, cooperation with a commercial institute in Kyoto City to distribute useful information, performing free breast cancer screening, and holding public lecture meetings, distribution of leaflets at student festivals at universities and colleges in Kyoto, and holding a ''Pink Ribbon symposium'' in a cosponsored company. All the above projects were performed successfully and many participants attended. We will continue these activities until the 50% participation rate is achieved. (author)

  10. A comparative study on the energy policies in Japan and Malaysia in fulfilling their nations' obligations towards the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming and the associated changes in the world climate pattern have been accepted world wide as the gravest threat to humanity in the 20th century. To mitigate the impacts of global warming, the Kyoto Protocol was established in 1997 with the objective of reducing global greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, in particular carbon dioxide (CO2), by 5.2% below 1990 levels. Developed nations that ratified the Protocol are committed to GHG reduction targets while developing nations are encouraged to reduce GHG emissions on a voluntary basis. Since most of the GHGs emissions come from the energy sector, energy policy plays an important role in fulfilling the Kyoto Protocol obligations. This year marks the beginning of the commitment period for the 2012 Kyoto Protocol. In this case, it would be worthwhile to compare the energy policies in Malaysia and Japan as these nations move towards fulfilling their obligations towards the Kyoto Protocol; bearing in mind that both countries ratified the Protocol, but that Japan commits a reduction target of 6% while Malaysia bears no obligation. Based on the comparison, recommendations were made on how a developing nation like Malaysia could adopt the policies implemented in Japan to suit local conditions and contribute significantly to GHG reduction.

  11. LULUCF values under the Kyoto Protocol : background document in preparation of the National Inventory Report 2011 (reporting year 2009)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyngaert, van den I.J.J.; Kuikman, P.J.; Lesschen, J.P.; Verwer, C.C.; Vreuls, H.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report collects all background information that is used for the 2011 submission under the Kyoto Protocol (KP) for the Netherlands. It includes the full text of the National Inventory Report (NIR)-II for LULUCF, as well as a description of the table-bytable methodologies, choices and motivations

  12. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissi

  13. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Lesschen, J.P.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Kolk, van der J.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissi

  14. Hematologic and immunological indicators are altered by chronic intake of flaxseed in Wistar rats Indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos alterados por el consumo crónico de linaza en ratas Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work sought to evaluate the effects of chronic intake of flaxseed upon hematologic parameters and immunological findings on body development of Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were used after gestation. They were randomly assigned into two groups during lactation period: Control group (CG, fed with casein based diet, made up of 17% protein and flaxseed group (FG, fed with casein based diet with the addition of 25% flaxseed. At weaning, 12 male pups of each group continued to receive the experimental diets of their mothers (with only 10% of protein until adult age, when they were killed at 250 days of life aiming at blood collection. At 250 days old FG presented significant reduction in body mass (p Este trabajo pretendía evaluar el efecto de la ingestión crónica de linaza sobre parámetros hematológicos y hallazgos inmunológicos del desarrollo corporal de ratas Wistar. Se emplearon ratas hembra Wistar tras la gestación. Se las distribuyó al azar en dos grupos durante el período de lactancia: grupo control (GC, alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína, con un 17% de proteína y el grupo linaza (GF, alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína con la adición de un 25% de linaza. En el destete, 12 ratas macho continuaron recibiendo las dietas experimentales consumidas por sus madres (con sólo el 10% de proteína hasta la edad adulta, en que fueron sacrificados a los 250 días de vida para la recogida de las muestras. A los 250 días de edad, el GF presentaba una reducción significativa de la masa corporal (p < 0,000 y mayores concentraciones de hemoglobina (p = 0,019 y albúmina (p = 0,030 que el GC. Se observó un menor porcentaje de linfocitos segmentados (p = 0,016 en las ratas del GF y un mayor porcentaje de leucocitos segmentados (p = 0,023 en comparación con el GC. El consumo crónico de linaza alteró los indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos en las ratas Wistar adultas. La suplementación con linaza parece ser

  15. Development of Taiwanese government’s climate policy after the Kyoto protocol: Applying policy network theory as an analytical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given its limited involvement in and recognition by international organizations, Taiwan is not presently a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the Kyoto Protocol. The objective of this study is to analyze how and the extent to which changes in an exogenous factor, namely the Kyoto Protocol and Post-Kyoto climate negotiations, affect and ultimately lead to the formulation of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. This study applies policy network theory to examine the development of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. The results demonstrate that international climate agreements and negotiations play a key role in the development of, changes to, and transformation of Taiwan's climate policy. Scarce evidence was found in this study to demonstrate that domestic or internal factors affect climate change policy. Despite its lack of participation in the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, Taiwan has adopted national climate change strategies, action plans, and programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, these climate policies and measures are fairly passive and aim to only conform to the minimal requirements for developing countries under international climate agreements and negotiations. This process results in inconsistent and variable climate policies, targets, and regulations. - Highlights: • Taiwan is not a signatory to the UNFCCC or its Kyoto Protocol. • International climate agreements strongly affected Taiwan's climate policy. • Little evidence was found that domestic factors affect Taiwan's climate policy. • New climate policies, regulations, and laws are formulated and implemented. • Climate policies, targets, and regulations change frequently and are inconsistent

  16. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  17. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  18. Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia, and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks, it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P, um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a

  19. Modelling Energy Systems and International Trade in CO2 Emission Quotas - The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transformation of the energy system in the 21st century is required if the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The industrialized countries have emitted most of the anthropogenic CO2 released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial era and still account for roughly two thirds of global fossil fuel related CO2 emissions. Industrial country CO2 emissions on a per capita basis are roughly five to ten times higher than those of developing countries. However, a global atmospheric CO2 concentration target of 450 ppm, if adopted would require that global average per capita CO2 emissions by the end of this century have to be comparable to those of developing countries today. The industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions substantially and the emissions in developing countries could not follow a business-as-usual scenario. The transformation of the energy system and abatement of CO2 emissions would need to occur in industrialized and developing countries. Energy-economy models have been developed to analyze of international trading in CO2 emission permits. The thesis consists of three papers. The cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol is estimated in the first paper. The Kyoto Protocol, which defines quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments for industrialized countries over the period 2008-2012, is the first international agreement setting quantitative goals for abatement of CO2 emissions from energy systems. The Protocol allows the creation of systems for trade in emission permits whereby countries exceeding their target levels can remain in compliance by purchasing surplus permits from other developed countries. However, a huge carbon surplus, which has been christened hot air, has been created in Russia and Ukraine since 1990 primarily because of the contraction of their economies. The current Unites States

  20. Climate Change and Employment in Europe. 'Kyoto' section. Country Report. Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, P. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona ICTA, Barcelona (Spain); Belen Sanchez, A.; Riechmann, J. [ISTAS Instituto Sindical de Trabajo, Ambiente y Salud, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    The results of an analysis of the effects of carbon dioxide emission mitigation policies and measures on the economic activity and employment in Spain are presented and discussed. The investigation is based on the review of the literature and on the results of a series of face-to-face interviews with selected stakeholders. Actors interviewed include representatives of public authorities, employers and employers' organisations, trade unions, and environmental NGOs. They are active in the following sectors: Energy, Industry, Transport, Building and Construction. Spain's lively economy experienced an important growth, exceeding the European average, in the last few years. Greenhouse gases emissions increased in all sectors in the recent years, making Spain the second European country the furthest away (+52% in 2005) from its Kyoto emission commitment (+15%) in absolute terms. Spain's Kyoto target will only be reachable with an extensive use of the flexible mechanisms. The Government, at national and regional level, put in place a comprehensive mix of Policies and Measures in order to curb down greenhouse gases emissions, the national Allocation Plan being the central element. Its design has been accompanied by a notable social consultation process, which includes trade unions and companies representatives. Other important Policies and Measures are the Strategy for Energy Savings and Energy Efficiency, the Renewable Energy Plan, and the Strategic Infrastructures and Transport Plan. The impact on employment of greenhouse gases mitigation Policies and Measures is generally perceived as minor by the interviewees. Nevertheless, some fields, such as Renewable Energy for instance, could see their activity enhanced by such policies. In the same way, cost-benefit analyses of energy efficiency measures commonly conclude to a net positive balance in terms of employment. Some fear for employment in the coal sector as a shift away from conventional energy is

  1. Th e Sanjō bōmon Temple-Palace Complex : The First Locus of Ashikaga Authority in Medieval Kyoto

    OpenAIRE

    STAVROS, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Th e locations in Kyoto where the founding members of the Ashikaga shogunate lived, worked, and engaged in public religious activities are largely unknown. Th is study seeks to rectify this problem by introducing the signifi cance of the Sanjō bōmon palace and the Zen temple of Tōjiji to initial Ashikaga power in medieval Kyoto. Th e Sanjō bōmon palace was Ashikaga Tadayoshi’s (1306–52) fi rst residence in medieval Kyoto. It was there where the shogunal deputy established and administered the...

  2. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  3. Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sadariya

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  5. The observance of the Kyoto Protocol on climate changes: stakes of the international control of compliance with commitments; L'Observance du protocole de Kyoto sur les changements climatiques. Les enjeux du controle international du respect des engagements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maljean-Dubois, S. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ. Paul Cezanne, CERIC-UMR 6201, CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2007-07-01

    The author presents the conclusions of multidisciplinary research which has examined the relationship between the Kyoto protocol's observance mechanisms (control of compliance of commitments and sanction in case of non compliance) and the more conventional mechanisms of international conflict solving. It also examines the peculiar characteristics of these mechanisms, whether legal or not. Finally, the author examines the impact of the adopted procedure, and whether it is constraining.

  6. Complying with the Kyoto Protocol under uncertainty: Taxes or tradable permits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol allocates tradable emission allowances (AAUs) to developed countries, but they are free to choose a set of policy instruments to comply with these targets. We compare two different policy instruments: a tax and purely domestic tradable permits, for the European Union, the US and Japan. Information on abatement costs and international permit price is imperfect and stems from nine global economic models. For a country party to the Protocol, the benefit of emission reduction is that it can sell more or has to buy less AAUs. We show that in this context, permits entail a slightly lower expected cost than a tax for the US and Japan, whereas both instruments yield an almost equal outcome for Europe. Applying Weitzman's framework (Prices vs. quantities, RES, 1974) in this context, we show the importance of the positive correlation between costs and benefits: technology shocks that lead to low abatement costs in one country generally lead to low abatement costs in other countries too, thereby leading to a low international permit price in the true-up period.

  7. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 5 - Developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet acknowledges that global change affects developed and developing countries alike, and the fact that most developing countries do not have the human, financial and technical capacity to effectively address climate change issues without help from the industrialized nations. The fact sheet also puts Canada on record as being in agreement with the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol to encourage the participation of developing countries in global efforts to combat climate change and promote sustainable development and reaffirms Canada's willingness to provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to enable them to play a meaningful part in this global effort. In this context, the fact sheet briefly describes the new Canada Climate Change Development Fund which has been set up to reduce the growth of GHG emissions and support carbon sink activities in developing countries, to strengthen the capacity of developing conuntries to reduce their vulnerability to adverse effects of climate change, and to participate in global efforts to combat them

  8. Implementation of the Provisions of the Kyoto Protocol as Precondition of Recovery from the Economic Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Zima Aleksandr G.; Ivanova Olga Yu.; Zima Оlga G.

    2010-01-01

    The article substantiates the hypothesis that the compliance with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol must play the decisive role in acceleration of recovery from the economic recession.В статье обосновывается гипотеза о том, что решающую роль в ускорении выхода из мирового экономического кризиса должно сыграть выполнение условий Киотского протокола.

  9. How does the European Union comply with its obligations under the Kyoto protocol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The answer is simple: The EU does not comply with its obligations. Within the EU, carbon dioxide emissions today are at higher level than a decade ago, in the reference year, and one can expect that by the year 2010, those emissions will most probably not be down by 8%, but up by 8% due to economic growth, let alone other factors. Only essential changes in EU energy policy will be able to usher in a turn, e.g. legislation imposing additional cost on carbon dioxide emissions. Three developments will play a vital role: 1. The rising oil prices. 2. Taxes on energy consumption in many EU member states. The 3rd development is yet not measurable, but in a period of latency, as a direct consequence of the Kyoto protocol (which provides for a verifiable regime of quotas of emissions and relevant financial sanctions for non-compliance). In addition, tradable emission permits have to be introduced. Assigning a price to carbon dioxide emissions will make it possible to describe mitigation policy in terms of a profit and loss account. This would lead to an outstanding new era in energy policy, marked by the introduction of social costs. It remains to be seen whether and when this era will come, but presently, developments are taking the wrong course. The EU will have to decide whether it wishes to safeguard the reliability of its energy policy, or to sacrifice it on the altar of indifference. (orig./CB)

  10. Comprehensive modelling for approaching the Kyoto targets on a local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the MARKAL comprehensive model in the development of coherent medium-term strategies and sound climate protection policies at local level. The local case study (Val d'Agri, Basilicata region, Italy) discusses the possible role of local communities in the achievement of the national objectives derived by the Kyoto Protocol, investigating the traditional sectors responsible for air pollution and providing a full picture of the main energy and material flows. A scenario analysis was performed to analyse the response of the modelled system to the introduction of an exogenous constraint on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The main effects are presented with reference to fuel mix, technology choice, real market prices and reduced costs of competing options. The comparison of the solutions obtained for the different scenarios is useful to point out the effects of the CO2 constraint on the total system cost and on the emission levels of other atmospheric pollutants. A further multiobjective optimisation was performed to analyse the effects of combined environmental constraints (CO2 and particulate) on the overall system cost as well as in terms of marginal costs. (author)

  11. Comprehensive modelling for approaching the Kyoto targets on a local scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F. [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, Tito Scalo (Italy); Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Cosmi, C.; Marmo, G. [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, Tito Scalo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche; Salvia, M. [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, Tito Scalo (Italy)

    2003-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the MARKAL comprehensive model in the development of coherent medium-term strategies and sound climate protection policies at local level. The local case study (Val d'Agri, Basilicata region, Italy) discusses the possible role of local communities in the achievement of the national objectives derived by the Kyoto Protocol, investigating the traditional sectors responsible for air pollution and providing a full picture of the main energy and material flows. A scenario analysis was performed to analyse the response of the modelled system to the introduction of an exogenous constraint on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The main effects are presented with reference to fuel mix, technology choice, real market prices and reduced costs of competing options. The comparison of the solutions obtained for the different scenarios is useful to point out the effects of the CO{sub 2} constraint on the total system cost and on the emission levels of other atmospheric pollutants. A further multiobjective optimisation was performed to analyse the effects of combined environmental constraints (CO{sub 2} and particulate) on the overall system cost as well as in terms of marginal costs. (author)

  12. Implications of the Kyoto protocol, about the energy system and the Colombian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the possible effects they are analyzed that the implementation of the proposals on control emissions of greenhouse gases contained in the kyoto protocol would have about the energy system and the economy of the country. In particular, the mechanism of clean development, proposed are discussed to facilitate the execution of reduction goals agreed for the developed countries and to link to the countries in development toward a strategy of sustainable development. Use of a methodological proposal is made carried out in collaboration with the institute Paul Scherrer, consistent in the development of a combined model that integrates national models Markal, as tool for the identification of efficient technologies for the reduction of emissions in the energy sector. The results of the application exercise are presented for selection of projects that Switzerland could finance in Colombia and it thinks about the convenience of integral evaluations and definition of rules for the participation of the country in this mechanism and in the negotiations that were carried out in the coming years in this matter. It is clear that it cannot be ignored the necessity that the country goes toward a more and more rational exploitation of the natural resources

  13. As Teorias Econômicas implícitas no Protocolo de Kyoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Simão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste artigo é analisar as influências implícitas nas bases de construção do Protocolo de Kyoto a partir de três vertentes da economia: economia ambiental neoclássica, a economia ecológica e economia institucionalista. A partir desta análise foi possível compreender e fomentar a discussão sobre a lógica pela qual surgiu o Protocolo e como foram desenvolvidos seus instrumentos de atuação. Verificou-se que a proposta apresenta-se como uma instituição que tem como ponto de partida princípios que mais se assemelham à abordagem da economia ecológica, haja vista o próprio intento de prevenção/contenção do aquecimento global ao qual se propõe. No entanto, apesar de almejar objetivos mais amplos, a racionalidade econômica e os princípios nos quais se baseiam a economia neoclássica ainda prevaleceram, sob a forma de instrumentos e mecanismos de mercado.

  14. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Maestad, Ottar; Westskog, Hege

    2003-07-01

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  15. The implications of the Kyoto project mechanisms for the deployment of renewable electricity in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.D.R. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales; Hernandez, F. [IEG CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Gual, M. [Universidad Pablo de olavide, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    EU energy/environmental policy has at least two major and interrelated goals: to increase the percentage of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and to control the emission of GHG cost efficiently. These two goals could be in conflict. This paper explores one aspect of this conflicting relationship, namely the effect that the use of the Kyoto Protocol project mechanisms (CDM/JI project) may have on the deployment of RES-E within EU borders. The main conclusion is that, under certain assumptions (i.e., no mandatory EU RES-E quota), CDM/JI projects might reduce the incentive to deploy RES-E within EU borders because they would allow European power companies to comply with GHG targets in a cheaper way than if they reduced emissions by investing in renewable electricity in Europe. This is problematic, since many benefits from renewable electricity are local and these would be gone. This situation would be different if a mandatory RES-E quota (combined with an EU-wide TGC scheme) was implemented. In this case, the RES-E target would be fulfilled and CDM/JI projects would only affect RES-E deployment exceeding the target. (author)

  16. Vitiligo vulgaris and autoimmune diseases in Japan: A report from vitiligo clinic in Kyoto University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Miki; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Katoh, Mayumi; Takahashi, Kenzo; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the causes of "loss of skin color" in 144 patients, who visited Vitiligo Clinic of Kyoto University Hospital between April 2005 and August 2008. The numbers of patients with generalized and segmental Vitiligo vulgaris were 98 (68.1%) and 26 (18.1%), respectively. Small numbers of the patients suffered from Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, piebaldism, congenital albinism, Hypomelanosis of Ito, post-inflammatory hypopigmentation, white leaf-shaped macules associated with tuberous sclerosis and nevus hypopigmentosus. One forth of the patients with generalized vitiligo had complications, while no complications were found in the patients with segmental vitiligo. Among the complications, autoimmune diseases dominated 43% (10 of 23 cases). Autoimmune thyroid diseases explained for the most of the complicated autoimmune diseases and were associated with 7.4% of the patients with generalized vitiligo. Minor autoimmune complications include myasthenia gravis, Sjogren syndrome and autoimmune nephritis. Reflecting the condition that our clinic is located in a university hospital, vitiligo patients with end-stage non-melanoma cancers of internal organs accounted for 8.4% of the patients of generalized vitiligo. PMID:20046588

  17. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  18. Development and Performance of Kyoto's X-ray Astronomical SOI pixel (SOIPIX) sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuru, Takeshi G; Takeda, Ayaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Wagai, Tatsuya; Takei, Dai; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kamehama, Hiroki; Shrestha, Sumeet

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors, known as Kyoto's X-ray SOIPIXs, based on the CMOS SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology for next-generation X-ray astronomy satellites. The event trigger output function implemented in each pixel offers microsecond time resolution and enables reduction of the non-X-ray background that dominates the high X-ray energy band above 5--10 keV. A fully depleted SOI with a thick depletion layer and back illumination offers wide band coverage of 0.3--40 keV. Here, we report recent progress in the X-ray SOIPIX development. In this study, we achieved an energy resolution of 300~eV (FWHM) at 6~keV and a read-out noise of 33~e- (rms) in the frame readout mode, which allows us to clearly resolve Mn-K$\\alpha$ and K$\\beta$. Moreover, we produced a fully depleted layer with a thickness of $500~{\\rm \\mu m}$. The event-driven readout mode has already been successfully demonstrated.

  19. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  20. From Kyoto to Durban. Mass media editorial position about climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Teruel Rodríguez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:This study analyses the editorial stance of three authoritative Spanish newspapers (El País, El Mundo and La Vanguardia with regards climate change in the time span between the climate summits held in Kyoto (1997 and Durban (2011. Methodology: The analysis has taken into account the presence of political, economic, social and cultural factors, as well as any others which may have prevented editorial policies from making a clear contribution to raising public awareness regarding climate-change issues. The initial hypothesis is that editorial strategies do not address the real issue –the causes of climate change and the urgency with which countries emitting greenhouse gases must adopt corrective policies– but rather avoid explicitly recognising the severity of the problem or mentioning possible solutions. Results: It has been analyzed 220 editorials: 95, La Vanguardia; 71, El País and 75, El Mundo. Conclusions: Indeed, throughout the fourteen years covered by the study, the editorial line of the newspapers themselves takes centre stage, leaving little room for interpretations or evaluations supported by the predominant scientific discourse.

  1. Development and performance of Kyoto's x-ray astronomical SOI pixel (SOIPIX) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Takeshi G.; Matsumura, Hideaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Wagai, Tatsuya; Takei, Dai; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kamehama, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors, known as Kyoto's X-ray SOIPIXs, based on the CMOS SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology for next-generation X-ray astronomy satellites. The event trigger output function implemented in each pixel offers microsecond time resolution and enables reduction of the non-X-ray background that dominates the high X-ray energy band above 5-10 keV. A fully depleted SOI with a thick depletion layer and back illumination offers wide band coverage of 0.3-40 keV. Here, we report recent progress in the X-ray SOIPIX development. In this study, we achieved an energy resolution of 300 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV and a read-out noise of 33 e- (rms) in the frame readout mode, which allows us to clearly resolve Mn-Kα and Kβ. Moreover, we produced a fully depleted layer with a thickness of 500 μm. The event-driven readout mode has already been successfully demonstrated.

  2. Carbon values, reforestation, and 'perverse' incentives under the Kyoto protocol. An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic incentives for sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in forests may be an effective way to meet greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (KP). But concerns have been raised that the KP may create unintended incentives to excessively harvest existing forests if regenerated forests qualify for carbon (C) credits under the reforestation provision of Article 3.3. This paper combines an analytical model of the optimal forest rotation with both timber and C as priced outputs with data on timber and C growth and yield to different forest settings in the U.S. C prices of $50 per megagram (Mg) - the highest price evaluated - can considerably lengthen forest rotations (40 years or more), raise forest land values (as much as $1,900 per hectare), and sequester more C in the long run (up to 60 percent per acre), relative to the base case of no C compensation. However, if C payments are made for the regenerated stand only, in some situations, it is optimal to immediately harvest an otherwise premature stand at C prices as low as $20/Mg. The strength of perverse incentives to accelerate harvesting of existing forest varies by forest type, region, C price level, and institutional factors relevant to the compensation system. If C compensation were extended to existing stands, as may be possible under Article 3.4 of the KP, the perverse incentives for prematurely harvesting existing stands would not exist. 28 refs

  3. Etude Climat no. 43 'Use of Kyoto credits by European installations: from an efficient market to a burst bubble'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: During the Phase II of the European Trading Scheme, installations had the option to surrender carbon credits from project-based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol (CERs and ERUs). The rules set by Member States and approved by the European Commission capped the demand at around 1,400 MtCO2 between 2008 and 2012. In the end, over 1 billion Kyoto credits (675 million CERs and 383 million ERUs) have been surrendered by EU ETS installations. What conclusions can be drawn from this unique experience in a CO2 allowance market?

  4. Land Use: the Kyoto protocol, the FAO definition of forest and the Italian Inventory of Forests and Carbon Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, after the international agreement on the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization decided to adopt a new set of basic forest and forest change definitions. The main change is that new definitions are no more related to land cover but to land use. The entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol requires now that national forest related data must be based on land use concept. Thus, national forest inventory shall be designed in order to collect data which are consistent with current land-use related definitions. In this paper the authors analyze the case of the Italian forest inventory.

  5. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  6. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on glycaemic profile & their localization in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in irradiated diabetic rat model has transiently shown to decrease blood glucose level. This study examines the effect of high dose and multiple injections of MSCs on glycemic profile, their localization and regeneration of islet in diabetic Wistar rat. Methods: The study was carried out in male Wistar rats categorized into three groups (n=6, in each group: Group 1 as control, group 2 streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg induced diabetic group and group 3 experimental group; 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU labelled allogenic MSCs were injected in the non-irradiated diabetic rat of the experimental group through tail vein. The blood glucose profile was subsequently monitored at regular intervals. Rats were sacrificed on day 45 and pancreas was examined for localization of BrdU labelled stem cells by immunofluorescence and islet-neogenesis by immunohistochemistry . Results: There was a significant reduction in blood glucose level after administration of MSCs in the experimental group (P<0.001. The presence of BrdU labelled MSCs in islet suggested their localization in the pancreas. Co-expression of anti-BrdU and anti-insulin antibody indicated trans-differentiation / fusion into insulin producing cells evidenced by significant increase in total number of islet (P=0.004 and insulin positive cells ( P<0.0001 in experimental group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the MSCs administration in non-irradiated diabetic Wistar rat reduced hyperglycaemia and was accompanied by increased islet-neogengesis, possibly through trans- differentiation/fusion.

  7. The effect of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on the health status of inbred Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rat strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie U. Höfler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nutraceutical industry has proliferated in recent years, with the most popular form of supplementation being the multivitamin-multimineral (MVMM supplement. In the animal health sector, supplement use has also expanded. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of MVMM supplementation, beneficial or otherwise, on the general health status of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR strain, an animal model used in hypertension research. A commercially prepared MVMM supplement was given tri-weekly via oral dosing for 8 weeks to two groups of seven adult female SHR and Wistar rats. Their corresponding control groups were dosed with deionised water only. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, growth rate and food and water intake were measured weekly. At the end of 8 weeks, the animals were euthanased and a full blood profile, urine sodium to potassium ratio, blood urea nitrogen levels and total plasma cholesterol was measured for all groups. The results indicated that growth rate was higher for the SHR supplemented group. Supplementation also decreased diastolic blood pressure in both Wistar and SHR groups and increased red blood cell count and decreased total cholesterol in the SHR group. No adverse effects on the general health status of the animals were observed. MVMM supplementation may therefore be useful in aiding growth and delaying the onset of hypertension and its effects. It may also assist in the longevity of the breeding stock of SHR rats.Keywords: multivitamin-multimineral (MVMM supplementation; hypertension; spontaneously hypertensive rats (BRU; Wistar rats; breeding stock

  8. Problems and Prospects of Kyoto Protocol Prolongation Till 2020 on the Basis of International Summits on Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Kishkan Ekaterina Romanovna

    2015-01-01

    The article studies the research of the results of international summits on climate change held from 2009 to 2014 in Copenhagen, Cancun, Durban, Doha, Lima. Today climate change issues are among the most discussed problems in the world, and negative impact of human activities on climate change process is doubtless. The comprehension of importance of climate change problem at the international level led to signing Kyoto protocol. But the forms of international collaboration created by this pro...

  9. Market power in international emissions trading : the impact of U.S. withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Löschel, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the implications of U.S. withdrawal on environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, and the distribution of compliance costs taking into account market power of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) on emission permit markets. While exercise of market power on behalf of FSU under U.S. compliance has no environmental impact as compared to competitive permit trade, it prevents the Kyoto Protocol from boiling down to business-as-usual after U.S. withdrawal. Non-compliance of...

  10. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-01-01

    An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan) gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible ...

  11. Denmark's climate policy objectives and achievements. Report on demonstrable progress in 2005 under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report is about Denmark's demonstrable progress made under the Kyoto Protocol. The report has been prepared according to the guidelines for reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The report has been prepared on the basis of Denmark's Fourth National Communication on Climate Change under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Fourth National Communication is the first National Communication after the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. Compared to the Third National Communication, the Fourth National Communication is extended with supplementary information in accordance with the additional reporting requirements for parties to the Protocol. Since the information in the Fourth National Communication corresponds to a great extent to the information that must be included in this report, Denmark has chosen to prepare the two reports in parallel. Except information on Greenland and a few updates the present report contains the same information as the progress report published and forwarded to the European Commission in June 2005. The present report will be forwarded to the UN Climate Secretariat together with the Fourth National Communication whereto references for further information are made. (au)

  12. The Kyoto Protocol: a reality check. Carbon dioxide emission forecasts and scenarios for 25 Annex 1 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the climate change issues arising from Kyoto to give an independent, qualitative analysis of future emissions (to 2020) under three scenarios; business-as-usual scenario; a Kyoto scenario, which evaluates what measures might be necessary to meet Kyoto undertakings; and a realistic scenario of achievable results. The forecast methodology of covering the power sector, road transport and fuels sectors, and the steel and concrete sectors, is clearly set out. Each sector is analysed under the three scenarios for all 25 countries, with data covering 1990-2020. It analyses as well various key issues in the climate debate - whether nuclear power is an acceptable alternative to fossil fuels; the lack of concrete scientific answers regarding climate change; the issue of fairness in the sharing of the burden of emissions control, given the energy needs of the developing countries; where US sulfur trading can be used as a model for CO emissions trading and the problems of emissions where electricity is traded across borders. A brief history of climate change policy since the establishment of the IPCC in 1988 through COP-1 to COP-4 in Buenos Aires, and a glossary of terms are included.

  13. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible site suitable for reforestation in accordance with the CDM international scheme is a large plateau (more than 5000 hectares 600 meters high on the sea level far from the Cannabis crops area. The evaluation of the project costs and of the social benefits for the population consider (using different species the indigenous communities necessity. The evaluation of carbon sequestration show the small scale of the reforestation project on behalf of the Kyoto Protocol, but give also an idea about the people rights and necessities. The normal afforestation and reforestation projects, under the Kyoto Protocol, try to maximize the CO2 sequestration in a short time, than business laws usually require. A small scale project could be self-managing, less expensive (international certification costs and more interesting for local communities.

  14. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from NEDLLOYD KYOTO from 1989-11-15 to 1990-08-06 (NCEI Accession 9000240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains 180 observations collected from ship Nedlloyd Kyoto. The bathythermograph (XBT) data was collected between November 15, 1989 and August 6,...

  15. Muusikamaailm : Gergievi festival Rotterdamis. Los Angelese Ooper alustas. Luzerni festival tänaseni. Yaltah Menuhin lahkunud. Kyoto auhind György Ligetile / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    Rotterdami Filharmoonikute peadirigendi V. Gergijevi korraldatud muusikafestivalist. Los Angelese Ooperi hooaja algusest. Luzerni festivalist šveitsis. Lühidalt Yaltah Menuhinist. G. Ligeti pälvis Kyoto elutöö-auhinna

  16. Preliminary assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis toxicity on male Wistar rats' organs and reproductive system Avaliação preliminar da toxicidade de Rosmarinus officinalis no sistema reprodutor e em órgãos de ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae is a shrub used in the treatment of hepatic, intestinal, renal and respiratory affections. Its toxicity was assessed in female rats and an anti-implantation effect was reported after treatment with this plant. This work analyzes the effect of the short-term administration of R. officinalis extract on vital organs, on the organs of the reproductive system and sperm production of mature male Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 1 mL of R. officinalis aqueous extract at a dose level of 291.2 mg and 582.4 mg/kg of body weight for five days. Body and organs weights, sperm production and food consumption were evaluated. The results showed that the lower dose administration of R. officinalis extract did not significantly alter body and organs weight nor did it interfere with gamete production. However, animals treated with the higher dose showed significant weight increase of the seminal vesicle but no significant alteration of the other variables. Food intake was not affected by the treatments.Alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae é uma planta utilizada no tratamento de afecções hepática, intestinal, renal e respiratória. Sua toxicidade foi investigada em ratas e seu efeito antiimplantação foi relatado em estudos prévios. Este trabalho analisa o efeito da administração aguda do extrato de R. officinalis em órgãos vitais, em órgãos do sistema reprodutor e na produção de espermatozóides de ratos Wistar adultos. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com 1 mL do extrato aquoso de R. officinalis na dose de 291,2 mg e 582,4 mg/kg de peso corporal por cinco dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozóides e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Os resultados mostraram que a administração da dose menor do extrato de R. officinalis não alterou significativamente o peso corporal e de órgãos e nem interferiu com a produção de gametas. Entretanto, os animais

  17. Splenotoxic effect of radiographic developer effluent on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2016-05-01

    Results: Normal spleen histology was observed in the control group. In contrast, tissue degeneration and necrosis; lymphocytic infiltration as well as reduction of splenic follicles were observed in some of the test groups (IIA, IIB and IIIA. Interestingly, the toxic effects of the developer effluent on group IIIB administered with higher dose for a longer period of 28 days were not as severe as observed in the other test groups. Conclusions: The present study which indicated adverse effects of exposures to sub-lethal doses of developer effluent on Wistar rats' spleen tissues suggests the need for proper management and disposal of radiographic effluents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1625-1631

  18. Influence of nifedipine on gingiva of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Zlata

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedipine in different daily doses, using specially designed cannula. At the beginning of the experiment, before the application of nifedipine and in the determined time periods, gingival volume was measured. The volume of lower incisors interdental central papillas, represented multiplied values of vertical hight, mesio-distal width, and bucco-lingual depth, expressed in millimeters. The results indicated that gingival hyperplasia was more excessive in the experimental animals, which were given higher doses of the drug for longer time period. Nifedipine is a drug which induces gingival fibroblasts to produce higher quantity of collagen that causes gingival overgrowth.

  19. Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Sulaiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg; group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg; group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50, while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 15 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed by jugular venesection after light chloroform anesthesia, and sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone concentrations. Pituitary gland and the testicular tissues of each rat were quickly dissected, removed and assayed for the levels of glycogen and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity. The right caudal epididymis was evaluated for spermatozoa concentrations. The results showed that decrease in concentrations of spermatozoa, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, testicular glycogen, and inhibition of pituitary gland and testicular AChE activities caused by CPF were ameliorated by vitamin C. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 23-30

  20. The effect of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on the health status of inbred Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Rosemarie U; Channa, Mahendra L; Nadar, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The nutraceutical industry has proliferated in recent years, with the most popular form of supplementation being the multivitamin-multimineral (MVMM) supplement. In the animal health sector, supplement use has also expanded. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of MVMM supplementation, beneficial or otherwise, on the general health status of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, an animal model used in hypertension research. A commercially prepared MVMM supplement was given tri-weekly via oral dosing for 8 weeks to two groups of seven adult female SHR and Wistar rats. Their corresponding control groups were dosed with deionised water only. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, growth rate and food and water intake were measured weekly. At the end of 8 weeks, the animals were euthanased and a full blood profile, urine sodium to potassium ratio, blood urea nitrogen levels and total plasma cholesterol was measured for all groups. The results indicated that growth rate was higher for the SHR supplemented group. Supplementation also decreased diastolic blood pressure in both Wistar and SHR groups and increased red blood cell count and decreased total cholesterol in the SHR group. No adverse effects on the general health status of the animals were observed. MVMM supplementation may therefore be useful in aiding growth and delaying the onset of hypertension and its effects. It may also assist in the longevity of the breeding stock of SHR rats. PMID:27381881

  1. Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the pituitary-gonadal axis of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuquo OR; Oko OOK; Brownson ES; Umoetuk GB; Utin IS

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (S. mombin) on the histology of the anterior pituitary, ovary and uterus; and on the serum sex hormones of adult female Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of six rats per group. The animals in the treatment groups were administered orally ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaves at the doses of 250, 350 and 500 mg/kg body weight daily for fourteen days. Rats in the control group received distilled water. The body weights of the rats were determined at the beginning and end of the experiment. Histological analysis of pituitary, ovary and uterus was carried out. Hormonal assay for estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH were done using Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in relative organ weights of extract-treated rats compared to the control. Pituitary showed accumulation and aggregation of cells in experimental animals. Uteri of treated groups showed thickening of endometrial lining and presence of cysts, ovarian tissues were damaged. Furthermore, the extract caused reduction in serum concentration of sex hormones of the treated animals relative to the control. Conclusion: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaf may have antifertility property, confirming its use as a local contraceptive.

  2. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  3. Probiotic cheese attenuates exercise-induced immune suppression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollo, P C B; Cruz, A G; Morato, P N; Moura, C S; Carvalho-Silva, L B; Oliveira, C A F; Faria, J A F; Amaya-Farfan, J

    2012-07-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2wk to adult Wistar rats, which then were brought to exhaustion on the treadmill. Two hours after exhaustion, the rats were killed and material was collected for the determination of serum uric acid, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, total protein, triacylglycerols, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and blood cell (monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and leukocyte) counts. Exercise was efficient in reducing lymphocyte counts, irrespective of the type of ingested cheese, but the decrease in the group fed the probiotic cheese was 22% compared with 48% in the animals fed regular cheese. Monocyte counts were unaltered in the rats fed probiotic cheese compared with a significant decrease in the rats fed the regular cheese. Most importantly, ingestion of the probiotic cheese resulted in a >100% increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a 50% decrease in triacylglycerols. We conclude that probiotic Minas Frescal cheese may be a viable alternative to enhance the immune system and could be used to prevent infections, particularly those related to the physical overexertion of athletes. PMID:22720913

  4. HISTOMORPHOLOGIC ALTERATIONS OF THE CEREBELLUM OF WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING AMODIAQUINE PLUS ARTESUNATE ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. M. B. Ekong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Amodiaquine and artesunate are two antimalarial drugs sold in combination as Larimal®. This drug is a very effective artemisinin-base combination. This study was to access the effects of amodiaquine and artesunate combination on the histology of the cerebellum. Twenty adult Wistar rats weighing between 150-180g were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D of five animals each. Group A served as the control and the animals received distilled water, while group B received 8.75+2.86mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for three days, group C received 8.75+2.86mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for six days and group D received 17.50+5.71mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for three days. Histological sections showed destruction of the Purkinje cortical layers in group B, with increased destructions in groups C and D compared to the control. These results reveal that amodiaquine and artesunate combination causes histological alterations, which were dose and time dependent and these may result in cerebellar dysfunction.

  5. Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ezi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three equal groups and were fed with either standard diet (control or standard diet enriched with 10 % of TF oil or standard diet enriched with 20% TF for 5 consecutive months. Finally, the rats were euthanized, the weights of their bodies, and their testes were measured. Then, the testes were dissected and the sections were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for quantitative histopathological examination. Besides, blood samples were collected for testosterone (T assessment. Results: Compared to the control group, the rats fed with a diet enriched with 20% TF had significantly (P≤0.05 more body weight, while, their testes weight significantly (P≤0.0001 decreased. Also, histological changes showed that TF, in a dose dependence manner, significantly decreased germinal layer, seminiferous area, and spermatogonia number in the rats’ testes. There was no significant difference in T concentration between the groups. Conclusion: It was clearly found that excessive and long term intake of TF can be causative of hypogonadism and increase infertility in male rats.

  6. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  7. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rizwana; Tanvir, E M; Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md Sabir; Alam, Nadia; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium. PMID:27294126

  8. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Afroz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium.

  9. Treadmill exercise induces age and protocol-dependent epigenetic changes in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechinel, Laura Reck; Basso, Carla Giovana; Bertoldi, Karine; Schallenberger, Bruna; de Meireles, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2016-10-15

    Some studies have linked age-related beneficial effects of exercise and epigenetic mechanisms. Although, the impact of treadmill exercise on histone acetylation, histone and DNA methylation marks in aged cortices yet remains poorly understood. Considering the role of frontal cortex on brain functions, we investigated the potential of different exercise protocols, single session and daily exercise, to modulate epigenetic marks, namely global H4 acetylation, histone methyltransferase activity (HMT H3K27) and levels of DNA methytransferase (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) in prefrontal cortices from 3 and 21-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two treadmill exercise protocols, single session (20min) or daily moderate (20min/day during 14days). The daily exercise protocol induced an increased in histone H4 acetylation levels in prefrontal cortices of 21-months-old rats, without any effects in young adult group. DNMT3b levels were increased in aged cortices of animals submitted to single session of exercise. These results indicate that prefrontal cortex is susceptible to epigenetic changes in a protocol dependent-manner and that H4 acetylation levels and DNMT3b content changes might be linked at least in part to exercise-induced effects on brain functions. PMID:27418438

  10. Nuclear electricity and Canada's domestic response to the Kyoto Protocol: modeling the economics of alternative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's National Climate Change Process has undertaken extensive analysis of the implications of implementing the greenhouse gas reduction commitments of the Kyoto Protocol. The results of work undertaken by the Issue Tables are documented on the National Climate Change Process Internet World Wide Web site. The final reports from the Analysis and Modeling Group have been interpreted by some as evidence that nuclear energy has no role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Canada as it is uneconomic. Yet nuclear energy is a proven means of generating electricity in Canada that does not emit greenhouse gases and that can be economic under a range of circumstances. This paper reviews the analysis and modeling work to establish the reasons for this apparent anomaly. It turns out that modeling of nuclear electricity production is highly constrained by some of the modeling input assumptions initiated with the modeling work of the Electricity Table. These constraints were subsequently carried through to modeling of the entire Canadian economy. The constraints are derived from consideration of historical political, social and economic limitations on nuclear energy deployment and development, which may be overcome in a greenhouse gas constrained Canada. These constraints, which were imposed on decision and construction time, are not technical in nature and do not realistically reflect newer technology. A key modeling scenario is re-evaluated to consider the effect of a shorter decision time and to reflect current nuclear industry capability with respect to construction time. We also take into account revised input parameters to account for a reduced capital cost system which is the goal of the CANDU designer. These changes result in the model choosing more nuclear energy as a least cost source of electricity. The increase in nuclear electricity is substantial for the scenarios that investigate the role of reduced capital cost nuclear power plant systems. The

  11. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokode Masayuki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. Results A total of 51.5% (310 of 602 of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Conclusions Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available.

  12. Research on the reactor physics using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto University Critical Assembly [KUCA] is a multi-core type critical assembly established in 1974, as a facility for the joint use study by researchers of all universities in Japan. Thereafter, many reactor physics experiments have been carried out using three cores (A-, B-, and C-cores) in the KUCA. In the A- and B-cores, solid moderator such as polyethylene or graphite is used, whereas light-water is utilized as moderator in the C-core. The A-core has been employed mainly in connection with the Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator installed in the KUCA, to measure (1) the subcriticality by the pulsed neutron technique for the critical safety research and (2) the neutron spectrum by the time-of-flight technique. Recently, a basic study on the tight lattice core has also launched using the A-core. The B-core has been employed for the research on the thorium fuel cycle ever since. The C-core has been employed (1) for the basic studies on the nuclear characteristics of light-water moderated high-flux research reactors, including coupled-cores, and (2) for a research related to reducing enrichment of uranium fuel used in research reactors. The C-core is being utilized in the reactor laboratory course experiment for students of ten universities in Japan. The data base of the KUCA critical experiments is generated so far on the basis of approximately 350 experimental reports accumulated in the KUCA. Besides, the assessed KUCA code system has been established through analyses on the various KUCA experiments. In addition to the KUCA itself, both of them are provided for the joint use study by researchers of all universities in Japan. (author)

  13. The first back-side illuminated types of Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOIPIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Makoto; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Matsumura, Hideaki; Ohmura, Shunichi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Tamasawa, Koki; Tindall, Craig

    2016-09-01

    We have been developing Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOI pixel sensors, called "XRPIX", aiming to extend the frontiers of X-ray astronomy with the wide-band imaging spectroscopy in the 0.5-40 keV band. A dead layer on the X-ray incident surface should ideally be as thin as possible to achieve a high sensitivity below 1 keV, and the depletion layer is required to be thick enough to detect 40 keV X-rays. Thus, we have started developing fully-depleted back-side illuminated (BI) types of XRPIXs. This paper reports on our first two BI devices and their X-ray evaluation (2.6-12 keV). The device named "XRPIX2b-FZ-LA" successfully reaches a full depletion with a thickness of 500 μm. On the other hand, it has a dead layer with a thickness of 1.1-1.5 μm and struggles to achieve the requirement of 1.0 μm. The other device named "XRPIX2b-CZ-PZ", which is applied with a thin Si sensor-layer and an improved back-side process, is found to satisfy the requirement with its thickness of 0.9-1.0 μm, including Al optical blocking filter of 0.2 μm, although the Si sensor-layer is rather thin with 62 μm. We also describe in this paper the X-ray calibration system that we have built for the X-ray evaluation of XRPIXs.

  14. Vital signs: Budgets struggle to recover in teeth of Kyoto stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties experienced by oil and gas companies in establishing their 2003 budgets due to the uncertainty surrounding the impact of Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol are discussed. Only Shell Canada and Petro-Canada set their capital budgets by early December, an exercise that traditionally is wrapped up by early autumn. Nevertheless, for 2003 industry analysts anticipate a modest increase in industry capital expenditures to about $25 billion, up from $23.5 billion in 2002. Petro-Canada forecasts a substantial increase in its capital spending (to $2.6 billion) in its pursuit of growth at home and abroad, as is EnCana Corp., which anticipates spending a staggering $5 billion with 70 per cent earmarked for conventional onshore activities, the remainder for offshore and international initiatives. On the opposite end, Shell Canada set its capital and exploration budget at $810 million, about $1 billion less than in 2002, reflecting the completion of the Athabasca Oil Sands Project. Despite the dip in spending this year, Shell Canada nevertheless is maintaining an aggressive five-year plan that will see planned capital and exploration expenditures of some $3.4 billion, of which $1.2 billion is earmarked to move East Coast and Mackenzie Delta frontier opportunities forward. Overall, this year's modest increase in projected industry expenditures is seen as a welcome rebound from 2002, when the events of September 11, 2001, shook the political and economic foundations of the western world, causing total industry spending to fall from a record $27.7 billion in 2001. The most visible sign of industry's restraint in 2002 was at the land sale table, where sales were only half those generated in 2001

  15. Vitamin A status regulates glucocorticoid availability in Wistar rats: consequences on cognitive functions and hippocampal neurogenesis ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien eBonhomme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD, a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage. PMID:24929543

  18. Histopathology of the Liver Following Administration of Artesunate in Adult Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Monday Onyije

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary In must of the developing countries especially in Africa antimalaria drugs are taken regularly either to treat or prevent malaria. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 each and tested as follows: - Group O- control (water, Group A – 2mg/kg and Group B - 6mg/kg. The animals were sacrificed after the 7th day. There was no mortality caused by the drug but dizziness in the animals. In the group administered with 2mg/kg of oral artesunate where was no form of distortion in the tissue architecture of the liver, but in the group administered with 6mg/kg of artesunate, artesunate caused sinusoidal congestion, infiltration of inflammatory cells and there was loss of tissue architecture. Drugs are produce to combat illnesses but may turn out be harmful when administered wrongly. In must of the developing countries especially in Africa antimalaria drugs are taken regularly either to treat or prevent malaria. They are taken such that one could even imaging if it is a food supplement. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 26-29

  19. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  20. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  1. Comparative assessment of the timing of sexual maturation in male Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Sarah N; Carvallo, Francisco R; Chapin, Robert E; Nowland, William S; Beauchamp, David; Jamon, Raul; Koitz, Rebecca; Winton, Timothy R; Cappon, Gregg D; Hurtt, Mark E

    2013-07-01

    Given the increasing use of Wistar Han (WH) rats in regulatory toxicology studies, these studies were performed to characterize the onset of sexual maturation in maturing WH rats as compared to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Beginning on postnatal day (PND) 38 through PND 91 groups (n=8) of untreated WH rats were evaluated for maturation of the male reproductive system. Testicular spermatid head counts increased beginning on PND 42 until PND 70. Sperm were detected in the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymis on PND 45, 49, and 49, respectively, and counts increased through PND 91. Sperm motility was at adult levels by PND 63. The morphology of the testis/epididymis of all animals at day 70 or older was consistent with qualitative sexual maturity. Based on these endpoints, WH rats were determined to be sexually mature at PND 70, and many of these endpoints evaluated in SD rats exhibited nearly identical trends. PMID:23434729

  2. Detecting DNA synthesis of neointimal formation after catheter balloon injury in GK and in Wistar rats: using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jingsheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recently, some studies have shown that 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU incorporation can serve as a novel alternative to the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU antibody detection method for detection of DNA synthesis in regenerating avian cochlea, chick embryo and the adult nervous system. However, few studies have been performed to assess the suitability of EdU for detecting DNA synthesis in vascular neointima. Methods The carotid artery balloon injury model was established in Goto-Kakizaki (GK and Wistar rats. A Cell-LightTM EdU Kit was used to detect EdU-labeled cell nuclei of common carotid arteries at day 7 after catheter balloon injury. Different methods of injecting EdU were tested. The protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473, as well as the mRNA levels of PCNA were evaluated by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was also employed to visualize PCNA-positive cells. Results At day 7 after catheter balloon injury, far more EdU-positive and PCNA-positive cells were observed in GK rats. When comparing groups that received different EdU doses, it was found that the percentage of EdU-positive cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was than at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. The number of positive cells was significantly higher in the repeated injection group compared to the single injection group. Further, after balloon injury DNA synthesis in GK rats was more notable than in Wistar rats. Neointimal formation in GK rats was more obvious than in Wistar rats. The protein levels of PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473 and the mRNA levels of PCNA were increased in injured rats as compared to uninjured rats, and were significantly higher in GK rats than in Wistar rats

  3. Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Barbalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de

  4. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  5. High-Fat Programming of Hyperglycemia, Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance, Hyperleptinemia, and Altered Islet Architecture in 3-Month-Old Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, Marlon E.; Chapman, Charna S.; Louw, Johan

    2012-01-01

    High-fat programming, by exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet in utero and/or during lactation, compromises beta-cell development and function in neonatal and weanling offspring. Therefore, high-fat programming effects were investigated on metabolism and islet architecture in young adult rats. Three-month-old male and female Wistar rat offspring were studied: HFG (maintained on a high-fat diet throughout fetal life), HFP (high-fat diet maintenance from birth to 3 months), and HFGP (high-fat ...

  6. Long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion (from the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2).

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Erika; Natsuaki, Masahiro; MORIMOTO, TAKESHI; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Ono, Koh; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Doi, Osamu; Tamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Despite improving success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions, the clinical benefit of recanalization of CTO is still a matter of debate. Of 13,087 patients who underwent PCI in the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2, 1,524 patients received PCI for CTO (CTO-PCI). Clinical outcomes were compared between 1,192 patients with successful CTO-PCI and 332 patients with failed CTO-PCI. In-hospital death tended to occur less frequently in the successf...

  7. Safety Re-evaluation of Kyoto University Research Reactor by reflecting the Accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, K.; Yamamoto, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at rated thermal power of 5MW. After the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we have settled a 40-ton water tank near the reactor room, and prepared a mobile fire pump and a mobile power generator as additional safety measures for beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs). We also have conducted the safety re-evaluation of KUR, and confirmed that the integrity of KUR fuels could be kept against the BDBA with the use of the additional safety measures when the several restrictions were imposed on the reactor operation.

  8. <3) SHUNGA IN KYOTO AND OSAKA>Nishikawa Sukenobu : One Hundred Women, Two Stories, and a Reconsideration

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA, RODRIGUEZ, Amaury A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1911 the journals and fierce enemy of censorship, Miyatake Gaikotsu 宮武外骨 (1867-1955), rescued some old references about the publication ban, in 1723, of a purportedly erotic sequel to the book Hyakunin joro shina sadame, by the famous Kyoto artist Nishikawa Sukenobu (1671-1750). Those references apparently turn this book into one of the first and rare examples of direct Edo period prohibition of sexually explicit material. Miyatake explores some other important cases in his Hikka shi 筆禍史...

  9. Report of research by common utilization in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in latter half of fiscal 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the technical report, the data required for research and experiment, such as the result of functional test of various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste treatment, and the reports of study meetings, or the remarkable results and new methods obtained in research and the discussion on other papers and reports in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, are summarized as prompt report. The subject, reporters and synopsis of 69 papers are reported in this publication. (Kako, I.)

  10. Protocolo de kyoto: debate sobre ambiente y desarrollo en las discusiones sobre cambio climático

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez S. Liliana

    2008-01-01

    El comportamiento climático del planeta y sus consecuencias han propiciado debates sobre los modelos de desarrollo de los países responsables del deterioro acelerado del ambiente y de los fenómenos naturales por estos días recurrentes. Sin embargo, países como Estados Unidos, luego de firmar compromisos como la Convención sobre Cambio Climático, rehúsan adquirir las obligaciones del Protocolo de Kyoto, por temor a sufrir deterioro en sus economías. En este escenario, donde la nació...

  11. Expensive quotas to meet EU's Kyoto targets; Dyre kvoter for aa naa EUs Kyotomaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugneland, Petter

    2004-07-01

    One of the most important climate measures taken by the EU is to set up an internal market to trade emission credits for greenhouse gases from 2005. According to researchers at The Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research at the University of Oslo, the quota price in the new EU market must be about 100 USD per tonne of CO{sub 2} if the present (April, 2004) member countries are to reduce their own emissions down to the level of the Kyoto target without other measures.

  12. Report of research by common utilization in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in first half of fiscal 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the technical report, the data required for research and experiment, such as the result of functional test of various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste treatment, and the reports of study meetings, or the remarkable results and new methods obtained in research, and the discussion on other papers and reports in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, are summarized as prompt report. The subject, reporters and synopsis of 54 papers are reported in this publication. (Kako, I.)

  13. Environmental and dam effects on cannibalism in Wistar rat litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Tarôco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The factors related to cannibalistic behavior of dams in a Wistar rat colony are identified and analyzed. The maternal genetic effects were tested as a random effect by the method of generalized linear models. The season at parturition, the dam´s age at parturition and the density of the room at parturition were tested as fixed effects, whereas the litter size at birth was tested as a co-variable. The genetic effect of the dam was significant for the number of cannibalized pups. Although the season at parturition, the dam´s age and room density on the day of parturition were not individually significant (p > 0.05, most of the interactions between the variation sources were significant (p < 0.05. Cannibalism occurred mostly in dams aged over 241 days, with parturition during spring. So that occurrences of cannibalism could be avoided, dams with the smallest number of cannibalized pups should be selected, coupled to dams younger than 241 days, breeding during spring. The above strategies may reduce the number of couples in the vivarium and increase their production efficiency.

  14. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  15. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.

  16. Antipsychotic-like effects of zolpidem in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewski, Pawel; Kolaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Wesolowska, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Maciej; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2016-02-15

    Aside from their use in the treatment of anxiety disorders and insomnia, benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptor positive modulators are widely used as add-on treatments in schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic psychoses. However, there is relatively little direct clinical or pre-clinical evidence for antipsychotic effects of GABAergic medications. Previous studies have indicated that zolpidem, a GABAergic drug acting preferentially at α1-containing GABAA receptors, may produce catalepsy through interactions with dopaminergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of zolpidem in experimental models of antipsychotic activity and extrapyramidal side effects in Wistar rats. Effects of zolpidem were compared with that of a classic benzodiazepine drug, diazepam and a second-generation antipsychotic medication, risperidone. High doses of risperidone (10.0mg/kg, i.p.) and zolpidem (10.0mg/kg, i.p.), but not diazepam, induced relatively short-lasting cataleptic responses in the bar test. Zolpidem and risperidone, but not diazepam, produced some antipsychotic-like effects at doses, which produced no catalepsy and did not inhibit spontaneous locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The present results tend to indicate that zolpidem exerts some neuroleptic-like effects at doses, which do not produce motor side effects. Our findings may provide further rationale for the development of new subtype-selective GABAA receptor modulators for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. PMID:26825544

  17. Variability in the Cardiac Venous System of Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle. PMID:25651085

  18. Effect of adipose derived stem cells on ovariectomised Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Oommen

    2015-11-01

    Methods: hADSCs were cultured in the Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM supplemented with 4 and #8201;mM L-glutamine and 110 and #8201;mg/l sodium pyruvate, 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, 1% penicillin and ndash;streptomycin and non-essential amino acids. For osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs, cells were cultured as above then were exposed to osteogenic induction medium for seven days. Intravenous infusion of osteogenesis induced hADSCs was given to 20 ovariectomised Wistar rats three months after ovariectomy (test group and 20 ovariectomised rats were kept as controls. Rats were sacrificed 35 days after infusion and tibial cross sections at the level of tibio-fibular joint were stained with H and E and Masson's trichrome. The digital slide images were viewed using Aperio Image Scope software. Results: The results showed that there was new bone formation in the test group, indicated by osteoid formation and osteoblasts. There was significant increase in the cortical thickness in the test group when compared with the control group. There was no significant increase in trabecular volume when compared to the control group. Conclusions: hADSCs after osteogenic induction may have the potential to enhance new bone formation and may be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3224-3229

  19. Brain dysfunctions in Wistar rats exposed to municipal landfill leachates

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    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain damage induced by Olusosun and Aba-Eku municipal landfill leachates was investigated in Wistar rats. Male rats were orally exposed to 1–25% concentrations of the leachates for 30 days. Catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations in the brain and serum of rats were evaluated; body and brain weight gain and histopathology were examined. There was significant (p < 0.05 decrease in body weight gain and SOD activity but increase in absolute and relative brain weight gain, MDA concentration and CAT activity in both brain and serum of treated rats. The biochemical parameters, which were more altered in the brain than serum, corroborated the neurologic lesions; neurodegeneration of purkinje cells with loss of dendrites, perineural vacuolations of the neuronal cytoplasm (spongiosis and neuronal necrosis in the brain. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, sulphates, ammonia, chloride and phosphate in the leachate samples were above standard permissible limits. The interactions of the neurotoxic constituents of the leachates induced the observed brain damage in the rats via oxidative damage. This suggests health risk in wildlife and human populations.

  20. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

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    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  1. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  2. Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2011 : Special Edition of Jointed Symposium of Kyoto University Global COE “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming” and Ajou University BK21

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear plant accident at Fukushima in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami has had a major impact on the energy strategy of Japan and the world. From a global perspective, approach to energy is of greater and greater consequence. The Global Center of Excellence (COE) Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, with the support of university faculty members, has established an international education and research platform to foster educators, researchers, and policy makers who can develop technologies and propose policies for establishing a CO2 zero-emission society no longer dependent on fossil fuels by the year 2100. Since 2008, a program called “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming—Toward a CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System” has been in progress at Kyoto University. A third international symposium, titled “Zero-Carbon Energy, Kyoto 2011,” was held jointly with Ajou University, Korea, in August 2011, and this book is a compila...

  3. Historical on the Norm Related to the CO{sub 2} Emission Integrated in the Protocol of Kyoto; Historico sobre la Normativa Relacionada con las Emisiones de CO{sub 2} Integrado en el Protocolo de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villadoniga, M.

    2006-07-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was approved in 1992 to respond to the worl-wide concern about the warming of the planet. The primary target was the stabilization of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, in an attempt to reduce to the minimum the degradation of the environment caused by humans. By virtue of the Convention, the Parts2 are committed to reach their objectives in the reduction of the emissions. A Conference of the Parts was stablished to promote the effective application of the Convention. The third Conference of the Parts, celebrated in Kyoto (Japan, 1997) approved, by consensus, the denominated Kyoto Protocol, in which 39 developed countries and countries with economies in transition were committed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases between years 2008 and 2012 in a 5.2 global percent with respect to the 1990 levels. Three {sup f}lexibility mechanisms{sup w}ere stablished to help the Parts to reach their objectives: the emissions trading, the clean development mechanism and the joint implementation. Within the European Union (EU), a redistribution of the general objective among his States Members is allowed: {sup G}reenhouse gas emissions trading{sup .} (Author)

  4. Sex-Related Difference in Nitric Oxide Metabolites Levels after Nephroprotectant Supplementation Administration against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rat Model: The Role of Vitamin E, Erythropoietin, or N-Acetylcysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Pezeshki, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration in serum is altered by cisplatin (CP), and NO influences CP-induced nephrotoxicity. The effect of nephroprotectant agent supplementation (vitamin E, human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO), or n-acetylcysteine (NAC)) on the NO metabolites levels after CP administration in the two genders was determined. Methods. Sixty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 10 groups. Male and female rats in different groups received vehicle (saline), CP (7...

  5. Efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre as taxas de fertilidade de ratas Wistar Effects of antiretroviral drugs on fertility of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonio Figueiró Filho

    2002-12-01

    írus da imunodeficiência humana.PURPOSE: to evaluate experimentally the effects of antiretroviral drugs used alone and in association upon the fertility of pregnant Wistar rats and the perinatal effects on the offspring. METHODS: adult female pregnant Wistar rats weighing 200-230 g were used. The antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT, lamivudine (3TC and nelfinavir (NFV were used alone and in association at daily doses of ten times the dose normally used in pregnant women, proportionally to the animal's body weight. Seven groups were studied, including the control one. The experiment started on day 0 and the pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 21. The alive and dead fetuses, the total implantation sites and the total numbers of corporea lutea were used to calculate the fertility values. The statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test and by the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: there were no significant statistical differences regarding preimplantation loss and implantation efficiency values of the rats treated with isolated and associated antiretroviral drugs. There was a significant increase in the postimplantation loss values (control group: 7.6%; drug groups variation: 20.2-26.7%, a decrease in the fetal viability values (control group: 92.4%, drug groups variation: 73.3-79.8%, and a decreasing number of fetuses per animal (control group: 14.7; drug groups variation: 11.1-12.7. There was a significant weight reduction of the female rats and of the offspring of animals treated with 3TC, AZT + 3TC and AZT + 3TC + NFV. CONCLUSION: with the administration of high antiretroviral doses, important fertility effects could be observed, which showed that less histotoxic antiretroviral drugs must be studied in order to warrant the safety of using these medicines in pregnant HIV-1 - infected women.

  6. Bill project authorizing the ratification of the amendment to the Kyoto protocol of the 11 December 1997 - Nr 1880

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bill project first recalls the context of adoption of the amendment (objectives of the Kyoto protocol for the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions, adoption of the amendment in Durban to extend these commitments over a new eight-year long period). It indicates and describes the scope of the amendment according to its two articles and in relationship with the Kyoto protocol. The text of the amendment is provided, and then the text of the French bill project authorizing its ratification. This bill project also recalls the context, indicates the objectives of the amendment, discusses the estimated consequences (notably constraints) of its implementation in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and, more generally, in the struggle against climate change. These consequences are economic and financial, environmental, legal (and in relationship with the existing legal framework) and administrative. The history of the negotiation process is briefly recalled. It is noticed that five countries have already ratified the amendment at the time of publication of this bill project. Some remarks are made regarding the application of the amendment to the French overseas territories

  7. Report of researches by common utilization of facilities in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, latter half of fiscal year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical report of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute is published any time to immediately report on the results of the functional tests of various experimental facilities, the test results for the products made for trial, radiation control, the situation of waste treatment, the data required for research and experiment such as the reports of study meetings, the conspicuous results obtained amid researches, new processes, and the discussion on other papers and reports. In this report, the title, the names of reporters and the summary of 65 researches carried out by the common utilization of the facilities in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute are collected. The themes of the researches are such as Moessbauer spectroscopic study of ferrocene and its derivative iodides by I-129, decomposition of cadmium telluride during heat treatment, element distribution in resource living things and environmental substances produced in northern ocean, radioactivation analysis of trace elements in blood of tumor-bearing animals, radioactivation analysis of noble metal elements in geochemical samples, relaxation phenomena by gamma-gamma perturbation angle correlation, separation of components in Allende meteorite and their radioactivation analysis, measurement of cross section of Pa-231 (n, gamma) reaction and others. (Kako, I.)

  8. A review of research activities at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University in view of research publication information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database of research publication was constructed for the purpose of grasping all of the research activities at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. The database named KURRIP collects all of the research publications of the Institute by not only its own staff but also visiting scientists. The publications are in the form of original papers, review papers, papers in proceedings, short notes and letters, synopses over 3 pages presented orally at scientific meeting, books and doctoral theses. At present, the KURRIP database contains the information on 6,210 items which have been published for 30 years since the Institute was established as an interuniversity research institute for joint use of a research reactor and other related large facilities in 1963. By utilizing the KURRIP database, the analyses have been done: (1) affiliation of the authors, (2) kind of publications, (3) classification of publishers, (4) research fields, and (5) experimental facilities. The KURRIP database is now stored in the Data Processing Center of Kyoto University and can be utilized through a computer center at one of the main national universities in Japan. (author)

  9. Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral and histopathological damages in Wistar rats exposed to ACR. Reduction of oxidative stress can be considered as an important mechanism of neuroprotective effects of crocin against ACR-induced toxicity.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of ametryn effects in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tamires; Cancian, Graziela; Neodini, Daniella N R; Mano, Deiviston R S; Capucho, Cristina; Predes, Fabrícia S; Barbieri, Renata; Oliveira, Camila A; Pigoso, Acácio A; Dolder, Heidi; Severi-Aguiar, Grasiela D C

    2015-10-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane planting in the world. Extensive use of ametryn, a triazine herbicide, in sugar cane agriculture and the properties of this herbicide suggest it could be present in the environment as a potential contaminant of soil, surface water, groundwater, and river sediment. In order to clarify the mechanism through which ametryn could be toxic, an in vivo study with Wistar rats was conducted using hematological, biochemical, molecular, morphological and genotoxic approaches. For this purpose, two sub-lethal ametryn concentrations (15 mg and 30 mg/kg/day) were administered to 42 rats divided into three groups (n=12) by gavage during 56 days, whereupon blood, liver and bone marrow were collected. The results showed ametryn genotoxic activity by in vivo micronuclei testing. This event probably occurred as consequence of oxidative stress induction demonstrated by GSTM1 transcript levels increase (indicating complexation between ametryn and/or metabolites with GSH) and by SOD activity decrease. Also, Mn-SOD transcripts were increased, probably avoiding mtDNA damage caused by EROS. These mechanisms displayed hepatic stellate cell (HSCs) activation because two major biomarkers were regulated, connexin and cadherin. N-cad transcripts were increased on both exposed groups while E-cad decreased in the T1 group, indicating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, Cx43 transcripts were decreased suggesting an increase in collagen content. Volumetric proportion of sinusoids was significantly decreased in T1 group and no significant alteration in hepatocyte volume was observed, indicating an increase in the space of Disse, due to fibrosis. Hepatocyte nuclei showed significant decrease in diameter and volume. Few hematological alterations were found. We emphasize the importance of other approaches, such as cell death and proliferation assays, so that ametryn toxicity can better be understood. PMID:26310382

  11. Wound healing activity of Abroma augusta in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanbhag T; Dattachaudhuri A; Shenoy S; Bairy KL

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing profile of alcoholic extract of Abroma au-gusta and its effect on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in Wistar rats.Methods:An alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta was prepared.Three models were used -incision,excision and dead space wound models. Four groups of animals were used for each model.They were administered 2% gum acacia (orally),alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta (orally),dexamethasone (intramuscularly)and combination of Abroma augusta (o-rally)with dexamethasone (intramuscularly)respectively.The parameters studied included breaking strength of incision wound,period of epithelization and wound contraction rate in the excision wound,breaking strength,dry weight and hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in dead space wound.Results:The breaking strength of incision wound of Abroma augusta treated group was significantly increased (P <0.001) while that of dexamethasone treated animals was significantly decreased (P <0.001)as compared to control. Coadministration of dexamethasone and Abroma augusta significantly reversed the dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in incision wound model (P <0.001).Animals treated with both dexamethasone and Abroma augusta also showed significant (P <0.004)increase in the breaking strength of granulation tissue in the dead space wound and a significant (P <0.011)reduction in the period of epithelization in the excision wound as compared to rats treated with dexamethasone alone.The rate of wound contraction was not significantly altered in any of the groups.Conclusion:The alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta was found to reverse dexametha-sone suppressed wound healing.

  12. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats--A Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ock Kim, Young; Agastian, Paul; Baru, Rajasekhar; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-28

    Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups--control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP--were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD's PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%), immunity (14%), neurological related (12%) and transporter proteins (2%), whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were oxidative stress (9%), immunity (6%), neurological (14%) and transporter proteins (9%). It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  13. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats—A Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups—control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg of APAP—were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD’s PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%, immunity (14%, neurological related (12% and transporter proteins (2%, whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were  oxidative stress (9%, immunity (6%, neurological (14% and transporter proteins (9%. It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  14. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  15. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  16. Costs of certified emission reductions under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the cost structure of certified emission reductions (CERs) through various types of projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Using the CDM project data, the costs of CERs and their variation across technology and over time and space are estimated by applying alternative functional forms and specifications. Results show that the average cost of CERs decreases with the project scale and duration, scale and duration effects significantly vary across project types, and there is an upward trend in costs. The results also show that the distribution of the projects in the CDM portfolio or a given location does not strictly follow the relative cost structure, nor does the distribution of the CDM projects in different host countries follow the principle of comparative advantage. More than 84% of the CDM portfolio consists of various energy projects with substantially higher costs of CERs than afforestation and reforestation, industrial and landfill gas reduction, and methane avoidance projects, which are only 12% of all projects. While per unit cost of abatement plays an important role in the bottom-up and top-down models to evaluate emission reduction potential and analyze policy alternatives, the findings contradict the presumption of such models that project investors seek out low-cost opportunities. At the aggregate level, the cost of CER by the projects in Asia and Europe is similar but higher than those hosted in Africa, Americas, and Oceania. Yet more than 83% of the projects in the CDM portfolio are located in Asia; more than 69% of the projects are in China and India alone. China appears to have a comparative advantage (i.e., lowest opportunity cost) in energy efficiency projects, while India has a comparative advantage in hydro power projects and Brazil has a comparative advantage in wind power projects. In contrast, energy efficiency category accounts for only 8% of the CDM projects in China, hydro power

  17. Physical exercise versus fluoxetine: antagonistic effects on cortical spreading depression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelle Costa Monteiro, Heloísa; Lima Barreto-Silva, Nathália; Elizabete Dos Santos, Gracyelle; de Santana Santos, Amanda; Séfora Bezerra Sousa, Mariana; Amâncio-Dos-Santos, Ângela

    2015-09-01

    The antidepressant fluoxetine and physical exercise exert similar effects on the serotoninergic system by increasing brain serotonin availability, and both show antagonistic action on cortical excitability. Here we provide the first assessment of the interaction of the two together on cortical spreading depression (CSD) in young adult rats. Wistar rats (40-60 days of life) received fluoxetine (10mg/kg/d, orogastrically) or an equivalent volume of water. Half of the animals from each condition were assigned to perform physical exercise in a treadmill, and the other half formed the sedentary (non-treadmill) control groups. Body parameters (Lee index and thoracic and abdominal circumferences) and the velocity of CSD propagation were investigated. Fluoxetine+exercise animals had less weight gain (78.68±3.19g) than either the fluoxetine-only (93.34±4.77g) or exercise-only group (97.04±3.48g), but body parameters did not differ among them. The velocity of CSD propagation was reduced in the fluoxetine-only and exercise-only groups compared to sedentary water controls (3.24±0.39mm/min). For the fluoxetine+exercise group, CSD velocity values were significantly lower (2.92±0.22mm/min) than for fluoxetine only (3.03±0.35mm/min); however, they were similar to values for the exercise-only group (2.96±0.23mm/min). These findings confirm the similar effects of fluoxetine and exercise and suggest a greater effect of physical exercise in reducing brain excitability. PMID:26004534

  18. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food craving in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, I C; de Oliveira, C; Vercelino, R; Souza, A; Laste, G; Medeiros, L F; Scarabelot, V L; Nunes, E A; Kuo, J; Fregni, F; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that food craving-an intense desire to consume a specific food (particularly foods high in sugar and fat)-can lead to obesity. This behavior has also been associated with abuse of other substances, such as drugs. Both drugs and food cause dependence by acting on brain circuitry involved in reward, motivation, and decision-making processes. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be activated following evocation and is implicated in alterations in food behavior and craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of modulates brain activity significantly, has emerged as a promising treatment to inhibit craving. This technique is considered safe and inexpensive; however, there is scant research using animal models. Such studies could help elucidate the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of eating disorders, including food craving. The aim of our study was to evaluate palatable food consumption in rats receiving tDCS treatment (anode right/cathode left). Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomized by weight and divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control, with no stimulation; sham, receiving daily 30 s tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days; and tDCS, receiving daily 20 min tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days. All rats were evaluated for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. A palatable food consumption test was performed at baseline and on treatment completion (24 h after the last tDCS session) under fasting and feeding conditions and showed that tDCS decreased food craving, thus corroborating human studies. This result confirms the important role of the prefrontal cortex in food behavior, which can be modulated by noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26972354

  19. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  20. Safety evaluation studies on Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L. seeds in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Datta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.  leaves and seeds are used in India as  food supplement and also in traditional medicine. We have assessed the safety of Garden cress (GC seeds by conducting acute and subchronic toxicity studies in adult Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity study, 0.5 –5.0 g/kg body weight of the GC seed powder was administered through diet to rats and obvious symptoms of toxicity and mortality were monitored for 72 h . Acute doses of GC seed powder did not induce any symptoms of toxicity or mortality of  rats. In subchronic toxicity study, 1.0 – 10.0% of the GC powder was administered to rats through diet for 14 weeks. Dietary feeding of GC seed powder did not produce any mortality, no significant changes in food intake, gain in body weight, relative weight of  organs, hematological parameters, macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organs, were observed between  experimental and control groups.  Clinical enzymes viz., LDH, SGPT were within normal levels, however, the serum ALP and SGOT were significantly increased in male rats receiving 5.0 and 10 % of GC seeds. The results showed that acute and subchronic feeding of GC seed for 14 weeks did not produce any toxic effects in male and female rats and thus can be considered non-toxic and safe.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are very popular and extensively used in the developing countries. Garden cress seeds and leaves are used in food preparations.  GC seeds are given to pregnant and lactating women as natural food supplement to increase milk secretion.  GC seeds are used in herbal based medicinal preparations. The data on the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants are essential to assess its safety to humans, particularly for its use in pharmaceutical preparations.