Sample records for adult volunteers challenged

  1. Challenges in volunteering from cancer care volunteers perspectives. (United States)

    Kamaludin, Kauthar Mohamad; Muhammad, Mazanah; Wahat, Nor Wahiza Abdul; Ibrahim, Rahimah


    The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.

  2. A scoping review of the experiences, benefits, and challenges involved in volunteer work among youth and young adults with a disability. (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally


    To develop a better understanding of the experiences of volunteer work among youth with disabilities. A scoping review was undertaken to assess the benefits and challenges of volunteering among youth with disabilities. Comprehensive searches using six international databases were conducted. Eligible articles included: (a) youth aged 30 or younger, with a disability; (b) empirical research on the benefits or challenges of volunteering; (c) published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1980 and 2014. Of the 1558 articles identified, 20 articles - involving 1409 participants, aged 12-30, across five countries - met the inclusion criteria. Studies linked volunteering to the development of human capital (i.e. practical experience, improved self-determination, self-confidence, coping), enhanced social capital (i.e. social and communication skills, social inclusion) and improved cultural capital (i.e. helping others, contributing to community). Many youth with disabilities also encountered challenges - including lack of accessible volunteer opportunities, difficulties arranging transportation, and negative attitudes from potential supervisors. Young people with disabilities are willing and able to volunteer, and they report benefits of volunteering; however, they face many challenges in finding suitable volunteer positions. More rigorous research is needed to understand the health and social benefits of volunteering and how it can help youth develop career pathways. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians, educators and parents should discuss the benefits of volunteering with youth with disabilities and assist them in finding placements that match their interests and abilities. Managers and clinicians should consider incorporating volunteering into vocational rehabilitation programming (i.e. addressing how to find placements and connecting youth to organisations). Clinicians should encourage youth to take part in social and extracurricular activities to help build their

  3. Understanding paratyphoid infection: study protocol for the development of a human model of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A challenge in healthy adult volunteers. (United States)

    McCullagh, David; Dobinson, Hazel C; Darton, Thomas; Campbell, Danielle; Jones, Claire; Snape, Matthew; Stevens, Zoe; Plested, Emma; Voysey, Merryn; Kerridge, Simon; Martin, Laura B; Angus, Brian; Pollard, Andrew J


    This study will develop the first human challenge model of paratyphoid infection which may then be taken forward to evaluate paratyphoid vaccine candidates. Salmonella Paratyphi A is believed to cause a quarter of the estimated 20 million cases of enteric fever annually. Epidemiological evidence also suggests that an increasing proportion of the enteric fever burden is attributable to S. Paratyphi infection meriting further attention and interest in vaccine development. Assessment of paratyphoid vaccine efficacy in preclinical studies is complicated by the lack of a small animal model and the human-restricted nature of the infection. The use of experimental human infection in healthy volunteers provides an opportunity to address these problems in a cost-effective manner. Volunteers will ingest virulent S. Paratyphi A bacteria (NVGH308 strain) with a bicarbonate buffer solution to establish the infectious dose resulting in an 'attack rate' of 60-75%. Using an a priori decision-making algorithm, the challenge dose will be escalated or de-escalated to achieve the target attack rate, with the aim of reaching the study end point while exposing as few individuals as possible to infection. The attack rate will be determined by the proportion of paratyphoid infection in groups of 20 healthy adult volunteers, with infection being defined by one or more positive blood cultures (microbiological end point) and/or fever, defined as an oral temperature exceeding 38 °C sustained for at least 12 h (clinical end point); 20-80 participants will be required. Challenge participants will start a 2-week course of an oral antibiotic on diagnosis of infection, or after 14 days follow-up. The strict eligibility criterion aims to minimise risk to participants and their close contacts. Ethical approval has been obtained. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. NCT02100397. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  4. Are Volunteer Satisfaction and Enjoyment Related to Cessation of Volunteering by Older Adults? (United States)

    Okun, Morris; Infurna, Frank J; Hutchinson, Ianeta


    Previous research indicates that volunteer satisfaction and enjoyment do not exert direct effects on the cessation of volunteering by older adults. This study examined whether satisfaction with and enjoyment of volunteering indirectly affect volunteer cessation via hours volunteered. Our sample consisted of participants in the Americans' Changing Lives study (N = 380) who were 65 years old and older and who volunteered at Wave 1. Volunteer satisfaction, volunteer enjoyment, hours volunteered, and several covariates were assessed at Wave 1, and volunteer cessation was assessed 3 years later at Wave 2. Volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment were positively associated with hours volunteered, and more hours volunteered was associated with decreased likelihood of volunteer cessation. The indirect effects of volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment on volunteer cessation via hours volunteered were -.023 (p = .059) and -.036 (p = .015), respectively. The dynamics of volunteer cessation are important because a volunteer shortage is forecasted and because the benefits of volunteering may attenuate when volunteering stops. Future research should test the proposed causal sequence using longitudinal data with at least 3 waves. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. The Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Volunteering on Secondary School Completion and Adult Volunteering (United States)

    Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.


    This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and…

  6. Organizational support and volunteering benefits for older adults. (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy


    This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling was used to define the latent variables and to test direct and indirect relationships among organizational support, socioemotional benefits, and self-reported health. Organizational support (measured by choice of volunteer activity, training, and ongoing support) had significant direct associations with 2 latent factors of socioemotional benefits, that is, perceived contribution and personal benefits. Perceived contribution was significantly related to mental health. Additionally, older volunteers with lower socioeconomic status (SES) committed more hours and perceived more personal benefits than higher SES peers. These findings suggest that volunteer programs can provide various organizational supports to older volunteers, especially to low-SES volunteers, in order to promote the socioemotional and health benefits of volunteering to older adults. Psychological well-being of older adults can be improved through engagement in meaningful volunteer activities and contribution to others.

  7. Volunteers: A Challenge For Extension Workers: Developing Volunteer Leaders From Disadvantaged Families. (United States)

    Partin, Minerva O.; And Others

    A series of guidelines for use by Extension agents, as they involve socially and economically disadvantaged youth and adults in volunteer leadership roles in rural and urban Extension programs, is presented. Section headings are: Know Your Audience, Establish Rapport, Levels of Leadership, Leader Development, Leadership Roles, Volunteer…

  8. Understanding paratyphoid infection: study protocol for the development of a human model of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A challenge in healthy adult volunteers


    McCullagh, D.; Dobinson, H.C.; Darton, T.; Campbell, D.; Jones, C.; Snape, M.; Stevens, Z.; Plested, E.; Voysey, M.; Kerridge, S.; Martin, L.B.; Angus, B.; Pollard, A.J.


    INTRODUCTION: This study will develop the first human challenge model of paratyphoid infection which may then be taken forward to evaluate paratyphoid vaccine candidates. Salmonella Paratyphi A is believed to cause a quarter of the estimated 20 million cases of enteric fever annually. Epidemiological evidence also suggests that an increasing proportion of the enteric fever burden is attributable to S. Paratyphi infection meriting further attention and interest in vaccine development. Assessme...

  9. Motivating and Retaining Adult Volunteer 4-H Leaders. (United States)

    Culp, Ken, III


    Adult volunteer 4-H leaders (494 current, 40 former) identified their primary motivations as follows: youth (issue/cause motive), 4-H (affiliation motive), and perceived need (personal motive). Lack of adult assistance and time influenced resignation from the program. (SK)

  10. A randomized controlled trial to promote volunteering in older adults. (United States)

    Warner, Lisa M; Wolff, Julia K; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne


    Volunteering is presumed to confer health benefits, but interventions to encourage older adults to volunteer are sparse. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial with 280 community-dwelling older German adults was conducted to test the effects of a theory-based social-cognitive intervention against a passive waiting-list control group and an active control intervention designed to motivate physical activity. Self-reports of weekly volunteering minutes were assessed at baseline (5 weeks before the intervention) as well as 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Participants in the treatment group increased their weekly volunteering minutes to a greater extent than participants in the control groups 6 weeks after the intervention. We conclude that a single, face-to-face group session can increase volunteering among older community-dwelling adults. However, the effects need some time to unfold because changes in volunteering were not apparent 2 weeks after the intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Volunteers in Specialist Palliative Care: A Survey of Adult Services in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Burbeck, Rachel; Low, Joe; Sampson, Elizabeth L.; Bravery, Ruth; Hill, Matthew; Morris, Sara; Ockenden, Nick; Payne, Sheila


    Abstract Background: Worldwide, the demand for specialist palliative care is increasing but funding is limited. The role of volunteers is underresearched, although their contribution reduces costs significantly. Understanding what volunteers do is vital to ensure services develop appropriately to meet the challenges faced by providers of palliative care. Objective: The study's objective is to describe current involvement of volunteers with direct patient/family contact in U.K. specialist palliative care. Design: An online survey was sent to 290 U.K. adult hospices and specialist palliative care services involving volunteers covering service characteristics, involvement and numbers of volunteers, settings in which they are involved, extent of involvement in care services, specific activities undertaken in each setting, and use of professional skills. Results: The survey had a 67% response rate. Volunteers were most commonly involved in day care and bereavement services. They entirely ran some complementary therapy, beauty therapy/hairdressing, and pastoral/faith-based care services, and were involved in a wide range of activities, including sitting with dying patients. Conclusions: This comprehensive survey of volunteer activity in U.K. specialist palliative care provides an up-to-date picture of volunteer involvement in direct contact with patients and their families, such as providing emotional care, and the extent of their involvement in day and bereavement services. Further research could focus on exploring their involvement in bereavement care. PMID:24475743

  12. Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge in malaria-naïve and semi-immune Colombian volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Arévalo-Herrera

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been recently achieved in the development of Plasmodium vivax challenge infections in humans, which are essential for vaccine and drug testing. With the goal of accelerating clinical development of malaria vaccines, the outcome of infections experimentally induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared.Seven malaria-naïve and nine semi-immune Colombian adults (n = 16 were subjected to the bites of 2-4 P. vivax sporozoite-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasitemia levels, malaria clinical manifestations, and immune responses were assessed and compared.All volunteers developed infections as confirmed by microscopy and RT-qPCR. No significant difference in the pre-patent period (mean 12.5 and 12.8 days for malaria-naïve and malaria-exposed, respectively was observed but naïve volunteers developed classical malaria signs and symptoms, while semi-immune volunteers displayed minor or no symptoms at the day of diagnosis. A malaria-naïve volunteer developed a transient low submicroscopic parasitemia that cured spontaneously. Infection induced an increase in specific antibody levels in both groups.Sporozoite infectious challenge was safe and reproducible in semi-immune and naïve volunteers. This model will provide information for simultaneous comparison of the protective efficacy of P. vivax vaccines in naïve and semi-immune volunteers under controlled conditions and would accelerate P. vivax vaccine NCT01585077.

  13. Volunteers' Experiences Delivering a Community-University Chronic Disease Health Awareness Program for South Asian Older Adults. (United States)

    Ford-Jones, Polly; Daly, Tamara


    Volunteers and voluntary organizations can connect preventative health care programs to communities and may play an important role in addressing the health needs of older adults. Despite this, tensions may exist in the structures that drive volunteers and voluntary organizations representing immigrant communities to provide unpaid labour to augment and supplement health care services. Furthermore, organizational challenges may exist for community agencies relying on volunteers to sustain a health screening and education program. The intervention program was led by one voluntary agency specifically for South Asian communities in partnership with the university and five local organizations. This paper draws on volunteer surveys (n = 22) and key informant interviews (n = 12) to detail volunteer experiences providing this intervention. Volunteers were university students and other community volunteers. A total of 810 adults participated in the intervention within the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada between October 2014 and June 2016. We found that volunteers often used their experience as a 'stepping stone' position to other education or work. They also gained from the knowledge and used it to educate themselves and their family members and friends. This paper provides a critical reflection on the role of volunteers in a preventative and educational healthcare intervention program for older adults from the South Asian community. Tensions exist when relying on volunteer labour for the implementation of preventative community health care programming and must be explored to ensure program sustainability as well as equity within the health care system.

  14. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings (United States)

    Olsen, Pamela


    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  15. Value-Expressive Volunteer Motivation and Volunteering by Older Adults: Relationships With Religiosity and Spirituality. (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; O'Rourke, Holly P; Keller, Brian; Johnson, Kathryn A; Enders, Craig


    This study investigates the interplay among religiosity, spirituality, value-expressive volunteer motivation, and volunteering. We examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering and whether religiosity moderated the relations between (a) spirituality and value-expressive volunteer motivation and (b) value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering. After applying multiple imputation procedures to data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study among participants 64-67 years old who survived beyond 2004 (N = 8,148), we carried out regression analyses to predict value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering from religiosity and spirituality controlling for demographic variables, physical, emotional, and cognitive health, health risk behaviors, and personality traits. Both religiosity and spirituality were significant (p volunteer motivation. Value-expressive volunteer motivation and religiosity were significant (p volunteering. Religiosity amplified the relation between value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering (p volunteer motivation (p > .45). Religiosity may provide the way, and value-expressive volunteer motivation the will, to volunteer. The implications of our findings for the forecasted shortage of older volunteers are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Factors Related to Motivating Adult Somalis with Refugee Status to Volunteer for 4-H (United States)

    Mason, Mitchell D.; Ouellette, Kristy L.


    Focus group interviews were held with adult Somali immigrants to assess their likelihood of volunteering for 4-H in Maine. This qualitative study was undertaken to identify best practices for engaging the growing Somali-Mainer population as a volunteer base. Results of the study demonstrate that Somali immigrant adults are willing to volunteer for…

  17. Identifying Continuing and Non-Continuing Adult 4-H Volunteers: How Have They Evolved over Time? (United States)

    Culp, Ken, III


    Responses from 534 of 1,183 current and former adult volunteer 4-H leaders in Indiana were used to develop a profile of typical volunteers. Continuing leaders had more children in 4-H, lived longer in the same location, spent less time per week volunteering, and were more positive about their individual club than were former leaders. (SK)

  18. Potential for intensive volunteering to promote the health of older adults in fair health. (United States)

    Barron, Jeremy S; Tan, Erwin J; Yu, Qilu; Song, Meilin; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P


    Volunteer service opportunities for older adults may soon be expanded. Although volunteering is thought to provide health benefits for healthier older adults, it is not known whether older adults in less than very good health are suitable candidates for high-intensity volunteering and can derive health benefits. This manuscript presents a prospective analysis of 174 older adult volunteers serving in Experience Corps Baltimore, a high-intensity senior volunteer program in Baltimore, Maryland. Volunteers served > or =15 h per week, for a full school year, in elementary schools helping children with reading and other skills between 1999 and 2002. Volunteers were assessed with standardized questionnaires and performance-based testing including grip strength, walking speed, chair stand speed, and stair-climbing speed prior to school volunteering and at the end of the school year. Results were stratified by health status. Among 174 volunteers, 55% initially reported "good" and 12% "fair" or "poor" health status. At baseline, those in fair health reported higher frequencies of disease and disability than volunteers in excellent or very good health. After volunteering, a majority of volunteers in every baseline health status category described increased strength and energy. Those in fair health were significantly more likely to display improved stair-climbing speed than those in good or excellent/very good health (100.0% vs. 53.4% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.05), and many showed clinically significant increases in walking speed of >0.5 m/s. Satisfaction and retention rates were high for all health status groups. Clinicians should consider whether their patients in fair or good health, as well as those in better health, might benefit from high-intensity volunteer programs. Productive activity such as volunteering may be an effective community-based approach to health promotion for older adults.

  19. Leaving home: how older adults prepare for intensive volunteering. (United States)

    Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W; Grainger, Sarah


    Using the concepts in the Fogg Behavioral Model, 37 volunteers aged 50 and older described their preparation for intensive volunteering with faith-based organizations. Their multistage preparation process included decision points where respondents needed to choose whether to drop out or continue preparation. Ability was a stronger determinant of serving than motivation, particularly in terms of health and finances. This model can facilitate understanding of the barriers to volunteering and aid organizations in tailoring support at crucial points for potential older volunteers in intensive service. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Cognitive Social Capital and Formal Volunteering Among Older Adults in Urban China: Does Gender Matter? (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Peng, Changmin; Jiang, Nan; Lou, Vivian W Q


    This study examined the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between cognitive social capital and formal volunteering among older adults in urban China. Cognitive social capital refers to individuals' perceptions of their social relationships in local communities. We used quota sampling to recruit 456 older adults aged 60 years and older from 16 communities of Gusu district, Suzhou city, in late 2015. Multiple group analysis was used to examine the proposed model. Gender had a moderating effect on the relationship between cognitive social capital and volunteering. The associations between cognitive social capital and volunteering were higher among older men than older women. The findings highlight the important role of cognitive social capital in influencing formal volunteering among older adults in urban Chinese contexts. The findings are particularly important for enhancing volunteering among older adults across different social and economic backgrounds. Policy and intervention implications are discussed.

  1. Motives for volunteering are associated with mortality risk in older adults. (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Lou, Alina; Brown, Stephanie


    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of motives for volunteering on respondents' mortality risk 4 years later. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine whether motives for volunteering predicted later mortality risk, above and beyond volunteering itself, in older adults from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Covariates included age, gender, socioeconomic variables, physical, mental, and cognitive health, health risk behaviors, personality traits, received social support, and actual volunteering behavior. Replicating prior work, respondents who volunteered were at lower risk for mortality 4 years later, especially those who volunteered more regularly and frequently. However, volunteering behavior was not always beneficially related to mortality risk: Those who volunteered for self-oriented reasons had a mortality risk similar to nonvolunteers. Those who volunteered for other-oriented reasons had a decreased mortality risk, even in adjusted models. This study adds to the existing literature on the powerful effects of social interactions on health and is the first study to our knowledge to examine the effect of motives on volunteers' subsequent mortality. Volunteers live longer than nonvolunteers, but this is only true if they volunteer for other-oriented reasons.

  2. Transformational Leadership and Its Relationship to Adult 4-H Volunteers' Sense of Empowerment in Youth Development Settings (United States)

    Rose, Pamela


    This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of 4-H Youth Development Educators to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. There were 498 Oregon adult 4-H volunteers randomly selected to participate. Participants rated the leadership style of their 4-H Youth Development Educator (YDE) using Bass…

  3. Volunteering and health benefits in general adults: cumulative effects and forms. (United States)

    Yeung, Jerf W K; Zhang, Zhuoni; Kim, Tae Yeun


    Although the health benefits of volunteering have been well documented, no research has examined its cumulative effects according to other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering on multiple health outcomes in the general adult public. This study examined other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering in cumulative contribution to health outcomes (mental and physical health, life satisfaction, social well-being and depression). Data were drawn from the Survey of Texas Adults 2004, which contains a statewide population-based sample of adults (n = 1504). Multivariate linear regression and Wald test of parameters equivalence constraint were used to test the relationships. Both forms of volunteering were significantly related to better health outcomes (odds ratios = 3.66% to 11.11%), except the effect of self-oriented volunteering on depression. Other-oriented volunteering was found to have better health benefits than did self-volunteering. Volunteering should be promoted by public health, education and policy practitioners as a kind of healthy lifestyle, especially for the social subgroups of elders, ethnic minorities, those with little education, single people, and unemployed people, who generally have poorer health and less participation in volunteering.

  4. Volunteering among Older Spanish Adults: Does the Type of Organization Matter? (United States)

    Celdran, Montserrat; Villar, Feliciano


    This study in Spain explored three aspects of older adult volunteering (motivations, satisfaction, and perceptions of benefits and drawbacks) and examines to what extent these aspects are influenced by the type of organization and other factors (sociodemographic variables and level of volunteering). The sample consisted of 88 older adults…

  5. The Feasibility of Creating Partnerships Between Palliative Care Volunteers and Healthcare Providers to Support Rural Frail Older Adults and Their Families: An Integrative Review. (United States)

    Connell, Braydon; Warner, Grace; Weeks, Lori E


    Background/Question: Volunteers are important in the support of frail older adults requiring palliative care, especially in rural areas. However, there are challenges associated with volunteer supports related to training, management and capacity to work in partnership with healthcare providers (HCP). This review addresses the question: What is the feasibility of a volunteer-HCP partnership to support frail older adults residing in rural areas, as they require palliative care? This integrative review identified ten articles that met the identified search criteria. Articles were appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists, designed for use across a range of quantitative and qualitative studies. Studies were drawn from international sources to understand how volunteer roles vary by culture and organization; the majority of studies were conducted in North America. Studies varied in methodology, including quantitative, qualitative and educational commentary. Identified factors that were crucial to the feasibility of volunteer-HCP partnerships in rural areas included volunteer training dynamics, relationships between volunteers and HCP, and rural environmental factors. Preliminary evidence indicates that a volunteer-HCP palliative partnership is feasible. However, training policies/procedures, volunteer-HCP relationships, and rural specific designs impact the feasibility of this partnership. Additional research is needed to further establish the feasibility of implementing these partnerships in rural settings.

  6. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults. (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young


    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  7. The Challenge of Volunteering Frequency in Croatia--Can Volunteers Contribute to the Social Capital Development Once a Year? (United States)

    Culum, Bojana; Forcic, Gordana


    Volunteering is one of the strongest elements of shaping democratic change within the society. It is also an essential element in citizenship development and in re-establishing a sense of community. Volunteering empowers individuals, builds solidarity, encourages participation and protects vulnerable groups against social and economic…

  8. Volunteering by older adults and risk of mortality: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; Yeung, Ellen WanHeung; Brown, Stephanie


    Organizational volunteering has been touted as an effective strategy for older adults to help themselves while helping others. Extending previous reviews, we carried out a meta-analysis of the relation between organizational volunteering by late-middle-aged and older adults (minimum age = 55 years old) and risk of mortality. We focused on unadjusted effect sizes (i.e., bivariate relations), adjusted effect sizes (i.e., controlling for other variables such as health), and interaction effect sizes (e.g., the joint effect of volunteering and religiosity). For unadjusted effect sizes, on average, volunteering reduced mortality risk by 47%, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 38% to 55%. For adjusted effect sizes, on average, volunteering reduced mortality risk by 24%, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 16% to 31%. For interaction effect sizes, we found preliminary support that as public religiosity increases, the inverse relation between volunteering and mortality risk becomes stronger. The discussion identifies several unresolved issues and directions for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Volunteer Client Adult Attachment, Memory for In-Session Emotion, and Mood Awareness: An Affect Regulation Perspective (United States)

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Gelso, Charles J.


    In this study, the authors examined relations between volunteer client adult attachment and both (a) memory for negative affect occurring within the first session of therapy and (b) mood awareness (mood labeling and mood monitoring). Participants were 80 volunteer clients (students with a personal issue who volunteered to participate in the…

  10. Connecting Socially Isolated Older Rural Adults with Older Volunteers through Expressive Arts. (United States)

    MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather


    Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation.

  11. A One-to-One Programme for At-Risk Readers Delivered by Older Adult Volunteers (United States)

    Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Devaney, Carmel; Canavan, John; Russell, Dan; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; O'Brien, Aoife


    This paper is based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation of a reading programme delivered by older adult volunteers for at-risk early readers. Wizards of Words (WoW) was targeted at socially disadvantaged children in first and second grade experiencing delays in reading but who were not eligible for formal literacy supports. The…

  12. Volunteering is prospectively associated with health care use among older adults. (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Konrath, Sara H


    Although observational and experimental studies have shown that volunteering is linked with better mental health, physical health, and health behaviors, no studies have examined whether volunteering is associated with patterns of health care use. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether volunteering was associated with a greater use of preventive health care services, but fewer doctor visits and nights spent in the hospital. Participants (n = 7168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 51, and tracked for one wave (2 years). Logistic regression and generalized linear models were used for analyses. In analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic factors and baseline health, volunteers were 30% more likely to receive flu shots (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.16-1.47), 47% more likely to receive cholesterol tests (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.24-1.74); female volunteers were 53% more likely to receive mammograms/x-rays (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.28-1.83) and 21% more likely to receive Pap smears (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.03-1.41); male volunteers were 59% more likely to receive prostate exams (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.29-1.95). In a model that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, volunteers spent 38% fewer nights in the hospital (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.52-0.76), however volunteering was not associated with frequency of doctor visits (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02). The association between volunteering and number of nights spent in the hospital was minimally affected after adjusting for potential confounding (baseline health) and explanatory variables (health behaviors, social integration, stress, positive psychological factors, personality). This is the first known study to examine the association between volunteering and health care use. If future studies replicate these findings, the results may be used to inform the development of new

  13. The volunteer program in a Children's Hospice. (United States)

    Duggal, Shalu; Farah, Peggy; Straatman, Lynn Patricia; Freeman, Leanne; Dickson, Susan


    Canuck Place Children's Hospice (CPCH) is regarded as one of the leading pediatric palliative care systems in the world. Since 1995, it has been providing hospice care free of charge to children and their families living with life-threatening conditions. The pediatric palliative hospice is a relatively new practice in health care, in comparison to the longstanding adult model. As a result, development and implementation of volunteer programs in pediatric hospices is not currently represented in literature. With over 300 volunteers at present, CPCH has built a successful program that can serve as a model in pediatric volunteer services. To present the unique volunteer roles and experience at CPCH, and share ways volunteers work to support the efforts of the clinical team. Strategies to address current challenges in the volunteer program are also addressed. Descriptive design. A current CPCH volunteer discusses the volunteer program. Interviews were conducted with the founding volunteer director of CPCH and current volunteers. The volunteer program at CPCH fully embraces the life of each child and family. Volunteer selection is the groundwork for ensuring a cohesive work force, while training equips volunteers with the knowledge to carry out their role with confidence. Areas of improvement that have been recognized include offering effective feedback to volunteers and delivering adequate level of training for non-direct care roles. The talents of volunteers at CPCH are diverse, and CPCH aims to recognize and thank volunteers for their continuous contributions.

  14. Background characteristics, resources and volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community: A longitudinal study. (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P


    The aim of the present study was to describe (in)formal volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community, and the longitudinal relationships between background characteristics, resources (social, cognitive and physical functioning, social capital) and volunteering. At baseline, a total of 945 (out of 1440) independently living Dutch older adults (aged ≥70 years) completed the questionnaire (66% response). Two years later, these respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire again, of which 588 (62%) responded. Of 945 respondents (43% male; mean age 77.5 ± 5.8 years, range 70-101 years), 34.7% were married and 83.3% were born in the Netherlands. Social capital, social functioning and physical functioning were significantly higher among volunteering older adults. Being born in the Netherlands, higher educational level, social capital and social functioning were related to formal volunteering activities at baseline, and also predicted these activities 2 years later. Regarding informal volunteering activities, we found a significant association with age, being born in the Netherlands, marital status, educational level, social capital and social functioning at baseline. Examining their predictive nature, we found that younger age, being born in the Netherlands, social capital and physical functioning were associated with engagement in informal volunteering activities 2 years later. The present study shows that older adults remain engaged in volunteering activities, and that background characteristics (e.g. ethnic background, education) and resources (social functioning, social capital) contribute to this engagement. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. A moderate financial incentive can increase effort, but not intelligence test performance in adult volunteers. (United States)

    Gignac, Gilles E


    A positive correlation between self-reported test-taking motivation and intelligence test performance has been reported. Additionally, some financial incentive experimental evidence suggests that intelligence test performance can be improved, based on the provision of financial incentives. However, only a small percentage of the experimental research has been conducted with adults. Furthermore, virtually none of the intelligence experimental research has measured the impact of financial incentives on test-taking motivation. Consequently, we conducted an experiment with 99 adult volunteers who completed a battery of intelligence tests under two conditions: no financial incentive and financial incentive (counterbalanced). We also measured self-reported test-taking importance and effort at time 1 and time 2. The financial incentive was observed to impact test-taking effort statistically significantly. By contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for the intelligence test performance scores. Finally, the intelligence test scores were found to correlate positively with both test-taking importance (r c  = .28) and effort (r c  = .37), although only effort correlated uniquely with intelligence (partial r c  = .26). In conjunction with other empirical research, it is concluded that a financial incentive can increase test-taking effort. However, the potential effects on intelligence test performance in adult volunteers seem limited. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The Role of Health Volunteers in Training Women Regarding Coping Strategies Using Self-Efficacy Theory: Barriers and Challenges Faced by Health Volunteers in Empowerment of Women (United States)

    Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Rokhbin, Moslem; Mani, Arash; Maghsoudi, Ahmad


    Introduction: Psychological distress is among physical and mental health threats, and health volunteers can play a critical role in empowerment of women. However, evidence has revealed a decline in health volunteers’ activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the challenges faced by health volunteers in empowerment of women. Methods: The participants’ knowledge level was assessed using a written test. Their perceived skills were also measured using Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations by Endler and Parker and Chesney’s Coping Self-efficacy Scale, respectively. The study data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 11.5 and were analyzed using chi-square, sample t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed a considerable increase in the intervention group health volunteers’ knowledge about stress, as well as their self-efficacy. Besides, a significant correlation was observed between self-efficacy and task-oriented strategy scores. However, no significant increase was found in this group’s coping strategies. The results also indicated a significant increase in the intervention group women’s knowledge about stress, but no significant change was observed in other constructs. Some challenging factors, such as managerial, personal, and interpersonal factors, were also detected that might have affected the results. Discussion: This study caused no considerable change in coping with stress, except for increasing the women’s knowledge in this regard. Considering the challenges identified in this study, programs should be developed for researchers and health center managers to improve this condition in future. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Volunteering and subjective well-being in midlife and older adults: the role of supportive social networks. (United States)

    Pilkington, Pamela D; Windsor, Tim D; Crisp, Dimity A


    This study examined the extent to which associations between volunteering and subjective well-being (SWB) could be related to volunteers having more supportive social networks relative to nonvolunteers. The sample consisted of 561 midlife and older adults (aged 55-94 years) from the TRAnsitions In Later Life study. Multiple mediation analyses examined associations between hours spent volunteering per week; availability of social support from friends, relatives, and neighbors; positive and negative social exchanges; and SWB. The results indicated that the higher life satisfaction and positive affect reported by those who volunteer at moderate levels (up to 7 hr per week) are related to their higher levels of positive social exchanges and greater availability of social support from friends and family, relative to nonvolunteers. Those who volunteer at higher levels (7 hr or more per week) also reported greater levels of positive affect in comparison to nonvolunteers, and this was related to their greater availability of social support from friends. Availability of support from friends accounted for the greatest proportion of the volunteering-SWB associations. The findings suggest that the positive SWB associated with volunteering is related to volunteers' more extensive friend and family networks.

  18. Volunteering as a Pathway to Productive and Social Engagement among Older Adults (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lee, Yung Soo; McCrary, Stacey; McBride, Amanda


    Introduction: Research on outcomes of volunteering in later life largely focuses on the health of volunteers. This is in contrast to studies of youth, where attention is directed toward the effects of volunteering on subsequent productive and citizen behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of volunteering on subsequent social and civic…

  19. Adult onset sporadic ataxias: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini


    Full Text Available Patients with adult onset non-familial progressive ataxia are classified in sporadic ataxia group. There are several disease categories that may manifest with sporadic ataxia: toxic causes, immune-mediated ataxias, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases, degenerative disorders and even genetic conditions. Considering heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of sporadic ataxias, the correct diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. In this review, the different disease categories that lead to sporadic ataxia with adult onset are discussed with special emphasis on their clinical and neuroimaging features, and diagnostic criteria.

  20. Consistent Safety and Infectivity in Sporozoite Challenge Model of Plasmodium vivax in Malaria-Naive Human Volunteers (United States)


    human volunteers with sporozoites. 6 A sporozoite challenge model has been available for P. falciparum for several decades and has led to...the reproduc- ibility of the infection. In those studies, sporozoites inoculated by < 5 mosquitoes led to an irregular infection in malaria-naive...particularly to Juana Vergara and Johanna Parra, for the vol- unteers’ recruitment and health assistance. We also thank Luz Amparo Martínez and all the

  1. [Volunteering in end-of-life care : Challenges, problems and perspectives]. (United States)

    Schneider, Werner


    Volunteering in the hospice movement has had a profound impact on generating awareness of hospice work and palliative care in the context of supporting dying persons and their relatives as well as on integrating respective services in the existing health care system. This paper focuses on two specific questions: First, it asks how society is changing with respect to dealing with dying and death, and more precisely with dying persons, which is recognizable by the integration of hospice work and palliative care in the healthcare system and related to the relevance of volunteering in the sense of a citizens' movement. Second, this paper asks what the specific roles of volunteers are as well as the possibilities and limits of voluntary practice in end-of-life care and accompaniment. To answer these questions, the pivotal objectives of the hospice movement - the transformation of the social awareness regarding dying and death, as well as the reorganization of "institutions of dying" - will first be outlined by reference to the concept of "good dying", a specific hospice attitude together with hospice culture and palliative competence. In a second step, the relevance of volunteering and the specific role of volunteers in the actual practice of hospice work and palliative care will be outlined alongside current indicators and recognizable alteration tendencies, before concluding with a discussion of the perspectives of hospices as a citizens' movement.

  2. Retired RNs: perceptions of volunteering. (United States)

    Cocca-Bates, Katherine C; Neal-Boylan, Leslie


    A qualitative study was done to explore the perceptions of volunteering among retired registered nurses (RNs) in Kansas. Participants were volunteers in formal nursing roles or were using their nursing knowledge and experience in non-nursing roles, such as church work. Regardless of the type of volunteer position, retired RNs reported that they use what they have learned as nurses when they volunteer. Volunteering benefits include enhanced self-worth, intellectual stimulation, reduced social isolation, and opportunities to help others. Increased paperwork, new technology, difficulty finding nursing-specific volunteer opportunities, resistance from health care organizations, and a lack of respect for what these nurses know are challenges and barriers to volunteering. Retired RNs have accumulated years of clinical nursing experience and can be helpful to employed nurses. Health care organizations should launch targeted efforts to recruit and utilize retired RN volunteers. Health care professionals who care for older adults should recommend volunteering as a healthful endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrition Risk in Home-Bound Older Adults: Using Dietician-Trained and Supervised Nutrition Volunteers for Screening and Intervention (United States)

    Laforest, Sophie; Goldin, Benita; Nour, Kareen; Roy, Marie-Andree; Payette, Helene


    Nutrition screening and early intervention in home-bound older adults are key to preventing unfavourable health outcomes and functional decline. This pilot study's objectives were (a) to test the reliability of the Elderly Nutrition Screening Tool (ENS [C]) when administered by dietician-trained and supervised nutrition volunteers, and (b) to…

  4. Reframing cooperation: Challenges in overcoming tensions between professional services and volunteer organizations providing parenting support in immigrant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzoni, E.


    Volunteer organizations can potentially partner with mainstream professional services to provide better parenting support to immigrant parents. This qualitative study of cooperation between professional agencies and volunteer organizations known as migrant volunteer and community organizations

  5. The pharmacokinetic profile of crocetin in healthy adult human volunteers after a single oral administration. (United States)

    Umigai, N; Murakami, K; Ulit, M V; Antonio, L S; Shirotori, M; Morikawa, H; Nakano, T


    Crocetin, a unique carotenoid with a short carbon chain length, is an active compound of saffron and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis used as traditional herbal medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of crocetin in healthy adult subjects. The study was conducted as an open-label, single dose escalation with 10 Filipino volunteers (5 men and 5 women). The subjects received a single dose of crocetin at three doses (7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg) in one week interval. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein before and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h after administration. Plasma concentrations of crocetin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crocetin was rapidly absorbed and detected within an hour of administration with a mean time to reach maximum concentration (T(max)) of crocetin ranging from 4.0 to 4.8 h. The mean values of C(max) and AUC(0-24h) ranged from 100.9 to 279.7 ng/ml and 556.5 to 1720.8 ng. h/ml respectively. C(max) and AUC values increased with dose proportional manner. Crocetin was eliminated from human plasma with a mean elimination half life (T(½) of 6.1 to 7.5 h. In summary, there were no serious adverse events up to 22.5 mg dose of crocetin while crocetin was found to be absorbed more quickly than the other carotenoids such as β-carotene, lutein and lycopene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults (United States)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  7. Attachment and separation-individuation process among young adults as volunteers in the field of psychosocial help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonida Kobal Možina


    Full Text Available Distinctions among different attachment styles often appear to be unclear. These distinction inadequacies also result from superficial knowledge of psychodynamic factors of the attachment system, which the concept of internal working models often neglects. In my research I have examined the appearance of specific object relations characteristics in the adulthood period. In other words, I have examined the solution of the separation-individuation process according to the internal working models of self and other, which exist in the background of the attachment system. Twenty-one young adult volunteers included in this research took part in a psychotherapeutic camp in order to help children and adolescents with psychosocial problems. Information was gathered with the Interpersonal Relations Questionnaire (Bartholomew in Horowitz, 1991, the Test of Object Relations (Žvelc, 1998 and with two semi-structured interviews. Among volunteers with a negative self-model, dimensions of symbiotic merging, egocentrism, separation anxiety and social isolation were more evident, whereas volunteers with a negative other-model expressed fear of engulfment more clearly. Results have confirmed that volunteers with prevailingly insecure attachment styles have problems with separation-individuation process and with achieving reciprocal autonomy.

  8. Towards a universal influenza vaccine: volunteer virus challenge studies in quarantine to speed the development and subsequent licensing. (United States)

    Oxford, John S


    There are now more than 5 experimental vaccine formulations which induce T and B cell immunity towards the internally situated virus proteins matrix (M1 and M2e) and nucleoprotein (NP), and towards stem and stalk regions of the HA which have a shared antigenic structure amongst many of the 17 influenza A virus sub types. Such 'universal vaccines' could be used, at least in theory, as a prophylactic stockpile vaccine for newly emerged epidemic and novel pandemic influenza A viruses or as a supplement to conventional HA/NA vaccines. My own laboratory has approached the problem from the clinical viewpoint by identifying CD4(+) cells which are present in influenza infected volunteers who resist influenza infection. We have established precisely which peptides in M and NP proteins react with these immune CD4 cells. These experimental vaccines induce immunity in animal models but with a single exception no data have been published on protection against influenza virus infection in humans. The efficacy of the latter vaccine is based on vaccinia virus (MVA) as a carrier and was analyzed in a quarantine unit. Given the absence of induced HI antibody in the new universal vaccines a possible licensing strategy is a virus challenge model in quarantine whereby healthy volunteers can be immunized with the new vaccine and thereafter deliberately infected and clinical signs recorded alongside quantities of virus excreted and compared with unvaccinated controls. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge in malaria-naïve and semi-immune Colombian volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Forero-Peña, David A.; Rubiano, Kelly


    Background: Significant progress has been recently achieved in the development of Plasmodium vivax challenge infections in humans, which are essential for vaccine and drug testing. With the goal of accelerating clinical development of malaria vaccines, the outcome of infections experimentally ind...

  10. High School Community Service as a Predictor of Adult Voting and Volunteering (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.; Youniss, James; Atkins, Robert


    The influences of high school community service participation, extracurricular involvement, and civic knowledge on voting and volunteering in early adulthood were examined using the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The major finding in this study is that both voluntary and school-required community service in high school were strong…

  11. Changes in Social Participation and Volunteer Activity among Recently Widowed Older Adults (United States)

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A.; Hinterlong, James E.


    Purpose: Widowhood eliminates a key source of support that may trigger greater involvement in social activities and volunteer participation, which are related to better late-life health and functioning. We reexamine and build upon 2 recent studies exploring recent widowhood and social participation. Using different data, we perform a…

  12. Participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work as a compensation for the absence of work or partnership? Evidence from two German samples of younger and older adults. (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K


    We tested whether formal volunteering, in terms of its associations with mental health, compensates for the absence of major work and family roles among older adults or rather complements such roles among both younger and older adults. Two cross-sectional samples of younger (aged 18-42 years, N = 2,346) and older (aged 56-75 years, N = 1,422) German adults were used. We regressed mental health indicators on control variables, 2 indicators of formal volunteering (participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work), and their interactions with employment/partnership status. Participation in voluntary organizations was associated with higher positive affect, higher life satisfaction, and fewer depressive symptoms in younger adults. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction only among working individuals, although the difference from nonworking individuals was not significant. Volunteer work was associated with higher positive affect in both age groups. In younger adults, it had no relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction among nonworking individuals and to fewer depressive symptoms among those without a steady partner. Volunteer work but not participation in voluntary organizations yielded compensatory effects on mental health among older adults.

  13. Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults With Cancer Experience: The Role of Optimism and Volunteering. (United States)

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Junhyoung


    Promoting health and well-being among individuals of advancing age is a significant issue due to increased incidence of cancer among older adults. This study demonstrates the benefits of expecting positive outcomes and participating in volunteer activities among older adults with cancer. We used a nationally representative sample of 2,670 individuals who have experienced cancer from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the associations of optimism, volunteerism, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The level of optimism was a significant predictor of volunteerism, which in turn affected life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The level of engagement in volunteer activities was found to have significant path coefficients toward both life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence that older adults who have experienced cancer and maintained a positive outlook on their lives and engaged in personally meaningful activities tended to experience psychological well-being and life satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Diagnostic Challenge. (United States)

    Silvestre Salvador, J F; Romero-Pérez, D; Encabo-Durán, B

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) has a prevalence of 1%-3% in adults. Adult-onset AD has only been defined recently, and lack of familiarity with this condition and confusion regarding the appropriate terminology persist. AD may first appear in childhood or de novo in adults and is characterized by pronounced clinical heterogeneity. The disease often deviates from the classic pattern of flexural dermatitis, and there are forms of presentation that are specific to adults, such as head-and-neck dermatitis, chronic eczema of the hands, multiple areas of lichenification, or prurigo lesions. Although diagnosis is clinical, adult-onset AD frequently does not fit the traditional diagnostic criteria for the disease, which were developed for children. Thus, AD is often a diagnosis of exclusion, especially in de novo cases. Additional diagnostic tests, such as the patch test, prick test, skin biopsy, or blood test, are usually necessary to rule out other diseases or other types of eczema appearing concomitantly with AD. This article presents an update of the different forms of clinical presentation for AD in adults along with a proposed diagnostic approach, as new treatments will appear in the near future and many patients will not be able to benefit from them unless they are properly diagnosed.

  15. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home. (United States)

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda


    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs.

  16. Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature (United States)

    Conners, Sean P.


    As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

  17. Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour (United States)

    Hurley, A. D.


    Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…

  18. Retaining volunteers in volunteer computing projects. (United States)

    Darch, Peter; Carusi, Annamaria


    Volunteer computing projects (VCPs) have been set up by groups of scientists to recruit members of the public who are asked to donate spare capacity on their personal computers to the processing of scientific data or computationally intensive models. VCPs serve two purposes: to acquire significant computing capacity and to educate the public about science. A particular challenge for these scientists is the retention of volunteers as there is a very high drop-out rate. This paper develops recommendations for scientists and software engineers setting up or running VCPs regarding which strategies to pursue in order to improve volunteer retention rates. These recommendations are based on a qualitative study of volunteers in a VCP ( A typology of volunteers has been developed, and three particularly important classes of volunteers are presented in this paper: for each type of volunteer, the particular benefits they offer to a project are described, and their motivations for continued participation in a VCP are identified and linked to particular strategies. In this way, those setting up a VCP can identify which types of volunteers they should be particularly keen to retain, and can then find recommendations to increase the retention rates of their target volunteers.

  19. Adult education and the challenges of regional development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen


    of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region......Adult education is governed at many levels – internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions......’s peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge – for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational...

  20. Normal spectrum of pulmonary parametric response map to differentiate lung collapsibility: distribution of densitometric classifications in healthy adult volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mario; Nemec, Stefan F.; Dufresne, Valerie; Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Bankier, Alexander A.; Chamberlain, Ryan


    Pulmonary parametric response map (PRM) was proposed for quantitative densitometric phenotypization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about this technique in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal spectrum of densitometric classification of pulmonary PRM in a group of healthy adults. 15 healthy volunteers underwent spirometrically monitored chest CT at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC). The paired CT scans were analyzed by PRM for voxel-by-voxel characterization of lung parenchyma according to 4 densitometric classifications: normal lung (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU); expiratory low attenuation area (LAA) (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); dual LAA (TLC<-950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); uncharacterized (TLC < -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU). PRM spectrum was 78 % ± 10 % normal lung, 20 % ± 8 % expiratory LAA, and 1 % ± 1 % dual LAA. PRM was similar between genders, there was moderate correlation between dual LAA and spirometrically assessed TLC (R = 0.531; p = 0.042), and between expiratory LAA and Vol Exp/Insp ratio (R = -0.572; p = 0.026). PRM reflects the predominance of normal lung parenchyma in a group of healthy volunteers. However, PRM also confirms the presence of physiological expiratory LAA seemingly related to air trapping and a minimal amount of dual LAA likely reflecting emphysema. (orig.)

  1. A Volunteer Program to Connect Primary Care and the Home to Support the Health of Older Adults: A Community Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Oliver


    Full Text Available Primary care providers are critical in providing and optimizing health care to an aging population. This paper describes the volunteer component of a program (Health TAPESTRY which aims to encourage the delivery of effective primary health care in novel and proactive ways. As part of the program, volunteers visited older adults in their homes and entered information regarding health risks, needs, and goals into an electronic application on a tablet computer. A total of 657 home visits were conducted by 98 volunteers, with 22.45% of volunteers completing at least 20 home visits over the course of the program. Information was summarized in a report and electronically sent to the health care team via clients’ electronic medical records. The report was reviewed by the interprofessional team who then plan ongoing care. Volunteer recruitment, screening, training, retention, and roles are described. This paper highlights the potential role of a volunteer in a unique connection between primary care providers and older adult patients in their homes.

  2. Exploring Challenges of Self-Monitoring for Senior Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik; Vincentz, Sofie

    In this paper we discuss some of the challenges and opportunities for the implementation of self-monitoring technologies in senior adults everyday lives. We present our experiences from a self-monitoring case study. We further describe our design process as part of the ongoing Lev Vel Project...

  3. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam, E-mail: [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Berger, Bernard, E-mail: [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Pittet, Anne-Cecile [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Sultana, Shamima, E-mail: [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Krause, Lutz, E-mail: [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Huq, Sayeda, E-mail: [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Bibiloni, Rodrigo, E-mail: [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruttin, Anne, E-mail: [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Reuteler, Gloria, E-mail: [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruessow, Harald, E-mail: [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)


    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  4. Effect of hydration status on atrial and ventricular volumes and function in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Daryl I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Manitoba, Variety Children' s Heart Centre, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Dragulescu, Andreea [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Memauri, Brett [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, St. Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Grotenhuis, Heynric B. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Assessment of cardiac chamber volumes is a fundamental part of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. While the effects of inter- and intraobserver variability have been studied and have a recognized effect on the comparability of serial cardiac MR imaging studies, the effect of differences in hydration status has not been evaluated. To evaluate the effects of volume administration on cardiac chamber volumes. Thirteen healthy adults underwent a baseline cardiac MR to evaluate cardiac chamber volumes after an overnight fast. They were then given two saline boluses of 10 ml/kg of body weight and the cardiac MR was repeated immediately after each bolus. From the baseline scan to the final scan there was a significant increase in all four cardiac chamber end-diastolic volumes. Right atrial volumes increased 8.0%, from 61.1 to 66.0 ml/m2 (P<0.001), and left atrial volumes increased 10.0%, from 50.0 to 55.0 ml/m2 (P<0.001). Right ventricular volumes increased 6.0%, from 91.1 to 96.5 ml/m2 (P<0.001), and left ventricular volumes increased 3.2%, from 87.0 to 89.8 ml/m2 (P<0.001). Hydration status has a significant effect on the end-diastolic volumes of all cardiac chambers assessed by cardiac MR. Thus, hydration represents a ''variable'' that should be taken into account when assessing cardiac chamber volumes, especially when performing serial imaging studies in a patient. (orig.)

  5. Safety and pharmacokinetic profile of fixed-dose ivermectin with an innovative 18mg tablet in healthy adult volunteers. (United States)

    Muñoz, Jose; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Gich, Ignasi; Rodríguez, Montse; Colli, Enrico; Gold, Silvia; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J


    Ivermectin is a pivotal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, which is increasingly identified as a useful drug for the control of other Neglected Tropical Diseases. Its role in the treatment of soil transmitted helminthiasis through improved efficacy against Trichuris trichiura in combination with other anthelmintics might accelerate the progress towards breaking transmission. Ivermectin is a derivative of Avermectin B1, and consists of an 80:20 mixture of the equipotent homologous 22,23 dehydro B1a and B1b. Pharmacokinetic characteristics and safety profile of ivermectin allow to explore innovative uses to further expand its utilization through mass drug administration campaigns to improve coverage rates. We conducted a phase I clinical trial with 54 healthy adult volunteers who sequentially received 2 experimental treatments using a new 18 mg ivermectin tablet in a fixed-dose strategy of 18 and 36 mg single dose regimens, compared to the standard, weight based 150–200 μg/kg, regimen. Volunteers were recruited in 3 groups based on body weight. Plasma concentrations of ivermectin were measured through HPLC up to 168 hours post treatment. Safety data showed no significant differences between groups and no serious adverse events: headache was the most frequent adverse event in all treatment groups, none of them severe. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed a half-life between 81 and 91 h in the different treatment groups. When comparing the systemic bioavailability (AUC0t and Cmax) of the reference product (WA-ref) with the other two study groups using fixed doses, we observed an overall increase in AUC0t and Cmax for the two experimental treatments of 18 mg and 36 mg. Body mass index (BMI) and weight were associated with t1/2 and V/F, probably reflecting the high liposolubility of IVM with longer retention times proportional to the presence of more adipose tissue. Systemic exposure to ivermectin (AUC0t or Cmax) was not associated with BMI

  6. Safety and pharmacokinetic profile of fixed-dose ivermectin with an innovative 18mg tablet in healthy adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Muñoz


    Full Text Available Ivermectin is a pivotal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, which is increasingly identified as a useful drug for the control of other Neglected Tropical Diseases. Its role in the treatment of soil transmitted helminthiasis through improved efficacy against Trichuris trichiura in combination with other anthelmintics might accelerate the progress towards breaking transmission. Ivermectin is a derivative of Avermectin B1, and consists of an 80:20 mixture of the equipotent homologous 22,23 dehydro B1a and B1b. Pharmacokinetic characteristics and safety profile of ivermectin allow to explore innovative uses to further expand its utilization through mass drug administration campaigns to improve coverage rates. We conducted a phase I clinical trial with 54 healthy adult volunteers who sequentially received 2 experimental treatments using a new 18 mg ivermectin tablet in a fixed-dose strategy of 18 and 36 mg single dose regimens, compared to the standard, weight based 150–200 μg/kg, regimen. Volunteers were recruited in 3 groups based on body weight. Plasma concentrations of ivermectin were measured through HPLC up to 168 hours post treatment. Safety data showed no significant differences between groups and no serious adverse events: headache was the most frequent adverse event in all treatment groups, none of them severe. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed a half-life between 81 and 91 h in the different treatment groups. When comparing the systemic bioavailability (AUC0t and Cmax of the reference product (WA-ref with the other two study groups using fixed doses, we observed an overall increase in AUC0t and Cmax for the two experimental treatments of 18 mg and 36 mg. Body mass index (BMI and weight were associated with t1/2 and V/F, probably reflecting the high liposolubility of IVM with longer retention times proportional to the presence of more adipose tissue. Systemic exposure to ivermectin (AUC0t or Cmax was not

  7. Ethical challenges in everyday work with adults with learning disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth; Støre Brinchmann, Berit


    Background: Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake....... Research question: What ethical challenges are discussed among healthcare providers working with adults with learning disabilities? Research design: The study had a qualitative and investigative design. Participants and research context: The study was conducted in a community institution for adults...... with learning disabilities. Participants were healthcare providers joining regular focused group discussions. Two groups participated and each group consisted of six participants. The conversations were taped and transcribed. Ethical considerations: The study was reported to Norwegian Social Science Data...

  8. Ethical challenges in everyday work with adults with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Brinchmann, Berit Støre


    Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake. What ethical challenges are discussed among healthcare providers working with adults with learning disabilities? The study had a qualitative and investigative design. The study was conducted in a community institution for adults with learning disabilities. Participants were healthcare providers joining regular focused group discussions. Two groups participated and each group consisted of six participants. The conversations were taped and transcribed. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Science Data Services and was approved by the regional ethics committee. Findings are presented in four themes: (a) feeling squeezed between conflicting actions, (b) being the client's spokesman, (c) searching shared responsibility, and (d) expecting immediate and fixed solutions. The healthcare providers wanted to be the clients' advocates. They felt obliged to speak up for the clients, however, seeking for someone with whom to share the heavily experienced responsibility. Data likewise revealed that the group discussions created expectations among the healthcare providers; they expected smart and final solutions to the problems they discussed. The discussion focuses on everyday ethical challenges, the meaning of being in-between and share responsibility, and the meaning of ethical sensitivity. Ethical challenges can be demanding for the staff; they might feel squeezed in-between contradictory attitudes or feel alone in decision-making. Frequent conversations about ethical challenges do not solve the ethical problems here-and-now, but they do visualize them. This also visualizes the staff's need for support. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Challenges of Fracture Management for Adults With Osteogenesis Imperfecta. (United States)

    Gil, Joseph A; DeFroda, Steven F; Sindhu, Kunal; Cruz, Aristides I; Daniels, Alan H


    Osteogenesis imperfecta is caused by qualitative or quantitative defects in type I collagen. Although often considered a disease with primarily pediatric manifestations, more than 25% of lifetime fractures are reported to occur in adulthood. General care of adults with osteogenesis imperfecta involves measures to preserve bone density, regular monitoring of hearing and dentition, and maintenance of muscle strength through physical therapy. Surgical stabilization of fractures in these patients can be challenging because of low bone mineral density, preexisting skeletal deformities, or obstruction by instrumentation from previous surgeries. Additionally, unique perioperative considerations exist when operatively managing fractures in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. To date, there is little high-quality literature to help guide the optimal treatment of fractures in adult patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e17-e22.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Volunteer Stories (United States)

    ... She shares how her experience at the NIH led her to begin painting hospital windows in the ... study — healthy volunteer) I had never knowingly encountered anyone who was HIV positive until I was a ...

  11. Pulmonary Disposition of Tedizolid following Administration of Once-Daily Oral 200-Milligram Tedizolid Phosphate in Healthy Adult Volunteers (United States)

    Housman, Seth T.; Pope, J. Samuel; Russomanno, John; Salerno, Edward; Shore, Eric; Kuti, Joseph L.


    This study assessed the pulmonary disposition of tedizolid, an oxazolidinone, in adult volunteers receiving 200 mg of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate orally every 24 h for 3 days to steady state. Plasma samples were collected over the dosing interval, and participants were randomized to undergo bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 2, 6, 12, or 24 h after the last dose. Drug concentrations in plasma, BAL fluid, and alveolar macrophages (AM) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the urea correction method was used to calculate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by noncompartmental methods followed by compartmental population pharmacokinetics. Penetration was calculated as the area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC0–24) for ELF and AM relative to the free AUC0–24 (fAUC0–24) in plasma. The half-life and volume of distribution in plasma were 9.23 ± 2.04 h and 108.25 ± 20.53 liters (means ± standard deviations), respectively. Total AUC0–24 in plasma was 25.13 ± 5.78 μg · h/ml. Protein binding was 89.44% ± 1.58%, resulting in a mean fAUC0–24 of 2.65 ± 0.72 μg · h/ml in plasma. Mean concentrations (μg/ml) at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h were 9.05 ± 3.83, 4.45 ± 2.18, 5.62 ± 1.99, and 1.33 ± 0.59 in ELF and 3.67 ± 1.02, 4.38 ± 2.18, 1.42 ± 0.63, and 1.04 ± 0.52 in AM. ELF and AM penetration ratios were 41.2 and 20.0. The mean ELF penetration ratio after population analyses was 39.7. This study demonstrates that tedizolid penetrates into ELF and AM to levels approximately 40-fold and 20-fold, respectively, higher than free-drug exposures in plasma. PMID:22330925

  12. A randomised trial evaluating the effects of the TRPV1 antagonist SB705498 on pruritus induced by histamine, and cowhage challenge in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Gibson

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 is a non-selective cation channel widely expressed in skin tissues, and peripheral sensory nerve fibres. Activation of TRPV1 releases neuropeptides; the resulting neurogenic inflammation is believed to contribute to the development of pruritus. A TRPV1 antagonist has the potential to perform as an anti-pruritic agent. SB705498 is a TRPV1 antagonist that has demonstrated in vitro activity against cloned TRPV1 human receptors and when orally administered has demonstrated pharmacodynamic activity in animal models and clinical studies.To select a topical dose of SB705498 using the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin; to confirm engagement of the TRPV1 antagonistic action of SB705498 and assess whether the dose selected has an effect on itch induced by two challenge agents.A clinical study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers to assess the effects of 3 doses of SB705498 on skin flare induced by capsaicin. Subjects with a robust capsaicin response were chosen to determine if the selected topical formulation of SB705498 had an effect on challenge agent induced itch.Following capsaicin challenge the greatest average reduction in area of flare was seen for the 3% formulation. This dose was selected for further investigation. Itch intensity induced by two challenge agents (cowhage and histamine was assessed on the Computerised Visual Analogue Scale. The difference in average itch intensity (Weighted Mean Over 15 Mins between the 3% dose of SB705498 and placebo for the cowhage challenge was -0.64, whilst the histamine challenge showed on average a -4.65 point change.The 3% topical formulation of SB705498 cream was clinically well tolerated and had target specific pharmacodynamic activity. However there were no clinically significant differences on pruritus induced by either challenge agent in comparison to placebo. SB705498 is unlikely to be of symptomatic benefit for histaminergic or non-histaminergic induced

  13. National stereotypes of older people's competence are related to older adults' participation in paid and volunteer work. (United States)

    Bowen, Catherine E; Skirbekk, Vegard


    Why are older people perceived as more competent in some countries relative to others? In the current study, we investigate the extent to which national variation in perceptions of older people's competence is systematically related to national variation in the extent to which older people participate in paid and volunteer work. We used multilevel regression to analyze data from the European Social Survey and test the relationship between perceptions of older people's competence and older people's participation in paid and volunteer work across 28 countries. We controlled for a number of potentially confounding variables, including life expectancy as well as the gender ratio and average education of the older population in each country. We controlled for the average objective cognitive abilities of the older population in a subsample of 11 countries. Older people were perceived as more competent in countries in which more older people participated in paid or volunteer work, independent of life expectancy and the average education, gender makeup, and average cognitive abilities of the older population. The results suggest that older people's participation in paid and volunteer work is related to perceptions of older people's competence independent of older people's actual competence.

  14. Have I Ever Done Anything Like This Before? Older Adults Solving Ill-Defined Problems in Intensive Volunteering. (United States)

    Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W; Kohlenberg, Meranda


    This study examined the ways in which individuals over 50 years old solved problems while volunteering in intensive humanitarian and disaster relief service. Thirty-seven men and women in the sample were sponsored by three religious organizations well known for providing humanitarian and disaster relief service. Semistructured interviews yielded data that were analyzed qualitatively, using McCracken's five-step process for analysis. We found that volunteers used three different abilities to solve problems: drawing upon experience to create strategies, maintaining emotional stability in the midst of trying circumstances, and applying strategies in a context-sensitive manner. These findings illustrate that these factors, which are comparable to those used in solving everyday problems, are unique in the way they are applied to intensive volunteering. The volunteers' sharing of knowledge, experience, and support with each other were also noticeable in their accounts of their service. This sharing contributed strongly to their sense of emotional stability and effectiveness in solving problems. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Skills Education for Adult Tibetan Immigrants in the United States: Identification, Prioritization, Resources, and Challenges (United States)

    Yeshi, Tenzin


    Generally, the Global Tibetan Professional Network of North America (GTPN-NA) considers lack of skills a problem among adult Tibetan immigrants. The GTPN-NA is a non-profit, volunteer-based networking forum focusing on Tibetan professionals and students from North America. By skills education, it means skills that may help support the transition…

  16. Increased fall risk is associated with elevated co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges in older adults. (United States)

    Nelson-Wong, Erika; Appell, Ryan; McKay, Mike; Nawaz, Hannah; Roth, Joanna; Sigler, Robert; Third, Jacqueline; Walker, Mark


    Falls are a leading contributor to disability in older adults. Increased muscle co-contraction in the lower extremities during static and dynamic balance challenges has been associated with aging, and also with a history of falling. Co-contraction during static balance challenges has not been previously linked with performance on clinical tests designed to ascertain fall risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges with fall risk on a commonly used dynamic balance assessment, the Four Square Step Test (FSST). Twenty-three volunteers (mean age 73 years) performed a series of five static balance challenges (Romberg eyes open/closed, Sharpened Romberg eyes open/closed, and Single Leg Standing) with continuous electromyography (EMG) of bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles. Participants then completed the FSST and were categorized as 'at-risk' or 'not-at-risk' to fall based on a cutoff time of 12 s. Co-contraction was quantified with co-contraction index (CCI). CCI during narrow base conditions was positively correlated with time to complete FSST. High CCIs during all static balance challenges with the exception of Romberg stance with eyes closed were predictive of being at-risk to fall based on FSST time, odds ratio 19.3. The authors conclude that co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges can be predictive of performance on a dynamic balance test.

  17. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16.Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses.The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8 against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16.EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical NCT01268787.

  18. Involvement of Mitanins (female health volunteers) in active malaria surveillance, determinants and challenges in tribal populated malaria endemic villages of Chhattisgarh, India. (United States)

    Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Bhatt, Rajendra Mohan; Swain, Dipak Kumar; Dutta, G D P; Kleinschmidt, Immo


    Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA), female health volunteers working at village level have become an integral component of National Health Mission (NHM) in India in the past two decades. Mitanin (meaning female friend in local dialect), a precursor of ASHA, play an indispensable role in early detection of health related problems and are helping in improving overall community health status in Chhattisgarh state. The current study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of involving Mitanin in active malaria surveillance work in 80 tribal villages of Chhattisgarh and to explore the challenges and determinants to perform malaria surveillance activities by the Mitanins. A total of 162 Mitanins were selected and divided into two age and village matched groups. The first group (training plus) of Mitanins were given additional training in malaria surveillance activities in whilst the second (standard) group received routine training. All Mitanins were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. In-depth interviews were also conducted among randomly selected sub groups of Mitanins (five from each group) after the completion of the quantitative survey. Performance of Mitanins was evaluated using pre-defined grading scores (A-E) which included various factors such as educational qualifications and knowledge about malaria, its signs and symptoms and knowledge, attitude and treatment practices. More number of Mitanins in training plus group has showed better performance (≥ B) than those in the standard group of Mitanins (80% vs 43.5%, p = 0.001) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Based on the outcome of in-depth interviews, Mitanin's lack of adequate support from supervisors, delayed payment of incentives and lack of appreciation were the major challenges mentioned. Mitanins can play an effective role in active fever surveillance for malaria besides performing other health related tasks at sub-village level after focused education on malaria

  19. Challenging Behaviors in Adults with Intellectual Disability: The Effects of Race and Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Tureck, Kimberly; Bamburg, Jay W.


    Rates of challenging behaviors were assessed in 175 adults with intellectual disability (ID) or ID and a comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relationship between ASD diagnosis, race, and challenging behaviors was assessed using the "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA)." Those with ASD and ID were…

  20. Burkitt lymphoma in adolescents and young adults: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozzo M


    Full Text Available Massimo Dozzo,1 Francesca Carobolante,1 Pietro Maria Donisi,2 Annamaria Scattolin,1 Elena Maino,1 Rosaria Sancetta,1 Piera Viero,1 Renato Bassan1 1Complex Operative Unit of Hematology, Ospedale dell’Angelo, 2Simple Departmental Operative Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Ospedale Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy Abstract: About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25–40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein–Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV. BL shows propensity to extranodal involvement of abdominal organs, bone marrow, and central nervous system, and can cause severe metabolic and renal impairment. Nevertheless, BL is highly responsive to specifically designed short-intensive, rotational multiagent chemotherapy programs, empowered by the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. When carefully applied with appropriate supportive measures, these modern programs achieve a cure rate of approximately 90% in the average AYA patient, irrespective of clinical stage, which is the best result achievable in any aggressive lymphoid malignancy to date. The challenges ahead concern the following: optimization of management in underdeveloped countries, with reduction of diagnostic and referral-for-care intervals, and the applicability of currently curative regimens; the development of lower intensity but equally effective treatments for frail or

  1. Occupational challenges of young adult patients with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluman, M. A.; de Man, S.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Sluiter, J. K.


    Background Despite improved survival of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), higher rates of unemployment and work-related problems are seen, especially among younger adults. This study was performed to gain insight into current barriers and facilitating experiences at work among young adult

  2. Challenges Faced by Adult Learners Enrolled in Blended Distance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research attempted to provide an insight into major barriers facing adult learners pursuing a diploma in adult and continuing education programme through Blended Distance Learning. Participants included the adult learners, staff from the Department of Open and Distance Learning who are also the facilitators of the ...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Rasagiline in Healthy Adult Chinese Volunteers with Various Genotypes: A Single-Center, Open-Label, Multiple-Dose Study. (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Zhao, Qian; Jiang, Ji; Liu, Jian; Hu, Pei


    Although there is evidence indicating cytochome P450 (CYP) 1A2 is responsible for the metabolism of rasagiline, the role of other CYP isoforms is unclear. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of rasagiline in adult Chinese healthy volunteers with various CYP genotypes. This single-center, open-label study was conducted in 12 subjects. Fasted subjects received rasagiline 1 mg daily for 7 days. Blood samples were taken to determine plasma concentrations of rasagiline, its major metabolite R-1-aminoindan (AI), and the genotyping of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. Safety was also assessed. After oral administration, rasagiline was absorbed with a median time to reach maximum concentration (tmax) of 0.5 h. Overall systemic exposure was approximately theefold on day 7 versus day 1. The mean terminal elimination half-life (t½) was nearly doubled on day 7 compared to day 1. AI was rapidly quantifiable in plasma with median t max occurring 1-1.5 h post-dose. Overall exposure to AI on day 7 was approximately twofold higher than on day 1. Overall systemic exposure to AI was approximately four- to sixfold greater than exposure to rasagiline, whereas maximum concentration (C max) was approximately half that of rasagiline. The mean t½ for AI was longer than for the parent drug, and was similar between the sexes and days. Inferred metabolic status did not appear to affect the pharmacokinetics of rasagiline or AI. All adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Multiple oral administration of rasagiline 1 mg tablet in Chinese healthy adults resulted in similar pharmacokinetics of both rasagiline and AI compared to those previously observed in Caucasians. Rasagiline was safe and well tolerated in Chinese healthy volunteers.

  4. Two first-in-human, open-label, phase I dose-escalation safety trials of MEDI-528, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-9, in healthy adult volunteers. (United States)

    White, Barbara; Leon, Francisco; White, Wendy; Robbie, Gabriel


    Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is involved in pathogenic aspects of the asthmatic response, including induction of the proliferation of T-helper type 2 lymphocytes, mucus production, and mast-cell differentiation, proliferation, and recruitment to the lung. In preclinical studies in mice, inhibition of IL-9 through neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment partially reduced airway hyperresponsiveness and mast-cell progenitor migration to the lung. The goal of the present studies was to determine the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles and immunogenicity of MEDI-528, a humanized immunoglobulin G1k anti-IL-9 mAb, in healthy adult volunteers. In separate open-label, Phase I dose-escalation studies, single doses of MEDI-528 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 9.0 mg/kg were administered as an intravenous infusion (20 mg/min administered over 1-40 minutes, depending on dose) and by subcutaneous injection. All subjects were followed for 84 days. Any laboratory test value outside the normal reference range was considered an adverse event (AE). Twenty-four subjects were enrolled in the intravenous study, and 29 subjects were enrolled in the subcutaneous study. No deaths or serious or severe AEs occurred in either study. The most frequently reported AEs in the intravenous study were laboratory test abnormalities; the most frequently reported AEs in the subcutaneous study were pharyngolaryngeal pain, palpable lymph nodes, and laboratory test abnormalities. The single-dose pharmacokinetics of MEDI-528 were linear and dose proportional over the dose range studied with both routes of administration. The mean t((1/2)) after intravenous administration was approximately 26 days (range, 25-28 days); the mean t((1/2)) after subcutaneous administration ranged from 33 to 87 days across doses. A low titer (1:80) of antibodies to MEDI-528 was detected on day 84 in a single volunteer receiving intravenous MEDI-528 3.0 mg/kg. No antibody titers were detected in any of the volunteers receiving subcutaneous

  5. Single-Dose pharmacokinetics of sustained-release fampridine (Fampridine-SR) in healthy volunteers and adults with renal impairment. (United States)

    Smith, William; Swan, Suzanne; Marbury, Thomas; Henney, Herbert


    Fampridine-SR is a sustained-release formulation of fampridine (4-aminopyridine), a potassium channel blocker demonstrated to improve walking ability in patients with multiple sclerosis. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of fampridine and its metabolites after administration of fampridine-SR 10 mg in healthy volunteers and in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment (5 per group). Analysis of variance was used to calculate 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratios (impaired/healthy) of least squares mean in maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Clearance was primarily through urinary excretion. In renally impaired subjects, fampridine plasma concentrations were consistently higher than in healthy individuals: ratios for C(max) ranged from 166.5% to 199.9% for mild and severe renal impairment, respectively. AUC(0-infinity) ratios ranged from 175.3% to 398.7%, respectively, for mild and severe renal impairment. Mean terminal disposition half-life was 6.4 hours in healthy individuals, compared with 7.4, 8.1, and 14.3 hours in patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively. Regression analysis confirmed the significant relationship between creatinine clearance and extent of exposure as quantified by AUC for fampridine and its metabolites, suggesting cautious use in patients with mild renal impairment and avoidance in cases of moderate or severe renal impairment.

  6. Grandparenting Roles and Volunteer Activity. (United States)

    Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Jendrek, Margaret Platt


    We examine whether grandparenting roles are related to formal volunteering among older adults. Logistic regression is used to examine the likelihood of volunteering based on grandchild care using data from the 2004 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (n = 13,785). Longitudinal analyses utilize treatment effects models to examine changes in volunteering for grandparents who begin nonresidential grandchild care between the 2004 and 2008 waves (n = 10,811). Results show that grandparents raising coresidential grandchildren have lower odds of volunteering than grandparents providing no regular grandchild care. However, grandparents who provide nonresidential grandchild care are more likely to volunteer than grandparents not providing grandchild care and those raising a coresidential grandchild. Grandparents who provide nonresidential care for grandchildren engage in more volunteering before assuming grandchild care, and their volunteerism increases after becoming a caregiver for a grandchild. Consistent with resource theory and the accumulation of roles, providing nonresidential grandchild care may draw grandparents into formal volunteer activity. The lower human capital resources evidenced by grandparents raising coresidential grandchildren may play a role in their lower likelihood of formal volunteering. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of intravenous and oral topiramate and its effect on phonemic fluency in adult healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Ahmed, Ghada F; Marino, Susan E; Brundage, Richard C; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Leppik, Ilo E; Cloyd, James C; Clark, Annie; Birnbaum, Angela K


    The aim was to develop a quantitative approach that characterizes the magnitude of and variability in phonemic generative fluency scores as measured by the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test in healthy volunteers after administration of an oral and a novel intravenous (IV) formulation of topiramate (TPM). Nonlinear mixed-effects modelling was used to describe the plasma TPM concentrations resulting from oral or IV administration. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed sequentially to characterize the effect of TPM concentrations on COWA with different distributional assumptions. Topiramate was rapidly absorbed, with a median time to maximal concentration of 1 h and an oral bioavailability of ~100%. Baseline COWA score increased by an average of 12% after the third administration on drug-free sessions. An exponential model described the decline of COWA scores, which decreased by 14.5% for each 1 mg l(-1) increase in TPM concentration. The COWA scores were described equally well by both continuous normal and Poisson distributions. This analysis quantified the effect of TPM exposure on generative verbal fluency as measured by COWA. Repetitive administration of COWA resulted in a better performance, possibly due to a learning effect. The model predicts a 27% reduction in the COWA score at the average observed maximal plasma concentration after a 100 mg dose of TPM. The single-dose administration of relatively low TPM doses and narrow range of resultant concentrations in our study were limitations to investigating the PK-PD relationship at higher TPM exposures. Hence, the findings may not be readily generalized to the broader patient population. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of intravenous and oral topiramate and its effect on phonemic fluency in adult healthy volunteers (United States)

    Ahmed, Ghada F; Marino, Susan E; Brundage, Richard C; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Leppik, Ilo E; Cloyd, James C; Clark, Annie; Birnbaum, Angela K


    Aims The aim was to develop a quantitative approach that characterizes the magnitude of and variability in phonemic generative fluency scores as measured by the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test in healthy volunteers after administration of an oral and a novel intravenous (IV) formulation of topiramate (TPM). Methods Nonlinear mixed-effects modelling was used to describe the plasma TPM concentrations resulting from oral or IV administration. A pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed sequentially to characterize the effect of TPM concentrations on COWA with different distributional assumptions. Results Topiramate was rapidly absorbed, with a median time to maximal concentration of 1 h and an oral bioavailability of ∼100%. Baseline COWA score increased by an average of 12% after the third administration on drug-free sessions. An exponential model described the decline of COWA scores, which decreased by 14.5% for each 1 mg l−1 increase in TPM concentration. The COWA scores were described equally well by both continuous normal and Poisson distributions. Conclusions This analysis quantified the effect of TPM exposure on generative verbal fluency as measured by COWA. Repetitive administration of COWA resulted in a better performance, possibly due to a learning effect. The model predicts a 27% reduction in the COWA score at the average observed maximal plasma concentration after a 100 mg dose of TPM. The single-dose administration of relatively low TPM doses and narrow range of resultant concentrations in our study were limitations to investigating the PK-PD relationship at higher TPM exposures. Hence, the findings may not be readily generalized to the broader patient population. PMID:25403343

  9. Public Perception of Autism - Determinants of attitudes towards adults and children with ASD and their intention to volunteer


    Kane, Kathleen


    Autistic spectrum disorder is a common developmental disorder. However, adults and children with autism are often subject to stigma. The present study sought to measure the public’s attitude towards individuals with autism, in particular whether age, awareness of an individual’s diagnosis, knowledge of autism and participants’ personal autistic traits affected emotional attitudes towards autistic individuals. We assessed the effect of exposure to autism on knowledge of the condition and evalu...

  10. Counseling Adult Sex Offenders: Unique Challenges and Treatment Paradigms. (United States)

    Priest, Ronnie; Smith, Annalee


    Reviews current definitions and research literature related to characteristics of adults who sexually victimize children. Presents discussion of pedophilia as a sexual deviation. Examines treatment issues that may confront counselors engaged in treating adults who sexually victimize children and discusses implications for practitioners. (Author/NB)

  11. The clinical safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Brian J. [Imaging Technology Group, GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, Amersham, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom); Wall, Anders; Soerensen, Jens [Uppsala University, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Silvia [Uppsala University, Section of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)


    We report on the biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry in humans of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine, a synthetic L-leucine analogue being investigated as a potential diagnostic biomarker for neoplasia. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans of 6 healthy volunteers were acquired at up to 16 time points up to about 5 h after a bolus administration of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine (153.8 {+-} 2.2 MBq). Venous blood samples were taken up to about 4 h post-injection from which {sup 18}F activity concentrations in whole blood and plasma were measured. Urine was collected as voided up to 4 h post-injection, from which the excreted {sup 18}F activity was measured. Absolute values of the {sup 18}F activity contained in up to 11 source regions (brain, salivary glands, lung, heart, pancreas, spleen, liver, red bone marrow, kidneys, uterus and urinary bladder contents) were determined directly from quantitative analysis of the images. For each source region, the {sup 18}F activity decay-corrected and normalised to that injected, as a function of time, was fit by an analytical function which was subsequently integrated to yield the cumulated activity normalised to the injected activity. These normalised cumulated activities were then used as input to the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment/EXponential Modelling (OLINDA/EXM) package to calculate the internal radiation dosimetry of each subject following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. An effective dose was then estimated for each subject. [{sup 18}F]Fluciclovine was clinically well tolerated in this study. Very little {sup 18}F was excreted with only a mean value of 3.3 % present in the urine at about 4 h post-injection; no activity within the intestinal contents was noted. The highest mean initial uptakes were measured in the liver (13.8 %), red bone marrow (11.1 %) and lung (7.1 %). The highest mean radiation absorbed doses per unit administered activity were received by the pancreas (102.2 {mu

  12. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers. (United States)

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki


    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  13. Bioequivalence of a single 400-mg dose of imatinib 100-mg oral tablets and a 400-mg tablet in healthy adult Korean volunteers. (United States)

    Lee, Hae Won; Seong, Sook Jin; Park, Sung Min; Lee, Joomi; Gwon, Mi-Ri; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lim, Sung Mook; Lim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Woomi; Yang, Dong Heon; Yoon, Young-Ran


    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new once-daily 400-mg film-coated tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Korea. The present study was designed to assess and compare the PK parameters, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of the new imatinib 400-mg formulation (test) versus the conventional 100-mg formulation (reference) administered as a single 400-mg dose in healthy adult male volunteers. This randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive 400 mg of the test (one 400-mg tablet) or reference (four 100-mg tablets) formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Serial blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. Plasma imatinib concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean ratios for Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞)ž were within the predetermined range of 0.80 - 1.25. In total, 35 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse event was reported during the study. The 90% CIs of the adjusted geometric mean ratios of the test formulation to the reference formulation for C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞)ž of imatinib were all within the bioequivalence criteria range of 0.8 - 1.25. The test formulation of imatinib met the Korean regulatory requirements for bioequivalence. Both imatinib formulations were well-tolerated in all subjects.

  14. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke: Challenges and Progress (United States)

    Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon


    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke. PMID:27733032

  15. Working with Volunteers. (United States)

    Rowland, Virginia; And Others


    This special section features research concluding that volunteers find the time because they believe they have more time to help (Rowland); an extension program using volunteer master teachers (Feather); use of volunteer marketing professionals (Fromer); retaining volunteers through leadership training (Balliette, Smith); "problem" volunteers and…

  16. Interviews, Disclosures, and Misperceptions: Autistic Adults' Perspectives on Employment Related Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sarrett


    Full Text Available As increasing numbers of autistic adults are seeking and gaining employment, the experiences of autistic adults in the workplace is critical to consider. Autistic adults encounter a range of challenges in obtaining and keeping employment and often report a range of negative experiences in the workplace. The current research reports the results from a large, national exploratory study on the experiences of autistic adults in the workplace as well as their thoughts on how to improve these experiences for the autism community. In particular, participants reported challenges with the interviewing process, which requires very specific and consistent social behaviors, as well as with feeling comfortable disclosing one's autistic status at work. These challenges are often connected with public misperceptions about autism. The article discusses these challenges as well as strategies to improve autism-related understanding and awareness in the workplace. This work is critical to conversations about diversity in the workplace.

  17. Volunteering in later life: research frontiers. (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy


    This review summarizes the current knowledge about volunteering in later life and suggests 5 research questions at the forefront of knowledge development. Rates of volunteering do not decline significantly until the middle of the 7th decade, and older volunteers commit more hours than younger volunteers. Older adults with more human and social capital tend to volunteer, and there is good evidence of a reciprocal relationship between volunteering and well-being. Program and policy developments in the field are outstripping production of knowledge to support evidence-based practices. Research on the dynamics of volunteering over the life course as well as the patterns of activities that co-occur with volunteering is needed to guide program development. Research methods and findings from transdisciplinary work on the mechanisms through which psychosocial conditions affect health must be extended to the study of the effects of volunteering on older adults. Finally, we need to engage in more applied social science aimed at improving volunteer management, especially recruitment and retention of older volunteers.

  18. Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations for Student Volunteering (United States)

    Holdsworth, Clare


    The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…

  19. A single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study comparing two olanzapine tablet products in healthy adult male volunteers under fasting conditions. (United States)

    Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Elsherbiny, Mohamed A; Fathallah, Mohsen M


    Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 commercial 10-mg tablet formulations of olanzapine by statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC from 0 to 72 hours after dosing (AUC(0-72)), and AUC(0-infinity) as required by the Egyptian health authority for the marketing of a generic product. This bioequivalence study was carried out in healthy male volunteers using a single-dose, randomized, 2-way crossover design under fasting conditions. Statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC(0-72), and AUC(0-infinity) was conducted to determine bioequivalence (after log-transformation of data using analysis of variance and 90% CIs) and to gain marketing approval in Egypt. The formulations were considered to be bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of the 3 pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (ie, 80%-125%), as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both the test product (Trademark: Integrol((R)) [Global Napi Pharmaceuticals, Cairo, Egypt]) and the reference product (Trademark: Zyprexa((R)) [Eli Lilly and Company, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom]) were administered as 10-mg tablets with 240 mL of water after an overnight fast on 2 treatment days, separated by a 2-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for 72 hours. Plasma samples were analyzed using a sensitive, reproducible, and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method capable of quantitating olanzapine in the range of 0.167 to 16.7 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.167 ng/mL. Adverse events were reported by the volunteers as instructed or observed by the resident physician, and were recorded, tabulated, and evaluated. Twenty-four healthy adult male volunteers participated in this study. Their mean (SD) age was 24.7 (6.2) years (range, 19

  20. Moving toward a Collective Impact Effort: The Volunteer Program Assessment (United States)

    Trent, Sheridan; Prange, Kelly; Allen, Joseph A.


    Volunteers are essential to the operation of many nonprofits, but some experience challenges in retaining their volunteer workforce. The Volunteer Program Assessment (VPA) seeks to address this issue by helping organizations to identify strengths, growth areas, and recommendations for improving volunteer experiences. To maximize the effectiveness…

  1. The Care of Older Adults Experiencing Cognitive Challenges: How Interprofessional Teams Collaborate. (United States)

    Dahlke, Sherry; Meherali, Salima; Chambers, Thane; Freund-Heritage, Rosalie; Steil, Kim; Wagg, Adrian


    We conducted a scoping study to examine how interprofessional health care teams improve the outcomes of older adults experiencing cognitive challenges. We searched Ovid, Medline 1946, and MEDLINE In-Process and other non-indexed citations, using the concepts multi or interdisciplinary care teams, confusion or cognitive impairment, and elderly adults. Of 4,554 articles the review yielded, 34 relevant to our inquiry, using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. Twenty-nine per cent of authors reported on the processes interprofessional teams use to achieve positive outcomes for older adults. They highlighted the importance of communication, staff strategies, and education interventions in achieving outcomes with older adults and in supporting interprofessional collaboration. The review revealed knowledge gaps about the processes teams use to collaborate in caring for older adults experiencing cognitive challenges, and how to best incorporate older adults and their families' perspectives in team decisions. More research to understand processes interprofessional teams use is needed.

  2. Older Adult Inmates: The Challenge for Social Work (United States)

    Snyder, Cindy; van Wormer, Katherine; Chadha, Janice; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.


    Older adult inmates have grown both in proportion and in number due to the confluence of a number of factors. This aging of the prison population has created a host of policy and practice issues that encompass justice considerations, cost containment issues, and biopsychosocial care needs. The older prisoner's physical, social, and psychological…

  3. challenges experienced by unemployed adults on anti-retroviral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    afford a balanced diet due to not eating a variety of foods. 88% of the sample indicated that they rationed their meals so that they could take them longer. These results validate the contention by UNAIDS (2008) that most adults who were unemployed and living with HIV, could not afford a balanced diet, despite the fact that it.

  4. Combating the challenges in adult learning: The case of Knust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of distance education students are adults. Such people have many responsibilities; they have families, jobs, social life and other commitments. The ability to manage and co-ordinate their enormous activities will determine how successful they would be in their studies. The primary role of the student is to learn.

  5. Bioavailability of two single-dose oral formulations of omeprazole 20 mg: an open-label, randomized sequence, two-period crossover comparison in healthy Mexican adult volunteers. (United States)

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Galán, Juan Francisco; Rosete, Alejandra; de Lago, Alberto; Oliva, Iván; González-de la Parra, Mario; Jiménez, Patricia; Burke-Fraga, Victoria; Namur, Salvador


    Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor that acts to reduce acid secretion in the stomach and is used for treating various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. There are several generic formulations of omeprazole available in Mexico; however, a literature search failed to identify published data concerning the bioavailability of these formulations in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of 2 oral formulations of omeprazole 20-mg capsules, marketed for use in Mexico, in healthy volunteers: Inhibitron (test formulation) and LosecA 20 mg (reference formulation). This study used a single-dose, open-label, randomized sequence, 2 x 2 crossover (2 administration periods x 2 treatments) design to compare the 2 formulations. Eligible subjects were healthy adult Mexican volunteers of both sexes. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 20-mg dose of the test formulation followed by the reference formulation, or vice versa, with a 7-day washout period between administration periods. After a 12-hour (overnight) fast, subjects received a single, 20-mg dose of the corresponding formulation. Plasma samples were obtained over a 12-hour period after administration. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were analyzed by a nonstereospecific high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to time t (AUC(0-t)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were drawn at baseline and 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2, 2.50, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural log (ln)-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%, and if P disability, or required intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage. Thirty-four subjects were enrolled and completed the study (25 men and 9

  6. Establishing an Adult Epilepsy Diet Center: Experience, efficacy and challenges. (United States)

    Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Henry, Bobbie J; Felton, Elizabeth A; Patton, Katlyn; Kossoff, Eric H


    Over 250 medical centers worldwide offer ketogenic diets to children with epilepsy; however, access to these therapies has been extremely limited for adults until recent years. We examine our 5-year experience creating and implementing a dedicated Adult Epilepsy Diet Center designed to provide adults with epilepsy access to ketogenic diets. Outpatients seen at the Johns Hopkins Adult Epilepsy Diet Center from August 2010 thru September 2015 age 18years and older were enrolled in a prospective open-label observational study. Patients that also enrolled in ongoing clinical diet trials were excluded from this study. Participant demographics, diet type, urine and/or serum ketones, laboratory studies, seizure frequency, diet duration, reason for discontinuing diet therapy, and side effects were recorded. A subgroup analysis of participants that met International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) and were treated de novo with a Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) was performed to compare outcomes with the current literature regarding efficacy of other antiseizure treatments for DRE. Two hundred and twenty-nine adults attended the Adult Epilepsy Diet Center, and 168 met inclusion criteria. Two-thirds (n=113, 67%) were women with an age range of 18-86years at the initial visit. Thirty-five participants (21%, n=133) were already on a therapeutic diet while 79% (n=133) were naïve to diet therapy at the time of the initial visit. Diet-naïve participants were typically prescribed MAD (n=130, 98%), unless unable to intake adequate oral nutrition, in which case they were prescribed KD (n=1) or a combination of oral MAD and ketogenic formula (n=2). Twenty-nine of 130 (22%) participants prescribed MAD elected not to start or were lost to follow-up, and 101 (78%) began MAD. A subgroup analysis was performed on one hundred and six participants naïve to diet therapy that met International League Against Epilepsy criteria for DRE, were able to

  7. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers. (United States)

    Hirawat, Samit; Welch, Ellen M; Elfring, Gary L; Northcutt, Valerie J; Paushkin, Sergey; Hwang, Seongwoo; Leonard, Eileen M; Almstead, Neil G; Ju, William; Peltz, Stuart W; Miller, Langdon L


    Nonsense (premature stop codon) mutations are causative in 5% to 15% of patients with monogenetic inherited disorders. PTC124, a 284-Dalton 1,2,4-oxadiazole, promotes ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons in mRNA and offers therapeutic potential for multiple genetic diseases. The authors conducted 2 phase I studies of PTC124 in 62 healthy adult volunteers. The initial, single-dose study evaluated doses of 3 to 200 mg/kg and assessed fed-fasting status on pharmacokinetics following a dose of 50 mg/kg. The subsequent multiple-dose study evaluated doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg/dose twice per day (bid) for up to 14 days. PTC124 administered orally as a liquid suspension was palatable and well tolerated through single doses of 100 mg/kg. At 150 and 200 mg/kg, PTC124 induced mild headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal events. With repeated doses through 50 mg/kg/dose bid, reversible transaminase elevations Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  8. Gene Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Senescence of Primary Coronary Endothelial Cells Exposed to Postprandial Serum of Healthy Adult and Elderly Volunteers after Oven-Cooked Meat Meals (United States)

    Laura, Costarelli; Robertina, Giacconi; Piacenza, Francesco; Basso, Andrea; Balzano, Michele; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Provinciali, Mauro


    Epidemiological studies have linked high consumption of meat with major age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids after a meat meal have been hypothesized among the pathogenetic mechanisms. However, it is still unknown if the postprandial serum derived after a normal meat meal is able to affect endothelial function, and if the type of meat and the age of the donors are critical factors. Here, we show the effects of postprandial sera derived from healthy adults and elderly volunteers who consumed meat meals on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) oxidative stress, gene expression, DNA damage, and cellular senescence. We observed that a single exposure to postprandial serum induces a slight increase in ROS that is associated with modulation of gene expression pathways related to oxidative stress response and metabolism. The postprandial-induced increase in ROS is not associated with a measurable DNA oxidative damage. However, repeated exposure to postprandial serum induces an acceleration of cellular senescence. Taking into account the deleterious role of cellular senescence in age-related vascular diseases, the results suggest a new mechanism by which excessive meat consumption and time spent in postprandial state may affect health status during aging. PMID:29379227

  9. Participant and Public Involvement in Refining a Peer-Volunteering Active Aging Intervention: Project ACE (Active, Connected, Engaged). (United States)

    Withall, Janet; Thompson, Janice L; Fox, Kenneth R; Davis, Mark; Gray, Selena; de Koning, Jolanthe; Lloyd, Liz; Parkhurst, Graham; Stathi, Afroditi


    Evidence for the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle among older adults is strong, yet only a small proportion of older people meet physical activity recommendations. A synthesis of evidence identified "best bet" approaches, and this study sought guidance from end-user representatives and stakeholders to refine one of these, a peer-volunteering active aging intervention. Focus groups with 28 older adults and four professional volunteer managers were conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 older volunteers. Framework analysis was used to gauge participants' views on the ACE intervention. Motives for engaging in community groups and activities were almost entirely social. Barriers to participation were lack of someone to attend with, lack of confidence, fear of exclusion or "cliquiness" in established groups, bad weather, transport issues, inaccessibility of activities, ambivalence, and older adults being "set in their ways". Motives for volunteering included "something to do," avoiding loneliness, the need to feel needed, enjoyment, and altruism. Challenges included negative events between volunteer and recipient of volunteering support, childcare commitments, and high volunteering workload. Peer-volunteering approaches have great potential for promotion of active aging. The systematic multistakeholder approach adopted in this study led to important refinements of the original ACE intervention. The findings provide guidance for active aging community initiatives highlighting the importance of effective recruitment strategies and of tackling major barriers including lack of motivation, confidence, and readiness to change; transport issues; security concerns and cost; activity availability; and lack of social support.

  10. Anesthetic Challenges in an Adult with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI. (United States)

    Cade, Jacqueline; Jansen, Nicholas


    The mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases with many skeletal and airway features that pose a challenge to anesthetists. We present the anesthetic management of a woman with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI undergoing cervical spine surgery and review the perioperative issues that may arise with this disease.

  11. Ethical challenges in everyday work with adults with learning disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth; Støre Brinchmann, Berit


    Background: Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake...

  12. Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    industries, and the health‑care workers in general. Keywords: Asthma, Challenges, Diagnosis, Follow‑up, Nigeria, Treatment. Access this ... international guidelines in asthma management in Nigeria showed that most hospitals lacked the services of .... Narrative review articles (2). 13 articles included in systematic review ...

  13. Challenges of improving oral health for adults in care homes. (United States)

    Elliot, Victoria


    In 2016 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a guideline on oral health for adults in care homes in England. The author was a co-opted member of the NICE oral health for adults in care homes public health advisory committee. This article reviews the NICE guideline as it applies to care homes, and relates it to the results of a survey of oral care practice undertaken in a large care home organisation and the available research literature from the past 20 years. The literature and survey results suggest that, if translated into practice, the NICE guideline could do much to improve oral health for adults in care homes. The survey highlighted that 85% of residents required support from carers to undertake mouth care. It also found that care homes experienced significant difficulties in accessing dental services for residents. The author concludes that providers need to equip staff with the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake mouth care and to give this area of personal care greater priority. Finally, the author suggests that the Care Quality Commission could ensure that the NICE guideline is translated into practice in care homes.

  14. Handbook for Volunteer Reading Aides. (United States)

    Lane, Martha A.

    This guide is designed to assist volunteer tutors participating in an adult literacy program. Discussed in the first chapter are the meaning of the term functional literacy, the way in which we get meaning from print, and word identification skills. The next two sections deal with the history of literacy education in industrialized countries and…

  15. Why few older adults participate in complex motor skills: a qualitative study of older adults' perceptions of difficulty and challenge. (United States)

    Kraft, Katarina P; Steel, Kylie A; Macmillan, Freya; Olson, Rebecca; Merom, Dafna


    Maintaining neuromotor fitness across the life course is imperative. It can reduce falls in older individuals and improve/maintain physical and cognitive functioning. Complex motor skills (CMS) are involved in many physical activities (e.g., ball games, dance), which can improve neuromotor fitness. However, few older adults participate in CMS. This study aimed to understand how older adults perceive the degree of difficulty and challenge, using Gentile's taxonomy of motor skills as a framework. Six focus groups (FGs) were conducted with older adults (aged 61-92 years; N = 36) using a semi-structured question guide, to explore older adults' perceptions of difficulty and challenges associated with physical activity types. FGs were conducted in three villages and community groups in Sydney, Australia. Verbatim transcripts were coded inductively following a grounded theory approach to analysis to discover categories and concepts based on participants' views. Older adults perceived physical effort and pace as influencing difficulty where as challenging activities were not found to hinder older adults' willingness to participate. Other challenges in performing activities were attributed to: skill level, environment conditions (e.g., pool versus ocean swimming) and variations influencing complexity. Social and interpersonal issues, such as embarrassment, rapport with instructors, prior experience/ familiarity, in addition to physical effort, were other central features of older adults' perceptions of physical activities. Themes that appeared to increase the likelihood of participation in CMS were: age appropriate modification; enjoyment; social aspects; past experience; and having experienced instructors. This study offers recommendations for increasing participation in CMS. Modifying activities to suit ability and age and increasing exposure during the life span may help maintain participation into old age. Gentile's taxonomy provides an appropriate framework for

  16. The stresses of hospice volunteer work. (United States)

    Brown, Mary V


    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the interpretation of stress, the appraisal of the stressors, as well as the top stressors experienced by hospice volunteers. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, using qualitative research methods. Although the results indicated that the hospice volunteers did not perceive their work as stressful, 2 main themes regarding challenging experiences did emerge. Hospice-related issues and personal issues were of concern to the volunteers. In addition, the timing of the stressors revealed that the most stress was felt at the beginning of their volunteer services, which has implications for hospice volunteer coordinators as they support their volunteers in the field.

  17. When Volunteers Attack! (United States)

    Bennett, Gayle


    Working with alumni volunteers shouldn't create horror and suspense. Following a few key steps can help maintain a smooth relationship between alumni volunteers and the alumni relations office staff. In this article, the author discusses how to manage volunteers and keep the alumni volunteer relationship on track.

  18. Vocational guidance in social volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Pryazhnikov


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of vocational guidance in the social volunteering system. The essence of volunteer work is closely related with assistance to desperate people in searching for the meaning of living, often coinciding with labour activity that are deemed in terms of “the main matter of life” and “the leading activity”. For adolescents, it is the choice of career, and for adults, it is the work proper (i.e. an essential condition for personal self-realization. The problem of “forced volunteering” for experts in vocational guidance also means that they often have to work voluntarily and unselfishly outside the official guidelines. To clarify the terms «volunteer» and «a person in desperate need of help» the study used the method of analyzing the documents, e.g. the Regulations on Social Volunteering, the generalization of psychological sources, the initial survey of university students as active supporters of the volunteer movement, On the essence of volunteering and the place of career guidance in selfless social work. Vocational guidance is not excluded from the general system of volunteerism, but has an insufficiently defined status and low popularity among participants in social volunteering. Also, the problem of «forced volunteering» of experts in career counseling, which often requires voluntary and unselfish performance of quality work outside the framework of official instructions, is also indicated. Simultaneously, positive aspects of such disinterested career initiatives are noted, in particular, less control by the official inspectors (or customers and, accordingly, greater freedom of creativity than when someone else does the work.

  19. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults - diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Tatiana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disorder, characterized by abnormal dilation of intestinal lymphatic vessels and extensive enteric loss of lymph rich in plasma proteins, lymphocytes and chylomicrons. The main characteristics of the disease are hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphocytopenia, and more rarely, the deficit of liposoluble vitamins and anemia. Except for primary, there are secondary lymphangiectasia, associated with celiac disease, malignant, infective and inflammatory diseases of the small intestine, fibrosis, liver and cardiovascular diseases. Case report. A male, 33 years of age, presented for his medical examination suffering from diarrhea and edema. The diagnosis was established upon the histological examination of a small intestine biopsy during double balloon enteroscopy, which revealed changes only in one segment of the intestine examined. Such a finding was later confirmed by the video endoscopy capsule. Conclusion. The diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia is usually established before the age of 3, but it can also be diagnosed in adults. The diagnosis is based on the histological analysis of the intestinal mucosa biopsy, obtained by endoscopic procedures. The diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is also made upon the exclusion of secondary causes.

  20. The Challenges of Treating Sciatica Pain in Older Adults. (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuela L; McLachlan, Andrew


    Sciatica is a debilitating condition affecting approximately 25 % of the population. Typically, the patient will complain of lower limb pain that is more severe than pain in the lower back, usually accompanied by numbness and motor weakness. Most international guidelines recommend pharmacological management for the pain relief of sciatica, including paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid analgesics, anticonvulsants, and corticosteroids, among others. However, the evidence for most of these pharmacological options is scarce, and the majority of clinical trials exclude older patients. There is overall very limited information on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these medicines in older patients with sciatica. This review presents a critical appraisal of the existing evidence for the pharmacological treatment of sciatica, with a special focus on the older adult. The age-related changes in the health of older patients, as well as their impact on the response to pharmacological treatment, including polypharmacy, drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions, is also discussed.

  1. Student Volunteering in England: A Critical Moment (United States)

    Darwen, Jamie; Rannard, Andrea Grace


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of student volunteering in English universities, and show how it contributes to some of the core activities of higher education, including teaching and learning, employability, and public engagement. The paper goes on to describe challenges currently faced by student volunteering,…

  2. The live attenuated chimeric vaccine rWN/DEN4Δ30 is well-tolerated and immunogenic in healthy flavivirus-naïve adult volunteers. (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P; Wright, Peter F; Cox, Amber; Kagucia, Wangeci; Elwood, Daniel; Henderson, Susan; Wanionek, Kimberli; Speicher, Jim; Whitehead, Stephen S; Pletnev, Alexander G


    WNV has become the leading vector-borne cause of meningoencephalitis in the United States. Although the majority of WNV infections result in asymptomatic illness, approximately 20% of infections result in West Nile fever and 1% in West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND), which causes encephalitis, meningitis, or flaccid paralysis. The elderly are at particular risk for WNND, with more than half the cases occurring in persons older than sixty years of age. There is no licensed treatment for WNND, nor is there any licensed vaccine for humans for the prevention of WNV infection. The Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health has developed a recombinant live attenuated WNV vaccine based on chimerization of the wild-type WNV NY99 genome with that of the live attenuated DENV-4 candidate vaccine rDEN4Δ30. The genes encoding the prM and envelope proteins of DENV-4 were replaced with those of WNV NY99 and the resultant virus was designated rWN/DEN4Δ30. The vaccine was evaluated in healthy flavivirus-naïve adult volunteers age 18-50 years in two separate studies, both of which are reported here. The first study evaluated 10³ or 10⁴ PFU of the vaccine given as a single dose; the second study evaluated 10⁵ PFU of the vaccine given as two doses 6 months apart. The vaccine was well-tolerated and immunogenic at all three doses, inducing seroconversion to WNV NY99 in 74% (10³ PFU), 75% (10⁴ PFU), and 55% (10⁵ PFU) of subjects after a single dose. A second 10⁵ PFU dose of rWN/DEN4Δ30 given 6 months after the first dose increased the seroconversion rate 89%. Based on the encouraging results from these studies, further evaluation of the candidate vaccine in adults older than 50 years of age is planned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethical challenges related to assistive product access for older adults and adults living with a disability: a scoping review protocol. (United States)

    Sun, Winnie; Wilson, Michael G; Schreiber, Daphne; Wang, Rosalie H


    Despite the surge of research and development in assistive products for older adults and/or people living with disabilities, policies on access and procurement have lagged in responding to the growing demand from users. Developing policies to address these concerns require an understanding of the ethical challenges underlying approaches for providing assistive products. The purpose of this scoping review is to identify and map the literature pertaining to ethical challenges related to assistive product access and procurement to inform policy development. We will use established approaches to conducting scoping reviews which include five stages: (1) conducting broad searches to identify potentially relevant literature, (2) refining selection criteria, (3) reviewing search results, (4) mapping literature according to conceptual areas of interest, and (5) summarizing results. We will analyze data by thematically grouping the descriptions of assistive products identified in the included articles and conducting a content analysis to iteratively develop a targeted synthesis of literature focused on ethical challenges in relation to assistive product access and procurement by older adults and/or adults living with disabilities. Our scoping review findings will focus on and provide insight about the models, frameworks, and principles that have been used to understand ethical challenges related to technology access and procurement. We will use the findings to help inform a series of citizen panels in Canada to identify Canadians' values and preferences for enhancing equitable access to assistive products.

  4. Baseline morbidity in 2,990 adult African volunteers recruited to characterize laboratory reference intervals for future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Stevens


    Full Text Available An understanding of the health of potential volunteers in Africa is essential for the safe and efficient conduct of clinical trials, particularly for trials of preventive technologies such as vaccines that enroll healthy individuals. Clinical safety laboratory values used for screening, enrolment and follow-up of African clinical trial volunteers have largely been based on values derived from industrialized countries in Europe and North America. This report describes baseline morbidity during recruitment for a multi-center, African laboratory reference intervals study.Asymptomatic persons, aged 18-60 years, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at seven sites (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; Kangemi, Kenyatta National Hospital and Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia. Gender equivalency was by design. Individuals who were acutely ill, pregnant, menstruating, or had significant clinical findings were not enrolled. Each volunteer provided blood for hematology, immunology, and biochemistry parameters and urine for urinalysis. Enrolled volunteers were excluded if found to be positive for HIV, syphilis or Hepatitis B and C. Laboratory assays were conducted under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP.Of the 2990 volunteers who were screened, 2387 (80% were enrolled, and 2107 (71% were included in the analysis (52% men, 48% women. Major reasons for screening out volunteers included abnormal findings on physical examination (228/603, 38%, significant medical history (76, 13% and inability to complete the informed consent process (73, 13%. Once enrolled, principle reasons for exclusion from analysis included detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (106/280, 38% and antibodies against Hepatitis C (95, 34%. This is the first large scale, multi-site study conducted to the standards of GCLP to describe African laboratory reference intervals applicable to potential volunteers in clinical trials. Approximately one-third of all

  5. Volunteering, income and health. (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara; Baert, Stijn


    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René


    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  7. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark (United States)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen


    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  8. The New Evangelisation and Adult Religious Education in Slovenia: Challenges and Possibilities (United States)

    Stegu, Tadej


    The Catholic Church in Slovenia is facing the challenge of the new evangelisation in the area of religious education which, at present, is mainly confined to the parish catechesis. She recognises the urgent need to pass from the religious education of children to adult catechesis. The latter is already being implemented in various forms by a…

  9. Barriers and Challenges of Female Adult Students Enrolled in Higher Education: A Literature Review (United States)

    Lin, Xi


    The present study is a review of the literature concerning the barriers and challenges of female adult students enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States. Findings indicated that the commitments of multiple roles, lower level of self-confidence, and insufficient family and social support were the most significant variables related…

  10. Practical Challenges and Perspectives for the Development of Neurosurgery in a Peripheral East African Hospital During a One-Volunteer Midterm Mission. (United States)

    Spanu, Fabio; Piquer, José; Panciani, P Paolo; Qureshi, Mahmood M


    Several strategies have been proposed for developing and spreading surgical specialties in Sub-Saharan East Africa. Regarding neurosurgery, improvements are coming from the cooperation between Western and African institutes by means of the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons and independent organizations but, far from big cities and more equipped hospitals, shortcomings in the delivery of services persist. Through the application of 1 formally trained neurosurgeon volunteer, the Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery and Neurocirugía, Educación y Desarrollo coordinated a 2-month neurosurgical project at Mathari Consolata Hospital in Nyeri (Kenya), designed to analyze critical points and to find suggestions for initiating and developing a neurosurgical service, providing in the meantime clinical and surgical care for patients. During the mission, general and local issues limiting the neurosurgical activities at the hospital were studied. They were discussed with the hospital board and the project supervisors, thereby ensuring short-term and medium-term solutions and possible future cooperation with the hospital. The volunteer also carried out clinics and surgery for neuro cases and neurosurgical training for nurses and doctors. The model proposed should be considered a preliminary and immersive survey to evaluate the eligibility of a decentralized East African hospital to interface with neurosurgical activities, through the support of experienced local institutes and Western organizations. Host hospitals would also have the chance to enhance clinical services currently lacking and to train its personnel at low cost. The program may represent a rewarding personal and professional opportunity for young trained neurosurgeons, which also addresses the contemporary shortage of local specialists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development Strategies for Online Volunteer Training Modules: A Team Approach (United States)

    Robideau, Kari; Vogel, Eric


    Volunteers are central to the delivery of 4-H programs, and providing quality, relevant training is key to volunteer success. Online, asynchronous modules are an enhancement to a training delivery menu for adult volunteers, providing consistent, accessible options traditionally delivered primarily face to face. This article describes how Minnesota…

  12. Enhancing the Career Planning Self-Determination of Young Adults with Mental Health Challenges. (United States)

    Sowers, Jo-Ann; Swank, Paul


    The impact of an intervention on the self-determination and career planning engagement of young adults with mental health challenges was studied. Sixty-seven young adults, 20 to 30 years of age, with mental health diagnoses (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Statistically significant greater increases were made by the intervention group versus the control group for self-determination and career planning engagement, and self-determination at least partially mediated increases in career planning engagement. With career planning self-determination interventions, young adults with mental health challenges might be able to achieve better career and life outcomes than is typical for this population.

  13. Flying the nest: a challenge for young adults with cystic fibrosis and their parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Boisen, Kirsten A; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf


    Objectives: As young patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) grow up, they are expected to take increasing responsibility for the treatment and care of their disease. The aim of this study was to explore the disease-related challenges faced by young adults with CF and their parents, when they leave home....... Materials and methods: A questionnaire survey of Danish patients with CF aged 18–25 years and their parents was conducted. The questionnaires were based on focus-group interviews with young adults with CF and their parents, and addressed challenges faced in the transition phase between childhood...... and adulthood, including different areas of disease management in everyday life. Results: Among all of the patients invited, 62% (n=58/94) of young adults and 53% (n=99/188) of their parents participated in the study. In total, 40% of the 18- to 25-year-olds were living with their parents, and the parents...

  14. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills (United States)

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George


    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  15. Volunteers in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.

  16. Sensory-Challenge Balance Exercises Improve Multisensory Reweighting in Fall-Prone Older Adults. (United States)

    Allison, Leslie K; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J


    Multisensory reweighting (MSR) deficits in older adults contribute to fall risk. Sensory-challenge balance exercises may have value for addressing the MSR deficits in fall-prone older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sensory-challenge balance exercises on MSR and clinical balance measures in fall-prone older adults. We used a quasi-experimental, repeated-measures, within-subjects design. Older adults with a history of falls underwent an 8-week baseline (control) period. This was followed by an 8-week intervention period that included 16 sensory-challenge balance exercise sessions performed with computerized balance training equipment. Measurements, taken twice before and once after intervention, included laboratory measures of MSR (center of mass gain and phase, position, and velocity variability) and clinical tests (Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Berg Balance Scale, Sensory Organization Test, Limits of Stability test, and lower extremity strength and range of motion). Twenty adults 70 years of age and older with a history of falls completed all 16 sessions. Significant improvements were observed in laboratory-based MSR measures of touch gain (P = 0.006) and phase (P = 0.05), Berg Balance Scale (P = 0.002), Sensory Organization Test (P = 0.002), Limits of Stability Test (P = 0.001), and lower extremity strength scores (P = 0.005). Mean values of vision gain increased more than those for touch gain, but did not reach significance. A balance exercise program specifically targeting multisensory integration mechanisms improved MSR, balance, and lower extremity strength in this mechanistic study. These valuable findings provide the scientific rationale for sensory-challenge balance exercise to improve perception of body position and motion in space and potential reduction in fall risk.

  17. Reflections: Volunteering at Home. (United States)

    Hu, Amanda


    Many young people look forward to volunteering abroad and overlook the ample volunteer opportunities at home. There are several advantages to volunteering at home: you help people in your own community; you can make a long-term commitment; and you have continuity of care for your patients. There are >1200 free clinics in the United States whose main goal is to provide care to the indigent population. These free clinics are always looking for volunteers with specialized medical training. This article reviews the medically related and unrelated volunteer opportunities available in the United States. Volunteering at home is a worthwhile experience, and I encourage the otolaryngology community to explore these opportunities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. Olympic Games volunteering genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Tomenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the development of volunteer activity in relation to the Olympic Games. Material & Methods: theoretical scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists on the development of volunteer activities regarding their participation in the Olympic Games are analyzed, considered the main legal documents relating to the Olympic sport. Results: Statistical indicators of participation of volunteers in the Winter and Summer Olympics Games are analyzed and presented. The role and significance of volunteers' activity in the organization and holding of the Olympic Games are revealed. Conclusion: evolution of the volunteer movement, with reference to the Olympic Games, originates from the first games that took place in 1896 in Athens. To date, volunteers are an integral part of the organization and holding of the Olympic Games, their activities help to solve a number of organizational issues, the creation of a corresponding atmosphere and image at a sporting event, largely determine the success of games.

  19. Clinical testing of pre-pandemic live attenuated A/H5N2 influenza candidate vaccine in adult volunteers: results from a placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind phase I study. (United States)

    Rudenko, Larisa; Kiseleva, Irina; Stukova, Marina; Erofeeva, Marianna; Naykhin, Anatoly; Donina, Svetlana; Larionova, Natalie; Pisareva, Maria; Krivitskaya, Vera; Flores, Jorge


    This study describes a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial of A/H5N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy volunteers. Two doses of vaccine or placebo were administered intranasally to 30 and 10 subjects, respectively. Nasal swabs were examined for vaccine shedding and local antibody responses; serum samples were tested for binding, hemagglutinating and neutralizing antibodies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were tested for cell-mediated immune responses. The vaccine was well tolerated and not associated with increased rates of adverse events or the occurrence of serious adverse events. Influenza virus was detected in nasal swabs on the first day in the majority of volunteers (93%), while 17% of volunteers tested positive on the second, none on the third day or later following the first vaccination; lower frequency of shedding was observed after the second vaccination. The vaccine was immunogenic as assessed four weeks after the second dose, with 37.9% and 48.3% of subjects seroconverting by hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization assays, respectively. An immune response was observed in 96.6% subjects that received A/H5N2 LAIV in at least one of the assays conducted. None of the placebo recipients exhibited a response in any of the assays. The A/H5N2 vaccine was safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic in healthy adults. NCT01719783. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  1. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Azevedo


    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  2. College Students' Volunteering: Factors Related to Current Volunteering, Volunteer Settings, and Motives for Volunteering (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen


    Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…

  3. Transitioning adolescents living with HIV/AIDS to adult-oriented health care: an emerging challenge. (United States)

    Machado, Daisy Maria; Succi, Regina C; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro


    To review the literature on transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care and discuss this issue in the specific context of chronic conditions. MEDLINE and LILACS were searched for relevant English and French-language articles published between 1990 and 2010. The transition of adolescents with chronic diseases from pediatric care to adult-oriented services has been a growing concern among pediatric specialties. In recent years, young people living with HIV/AIDS have begun to reach adulthood, giving rise to several challenges. The studies reviewed herein discuss such relevant topics as: the difference between transfer, an isolated event, and transition, a gradual process; the transition models used in different services; the importance of transitioning in a planned and individualized manner; the need for comprehensive interaction between pediatric and adult-oriented care teams; the importance of joint participation of adolescents, their families, and health professionals in the process; barriers to and factors that promote successful transitions; and the special needs of adolescents with HIV/AIDS in this important period of life. Several authors agree that transitioning adolescents to adult-oriented health care should be a gradual process not determined by age alone. It requires a plan established with ample dialogue among adolescents, their families, and pediatric and adult care teams. However, there is little evidence to support any specific model of health care transition. This should prompt researchers to conduct more prospective studies on the theme, especially in more vulnerable groups such as adolescents living with HIV/AIDS.

  4. Motivation to volunteer among senior center participants. (United States)

    Pardasani, Manoj


    Senior centers in the United States play a vital role in the aging continuum of care as the focal points of a community-based system of services targeting independent older adults to promote their social integration and civically engagement. Although several studies have evaluated the diversity of senior center programs, demographic characteristics of participants, and benefits of participation, very few have explored motivations to volunteer among participants. Many senior centers rely on a cadre of participants who volunteer there to assist with programs and meal services. However, a systematic examination of volunteering interests and the rationale for volunteering among senior center participants has been missing from the literature. This mixed-methods study, conducted at a large suburban senior center, explores the interests and motivations of volunteerism among the participants. The study found that there was limited interest in volunteering among senior center participants. Those who were motivated to volunteer wanted to do so in order to stay connected with their community. There was strong interest in volunteering for single events or projects rather than a long-term commitment. Implications for senior centers are discussed.

  5. Flying the nest: a challenge for young adults with cystic fibrosis and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bregnballe V


    Full Text Available Vibeke Bregnballe,1 Kirsten A Boisen,2 Peter Oluf Schiøtz,3 Tacjana Pressler,4 Kirsten Lomborg1,5 1Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 2Center of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Objectives: As young patients with cystic fibrosis (CF grow up, they are expected to take increasing responsibility for the treatment and care of their disease. The aim of this study was to explore the disease-related challenges faced by young adults with CF and their parents, when they leave home.Materials and methods: A questionnaire survey of Danish patients with CF aged 18–25 years and their parents was conducted. The questionnaires were based on focus-group interviews with young adults with CF and their parents, and addressed challenges faced in the transition phase between childhood and adulthood, including different areas of disease management in everyday life.Results: Among all of the patients invited, 62% (n=58/94 of young adults and 53% (n=99/188 of their parents participated in the study. In total, 40% of the 18- to 25-year-olds were living with their parents, and the parents continued to play an active role in the daily care of their offspring’s disease. Among the young adults who had left home, both the patients and their parents reported many difficulties regarding disease management; the young adults reported difficulties in contacting social services and in affording and preparing sufficient CF-focused meals, and their parents reported difficulties in answering questions concerning social rights and CF in general, and in knowing how to give their offspring the best help, how much to interfere, and how to relinquish

  6. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine SR


    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  7. Recruiting and retaining youth and young adults: challenges and opportunities in survey research for tobacco control. (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Hair, Elizabeth C; Smith, Alexandria; Bennett, Morgane; Rath, Jessica Miller; Thomas, Randall K; Fahimi, Mansour; Dennis, J Michael; Vallone, Donna


    Evaluation studies of population-based tobacco control interventions often rely on large-scale survey data from numerous respondents across many geographic areas to provide evidence of their effectiveness. Significant challenges for survey research have emerged with the evolving communications landscape, particularly for surveying hard-to-reach populations such as youth and young adults. This study combines the comprehensive coverage of an address-based sampling (ABS) frame with the timeliness of online data collection to develop a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of young people aged 15-21. We constructed an ABS frame, partially supplemented with auxiliary data, to recruit this hard-to-reach sample. Branded and tested mail-based recruitment materials were designed to bring respondents online for screening, consent and surveying. Once enrolled, respondents completed online surveys every 6 months via computer, tablet or smartphone. Numerous strategies were utilized to enhance retention and representativeness RESULTS: Results detail sample performance, representativeness and retention rates as well as device utilization trends for survey completion among youth and young adult respondents. Panel development efforts resulted in a large, nationally representative sample with high retention rates. This study is among the first to employ this hybrid ABS-to-online methodology to recruit and retain youth and young adults in a probability-based online cohort panel. The approach is particularly valuable for conducting research among younger populations as it capitalizes on their increasing access to and comfort with digital communication. We discuss challenges and opportunities of panel recruitment and retention methods in an effort to provide valuable information for tobacco control researchers seeking to obtain representative, population-based samples of youth and young adults in the U.S. as well as across the globe. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  8. Adult human metapneumovirus encephalitis: A case report highlighting challenges in clinical management and functional outcome. (United States)

    Tan, Y L; Wee, T C


    We report a rare case of adult human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in a healthy 32-year-old man. There was dramatic deterioration in his condition developing pneumonia with Type-I respiratory failure and encephalitis. He needed mechanical ventilation in the intensive care setting and was treated with intravenous ribavirin. Post-extubation he remained severely physically and cognitively impaired despite rehabilitation. Treatment of HMPV pneumonia is at present, still without specific antiviral therapy. Managing HMPV-encephalitis remained supportive and challenging. More definite treatment strategies are needed.

  9. Premenstrual distress predicts panic-relevant responding to a CO2 challenge among young adult females. (United States)

    Nillni, Yael I; Rohan, Kelly J; Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J


    The current study examined the incremental validity of self-reported premenstrual distress in predicting panic responsivity (self-reported panic symptoms and skin conductance response frequency; SCR) following inhalation of 10% CO(2)-enriched air. A community sample of young adult women (n=46) completed questionnaires assessing substance use patterns, premenstrual symptoms and distress, and anxiety sensitivity and underwent a laboratory biological challenge procedure (4-min 10% CO(2)-enriched air inhalation). As hypothesized, higher premenstrual distress scores significantly predicted greater self-reported panic symptoms following the CO(2) challenge above and beyond other theoretically relevant variables (anxiety sensitivity, cigarette use, and alcohol consumption). In predicting SCR, premenstrual distress exhibited only a trend towards statistical significance. These findings provide preliminary evidence that premenstrual symptoms may serve as a potential risk factor to experience more intense panic symptoms in response to perturbations in bodily sensations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Mild head injury in children and adults. Diagnostic challenges in the emergency department]. (United States)

    Leidel, B A; Lindner, T; Wolf, S; Bogner, V; Steinbeck, A; Börner, N; Peiser, C; Audebert, H J; Biberthaler, P; Kanz, K-G


    Mild head injuries are one of the most frequent reasons for attending emergency departments and are particularly challenging in different ways. While clinically important injuries are infrequent, delayed or missed injuries may lead to fatal consequences. The initial mostly inconspicuous appearance may not reflect the degree of intracranial injury and computed tomography (CT) is necessary to rule out covert injuries. Furthermore, infants and young children with a lack of or rudimentary cognitive and language development are challenging, especially for those examiners not familiar with pediatric care. Established check lists of clinical risk factors for children and adults regarding traumatic brain injuries allow specific and rational decision-making for cranial CT imaging. Clinically important intracranial injuries can be reliably detected and unnecessary radiation exposure avoided at the same time.

  11. [Mild head injury in children and adults: Diagnostic challenges in the emergency department]. (United States)

    Leidel, B A; Lindner, T; Wolf, S; Bogner, V; Steinbeck, A; Börner, N; Peiser, C; Audebert, H J; Biberthaler, P; Kanz, K-G


    Mild head injuries are one of the most frequent reasons for attending emergency departments and are particularly challenging in different ways. While clinically important injuries are infrequent, delayed or missed injuries may lead to fatal consequences. The initial mostly inconspicuous appearance may not reflect the degree of intracranial injury and computed tomography (CT) is necessary to rule out covert injuries. Furthermore, infants and young children with a lack of or rudimentary cognitive and language development are challenging, especially for those examiners not familiar with pediatric care. Established check lists of clinical risk factors for children and adults regarding traumatic brain injuries allow specific and rational decision-making for cranial CT imaging. Clinically important intracranial injuries can be reliably detected and unnecessary radiation exposure avoided at the same time.

  12. NASTEP Volunteer Request (CSA) - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Allows users to add themselves to a Service Area wide ?volunteer for emergency duty? list (was created after Gulf Coast Hurricanes). Approval and email by managers,...

  13. Volunteering and Organizational Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David


    ABSTRACT Background, data and methods The voluntary sector consists of a multitude of organizations and associations. They have different purposes, different activities, and various target groups. They vary in size, membership base, ideology, and political orientation. Some take care of their own...... of volunteering (culture, sports, hobby, education, health, social services, environment, housing and community, unions and work organizations, advice and legal assistance, political parties, international organizations, religion, and other). We propose a categorization which is theoretically meaningful...... volunteering within the three major welfare fields: social service, health, and education. It could be argued that this is a more heterogeneous type of volunteering, because some volunteers work in ‘service organizations' aiming at particular client groups (battered women, homeless, elderly people etc.) while...

  14. Recommendations on Arresting Global Health Challenges Facing Adolescents and Young Adults. (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities. Major direct and indirect global health risks faced by adolescents include early pregnancy and childbirth, femicide, honor killing, female genital mutilation, nutritional habits and choices, social media, and peer pressure. There are no standard legal age cut-offs for adulthood; rather, the age varies for different activities, such as age of consent or the minimum age that young people can legally work, leave school, drive, buy alcohol, marry, be held accountable for criminal action, and make medical decisions. This reflects the fact that the existing systems and structures are focused on either children or adults, with very few investments and interventions directed specifically to young people. Existing legislation and guidelines need transformation to bring about a specific focus on adolescents in the domains of substance use and sexual behaviors, and the capacity for adolescent learning should be exploited through graduated legal and policy frameworks. Sustainable development goals provide an opportunity to target this neglected and vulnerable age group. A multisectoral approach is needed to bring about healthy change and address the challenges faced by adolescents and youth, from modifications at a broader legislative and policy level to ground-level (community-level) implementations. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction or discontinuation of antipsychotics for challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability: a systematic review. (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Hassiotis, Angela


    The use of antipsychotics to manage challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability is widespread but controversial, and evidence is scarce. There is a perception that antipsychotics used in this context can be reduced or discontinued, and this has been a major focus of recent national policy. However, such an intervention risks harm as well as having potential benefits. We reviewed the available evidence and found that antipsychotics can be reduced or discontinued in a substantial proportion of adults who use them for challenging behaviour, although not always without adverse effects. There is a group which displays behavioural deterioration on antipsychotic reduction that prevents discontinuation; predictors of poor response could not be reliably identified. In view of the relatively scarce data and methodological limitations of the available studies, we cannot draw firm conclusions to inform a population level approach to this issue. Antipsychotic medication used for behaviour should be reviewed regularly and an individualised approach taken to treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. (United States)

    Poppes, P; van der Putten, A A J; ten Brug, A; Vlaskamp, C


    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give for challenging behaviour in this group. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the way staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD; and (2) to analyse whether more experienced staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD differently than less experienced staff. In total, 195 direct support staff and an equal number of children and adults with PIMD participated in the study. Direct support staff filled out the Challenging behaviour Attribution Scale (five causal explanatory models of challenging behaviour) to explain challenging behaviour in one individual that they supported. The results show that direct support staff as a whole report the biomedical model as the most plausible explanation for challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD. However, in the present study the mean scores on all models are low. This might indicate that a large number of staff found none of the models particularly useful as possible explanations of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. This could mean that staff have difficulties stating the cause of challenging behaviour in this group. Another possible explanation could be that there is little scientific knowledge about causing and maintaining factors of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. It could also mean that staff have additional explanations for challenging behaviour in this target group that are not mentioned in the instrument used. Future research should address these issues. No differences were found between more experienced and less experienced direct support staff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Peritoneal dialysis in adult patients with prune belly syndrome: an impossible challenge?]. (United States)

    Musone, Dario; Nicosia, Valentina; D'Alessandro, Riccardo; Treglia, Antonio; Saltarelli, Giuseppe; Montella, Maurizio; Sparagna, Alessandro; Amoroso, Francesco


    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by hypoplasia of the abdominal muscles, urinary tract malformations, and cryptorchidism in males. The estimated incidence is 1 in 35,000 to 50,000 live births. Chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), due both to different degrees of renal hypoplasia or dysplasia and infectious complications, develops in 20-30% of patients who survive the neonatal period. No data are available on progression time to ESRD, owing to the variability of the phenotypic features of nephropathy. Nevertheless, PBS is primarily a pathology of pediatric interest as demonstrated, for example, by the reported average age at transplantation which usually does not exceed fifteen years of age. Therefore the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in adult patients with PBS is unusual. It is reasonable to suppose that the abdominal muscular defects may represent a limit for peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization in PBS adult patients in many Kidney Units where, conversely, treatment with hemodialysis would be probably the easier choice. Here we describe the case of a 44 -year- old man with PBS who, at the age of 41, required RRT and was faced with the challenge of accepting PD. After more than three years of nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis treatment we can safely say, as the following case illustrates, that PD is a feasible option in PBS adult patients.

  18. Navigating the urban food environment: challenges and resilience of community-dwelling older adults. (United States)

    Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Morland, Kimberly B; Pierre, Jennifer A; Spark, Arlene; Filomena, Susan E; Noyes, Philip


    Identify factors involved in food shopping among older urban adults. A qualitative study of 30 in-depth interviews and 15 "tagalong" shopping trip observations were conducted. Brooklyn, New York. Black, white, and Latino men and women aged 60-88 years. Transcripts were coded inductively to identify emergent themes. Older adults shopped at multiple stores to obtain the quality of foods preferred at prices that fit their food budgets. Participants often traveled outside their neighborhoods to accomplish this, and expressed dissatisfaction with the foods locally available. Adaptive food shopping behaviors included walking or the use of public transit to purchase food in small batches, as well as reliance on community resources and social network members. Participants identified a number of multilayered factors and challenges involved in procuring food. These factors conform to elements of ecological behavioral models described as intrapersonal, social, and environmental level influences and have resulted in adaptive behaviors for this population. These findings provide evidence that can be used to develop more effective programs, as well as promote testable interventions aimed at keeping older adults independent and capable of acquiring food that meets their age-specific needs. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical circulatory support challenges in pediatric and (adult) congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Schweiger, Martin; Lorts, Angela; Conway, Jennifer


    Increased miniaturization of ventricular assist devices (VADs) and new mechanical support strategies (MCS) has increased the use of MCS in the pediatric and congenital heart disease (CHD) population. This comes with the need for care providers specialized in this field to determine optimal patient and device selection, and to improve outcomes and decrease complication rates for new innovative strategies. A review of the published literature in this field is timely and relevant. There has been a rapid evolution of using adult designed continuous flow VADS to support children and adults with CHD (ACHD). Patient selection for patients with CHD is complex because of patient size and anatomical diversity and, therefore, makes decision-making complex and unique when compared to general adult practice. Outcomes for children depend on size and diagnosis with neonates with single ventricle physiology being the highest risk candidates. This also holds true for ACHD, in which VAD outcomes in patients with two ventricle physiology are comparable to non-ACHD patients. In children, there is an increased use of continuous flow devices and a growing experience with outpatient management. Patients with CHD especially when associated with single ventricle physiologies, remain a challenge when it comes to MCS/VAD placement but successful durable VAD implantation with discharge home has been reported.

  20. Confronting Challenges in Intervention Research with Ethnically Diverse Older Adults: The USC Well Elderly II Trial (United States)

    Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Carlson, Mike; Cherry, Barbara; Azen, Stanley; Chou, Chih-Ping; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Forman, Todd; White, Brett; Granger, Douglas; Knight, Bob; Clark, Florence


    Background Community-dwelling older adults are at risk for declines in physical health, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, their enactment of active and health-promoting lifestyles can reduce such declines. Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the USC Well Elderly II study, a randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle program for elders, and document how various methodological challenges were addressed during the course of the trial. Methods In the study, 460 ethnically diverse elders recruited from a variety of sites in the urban Los Angeles area were enrolled in a randomized experiment involving a crossover design component. Within either the first or second six month phase of their study involvement, each elder received a lifestyle intervention designed to improve a variety of aging outcomes. At 4–5 time points over an 18–24 month interval, the research participants were assessed on measures of healthy activity, coping, social support, perceived control, stress-related biomarkers, perceived physical health, psychosocial well-being, and cognitive functioning to test the effectiveness of the intervention and document the process mechanisms responsible for its effects. Results The study protocol was successfully implemented, including the enrollment of study sites, the recruitment of 460 older adults, administration of the intervention, adherence to the plan for assessment, and establishment of a large computerized data base. Limitations Methodological challenges were encountered in the areas of site recruitment, participant recruitment, testing, and intervention delivery. Conclusions The completion of clinical trials involving elders from numerous local sites requires careful oversight and anticipation of threats to the study design that stem from: (a) social situations that are particular to specific study sites; and (b) physical, functional, and social challenges pertaining to the elder

  1. Average bioequivalence of single 500 mg doses of two oral formulations of levofloxacin: a randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy adult Brazilian volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Kazue Kano


    Full Text Available Average bioequivalence of two 500 mg levofloxacin formulations available in Brazil, Tavanic(c (Sanofi-Aventis Farmacêutica Ltda, Brazil, reference product and Levaquin(c (Janssen-Cilag Farmacêutica Ltda, Brazil, test product was evaluated by means of a randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study performed in 26 healthy Brazilian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single dose of 500 mg levofloxacin tablets was orally administered, and blood samples were collected over a period of 48 hours. Levofloxacin plasmatic concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, Kel, T1/2el, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (90% CI for the ratio of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf values for test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory analysis results, by subject interviews and by spontaneous report of adverse events. 90% CIs for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf were 92.1% - 108.2%, 90.7% - 98.0%, and 94.8% - 100.0%, respectively. Observed adverse events were nausea and headache. It was concluded that Tavanic(c and Levaquin(c are bioequivalent, since 90% CIs are within the 80% - 125% interval proposed by regulatory agencies.

  2. Challenges for quality in volunteered geographical information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available of the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) is the massive explosion in raw data available to anyone with a computer connected to the Internet ? far too much for any human to manage or absorb. This has led to the development of portals and search engines....0, largely revolutionized the perception of the Internet. The start of Web 2.0 is associated with the rise of social networking portals. With the advent of mechanisms for publishing content in the Internet, without having specialized knowledge, anyone...

  3. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers? (United States)

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R


    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. A randomized placebo-controlled phase Ia malaria vaccine trial of two virosome-formulated synthetic peptides in healthy adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Genton


    Full Text Available Influenza virosomes represent an innovative human-compatible antigen delivery system that has already proven its suitability for subunit vaccine design. The aim of the study was to proof the concept that virosomes can also be used to elicit high titers of antibodies against synthetic peptides. The specific objective was to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of two virosome-formulated P. falciparum protein derived synthetic peptide antigens given in two different doses alone or in combination.The design was a single blind, randomized, placebo controlled, dose-escalating study involving 46 healthy Caucasian volunteers aged 18-45 years. Five groups of 8 subjects received virosomal formulations containing 10 microg or 50 microg of AMA 49-CPE, an apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 derived synthetic phospatidylethanolamine (PE-peptide conjugate or 10 ug or 50 ug of UK39, a circumsporozoite protein (CSP derived synthetic PE-peptide conjugate or 50 ug of both antigens each. A control group of 6 subjects received unmodified virosomes. Virosomal formulations of the antigens (designated PEV301 and PEV302 for the AMA-1 and the CSP virosomal vaccine, respectively or unmodified virosomes were injected i. m. on days 0, 60 and 180. In terms of safety, no serious or severe adverse events (AEs related to the vaccine were observed. 11/46 study participants reported 16 vaccine related local AEs. Of these 16 events, all being pain, 4 occurred after the 1(st, 7 after the 2(nd and 5 after the 3(rd vaccination. 6 systemic AEs probably related to the study vaccine were reported after the 1(st injection, 10 after the 2(nd and 6 after the 3(rd. Generally, no difference in the distribution of the systemic AEs between either the doses applied (10 respectively 50 microg or the synthetic antigen vaccines (PEV301 and PEV302 used for immunization was found. In terms of immunogenicity, both PEV301 and PEV302 elicited already after two injections a synthetic peptide

  5. Volunteering of seniors in community


    Stropková, Andrea


    The diploma thesis deals with the theme of volunteering of seniors in the community. The work focuses on the specifics of volunteering of seniors, emphasizing the benefits of volunteering for participating seniors and how to identify them with other groups of people. Using a qualitative research work, it examines on a sample of eight respondents how these senior volunteers perceive the benefits of volunteering, how they relate to the geographical location in which they work, and what communit...

  6. Concepts, Terms, and Mental Models: Everyday Challenges to Older Adult Social Media Adoption. (United States)

    Quinn, Kelly; Smith-Ray, Renae; Boulter, Kristin


    Social connection and social support are strong predictors of wellbeing, but maintaining social relations often becomes more difficult at older ages. Because social media enhance feelings of connectedness and reduce feelings of loneliness, they may present accessible and relatively low cost mechanisms to enhance life quality at older ages. Using data gathered from two focus groups of potential older adult social media learners, we explored the physical and cognitive challenges to social media use, perceptions of social media benefits, and conceptual barriers to use. Findings support earlier studies that identify perceived benefit as important to social media adoption at older ages, and extend these by identifying that a lack in conceptual knowledge of these technologies is an additional barrier to use. We then discuss the cognitive implications of gaining this knowledge.

  7. Clinical semiology and neuroradiologic correlates of acute hypernatremic osmotic challenge in adults: a literature review. (United States)

    Ismail, F Y; Szóllics, A; Szólics, M; Nagelkerke, N; Ljubisavljevic, M


    The complex interplay between hypernatremic osmotic disturbances and cerebral lesions is yet to be clarified. In this review, we discuss, on the basis of the reported data of hypernatremic CNS challenge in the adult population, the clinical and radiologic features of the condition. Our search captured 20 case studies and 1 case series with 30 patients in total who acquired acute hypernatremia due to different etiologies and developed CNS lesions. We explored the associations between premorbid conditions, clinical presentation, hypernatremic state, correction rate, and radiologic appearance, including the localization of brain lesions and the outcomes. The results revealed that altered mental status was the most commonly reported symptom and osmotic demyelination syndrome in the form of extrapontine myelinolysis was the prevailing radiologic pattern. Finally, we contrasted, when appropriate, clinical and experimental data related to hypernatremic and hyponatremic osmotic insults to aid the understanding of the pathophysiology of CNS osmotic brain injury.

  8. Call for volunteers

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...

  9. AVOCLOUDY: a simulator of volunteer clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastio, Stefano; Amoretti, Michele; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto


    application, intelligent agents constitute a feasible technology to add autonomic features to cloud operations. Furthermore, the volunteer computing paradigm—one of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) trends of the last decade—can be pulled alongside traditional cloud approaches......, with the purpose to ‘green’ them. Indeed, the combination of data center and volunteer resources, managed by agents, allows one to obtain a more robust and scalable cloud computing platform. The increased challenges in designing such a complex system can benefit from a simulation-based approach, to test autonomic...

  10. The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Kleif, Helle Bendix; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe


    The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’ (NR) was founded in Sweden in 1987 and has, over the years, developed into a Scandinavian concept covering large areas of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The NR programme is a crime prevention initiative with adults walking...... the streets at night in identifiable ‘uniforms’ in areas with high activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the NR programme in Denmark based on a volunteer set-up with a less intrusive approach to situational crime prevention than, for instance, hot spot policing. The analyses...... with NR organizations to districts without NR organizations. The results show no difference in the crime rates between Danish postcode districts with and without the NR programme. Hence, we cannot identify positive effects of situational crime prevention when evaluating this Scandinavian volunteer...

  11. Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life. (United States)

    Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique


    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 on immune response to influenza vaccination and upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lillian; Tarnow, Inge; Eskesen, Dorte


    . Hansen A/S) (hereafter, L. casei 431) on immune response to influenza vaccination and respiratory symptoms in healthy adults. DESIGN: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 1104 healthy subjects aged 18-60 y at 2 centers in Germany and Denmark. Subjects were randomly...... on immune responses to influenza vaccination. Generalized linear mixed modeling showed a shorter duration of upper respiratory symptoms in the probiotic group compared with placebo (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 6.1 d vs. 7.3 ± 9.7 d, P = 0.0059) in the last 3 wk of the intervention period. No statistically significant...... differences were found for incidence or severity. CONCLUSIONS: Daily consumption of L. casei 431 resulted in no observable effect on the components of the immune response to influenza vaccination but reduced the duration of upper respiratory symptoms. The trial was registered at as ISRCTN...

  13. South African volunteers' experiences of volunteering at the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to study the phenomenon of volunteering through South African volunteers' experiences of volunteering at the 2010 FIFA World Cup, specifically in the City of Tshwane (COT) in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area (TMA). A qualitative research design was employed, with specific reference to ...

  14. What motivates people to volunteer? the case of volunteer AIDS caregivers in faith-based organizations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (United States)

    Akintola, Olagoke


    Volunteers are increasingly being relied upon to provide home-based care for people living with AIDS in South Africa and this presents several unique challenges specific to the HIV/AIDS context in Africa. Yet it is not clear what motivates people to volunteer as home-based caregivers. Drawing on the functional theory on volunteer motivations, this study uses data from qualitative interviews with 57 volunteer caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS in six semi-rural South African communities to explore volunteer motivations. Findings revealed complex motivations underlying volunteering in AIDS care. Consistent with functional theorizing, most of the volunteers reported having more than one motive for enrolling as volunteers. Of the 11 categories of motivations identified, those relating to altruistic concerns for others and community, employment or career benefits and a desire by the unemployed to avoid idleness were the most frequently mentioned. Volunteers also saw volunteering as an opportunity to learn caring skills or to put their own skills to good use, for personal growth and to attract good things to themselves. A few of the volunteers were heeding a religious call, hoping to gain community recognition, dealing with a devastating experience of AIDS in the family or motivated for social reasons. Care organizations' poor understanding of volunteer motives, a mismatch between organizational goals and volunteer motivations, and inadequate funding meant that volunteers' most pressing motives were not satisfied. This led to discontentment, resentment and attrition among volunteers. The findings have implications for home-based care policies and programmes, suggesting the need to rethink current models using non-stipended volunteers in informal AIDS care. Information about volunteer motivations could help organizations plan recruitment messages, recruit volunteers whose motives match organizational goals and plan how to assist volunteers to satisfy these motives

  15. Dentistry with a difference: volunteering for 'Dental Project Peru'. (United States)

    Bussell, M A


    As a young dentist looking for new challenges and experiences, Mary Bussell decided to use her skills and training by volunteering for a dental charity working in Peru. Here she gives an account of her 'dental adventure'.

  16. An investigation of the effect of immediate and extended release venlafaxine on nocturnal melatonin and cortisol release in healthy adult volunteers. (United States)

    Hallam, Karen T; Begg, Denovan P; Olver, James S; Norman, Trevor R


    The secretion of the hormone melatonin is particularly robust to the effect of pharmacological agents. Medications may alter melatonin levels through either altering adrenergic activity or affecting liver enzymes involved in melatonin metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of venlafaxine, a third generation antidepressant with known adrenergic properties on melatonin secretion. A further aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between plasma and salivary measures on this medication. Eight healthy adult participants (four males, four females) took part in this double blind placebo controlled randomised trial. Participants were tested on 3 nights after taking venlafaxine XR (75 mg), venlafaxine IR (75 mg) or placebo. Participants were placed in a darkened room between 1900 and 0300 h and regular temperature readings, blood and saliva samples were drawn to assess melatonin and cortisol secretion in each condition. There was no significant effect of venlafaxine IR or XR on melatonin concentrations in plasma or saliva and no effects on other circadian parameters including cortisol and temperature. It was notable that the correlation between plasma and salivary melatonin levels became poor after drug treatment. These results indicate that at low doses the mixed serotonergic and noradrenergic drug venlafaxine has no effect on nocturnal melatonin concentrations. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Gigabit ethernet for volunteer computer


    Starzec, Aleksandra; Field, Laurence; Segal, Ben


    Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing in which computer owners can donate their spare computing resources (processing power, storage and Internet connection) to one or more research projects. Many existing volunteer computing platforms consist of millions of users, providing huge amount of memory and processing. Since the rapid growth in the volunteer computing projects, more researchers have been attracted to study and improve the existing volunteer computing system. Nowada...

  18. A Preliminary Study into the Relationship between Emotional Perception Ability and Challenging Behaviour in Adults with an Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Davies, Bronwen; Frude, Neil; Jenkins, Rosemary; Harding, Cathy; Hill, Caley


    This preliminary study explores the relationships between challenging behaviour and emotional perception in a population of adults with intellectual disabilities, in order to establish whether there are grounds for further study. Cross-sectional data were collected from 96 participants with intellectual disabilities and 95 carers. The service user…

  19. Enhancing Leadership Skills in Volunteers (United States)

    Lockett, Landry L.; Boyd, Barry


    This article describes how professionals leading volunteers can purposefully work toward developing the "leadership identity" of individual volunteers. These concepts and the application of them are presented in the context of Cooperative Extension volunteer groups. Specific methods of developing the leadership identity and capacity of individual…

  20. Amplifying Student Learning through Volunteering (United States)

    McFadden, Amanda; Smeaton, Kathleen


    Student volunteer experiences are ubiquitous within higher education contexts. Despite this, there is further scope for understanding the qualitatively different ways students experience volunteering. To achieve this an explicit focus on understanding volunteer experiences from the students' perspective and the relationship these experiences have…

  1. Challenge to promote change: both young and older adults benefit from contextual interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa ePauwels


    Full Text Available Current society has to deal with major challenges related to our constantly increasing population of older adults. Since motor performance generally deteriorates at older age, research investigating the effects of different types of training on motor improvement is particularly important. Here, we tested the effects of contextual interference (CI while learning a bimanual coordination task in both young and older subjects. Both age groups acquired a low and high complexity task variant following either a blocked or random practice schedule. Typical CI effects, i.e. better overall performance during acquisition but detrimental effects during retention for the blocked compared with the random groups, were found for the low complexity task variant in both age groups. With respect to the high complexity task variant, no retention differences between both practice schedules were found. However, following random practice, better skill persistence (i.e. from end of acquisition to retention over a one week time interval was observed for both task complexity variants and in both age groups. The current study provides clear evidence that the effects of different practice schedules on learning a complex bimanual task are not modulated by age.

  2. Faecal Endotoxin in Human Volunteers: Normal Values


    Van Saene, J. J. M.; Stoutenbeek, C. P.; Van Saene, H. K. F.


    This paper presents a study measuring endotoxin levels in faeces of healthy adults using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) microassay. Data showed mean faecal endotoxin levels of 1 mg (range 0.01-100 mg) per gram of faeces. No correlation was found with the concentration of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces and free Faecal endotoxin levels.Keywords: Endotoxin; LAL micro-assay; LPS; Faeccs; Human volunteers: Enterobacteriaceae.

  3. Race differences in the relationship between formal volunteering and hypertension. (United States)

    Tavares, Jane L; Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E


    This study investigated race differences in the relationship between formal volunteering and hypertension prevalence among middle-aged and older adults. Using data from the 2004 and 2006 Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,666; 677 African Americans and 4,989 whites), we examined regression models stratified by race to estimate relationships among hypertension prevalence, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and volunteer status and hours spent volunteering among persons aged 51 years old and older. White volunteers had a lower risk of hypertension than white nonvolunteers. A threshold effect was also present; compared with nonvolunteers, volunteering a moderate number of hours was associated with lowest risk of hypertension for whites. Results for hypertension were consistent with results from alternative models of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We found no statistically significant relationship between volunteering activity and hypertension/blood pressure for African Americans. There may be unmeasured cultural differences related to the meaning of volunteering and contextual differences in volunteering that account for the race differences we observed. Research is needed to determine the pathways through which volunteering is related to hypertension risk and that may help explain race differences identified here.

  4. Lactose Intolerance and Symptom Pattern of Lactose Intolerance among Healthy Volunteers. (United States)

    Saha, Madhusudan; Parveen, Irin; Shil, Bimal Chandra; Saha, Shasanka Kumar; Banik, Ranjit Kumar; Majumder, Monojit; Salam, Mahjuba Umme; Islam, Asm Nazmul


    To see the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) and related symptoms following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, and diarrhea were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 25 gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥ 1.1 mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM), i.e., LI. A total of 166 volunteers (123 males, 43 females) with a mean age 34.78 ± 11.45 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 85.54% (n = 142, M = 104, F = 38). The main symptoms of LI were diarrhea (n = 83, 58.4.0%), borborygmi (n = 81, 57.04%), abdominal pain (n = 35, 24.65%), and flatulence (n = 27, 19.0%). Lactose intolerance among healthy adults may be common in Bangladesh. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated symptoms of LI. Saha M, Parveen I, Shil BC, Saha SK, Banik RK, Majumder M, Salam MU, Nazmul Islam ASM. Lactose Intolerance and Symptom Pattern of Lactose Intolerance among Healthy Volunteers. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):5-7.

  5. Making room for volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis


    If campaigns do not accommodate this view, all but a hard core of regulars and fired-up partisans will drift away, leaving it for staffers and hired hands to do all the hard work of identifying voters, canvassing people by foot and by phone, and turning out the vote. [...] ironically, a campaign...... that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....

  6. Prevalence of psychotropic medication use and association with challenging behaviour in adults with an intellectual disability. A total population study. (United States)

    Bowring, D L; Totsika, V; Hastings, R P; Toogood, S; McMahon, M


    There is a high prevalence of psychotropic medication use in adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID), often in the absence of psychiatric disorder, also associated with challenging behaviour. Previous research has focused on specific sample frames or data from primary care providers. There is also a lack of consistency in the definition of challenging behaviour used. We adopted a total population sampling method. Medication data on 265 adults with ID were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. The Behaviour Problems Inventory - short form classified challenging behaviours. We examined the association between challenging behaviour and the use of psychotropic medication, and whether any association would still be present after accounting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. 70.57% of adults with ID were prescribed at least one class of any medication (mean per person =2.62; range 0-14). Psychotropic medications were used by 37.73% of participants with antipsychotics the commonest type used by 21.89% of individuals. Polypharmacy and high dosages were common. Generalised Linear Models indicated significant associations between psychotropic medication and the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis, challenging behaviour, older age and type of residence. Male gender was additionally associated with antipsychotic medication. The use of a total population sample identified via multiple routes is less likely to overestimate prevalence rates of medication use. Current challenging behaviour was a predictor of medication use after controlling for other variables. Data indicate that there may be differences in prescribing patterns associated with different topographies of challenging behaviours. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Long-term consequences of youth volunteering: Voluntary versus involuntary service. (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Morgül, Kerem


    Despite the renewed interest in youth volunteering in recent years, there remain major gaps in our knowledge of its consequences. Drawing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine the long-term effects of youth volunteering on the civic and personal aspects of volunteers' lives. Our results suggest that youth volunteering has a positive return on adult volunteering only when it is voluntary, and that net of contextual factors neither voluntary nor involuntary youth service has a significant effect on adult voting. Regarding personal outcomes, our findings indicate that the psychological benefits of youth volunteering accrue only to voluntary participants, whereas both voluntary and involuntary youth service are positively associated with educational attainment and earnings in young adulthood. Taken together, these results lend support to the case for youth volunteer programs, though the civic benefits of these programs appear to be less dramatic than generally suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Charity Begins At Home: How Socialization Experiences Influence Giving and Volunteering


    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.


    This paper shows that charity begins at home. Using retrospective reports on youth experiences from the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964, 2001) I find that (1) parents who volunteer when their children are young promote giving and volunteering of their children once they have become adults; (2) the intensity of youth participation in nonprofit organizations is positively related to current giving and volunteering; (3) that parental volunteering and youth participation promote c...

  9. Benefits of urban landscape eco-volunteerism: mixed methods segmentation analysis and implications for volunteer retention (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; Miku M. Lenetine; Dale J. Blahna


    Urban landscape restoration and conservation initiatives are challenged by financial and other constraints. Consequently, these initiatives are increasingly reliant on volunteer stewards. Knowledge of why people volunteer to restore and conserve urban ecosystems can help practitioners enhance volunteering as a social-ecological process that is mutually beneficial to...

  10. Allergic Non-Asthmatic Adults Have Regional Pulmonary Responses to Segmental Allergen Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J Kelly

    Full Text Available Allergic non-asthmatic (ANA adults experience upper airway symptoms of allergic disease such as rhinorrhea, congestion and sneezing without symptoms of asthma. The aim of this study was to utilize PET-CT functional imaging to determine whether allergen challenge elicits a pulmonary response in ANA subjects or whether their allergic disease is truly isolated to the upper airways.In 6 ANA subjects, bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL were performed at baseline and 24h after instillation of an allergen and a diluent in separate lung lobes. After instillation (10h, functional imaging was performed to quantify and compare regional perfusion, ventilation, fractional gas content (Fgas, and glucose uptake rate (Ki between the baseline, diluent and allergen lobes. BAL cell counts were also compared.In ANA subjects, compared to the baseline and diluent lobes, perfusion and ventilation were significantly lower in the allergen lobe (median [inter-quartile range], baseline vs. diluent vs. allergen: Mean-normalized perfusion; 0.87 [0.85-0.97] vs. 0.90 [0.86-0.98] vs. 0.59 [0.55-0.67]; p<0.05. Mean-normalized ventilation 0.89 [0.88-0.98] vs. 0.95 [0.89-1.02] vs. 0.63 [0.52-0.67], p<0.05. In contrast, no significant differences were found in Fgas between baseline, diluent and allergen lobes or in Ki. Total cell counts, eosinophil and neutrophil cell counts (cells/ml BAL were significantly greater in the allergen lobe compared to the baseline lobe (all P<0.05.Despite having no clinical symptoms of a lower airway allergic response (cough and wheeze allergic non-asthmatic subjects have a pulmonary response to allergen exposure which manifests as reduced ventilation and perfusion.

  11. Acute Kynurenine Challenge Disrupts Sleep-Wake Architecture and Impairs Contextual Memory in Adult Rats. (United States)

    Pocivavsek, Ana; Baratta, Annalisa M; Mong, Jessica A; Viechweg, Shaun S


    Tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway may represent a key molecular link between sleep loss and cognitive dysfunction. Modest increases in the kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, result in cognitive impairments. As glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmissions are critically involved in modulation of sleep, our current experiments tested the hypothesis that elevated KYNA adversely impacts sleep quality. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (saline) and kynurenine (25, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg), the direct bioprecursor of KYNA, intraperitoneally at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0 to rapidly increase brain KYNA. Levels of KYNA in the brainstem, cortex, and hippocampus were determined at ZT 0, ZT 2, and ZT 4, respectively. Analyses of vigilance state-related parameters categorized as wake, rapid eye movement (REM), and non-REM (NREM) as well as spectra power analysis during NREM and REM were assessed during the light phase. Separate animals were tested in the passive avoidance paradigm, testing contextual memory. When KYNA levels were elevated in the brain, total REM duration was reduced and total wake duration was increased. REM and wake architecture, assessed as number of vigilance state bouts and average duration of each bout, and theta power during REM were significantly impacted. Kynurenine challenge impaired performance in the hippocampal-dependent contextual memory task. Our results introduce kynurenine pathway metabolism and formation of KYNA as a novel molecular target contributing to sleep disruptions and cognitive impairments. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail

  12. Use of the Fluid Challenge in Critically Ill Adult Patients: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Messina, Antonio; Longhini, Federico; Coppo, Corinne; Pagni, Aline; Lungu, Ramona; Ronco, Chiara; Cattaneo, Marco Ambrogio; Dore, Simone; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Navalesi, Paolo


    The fluid challenge (FC) aims at identifying patients in whom fluid administration improves hemodynamics. Although the FC has been extensively studied, the implementation and definition of improvement are not standardized. This systematic review of studies published between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2014 characterizes these key components of the FC for critically ill adult patients, as described in the medical literature in the last 20 years. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane. For each study, data were collected on study design, study size, study setting, patient population, and how the FC was administered. Eligibility criteria for FC were (1) the infusion of a definite quantity of fluid, (2) of a specific type, (3) in a fixed time period (expressed as either span or infusion rate), (4) with a defined hemodynamic variable as the target, and (5) for a predetermined threshold. One hundred fifty-seven full-text manuscripts were extracted from 870 potentially relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were met by 71 studies including 3617 patients. Sixty-six studies were from a single center and 45 were prospective observational in format. The most common amount infused was 500 cc, used by 55 (77.5%) studies. The most commonly infused fluids were colloids (62.0%). In 43 (60.5%) studies, the FC was administered between 20 and 30 minutes. A positive response to fluid administration was defined as an increase ≥15% of cardiac index or cardiac output in 44 (62.6%) studies. Static or dynamic physiologic indices were utilized in a minority of studies (16.9%) and safety limits for interrupting the FC are adopted in 4 (5.6%) studies only. This systematic review indicates that the FC most commonly consists in infusing 500 mL of crystalloids or colloids in 20-30 minutes, and considered an increase in cardiac index ≥15% as a positive response. However, definite standards for FC administration and evaluation remain undefined.

  13. Care Coordination Challenges Among High-Needs, High-Costs Older Adults in a Medigap Plan. (United States)

    Wells, Timothy S; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Hawkins, Kevin; Cheng, Yan; Ruiz, Joann; Barnowski, Cynthia A; Spivack, Barney; Yeh, Charlotte S

    Many adults 65 years or older have high health care needs and costs. Here, we describe their care coordination challenges. Individuals with an AARP Medicare Supplement Insurance plan insured by UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company (for New York residents, UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company of New York). The three groups included the highest needs, highest costs (the "highest group"), the high needs, high costs (the "high group"), and the "all other group." Eligibility was determined by applying an internally developed algorithm based upon a number of criteria, including hierarchical condition category score, the Optum ImpactPro prospective risk score, as well as diagnoses of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or diabetes. The highest group comprised 2%, although consumed 12% of health care expenditures. The high group comprised 20% and consumed 46% of expenditures, whereas the all other group comprised 78% and consumed 42% of expenditures. On average, the highest group had $102,798 in yearly health care expenditures, compared with $34,610 and $7,634 for the high and all other groups, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of the highest group saw 16 or more different providers annually, compared with 21% and 2% of the high and all other groups, respectively. Finally, 28% of the highest group had prescriptions from at least seven different providers, compared with 20% and 5% of the high and all other groups, respectively. Individuals with high health care needs and costs have visits to numerous health care providers and receive multiple prescriptions for pharmacotherapy. As a result, these individuals can become overwhelmed trying to manage and coordinate their health care needs. Care coordination programs may help these individuals coordinate their care.

  14. Embedding Volunteer Activity into Paramedic Education. (United States)

    Ross, Linda; Kabidi, Sophia


    Paramedics require a wide range of skills that are beyond clinical or technical skills in order to meet the demands of the role and provide quality and compassionate care to patients. Non-technical or "soft" skills and attributes are generally challenging to teach and develop in the classroom setting. Volunteerism provides an opportunity for students to gain exposure to different communities and develop interpersonal skills. This cross-sectional study used one-on-one interviews with 12 third-year Bachelor of Emergency Health (Paramedic) students from Monash University, Australia, who completed a community volunteering program. Results suggest that paramedic students see volunteering as a highly valuable means of developing a number of skills crucial to their future roles and paramedic practice. Volunteering also provided students with an opportunity to learn about themselves and the broader community, develop confidence, and improve overall job-readiness and employability. This study demonstrates that embedding volunteering into paramedic education is an effective way to develop the broad range of paramedic attributes required for the role. These experiences allow students to make the important transition to a job-ready graduate paramedic who can provide holistic patient-centred care.

  15. Volunteering in the Community: Potential Benefits for Cognitive Aging. (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana


    This review aims to advance understanding of the potential benefits of volunteering in the community for older adults' cognitive functioning by taking an in-depth look at the relevant evidence to date. This review describes the main pathways through which volunteering could plausibly benefit cognitive functioning and critically examines research that has specifically investigated links between volunteering and cognition. Fifteen articles that assessed in adults aged ≥ 55 years the relationship between volunteering (predictor) and cognitive functioning (outcome) were identified via literature database searches. On balance, evidence from the small number of relevant studies to date supports the idea that volunteering can protect against cognitive aging with respect to global functioning and at least some specific cognitive domains. Studies that used robust designs and assessed domain-specific cognitive functioning produced the largest effect sizes. To help advance the field, this review puts forward recommendations for future research, with an emphasis on the need for robust study designs and specific investigations into the nature and extent of the cognitive benefits of volunteering. Through that work, researchers can determine how a simple and accessible activity like volunteering can best be used to help reduce the burden of age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Wasted Resources: Volunteers and Disasters (United States)


    too much in regards to volunteering. The study, conducted in Australia , attempted to assess the “nonlinear association of volunteering and well...medical studies have started to show a negative psychological impact of volunteering too much. Dr. Tim Windsor, of Australian National University...donated goods.  Makes store merchandise available to disaster victims. Operates retail stores, homeless shelters, and feeding facilities that are

  17. Personality Accounts for the Connection Between Volunteering and Health. (United States)

    King, Hannah R; Jackson, Joshua J; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Oltmanns, Thomas F


    Existing literature has shown that volunteering is related to better physical and mental health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine whether personality traits and volunteering are independent predictors of physical and mental health. The current study utilizes data from the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN), a representative sample of community-based adults between the ages of 55 and 64. Using hierarchical linear regressions, we test whether volunteering is a significant predictor of both physical and mental health while controlling for personality traits. We find that volunteering is not significantly related to either physical or mental health while controlling for personality traits. We also find that lower neuroticism is related to better physical functioning and mental health, whereas higher extraversion is related to better mental health. These results indicate that volunteering may be related to health outcomes because of the personality characteristics of volunteers, not the volunteering experience in and of itself. Future longitudinal studies are needed to further explore the relationship between personality, volunteering, and health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Challenges in everyday life among recently diagnosed and more experienced adults with type 2 diabetes: a multistage focus group study. (United States)

    Gardsten, Cecilia; Blomqvist, Kerstin; Rask, Mikael; Larsson, Åse; Lindberg, Agneta; Olsson, Gith


    The aim of this study was to identify perceived challenges related to self-management among recently diagnosed adults and those with longer experience of type 2 diabetes as a foundation for the future development of a person-centred information and communication technology service. Learning self-management of type 2 diabetes includes mastering the skills required to complete complex emotional and physical tasks. A service developed with the participation of stakeholders may be an alternative way to meet rising needs for self-management. Qualitative descriptive design influenced by a participatory approach. Multistage focus group interviews among one group of recently diagnosed (≤3yrs, n=4) adults and one group with longer experience (≥5yrs, n=7) of type 2 diabetes. Challenges in self-management in everyday life with type 2 diabetes were identified: understanding; developing skills and abilities; and mobilizing personal strengths. Both groups described challenges in understanding the causes of fluctuating blood glucose and in, developing and mobilizing skills for choosing healthful food and eating regularly. The recently diagnosed group was more challenged by learning to accept the diagnosis and becoming motivated to change habits while the experienced group was mainly challenged by issues about complications and medications. Adults with diabetes have different needs for support during different phases of the disease. From a person-centred perspective, it would be desirable to meet individual needs for self-management on peoples' own terms through a technological service that could reach and connect to a large number of people. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Volunteering in the aftermath of disasters: Psychopathology and volunteer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Þormar, S.B.


    The numbers of disasters in the world have multiplied in recent years. The same goes for community volunteers that respond to these events. In developing countries community volunteers are often the largest resource available in the first 48 hours until a more skilled team of rescuers arrives.

  20. Motivational functionalism and urban conservation stewardship: implications for volunteer involvement (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; Dale J. Blahna


    Conservation in urban areas faces growing financial challenges and inadequate stakeholder involvement. Conservation psychology can mitigate these challenges in many ways. One way is through conservation volunteerism, if we attend to and capitalize on volunteers' motivations. Conservation volunteerism significantly contributes to ecological knowledge acquisition,...

  1. Volunteer Computing for Science Gateways


    Anderson, David


    This poster offers information about volunteer computing for science gateways that offer high-throughput computing services. Volunteer computing can be used to get computing power. This increases the visibility of the gateway to the general public as well as increasing computing capacity at little cost.

  2. A case of uncorrected adult tetralogy of Fallot for emergency decompressive craniotomy: An anesthetic challenge!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Vinod Hippalgaonkar


    Full Text Available Cyanotic heart disease (CHD includes those anatomical heart defects that produce a limitation in pulmonary blood flow or result in mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Both conditions lead to decreased blood oxygen content and cyanosis. The most frequent defects seen in the outpatient adult congenital setting include tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. The cardiovascular anatomy and physiology of adult CHD is complex and requires specific knowledge of the defect and its anesthetic implications. Hence, they should receive care with multidisciplinary collaboration among anesthesiologists, cardiologists, surgeons, and intensivists. We hereby report the anesthetic management of such a case of head injury in an adult uncorrected TOF with a good outcome.

  3. Cleft deformities in adults and children aged over six years in Nigeria: Reasons for late presentation and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu L Adeyemo


    Full Text Available Wasiu L Adeyemo1, Mobolanle O Ogunlewe1, Ibironke Desalu2, Akinola L Ladeinde1, Bolaji O Mofikoya3, Michael O Adeyemi4, Adegbenga A Adepoju4, Olufemi O Hassan41Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, 2Department of Anaesthesia, 3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, NigeriaAbstract: In developing countries, untreated cleft lips and palates are found with increasing frequency and patients often present to the surgeon far past the optimal time for closure of the cleft deformities. A prospective study was conducted between March 2007 and September 2009, to identify the reasons and treatment challenges of delayed presentation of cleft lip and palate deformities at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Out of a total of 150 patients with cleft defects during the period, 43 (28.7% were adults and children aged over six years. The mean age of these patients at the time of presentation was 17.3 years. The most common reasons for late presentation were lack of money (56.7%, lack of health care services nearby (18.4%, and lack of awareness of treatment availability (13.3%. Common challenges in these patients included surgical, orthodontic, speech, anesthetic, and psychological. Although adult clefts were significantly enlarged in three dimensions the anatomic landmarks were easier to discern than in an infant. However, extensive soft tissue dissection in adult cleft lip repair resulted in significant postoperative edema. Closure of wide palatal cleft often required the use of adjunct intraoral flaps. Despite late presentation, surgical outcome of these patients was satisfactory and comparable to cleft repair in infants.Keywords: cleft deformities, adults, adolescents, late presentation, management, challenges

  4. Epidemiological and financial indicators of hypertension in older adults in Mexico: challenges for health planning and management in Latin America. (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Duarte, Maria Beatriz; Cuadra, Silvia Magali


    This study estimated the epidemiological and financial indicators of hypertension in order to identify challenges in strategic planning and management for health systems in Latin America. This is a longitudinal study with a population base of 187 326 reported cases of older adults with hypertension, diagnosed at public health institutions in Mexico. The cost-evaluation method that was used was based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2015-2017, time series analyses and probabilistic models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique. Regarding epidemiological changes for 2015 versus 2017, an increase of 8-12% is expected (p financial requirements. The total amount estimated for hypertension in 2015 (in US dollars) was $1 575 671 330. It included $747 527 259 as direct costs and $829 144 071 as indirect costs. If the risk factors and the different healthcare services for older adults remain as they are currently, the financial consequences of epidemiological changes in older adults will have a major impact on the users' pockets, following in order of importance, on social security providers and on public assistance providers. The challenges and implications of our findings in the context of universal coverage reforms in Latin America reinforce the urgent need to develop more and better strategic planning for the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The triple challenge of recruiting older adults with dementia and high medical acuity in skilled nursing facilities. (United States)

    Kolanowski, Ann; Mulhall, Paula; Yevchak, Andrea; Hill, Nikki; Fick, Donna


    To describe strategies, culled from experience, for responding to several recruitment challenges in an ongoing randomized clinical trial of delirium in persons with dementia. Delirium in people with dementia is common across all cultures. Little research supports the use of specific interventions for delirium. Recruitment of an adequate sample is critical to the validity of findings from intervention studies that form the foundation for evidence-based practice. The trial referenced in this article tests the efficacy of cognitive stimulation for resolving delirium in people with dementia. Participants are recruited at the time of admission to one of eight community-based skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Eligible participants are 65 years of age or older and community dwelling, and have a diagnosis of dementia and delirium. Recruitment challenges and strategies were identified during weekly team meetings over a 2-year period. Recruitment challenges include factors in the external and internal environment and the participants and their families. Strategies that address these challenges include early site evaluation and strong communication approaches with staff, participants, and families. The recruitment of an adequate sample of acutely ill older adults with dementia in SNFs can pose a challenge to investigators and threaten the validity of findings. Recruitment strategies that help improve the validity of future studies are described. Worldwide, over 100 million people will have dementia by 2050, placing them at increased risk for delirium. Recruitment strategies that improve the quality of nursing research and, by extension, the care and prevention of delirium in older adults with dementia during rehabilitation in SNFs are greatly needed. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. The early clinical features of dengue in adults: challenges for early clinical diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny G H Low

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of dengue throughout the tropical world is affecting an increasing proportion of adult cases. The clinical features of dengue in different age groups have not been well examined, especially in the context of early clinical diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We structured a prospective study of adults (≥ 18 years of age presenting with acute febrile illness within 72 hours from illness onset upon informed consent. Patients were followed up over a 3-4 week period to determine the clinical outcome. A total of 2,129 adults were enrolled in the study, of which 250 (11.7% had dengue. Differences in the rates of dengue-associated symptoms resulted in high sensitivities when the WHO 1997 or 2009 classification schemes for probable dengue fever were applied to the cohort. However, when the cases were stratified into age groups, fewer older adults reported symptoms such as myalgia, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain and mucosal bleeding, resulting in reduced sensitivity of the WHO classification schemes. On the other hand, the risks of severe dengue and hospitalization were not diminished in older adults, indicating that this group of patients can benefit from early diagnosis, especially when an antiviral drug becomes available. Our data also suggests that older adults who present with fever and leukopenia should be tested for dengue, even in the absence of other symptoms. CONCLUSION: Early clinical diagnosis based on previously defined symptoms that are associated with dengue, even when used in the schematics of both the WHO 1997 and 2009 classifications, is difficult in older adults.

  7. Applying Western models of volunteering in Hong Kong : The role of empathy, prosocial motivation and motive-experience fit for volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydinli, A.; Bender, M.; Chong, A.; Yue, X.


    The present research investigates the applicability of prominent Western volunteering frameworks in Hong Kong. Two cross-sectional surveys involving a total of 268 respondents were conducted. In Study 1, we tested a model of volunteering among 149 Hong Kong Chinese adult individuals (Mage = 34.8

  8. Adult ADHD vs. bipolar disorder in the DSM-5 era: a challenging differentiation for clinicians. (United States)

    Brus, Michael J; Solanto, Mary V; Goldberg, Joseph F


    Patients with adult attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder can present with similar symptoms, including increased energy, distractibility, disorganization, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and rapid speech. Determining whether the patient has either, or possibly both, of these syndromes can be a complex task. This review attempts to clarify where these disorders overlap, both symptomatically and epidemiologically, and where they diverge, to help clinicians increase the accuracy of their diagnoses. Changes to diagnostic criteria from the fourth to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5) are discussed, as is the evidence base for pharmacological treatments. Studies and sources were identified using computerized searches. Adult ADHD and bipolar disorder have multiple overlapping symptoms, but there are differences in prevalence (ADHD affects 4.4% of adults in the United States versus 1.4% for bipolar disorder), onset of symptoms (usually before age 7 years in ADHD versus after age 12 years in bipolar disorder), disease course (chronic in ADHD versus cyclical in bipolar disorder), mood symptoms (absent in ADHD but always present in bipolar disorder), and psychotic symptoms (absent in ADHD but sometimes present in bipolar disorder). Approximately 20% of adult patients with ADHD also have bipolar disorder, while 10%-20% of patients with bipolar disorder have adult ADHD. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and ADHD is associated with an earlier age of onset and a more chronic and disabling course of bipolar disorder, as well as more psychiatric comorbidity. Distinguishing between adult ADHD and bipolar disorder requires careful attention to phenomenology and awareness of epidemiology, with a focus on childhood history, lifetime course of symptoms, and the possibility of comorbidity.

  9. Volunteer Program for the WSIS

    CERN Multimedia


    PALEXPO, GENEVA, from 4 - 13 December Are you concerned by the digital divide between the North and the South? Would you like to contribute personally to the success of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), in particular the activities of civil society? Join the team of volunteers and/or offer accommodation to an international volunteer! Contact: Charlotte (Project Coordinator WSIS) Kathy (Volunteer Coordinator) ICVolunteers PO Box 755 - CH-1211 Genève 4 Phone: +41 22 800 1436 - Fax: +41 22 800 14 37 E-mail: For further information, please consult the website:

  10. The conscientious retiree: The relationship between conscientiousness, retirement, and volunteering (United States)

    Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.


    The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals. PMID:25843985

  11. Challenges in the delivery of nutrition services to hospital discharged older adults: the community connections demonstration project. (United States)

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Akobundu, Ucheoma; Coray, Kevin; Netterville, Linda


    The objective of this project was to explore the effort necessary to transform the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) into core programs within an integrated health care delivery system that serves hospital-discharged older adults in order to assist them in reintegrating into the community. Six OAANPs in six states were funded and provided technical assistance to develop coalitions with hospitals and community organizations. Each demonstration site was unique and faced many challenges in reaching out to a hospitalized vulnerable population. This project also provided opportunities to try out new initiatives and examine their sustainability within the community.

  12. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.


    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  13. Gene regulation in adult neural stem cells : Current challenges and possible applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encinas, J.M.; Fitzsimons, C.P.


    Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) offer a unique opportunity for neural regeneration and niche modification in physiopathological conditions, harnessing the capability to modify from neuronal circuits to glial scar. Findings exposing the vast plasticity and potential of NSPCs have

  14. Using Critical Pedagogies from Adult Education to Inspire and Challenge Higher Education Students (United States)

    Kadi-Hanifi, Karima


    This interdisciplinary paper is about applying Adult Education methods of learning and teaching to higher education. I argue that higher education students need to be stimulated via interactive methods that improve their motivation and lead them to question the value system/s that exist around them. A Freirean approach as used in the teaching of…

  15. Challenges and Choices: A Study of Four Providers of Adult Community Education. (United States)

    Barnett, Kate; Wilson, Sara

    The following providers of adult community education (ACE) in Australia were examined in case studies: Trott Park Neighbourhood Centre, a neighborhood house with a small ACE program for residents of the Adelaide outer metropolitan area; Workers' Educational Association of South Australia, Incorporated, which provides a large statewide adult…

  16. Disability and social participation: The case of formal and informal volunteering. (United States)

    Shandra, Carrie L


    People with disabilities in the United States experience lower levels of social integration than people without disabilities. However, less is known about the association between disability and volunteer participation-despite an extensive literature on other disparities in volunteerism. This study uses data from the 2009-2015 Volunteer Supplement of the Current Population Survey to evaluate how working-aged adults with sensory disabilities, cognitive disabilities, physical disabilities, or multiple disabilities access, participate in, and maintain volunteer roles. Net of sociodemographic characteristics, adults with disabilities are no less likely than those without disabilities to report informal volunteering, although the presence of physical and multiple disabilities negatively associates with formal volunteering. Adults with disabilities report no fewer annual hours or weeks than those without disabilities if they are formal volunteers, but the mechanism through which they initially become involved in volunteer organizations varies. People with different types of disability experience different patterns of volunteering, and the sociodemographic characteristics associated with having a disability exacerbate many of these differences. Results suggest that adults with disabilities can-and do-participate in voluntary work, but may face barriers to accessing formal volunteer roles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Volunteer Monitoring to Protect Wetlands (United States)

    The involvement of volunteers in ecological monitoring is a realistic, cost-effective, and beneficial way to obtain important information which might otherwise be unavailable due to lack of resources at government agencies.

  18. Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults in Nigeria: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Onyedum, CC; Ukwaja, KN; Desalu, OO; Ezeudo, C


    Inadequate attention given to the management of asthma and ways of improving bronchial asthma control could be an important factor for the rising morbidity and mortality from asthma despite major advances in our understanding of the disease process. There is a paucity of data concerning the challenges faced in the management of asthma in Africa. This review was aimed at highlighting the challenges facing asthma management and to discuss various strategies in improving asthma control in Nigeria. Data were sourced from PubMed, Medline, African Journals Online, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, and by reviewing the references of relevant literature. Additional articles were obtained via communications with colleagues and reviewing the Abstract Books of Nigeria Thoracic Society Annual Scientific Conference from 2005 to 2012. The data search was up-to-date as of December 31, 2012. Challenges in asthma management were found during diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. There are wide variations in diagnostic criteria for bronchial asthma and lack of standard diagnostic equipment leading to under or misdiagnosis. Treatment challenges include poor communication gap between the health-care providers and the patients, a high-cost and unavailability of essential asthma medications. Poor technique uses for medication devices, especially the inhalational drugs and Lack of National/hospital protocol or guidelines for treating asthma. Several challenges affect asthma management in developing countries, which borders on poverty, inadequate resources, weak health systems, and poor infrastructure. Efforts should be made to address these challenges by the Nigerian government, Nigerian Thoracic Society, pharmaceutical industries, and the health-care workers in general. PMID:24116307

  19. Trends Impacting Volunteer Administrators in the Next Ten Years. (United States)

    Culp, Ken, III; Nolan, Mike


    A survey of 49 volunteer leadership development programs (39% response) and 704 professional association members (46% response) identified the top volunteer trends: virtual volunteering, corporate/workplace volunteers, episodic volunteering, and changing demographics of volunteers. (JOW)

  20. Pain perception in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Werner, Mads U


    We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... in healthy human volunteers leads to reduction in pain pressure threshold and an increase in pain perception to heat stimuli, supporting a relationship between acute systemic inflammation and pain perception....

  1. Cultural competency and diversity among hospice palliative care volunteers. (United States)

    Jovanovic, Maja


    This case study examines the current state of cultural competence in hospice and palliative care in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Because of changing demographic trends and ethnic minorities underutilizing hospice palliative care services, this research examined the current state of culturally competent care in a hospice setting, and the challenges to providing culturally competent care in a hospice in the GTA. A case study was conducted with a hospice and included in-depth interviews with 14 hospice volunteers. The findings reveal that volunteers encountered cultural clashes when their level of cultural competency was weak. Second, volunteers revealed there was a lack of adequate cultural competency training with their hospice, and finally, there was a lack of ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity among the hospice volunteers.

  2. Screening for Psychiatric Disorders in a Total Population of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour Using the PAS-ADD Checklist (United States)

    Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Matthews, Helen; Anness, Val


    Background: Previous research has suggested a variety of possible relationships between the presence of symptoms of psychiatric disorder and challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disability. This study explores this relationship in a total population sample of adults with challenging behaviour. Materials and Methods: Over 800 service…

  3. M-Learning Challenges in Teaching Crosscutting Themes in the Education of Young People and Adults (United States)

    Ota, Marcos Andrei; de Araujo, Carlos Fernando, Jr.


    The challenges faced in using new technologies in the classroom are numerous, but contributions generated with their resolution can proportionately provide original and efficient teaching practices more in tune to students' eager learning needs. This article presents some strategies developed to help teachers in transversal themes classes using…

  4. Postural challenge affects motor cortical activity in young and old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma; Taube, Wolfgang; van Keeken, Helco G.; Otten, Egbert; Baudry, Stephane; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    When humans voluntarily activate a muscle, intracortical inhibition decreases. Such a decrease also occurs in the presence of a postural challenge and more so with increasing age. Here, we examined age-related changes in motor cortical activity during postural and non-postural contractions with

  5. Challenges and Resilience in the Lives of Urban, Multiracial Adults: An Instrument Development Study (United States)

    Salahuddin, Nazish M.; O'Brien, Karen M.


    Multiracial Americans represent a rapidly growing population (Shih & Sanchez, 2009); however, very little is known about the types of challenges and resilience experienced by these individuals. To date, few psychological measures have been created specifically to investigate the experiences of multiracial people. This article describes 2…

  6. Volunteering and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Does Helping Others Get "Under the Skin?". (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Han, Sae Hwang; Tavares, Jane L


    This study investigated whether volunteering was related to 5 risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among middle-aged and older adults. Data from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 7,803) were examined. Logistic regression was used to describe the relationships among volunteering and central adiposity, hypertension, lipid dysregulation, elevated blood glucose levels, and high inflammation, along with 2 indexes of the MetS. Among middle-aged adults, results showed that volunteers were less likely to have high central adiposity, lipid dysregulation, elevated blood glucose levels, and MetS compared with non-volunteers. For older adults, results showed volunteers were less likely to be hypertensive and more likely to have lipid dysregulation than their non-volunteer counterparts. These results supported findings from other studies that formal volunteering is beneficial for middle-aged adults, and to a lesser degree, older adults. Further research is required to determine what factors may mediate the volunteer-CVD risk relationships. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Current challenges and opportunities in treating adult patients with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (United States)

    Wolach, Ofir; Amitai, Irina; DeAngelo, Daniel J


    Significant advances have been made in recent years in the field of Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). New insights into the biology and genetics of ALL as well as novel clinical observations and new drugs are changing the way we diagnose, risk-stratify and treat adult patients with ALL. New genetic subtypes and alterations refine risk stratification and uncover new actionable therapeutic targets. The incorporation of more intensive, paediatric and paediatric-inspired approaches for young adults seem to have a positive impact on survival in this population. Minimal residual disease at different time points can assist in tailoring risk-adapted interventions for patients based on individual response. Finally, novel targeted approaches with monoclonal antibodies, immunotherapies and small molecules are moving through clinical development and entering the clinic. The aim of this review is to consolidate the abundance of emerging data and to review and revisit the concepts of risk-stratification, choice of induction and post-remission strategies as well as to discuss and update the approach to specific populations with ALL, such as young adult, elderly/unfit and relapsed/refractory patients with ALL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mobilizing Volunteers for Community-Based Education and Development Programs. (United States)

    Compton, J. Lin


    Using a case study approach, describes the efforts of three community organizers--a literacy worker and a medical doctor in the Phillipines, and an adult basic education supervisor in North Carolina--to develop and implement community-based volunteer programs. (DR)

  9. Volunteering amongst Persons Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (United States)

    Trembath, David; Balandin, Susan; Togher, Leanne


    Volunteering is a common activity amongst adults without disability, resulting in benefits for individuals, organisations, and societies at large. In an attempt to increase community participation, people with lifelong disability who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (e.g., speech generating devices or communication…

  10. The challenges of providing eye care for adults with intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Li, Josephine Ch; Wong, Katrina; Park, Adela Sy; Fricke, Timothy R; Jackson, A Jonathan


    This review is intended to raise awareness of the importance of providing high-quality eye care for people with intellectual disabilities and the increasing need for this eye care to be community-based. We describe the challenges to the provision of high-quality community-based eye care for people with intellectual disabilities and ideas, evidence and methods for overcoming them. The prevalence of visual impairment in people with intellectual disabilities has been reported to be at least 40 per cent, rising to as high as 100 per cent in those with profound and severe disabilities. A progressive move toward deinstitutionalisation has shifted the provision of care for people with intellectual disabilities. Individuals can have the freedom to access health-care services of their choice. This has posed challenges to the health-care system, including how to deliver high-quality community-based eye care, creating a current significant unmet need for eye-care services. Undiagnosed refractive error and under-prescription of spectacles are major reasons for avoidable visual impairment among people with disabilities. There is an apparent reluctance of optometrists to engage in this work due to the perceived difficulties of working with people with intellectual and multiple disabilities. There are challenges associated with diagnosis and management of ocular conditions in people with intellectual disabilities and the demand is clear. Small shifts in training, knowledge and awareness would place optometry well to meet the challenges of this specialised area of eye care. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  11. How to Tackle Key Challenges in the Promotion of Physical Activity among Older Adults (65+: The AEQUIPA Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forberger


    Full Text Available The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+. Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that thenetwork has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets.

  12. Volunteering Is Associated with Lower Risk of Cognitive Impairment. (United States)

    Infurna, Frank J; Okun, Morris A; Grimm, Kevin J


    To examine whether psychosocial factors that can be a target for interventions, such as volunteering, are associated with risk of cognitive impairment. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data from 1998 to 2012, a nationally representative longitudinal panel survey of older adults assessed every 2 years, were used. The HRS interviews participants aged 50 and older across the contiguous United States. Individuals aged 60 and older in 1998 (N = 13,262). Personal interviews were conducted with respondents to assess presence of cognitive impairment, measured using a composite across cognitive measures. Volunteering at the initial assessment and volunteering regularly over time independently decreased the risk of cognitive impairment over 14 years, and these findings were maintained independent of known risk factors for cognitive impairment. Greater risk of onset of cognitive impairment was associated with being older, being female, being nonwhite, having fewer years of education, and reporting more depressive symptoms. Consistent civic engagement in old age is associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment and provides impetus for interventions to protect against the onset of cognitive impairment. Given the increasing number of baby boomers entering old age, the findings support the public health benefits of volunteering and the potential role of geriatricians, who can promote volunteering by incorporating "prescriptions to volunteer" into their patient care. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Text-to-speech accommodations for the reading challenges of adults with traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen


    This study's purpose was two-fold: (a) to confirm differences in silent reading rates of individuals with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) and (b) to determine the effect of text-to-speech (TTS) on reading comprehension and efficiency by individuals with TBI. Ten adults with severe TBI answered comprehension questions about written passages presented in three conditions: reading only (RO), listening to TTS presentation only (LO) or reading and listening to TTS simultaneously (RL). The researchers compared reading rate, comprehension accuracy and comprehension rate (efficiency) across conditions. Analysis revealed significantly slower silent reading rates for the participants with TBI than for readers without TBI (n = 75). Also, participants with TBI achieved higher comprehension accuracy for factual than inferential questions; however, no significant main effect for comprehension accuracy emerged across reading conditions. In contrast, using comprehension rate as the dependent measure, analysis confirmed a significant main effect for reading condition and question type; post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that the RL condition yielded higher comprehension rate scores than the RO condition. As a group, adults with TBI appear to benefit in reading efficiency when simultaneously listening to and reading written passages; however, differences exist that reinforce the importance of individualizing treatment.

  14. Challenges for adult skill formation in the globalising learning economy - a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær


    requirements for employees. This is true for all parts of the world economy. In this paper, the focus is on Europe and developments in the first decade of the new millennium. The major challenge for Europe is to counter the inherent trend, reinforced by the crisis, towards unequal access to learning both......The globalising learning economy driven by more intense competition and the wide use of information and communication technologies is characterised by rapid change in technologies and markets. At the level of labour markets and within enterprises, this is reflected in continuous change in skill...

  15. The lived experience of volunteering in a palliative care biography service. (United States)

    Beasley, Elizabeth; Brooker, Joanne; Warren, Narelle; Fletcher, Jane; Boyle, Christopher; Ventura, Adriana; Burney, Susan


    Many patients approaching death experience hopelessness, helplessness, and a depressed mood, and these factors can contribute to a difficult end-of-life (EoL) period. Biography services may assist patients in finding meaning and purpose at this time. The aim of our study was to investigate the lived experience of volunteers involved in a biography service in Melbourne, Australia, using a qualitative methodology. The participants were 10 volunteers who had participated in a biography service within a private palliative care service. Each volunteer was interviewed separately using a study-specific semistructured interview guide. The transcripts of these interviews were then subjected to thematic analysis. Analysis yielded the following themes: motivations for volunteering; dealing with death, dying, and existential issues; psychosocial benefits of volunteering; and benefits and challenges of working with patients and their families. Our results indicated that volunteering gave the volunteers a deeper appreciation of existential issues, and helped them to be more appreciative of their own lives and gain a deeper awareness of the struggles other people experience. They also suggested that volunteers felt that their involvement contributed to their own personal development, and was personally rewarding. Furthermore, the results highlighted that volunteers found that encounters with family members were sometimes challenging. While some were appreciative, others imposed time limits, became overly reliant on the volunteers, and were sometimes offended, hurt, and angered by what was included in the final biography. It is hoped that the findings of the current study will provide direction for improvements in the biography services that will benefit patients, family members, and volunteers. In particular, our findings highlight the need to provide ongoing support for volunteers to assist them in handling the challenges of volunteering in a palliative care setting.

  16. Changing Nature of Formal Service Program Volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hustinx, L.; Shachar, I.Y.; Handy, F.; Smith, D.H.; Smith, D.H.; Stebbins, R.A.; Grotz, J.


    Most other chapters in this Handbook focus on volunteering in associations, but this chapter focuses instead mainly on volunteering in volunteer service programs (VSPs). As discussed at length in Handbook Chapter 15, VSPs are essentially volunteer departments of other, larger, controlling, parent

  17. Exploring Volunteering of Committed Young Catholics (United States)

    Webber, Ruth


    This article reports on a study of volunteer levels of Catholics from various World regions who attended an international youth Catholic festival. Volunteering levels, types of volunteering, reason for volunteering, Catholic group membership and pro-social values are analysed. An online survey was administered five months after the Festival to…

  18. Assessing the Value of Volunteer Activity. (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor


    Looks at methods of converting estimates of volunteer time into dollar value of volunteered time. Suggests an alternative strategy that acknowledges the importance of taxes, the provision of volunteer-assisted services at less-than-market prices, and the value of experiences gained by the volunteer. (JOW)

  19. Challenging behaviours in adults with an intellectual disability: A total population study and exploration of risk indices. (United States)

    Bowring, Darren L; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P; Toogood, Sandy; Griffith, Gemma M


    Considerable variation has been reported in the prevalence and correlates of challenging behaviour (CB) in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). To provide a robust estimate of prevalence, we identified the entire administrative population of adults with ID in a defined geographical area and used a behaviour assessment tool with good psychometric properties. Data from 265 adults who were known to services were collected using a demographic survey tool and the Behavior Problems Inventory - Short Form. The prevalence of self-injurious, aggressive/destructive, stereotyped, and overall CB was evaluated. We explored the potential of developing cumulative risk indices (CRI) to inform longitudinal research and clinical practice. The prevalence of overall CB was 18.1% (95% CI: 13.94-23.19%). The prevalence of self-injurious behaviour was 7.5% (95% CI: 4.94-11.37%), aggressive-destructive behaviour 8.3% (95% CI: 5.54-12.25%), and stereotyped behaviour 10.9% (95% CI: 7.73-15.27%). Communication problems and severity of ID were consistently associated with higher risk of CBs. CRIs were significantly associated with CBs, and the five methods of CRI development produced similar results. Findings suggest a multi-element response to CB is likely to be required that includes interventions for communication and daytime activity. Exploratory analyses of CRIs suggested these show promise as simple ways to capture cumulative risk in this population. Subject to longitudinal replication, such a tool may be especially useful in clinical practice to identify adults who are priority for interventions and predict future demand on services. The prevalence of challenging behaviour (CB) was 18.1% in this total population study. Stereotypy was the most frequent type of CB. Communication difficulties and severe-profound intellectual disabilities were most systematically related to the presence of CB. Establishing the effect of multiple risk factors is likely to identify people who are

  20. Participatory arts for older adults: a review of benefits and challenges. (United States)

    Noice, Tony; Noice, Helga; Kramer, Arthur F


    This article reviews the scientific literature on the enhancement of healthy aging in older adults through active participation in the arts. Methodologies and conclusions are described for studies of dance, expressive writing, music (singing and instrumental), theatre arts, and visual arts including documentation of mental/physical improvements in memory, creativity, problem solving, everyday competence, reaction time, balance/gait, and quality of life. In addition to these gains in measures of successful aging, the article also provides (in a Supplementary Appendix) some selected examples of arts engagement for remedial purposes. Finally, it offers suggestions for expanding inquiry into this underinvestigated corner of aging research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Diagnostic Challenge: A Report of Two Adult-Onset Still’s Disease Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakunee Niranvichaiya


    Full Text Available This study reports two adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD cases that met both Yamaguchi’s and Fautrel’s criteria and that presented with notable clinical manifestations. One case presented with atypical dermographism-like rash with an extremely high ferritin level. The other case presented with typical salmon-pink maculopapular rash but had atypical positive rheumatoid factor. This suggests that although negative rheumatoid factor is one of the criteria used for the diagnosis of AOSD, a positive rheumatoid factor result does not exclude AOSD. Beside a classic rash, characterized by transient salmon-pink maculopapular rash, we also find atypical dermographism-like rash. These findings remind us that there exist various types of rash from AOSD.

  2. Polypharmacy and Polymorbidity in Older Adults in Brazil: a public health challenge. (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Mengue, Sotero Serrate


    To analyze variations in the prevalence of chronic use of medicines by older adults in Brazil according to its possible association with the most prevalent chronic diseases and demographic and health factors, and to identify risk factors for polypharmacy. A study based on data from the National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM), a cross-sectional, population-based survey with probability sampling in Brazilian urban areas. The independent variable was the number of chronic-use medicines taken by older adults, linked to eight chronic diseases investigated. The intervening variables were gender, age group, marital status, level of education, socioeconomic status, Brazilian region, body mass index, smoking, self-perceived health, hospitalization in the previous year and having health insurance, besides the investigated chronic diseases. A multivariable analysis identified risk factors for polypharmacy. Prevalence of at least one chronic-use medicines among older adults was 93.0%. Of the total number of older adults, 18.0% used at least five medications (polypharmacy). Polypharmacy was higher among the oldest individuals (20.0%), in the South region (25.0%), in those with poor self-perceived health (35.0%), in obese individuals (26.0%), in those with reported health insurance (23.0%) or hospitalization in the previous year (31.0%), and among those who reported any of the investigated diseases, particularly diabetes (36.0%) and heart diseases (43.0%). The variables remaining in the final risk model for polypharmacy were age, region, perceived health, health insurance, hospitalization in the previous year and all investigated diseases except stroke. Older adults with specific diseases have risk factors for polypharmacy modifiable by actions aimed at the rational use of medicines. With the current population aging and successful drug access policy, the trend is an increase in drug use by older adults, which should feature as a

  3. Volunteering in adolescence and young adulthood crime involvement: a longitudinal analysis from the add health study. (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne


    Experiences in adolescence may have a lasting impact on adulthood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between adolescent (12-18 years of age) volunteerism with the incidence of illegal behaviors, arrests, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age). We conducted a retrospective cohort study using secondary data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Students from grades 7-12 were recruited in 1994-1995 (n = 20,745), and then followed in 2001-2002 (n = 14,322) and in 2008-2009 (n = 12,288). In 2000-2001, participants were retrospectively asked about their volunteering experience from 12 to 18 years of age. Consequently, participants were divided into non-volunteers, self-volunteers, adult-required volunteers, and court-ordered volunteers. Groups were compared for rates of illegal behaviors, arrest, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age) using weighted generalized linear mixed negative binomial models while accounting for sampling design. Relative to non-volunteers, self-volunteers reported 11 % fewer illegal behaviors (RR: 0.89, 95 % CI: 0.80, 0.99), 31 % fewer arrests (RR: 0.69, 95 %: 0.57, 0.85), and 39 % fewer convictions (RR: 0.61, 95 % CI: 0.47, 0.79) by age 18-28 years, and 28 % fewer illegal behaviors, 53 % fewer arrests, and 36 % fewer convictions by age 24-34. In comparison the adult-required volunteers also reported fewer arrests and convictions; however, they reported more illegal behaviors than the non-volunteers. The court-ordered volunteers reported higher rates of criminal involvement than the non-volunteers, throughout. This study suggests that volunteering in adolescence may reduce crime involvement in adulthood.

  4. Old and New Challenges in the Translation of Young Adult Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina CHIFANE


    Full Text Available Technological war transposed in real-life situations is at the core of Andy Briggs’s contemporary series for teenagers HERO.COM and VILLAIN.NET originally published between 2008 and 2010 and already translated into Romanian. This paper evolves around the idea that in a century dominated by mass-media and globalization, translators should be able to promptly respond to the publishers’ requirements and make sure that they have chosen the best option for their future target readers. In Andy Briggs’s novels, the never-ending clash between good and evil acquires almost graphic representations embedded in a rather detailed vocabulary related to war and modern technology. Translating such novels becomes a challenge for those who have to bear in mind that nowadays teenagers all over the world have the possibility to communicate on the internet and are thus accustomed to the kind of language the characters in these novels use.



    Razvan ANDRONIC


    Volunteering is a social practice still rare in Romania, despite the fact that it is an important component of non-governmental organizations; there are types of public organizations based on the contribution of volunteers and voluntary corporate initiatives. Regarding how the volunteers are included in non-governmental organizations, it is noteworthy that there are differences between how the activities are perceived by the volunteers and their supervisor; hence the importance of a volunteer...

  6. Making short-term international medical volunteer placements work: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Elnawawy, Omnia; Lee, Andrew C K; Pohl, Gerda


    International medical volunteering has grown in recent decades. It has the potential to benefit and harm the volunteer and host countries; but there is a paucity of literature on the impacts of international medical volunteering and a need to find ways to optimise the benefits of such placements. In this study, one example of international medical volunteering was examined involving British GPs on short-term placements in Nepal. The intention was to explore the expectations and experiences of the local health workers, volunteers, and host organisation to try and understand what makes volunteer placements work. Qualitative study of key informant interviews. Stakeholders of a short-term international medical volunteer (IMV) placement programme in Nepal. Key informant interviews were carried out via face-to-face or telephone/internet interviews with five previous volunteers, three representatives from a non-governmental organisation providing placements, and five local health workers in Nepal who had had contact with the IMVs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using standard thematic framework approaches. All the stakeholders had their own specific motives for participating in the IMV programme. The relationship between volunteers and the Nepalese health workers was complex and characterised by discrepant and occasionally unrealistic expectations. Managing these different expectations was challenging. Contextual issues and cultural differences are important considerations in medical volunteer programmes, and this study highlights the importance of robust preparation pre-placement for the volunteer and host to ensure positive outcomes. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  7. Challenges in implementing national systems of competency validation with regard to adult learning professionals: Perspectives from Romania and India (United States)

    Sava, Simona Lidia; Shah, S. Y.


    Validation of prior learning (VPL), also referred to as recognition, validation and accreditation of prior learning (RVA), is becoming an increasingly important political issue at both European and international levels. In 2012, the European Council, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) launched strategic documents and guidelines for supporting its wide implementation. A wide range of resources and experiences to learn from are already available for improving policy making and the quality and credibility of VPL practices. An intrinsic part of quality assurance concerns the level of training of practitioners accompanying the VPL process. Addressing the need for improved practices of adult educators' continuing professional development as well as improved validation processes, this paper presents and analyses practitioners' experiences with a piloted portfolio tool designed to support the validation of pedagogic competencies of trainers in adult education. While the pilot study was carried out in 20 European and 2 non-European countries, this article picks out and compares feedback from participants in Romania and India, which are both striving to catch up in terms of accreditation of non-formal and informal learning. Based on their findings, the authors' reflections focus in particular on evident challenges for educational policy making in these two very different countries. They also consider related policy measures needed for improving the educational contexts in both countries, both in terms of validation practices and in terms of the professional development of practitioners applying such practices, in line with international trends.

  8. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morton, Alison M


    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation.

  9. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between volunteering and depression for African American caregivers. (United States)

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Pickard, Joseph G; Johnson, Sharon D


    Research on the influence of volunteering on mental health outcomes has not placed enough focus on African American female caregivers who are at risk for adverse outcomes such as depression. This study addresses this gap by examining the mechanism through which volunteering might influence depressive symptoms using data collected from 521 African American female caregivers of older adults. Regression results indicate that although volunteering is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, self-esteem mediates this relationship. Findings suggest inclusion in volunteering for African American female caregivers may be relevant to promotion of their mental well-being.

  10. Correlates of volunteering among aging Texans: the roles of health indicators, spirituality, and social engagement. (United States)

    Ahn, SangNam; Phillips, Karon L; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G


    This study aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with volunteering among older adults. Based on data from the 2008 Aging Texas Well (ATW) Indicators Survey, we examined the degree to which demographic factors, health status, spiritual participation, and community involvement are associated with volunteering among adults aged 60 years or older (n = 525). Rates of volunteering varied by race/ethnicity: non-Hispanic Whites (56.4%), African Americans (51.1%), and Hispanics (43.2%). Bivariate analyses showed that non-Hispanic White older adults were more likely to participate in formal volunteering activities, while their African American and Hispanic counterparts tended to participate in informal volunteering activities. Logistic regression analyses revealed that volunteering was less observed among Hispanics (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.78). Volunteering was more observed among those who reported providing informal care (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.28), having very good or excellent mental health (OR = 1.90 and 2.07, 95% CI 1.09-3.32 and 1.20-3.55, respectively), having weekly or daily spiritual participation (OR = 2.15 and 2.35, 95% CI 1.28-3.63 and 1.29-4.28, respectively), perceiving community involvement very important (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.55-3.62), and being very satisfied with the community interaction (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.85). Given the positive associations of mental health, spirituality, and social engagement with volunteering among older adults, system-level efforts to increase the sense of community among older adults and recognize their roles as volunteers will be helpful in recruiting and retaining older volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Communicative competence of sport volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Petrenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the level of communicative competence of sport volunteers. Material & Methods: students of Kharkov state academy of physical culture (2–4 courses who are engaged in sports volunteering. The theoretic-methodological analysis of problem is carried out; the technique "Need for communication and achievements", "Self-checking assessment in communication", "Machiavellianism level" is used for studying of indicators of self-assessment. Results: the high level of communicative competence on three indicators is revealed at sport volunteers: need for communication (60,71%, communicative control (57%, Machiavellianism (91% that gives them the chance to come into contacts with people around quickly, to correlate the reactions to behavior of surrounding people and to operate the emotions, at the same time they are inclined to manipulations and demonstration of the strengths at communication with people. Conclusions: the purposeful psychology and pedagogical preparation, which program has to include the communicative block and the block of personal development, is necessary for sport volunteers.

  12. Art Appreciation and Parent Volunteers. (United States)

    Hamilton, Mary Jane


    Described is an art appreciation program made possible through the use of parent volunteers. The collection includes 70 laminated prints and biographical packets, and boxes of artifacts and props which make the prints come alive for 400 elementary school children. (Author/KC) Student Teacher Relationship; *Summer Programs; Talent;

  13. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia (United States)

    Hardy, Darren


    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  14. Postural stability in young adults with Down syndrome in challenging conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Bieć

    Full Text Available To evaluate postural control and performance in subjects with Down syndrome (SwDS, we measured postural sway (COP in quiet stance in four 20-second tests: with eyes open or closed and on hard or foam surface. Ten SwDS and eleven healthy subjects participated, aged 29.8 (4.8 and 28.4 (3.9, respectively. The time-series recorded with the sampling rate of 100 Hz were used to evaluate postural performance (COP amplitude and mean velocity and strategies (COP frequency, fractal dimension and entropy. There were no intergroup differences in the amplitude except the stance on foam pad with eyes open when SwDS had larger sway. The COP velocity and frequency were larger in SwDS than controls in all trials on foam pad. During stances on the foam pad SwDS increased fractal dimension showing higher complexity of their equilibrium system, while controls decreased sample entropy exhibiting more conscious control of posture in comparison to the stances on hard support surface. This indicated that each group used entirely different adjustments of postural strategies to the somatosensory challenge. It is proposed that the inferior postural control of SwDS results mainly from insufficient experience in dealing with unpredictable postural stimuli and deficit in motor learning.

  15. Correlation of nasal geometry with aerosol deposition in human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Simpson, S.Q.; Cheng, Kuo-His; Swift, D.L.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Guilmette, R.A.


    The nasal airways act as the first filter in the respiratory tract to remove very large or small particles, that would otherwise penetrate to the lower airways. Aerosol deposition data obtained with human volunteers vary considerably under comparable experimental conditions. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. Because there is no direct proof of this hypothesis, nasal deposition of ultrafine particles in human volunteers has been studied in our laboratory. Preliminary results obtained with four adult volunteers also vary considerably between subjects. The purpose of this part of the study was to establish a theoretical equation relating diffusional deposition in nasal airways to the geometrical dimensions of the individual nasal airways. This relationship was then applied to the experimental deposition data and measurement of airway morphometry for correlation

  16. Volunteer recruitment: the role of organizational support and anticipated respect in non-volunteers' attraction to charitable volunteer organizations. (United States)

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi


    In 3 experiments the authors examined how specific characteristics of charitable volunteer organizations contribute to the recruitment of new volunteers. In line with predictions, Study 1 revealed that providing non-volunteers with information about organizational support induced anticipated feelings of respect, which subsequently enhanced their attraction to the volunteer organization. However, information about the current success of the volunteer organization did not affect anticipated pride (as among those who seek paid employment) and in fact caused potential volunteers to perceive the organization as being in less need for additional volunteers. Study 2 further showed that information about support from the volunteer organization is a more relevant source of anticipated respect and organizational attraction than support from co-volunteers. Study 3 finally showed that information about task and emotional support for volunteers contributes to anticipated respect and organizational attractiveness and that this increases the actual willingness of non-volunteers to participate in the volunteer organization. Interventions aimed at attracting volunteers and avenues for further research are discussed.

  17. School-based mentoring: A study of volunteer motivations and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available While research has been conducted concerning the effects of school-based mentoring on atrisk students, limited work has focused on the volunteer mentors. This study examined the motivations of adult volunteers and the benefits of their participation in a six-month,school-based mentoring program. A total of 31 volunteers completed adapted versions of the Volunteer Functions Inventory and a post-survey as part of a program in which they mentored at-risk elementary school students. Volunteers were more satisfied with theirmentoring experience when their perceived benefits matched their initial motivations, though this did not seem to impact their intentions to mentor again in the future. Volunteers’ motivations tended toward expressing important values or gaining greaterunderstanding, though some younger volunteers were also motivated to gain career-related experience. Implications for school-based mentoring programs are addressed.

  18. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ranolazine following single and multiple sustained-release doses in Chinese healthy adult volunteers: a randomized, open-label, Latin square design, phase I study. (United States)

    Tan, Qin-You; Li, Huan-De; Zhu, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Zhi; Zhang, Jun; Peng, Wen-Xing


    Ranolazine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2006 for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris, and is the first approved agent from a new class of anti-anginal drugs in almost 25 years. The primary objective of this study was to determine the concentration of ranolazine in human plasma using the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ranolazine after administration of single and multiple doses of ranolazine in healthy Chinese adult volunteers. A randomized, open-label, single- and multiple-dose study design was used in the study. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg of ranolazine. Those who received the single dose continued on to the multiple-dose phase and received 500 mg twice daily for 7 days. In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected from 0 to 48 h after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration at 8:00 am and 8:00 pm on days 6 and 7 to determine the minimum steady-state plasma concentration (C(min,ss)) of ranolazine; on day 8, samples were collected from 0 to 48 h after drug administration. All values were expressed as means (standard deviations [SDs]). Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study via subject interview, vital signs, and blood sampling. The LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. Twelve Chinese subjects (six men, six women) were enrolled in the single-dose phase of the pharmacokinetic study. The mean (SD) age of the subjects was 24.7 (1.6) years; their mean (SD) weight was 61.3 (6.4) kg, their mean (SD) height was 165.7 (4.5) cm, and their mean (SD) body mass index was 21.6 (6.6) kg/m(2). The main pharmacokinetic parameters [mean (SD)] for ranolazine after administration of a single oral dose of 500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg were as follows: maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) 741.5 (253.0), 1,355.0 (502.0), and 2

  19. Psychosocial challenges affecting the quality of life in adults with epilepsy and their carers in Africa: A review of published evidence between 1994 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoe J. Keikelame


    Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been paid to the psychosocial challenges of adult patients with epilepsy and their carers in Africa in published studies conducted between 1994 and 2014 – yet these psychosocial challenges have been reported to have a major impact on the quality of life (QOL of people living with the illness and those who care for them. Aim: This review aimed to examine the literature on published studies conducted in Africa between 1994 and 2014 that examined psychosocial challenges of adult people with epilepsy and their carers. The aim was to examine the kind of psychosocial challenges from published evidence and to identify gaps in current knowledge. Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Africa Wide, PsycINFO, EMBASE, PASCAL, SABINET and Google Scholar databases and hand searches of Epilepsy & Behavior, Epilepsia, South African Medical Journal, African Journal of Disability, African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine were reviewed. Results: Very few studies in Africa have examined psychosocial challenges affecting the adult patients with epilepsy and their carers. This review reported the existence of evidence of such challenges and the insights into the psychosocial and economic factors that underpin them. There is evidence that where these have been addressed, there were valuable insights on the types of psychosocial, socio-cultural and socio-economic challenges. Collaborative empowering interventions are needed to enable the attainment of good QOL for those affected. Conclusion: Research on psychosocial challenges of adult patients with epilepsy and their carers from different sectors of healthcare to inform the design of appropriate models is needed.

  20. Factors Associated With Volunteering Among Racial/Ethnic Groups: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey. (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah


    The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.

  1. Daily recovery experiences: the role of volunteer work during leisure time. (United States)

    Mojza, Eva J; Lorenz, Christian; Sonnentag, Sabine; Binnewies, Carmen


    This study focused on the role of volunteer work for daily recovery from work. In a 1-week diary study with 166 employees, we assessed the amount of time spent on volunteer work during leisure time, and the recovery facets of psychological detachment from work (i.e., mentally switching off from work), mastery experiences (i.e., pursuing challenging activities), and community experiences (i.e., cultivating relationships) every day before participants went to bed. Results from hierarchical linear modeling (n = 529 days) showed volunteer work during leisure time to be positively related to mastery experiences and community experiences suggesting volunteer work to contribute to successful recovery by creating new resources.

  2. The Relationship between Stress and Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and without Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.


    Scientific Abstract Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n=38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n=37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized-controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than did healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571

  3. Does Volunteering Experience Influence Advance Care Planning in Old Age? (United States)

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Khosla, Nidhi


    Advance care planning (ACP) increases the likelihood patients will receive end-of-life care that is congruent with their preferences and lowers stress among both patients and caregivers. Previous efforts to increase ACP have mainly focused on information provision in the very late stage of life. This study examines whether a relationship exists between volunteering and ACP, and whether this relationship is associated with social support. The sample comprises 877 individuals who were aged 55+ in 2008, and were deceased before 2010. The sample is derived from seven waves (1998-2010) of data from the Health and Retirement Study. Logistic regression results showed that overall ACP and durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) were both higher (OR = 1.61 and 1.71, respectively) for older adults with volunteering experience in the past 10 years than those without such experience. Available social support (relatives and friends living nearby) was not associated with the relationship between volunteering and ACP. Other factors related to ACP included poorer health, death being expected, death due to cancer, older age, and being a racial minority. Involving older people in volunteer work may help to increase ACP. Future research is encouraged to identify reasons for the association between volunteering and ACP.

  4. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves


    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  5. Examining Volunteer Motivations and Recruitment Strategies For Engagement in Urban Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Moskell


    Full Text Available Few studies in urban forestry have examined the motivations of urban forestry volunteers. In this research, two social psychological theories (Volunteer Functions Inventory and Volunteer Process Model are utilized to examine motivations for participating in tree planting activities. The Volunteer Functions Inventory can be used to examine the needs, goals and motivations that individuals seek to fulfill through volunteerism. The Volunteer Process Model sheds light on the antecedents, experiences and consequences of volunteerism at multiple levels (individual, interpersonal, organizational, societal. An understanding of volunteer motivations can aid practitioners in the development and implementation of participatory urban forestry programs that are attractive to stakeholders. We conducted a survey of volunteers who participated in a MillionTreesNYC volunteer planting event and a focus group of urban forestry practitioners. Survey results reveal that volunteers have varied motivations and a limited knowledge of the community level impacts of trees. Results from the focus group reveal that providing education about the benefits of trees and maintaining long-term communication with volunteers are frequently used strategies for engagement. However, the public’s lack of knowledge about urban forestry and an inability to connect to audiences are practitioner-identified challenges for recruiting stakeholders to participate in their programs.

  6. Engaged anthropology and corporate volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Blahová


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present engaged anthropology and its methodological tools with a specific perspective of the research field and the position of the researcher with regard to research subjects. The study focuses on corporate volunteering as one of the forms of collaboration between the non-profit and the private sectors seeking solutions to social problems and community development. Volunteering projects contribute to the interlinking of the knowledge, skills, experience and resources of corporate employees and the representatives of the non-profit or the public sector. It is a part of the philanthropic strategy of companies which are willing to present themselves as entities responsible towards the environment in which they run their business, and towards their employees, partners and customers. Engaged anthropology can bring, through its methodological tools, a new perspective of corporate volunteering. Community-based participatory research on the process of knowledge creation includes all partners on an equal basis and identifies their unique contribution to problem solution and community development.

  7. [Burnout in volunteer health workers]. (United States)

    Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R


    While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Volunteer Programs. (United States)

    Culp, Ken, III; Nall, Martha A.


    Evaluating the impact of volunteer programs should measure both program outcomes and volunteer growth and development. The Targeting Outcomes of Programs Model is a structured way to collect data on several levels. (SK)

  9. A Smart Move in Tough Times: How SREB States Can Strengthen Adult Learning and the Work Force. Challenge to Lead Series (United States)

    Lord, Joan M.; Blackmon, Trudy; Chaloux, Bruce; Weaver, Chris; Street, Sue


    This report, part of the "Challenge to Lead" education goals series, examines the impact of an undereducated work force and calls for making adult learning programs a priority across the SREB (Southern Regional Education Board) region especially during the current recession. "A Smart Move" tracks declining enrollment in adult…

  10. [Volunteer work and potential volunteer work among 55 to 70-year-olds in Germany]. (United States)

    Micheel, Frank


    The aim of this article is to describe the potential with respect to volunteer work among 55 to 70-year-old persons along with a two-dimensional typology (actual volunteer work and intention of volunteering or expanding actual volunteer work) and to identify the influencing factors. Based on the dataset from the transitions and old age potential (TOP) study, a total of 4421 men and women born between 1942 and 1958 were included. A multinomial regression model showed the predictors for group affiliation along with an engagement-related typology (internal, utilized and external volunteer potential as well as definite non-volunteers). More than a half of the persons in the study sample could be classified as internal or external volunteer potential. Volunteers and potential volunteers revealed more similarities regarding resources and social factors than potential volunteers and definite non-volunteers. Potential volunteers were more active in other informal fields of activity (e.g. nursing or child care) than definite non-volunteers. With respect to volunteer work, definite non-volunteers showed various social disadvantages (in particular with respect to education and health) compared to (potential) volunteers. Other informal activities did not seem to be in major conflict with volunteer activities, e.g. nursing or child care, as long as they were carried out with moderate or low intensity.

  11. Volunteering as a predictor of all-cause mortality: what aspects of volunteering really matter? (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat


    This study evaluates the predictive effects of different aspects of volunteering (e.g. volunteering status, number of hours, number of years, and type of volunteering activity) on all-cause mortality. A seven-year follow-up dataset of a nationally representative sample of Israelis, 60 years and older was used. As expected, volunteering was associated with a reduced mortality risk even after adjusting for age, gender, education, baseline mental health and physical health, activity level, and social engagement. Those who volunteered for 10 to 14 years had a reduced mortality risk relative to non-volunteers. In addition, those who volunteered privately, not as part of an official organization, also had a reduced mortality risk compared to non-volunteers. The number of hours of volunteering was not a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in the fully adjusted model. In additional sensitivity analyses limited to those who volunteered, none of the various aspects of volunteering was associated with a reduced mortality risk. Results suggest that not all aspects of volunteering have the same predictive value and that the protective effects of length of volunteering time and type of volunteering are particularly important. However, whether or not volunteering is the most consistent predictor of mortality and whether once a person volunteers the various aspects of volunteering are no longer associated with mortality risk.

  12. 76 FR 29720 - Information Collection: Volunteer Programs (United States)


    ... designed to provide educationally related work assignments for students in non-pay status. The volunteer... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Volunteer Programs AGENCY... the Volunteer Programs. DATES: We will consider comment that we received by July 22, 2011. ADDRESSES...

  13. Student Volunteering in English Higher Education (United States)

    Holdsworth, Clare; Quinn, Jocey


    Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross-party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and…

  14. Volunteer Motivations and Rewards: Shaping Future Programs. (United States)

    McClam, Tricia

    Volunteerism is increasing today and helps to fill in the gaps created by funding and staff cutbacks in service-oriented agencies. It is critical not only to recruit new volunteers but to retain volunteers. This study examines hospice volunteers for motivation and rewards. Previous studies have found motivations to include altruism and…

  15. Effective Motivators for Master Volunteer Program Development. (United States)

    Wolford, Marjorie; Cox, Kathryn; Culp, Ken III


    A survey of 797 extension master volunteers in Ohio received 200 usable responses indicating that achievement was rated as the most important motive for beginning service as a master volunteer. As they continued to volunteer, affiliation became the most important motive. Intrinsic forms of recognition (e.g., receiving compliments) were rated most…

  16. The Dynamic Tension: Professionals and Volunteers. (United States)

    Snider, Alan


    Describes results of a study focused on the role and relationship of 4-H agents working with program management volunteers in clubs, communities, and counties. Factors found to be instrumental in the expanded involvement of key volunteers include agent self-confidence, belief in volunteerism, strong support system, and careful volunteer selection.…

  17. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Bridgette M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  18. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research. (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L


    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Is volunteering in later life impeded or stimulated by other activities? (United States)

    Dury, Sarah; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Witte, Nico; Brosens, Dorien; Smetcoren, An-Sofie; Van Regenmortel, Sofie; Verté, Dominique


    Volunteering among older adults has received increasing attention from researchers, policy makers, and associations. However, there remains a lack of knowledge in how volunteering is impacted by other activities in the lives of older adults. In order to understand activity engagement in later life, insights into the extent to which activities compete with or complement each other are necessary. Data for the present research were derived from the Belgian Aging Studies (N = 23,768). The main objective is to uncover the activities that impede or stimulate actual volunteering and/or the likeliness to volunteer at an older age. Structural equation models indicate a strong positive correlation between altruistic types of activities and actual volunteering. Furthermore, older adults active in personal leisure activities are more drawn to be potential volunteers. The article demonstrates that the activity level of older people is not sufficient to understand volunteering, that is, a distinction between the types of activities is essential. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Improving quality of life in ageing populations: what can volunteering do? (United States)

    Cattan, Mima; Hogg, Eddy; Hardill, Irene


    The year 2011 was declared the 'European Year of Volunteering' to recognise the contribution volunteers make to society. Such cross-national events reflect the high profile of volunteering and political imperatives to promote it. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive review of current knowledge (articles published between 2005 and 2011) regarding the role of volunteering in improving older people's quality of life (QoL) and to identify areas requiring further research. Volunteering was defined as an activity that is freely chosen, does not involve remuneration and helps or benefits those beyond an individual's immediate family. Our search identified 22 studies and 5 review articles that addressed the benefits of volunteering on older people's quality of life. Most of the research had been conducted in the United States, Canada and Australia using data from longitudinal studies. The majority of the studies concluded that there is a positive association between older people's quality of life and engagement in volunteering. Due to the study designs and the heterogeneity of the research, causality is difficult to demonstrate and the knowledge the studies bring to the subject is variable. This review shows that volunteering may help to maintain and possibly improve some older adults' quality of life. However, there are still major gaps in our understanding of who actually benefits, the social and cultural context of volunteering and its role in reducing health and social inequalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating low adaptive behaviour and presence of the triad of impairments characteristic of autistic spectrum disorder as indicators of risk for challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Felce, D; Kerr, M


    Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of impairments characteristic of autism and level of adaptive behaviour were independently associated with level of challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities. Five datasets were merged to produce information on challenging behaviour, adaptive behaviour, presence of the triad of impairments, gender and age of 818 adults. Variables were entered into a multivariate linear regression, which also tested the interaction between the presence of the triad of impairments and level of adaptive behaviour. Presence of the triad of impairments, level of adaptive behaviour, their interaction, and age, but not gender, significantly and independently contributed to the prediction of challenging behaviour. Presence/absence of the triad of impairments moderated the effect of adaptive behaviour on challenging behaviour. The inverse relationship found in the absence of the triad of impairments was virtually removed when present. This study has shown that it is necessary to control for intercorrelation between potential risk factors for challenging behaviour and to explore how interaction between them might moderate associations. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Perceptions of the Role of Short-Term Volunteerism in International Development: Views from Volunteers, Local Hosts, and Community Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethina Loiseau


    Full Text Available Background. Short-term international volunteer trips traditionally involve volunteers from high-income countries travelling to low- and middle-income countries to assist in service-related development activities. Their duration typically ranges from 7 to 90 days. The city of La Romana, Dominican Republic, receives hundreds of short-term international volunteers annually. They participate in activities aimed at improving conditions faced by a marginalized ethnic-Haitian community living in bateyes. Methods. This qualitative analysis examined perceptions of short-term international volunteerism, held by three key stakeholder groups in La Romana: local hosts, international volunteers, and community members. Responses from semistructured interviews were recorded and analysed by thematic analysis. Results. Themes from the 3 groups were broadly categorized into general perceptions of short-term volunteerism and proposed best practices. These were further subdivided into perceptions of value, harms, and motivations associated with volunteer teams for the former and best practices around volunteer composition and selection, partnership, and skill sets and predeparture training for the latter. Conclusion. Notable challenges were associated with short-term volunteering, including an overemphasis on the material benefits from volunteer groups expressed by community member respondents; misalignment of the desired and actual skill sets of volunteers; duplicate and uncoordinated volunteer efforts; and the perpetuation of stereotypes suggesting that international volunteers possess superior knowledge or skills. Addressing these challenges is critical to optimizing the conduct of short-term volunteerism.

  3. The effect of volunteer management professionalization level on volunteer work satisfaction


    Peychlová, Štěpánka


    This text concentrates on volunteering in volunteer organizations. It examines the connection between volunteer management professionalization level and volunteer work satisfaction in these organizations. In the theoretical part is defined the concepts of volunteering, professionalization and satisfaction are defined and their particular aspects associated with the focus of the thesis are highlighted. The empirical part describes the construction of the research method and presents the analys...

  4. Challenging Representations: Constructing the Adult Literacy Learner over 30 Years of Policy and Practice in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy


    This article addresses the question, How do changes in policy discourses shape public representations of literacy learners and the goals of adult literacy education? It examines specifically how the agency of adult literacy learners is constructed. We carry out a critical discourse analysis of two key adult literacy policy documents from the U.K.:…

  5. Impact of a Home-Based Physical and Nutritional Intervention Program Conducted by Lay-Volunteers on Handgrip Strength in Prefrail and Frail Older Adults: A Randomized Control Trial. (United States)

    Haider, Sandra; Dorner, Thomas E; Luger, Eva; Kapan, Ali; Titze, Sylvia; Lackinger, Christian; Schindler, Karin E


    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the effects of a home-based physical and nutritional intervention program carried out by lay-volunteers to home visits with social support alone. Buddies visited 80 prefrail or frail older persons at home twice a week for 12 weeks. The physical training and nutrition group (PTN, n = 39) performed two sets of six strength exercises, discussed nutritional topics and received social support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 41) received home visits with social support only. In the PTN group, handgrip strength increased significantly by 2.4 kg (95% CI: 1.0-3.8). In the SoSu group we did not see a significant improvement. However, no significant between-group difference was found. Physical performance increased in both groups, although with a higher increase of 1.0 point (95% CI: 0.1-2.0) in the PTN group. In none of the groups muscle mass changed. Further results showed that frail individuals benefit more from the intervention than prefrail individuals (OR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.01-7.66). Handgrip strength in the intervention group increased by a clinically relevant value and this effect is comparable to that obtained by health-care professionals. Therefore, home visits with a physical training and nutritional program could offer a new perspective in the care of community-dwelling prefrail and frail older persons.

  6. Enablers and challenges of post-16 education and employment outcomes: the perspectives of young adults with a history of SLI. (United States)

    Carroll, Catherine; Dockrell, Julie


    Research studies have begun to investigate the post-16 outcomes for young adults with a specific language impairment (SLI). As yet only tentative conclusions can be drawn with respect to academic and employment outcomes and the factors that are associated with more positive outcomes. Evidence for these findings has relied predominantly on associations between various language, academic and psychosocial assessments. Little attention has been paid to the perspective of the young person. To investigate from the perspective of a group of young people with a history of SLI the factors they believed have enabled and presented a challenge to their post-16 education and employment outcomes and experiences. Nineteen (four female, 15 male) young people aged from 19 to 23 years (average age 21 years), who had all attended the same residential special school for pupils with SLI, were interviewed face to face to explore their views as to what had enabled and limited their transition experiences to date. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The majority of the young people saw themselves as key agents of change and very active participants in steering their own transition since leaving school. They acknowledged the important role played by their parents and families and how factors such as SLI had affected their transition experiences. The study supports evidence from research with different groups of young people with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities of the importance of school and post-16 curriculums which develop agency on behalf of the young person. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  7. Engaging Youth Ages 8 to 12 as Volunteers: An Opportunity for Youth Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene S. Shannon


    Full Text Available Many youth programs are delivered to provide opportunities for youth to acquire the assets deemed essential to their development into caring, responsible adults. Engaging as a volunteer is considered an experience that provides access to the acquisition of key developmental assets. To date, research has focused on the positive outcomes that can result for adolescent volunteers with little attention being paid to volunteers younger than age 15. This research explored whether and in what ways being a volunteer contributed to the development of youth ages 8 to 12. Interviews were conducted with 73 Boys and Girls Club youth and seven Club Executive Directors in Atlantic Canada. Results indicated that volunteering offered youth an opportunity to serve their communities, care for its members, and feel valued. Younger youth also developed various skills and experienced enhanced self-esteem and self-confidence.

  8. Health care transition from pediatric care to adult care: opportunities and challenges under the Affordable Care Act. (United States)

    Webb, Lauren; Shah, Parag K; Harisiades, James P; Boudos, Rebecca; Agrawal, Rishi


    Enrollment of young adults is foundational to the success of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This article analyzes the implications for young adults transitioning from pediatric to adult care with the implementation of the ACA. We review the key characteristics of this population relevant to health care utilization and access as well as the impact of private insurance market reforms, health insurance marketplaces, Medicaid expansion, and workforce development provisions on this population. We then analyze how reform is impacting and will continue to impact specific populations of young adults, including individuals with disabilities, college students, immigrants, young adults who age out of the foster care system and individuals involved with the criminal justice system. Finally, we look at the socio-economic and political factors influencing outreach efforts, and make recommendations to maximize the benefits of the law for young adults to empower them to have access to care and financial security.

  9. 45 CFR 1217.6 - Roles of volunteers. (United States)


    ... communication of VISTA policies to VISTA volunteers. (c) Encourage and develop VISTA volunteer leadership and... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roles of volunteers. 1217.6 Section 1217.6 Public... VISTA VOLUNTEER LEADER § 1217.6 Roles of volunteers. VISTA volunteer leaders may have the following...

  10. ?It is challenging? oh, nobody likes it!?: a qualitative study exploring Mozambican adolescents and young adults? experiences with contraception


    Capurchande, Rehana; Coene, Gily; Schockaert, Ingrid; Macia, Manuel; Meulemans, Herman


    Background By focusing upon formal sex education programmes, the Mozambican government has significantly enhanced the general health of adolescents and young adults. However, when it comes to contraception, little is known about how adolescents and young adults actually behave. Methods Based upon a qualitative study in two settings in Maputo province ? Ndlavela and Boane ? this paper explores the knowledge and practices of contraception among adolescents and young adults. A total of four focu...

  11. The liquid organization of volunteer tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne


    Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....

  12. The liquid organization of volunteer tourism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne


    Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....

  13. Postnatal challenge dose of methamphetamine amplifies anticonvulsant effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on epileptiform activity induced by electrical stimulation in adult male rats. (United States)

    Bernášková, Klára; Matějovská, Iveta; Slamberová, Romana


    Administration of psychostimulants is often associated with increased seizure susceptibility. In our previous studies prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure increased seizure susceptibility of adult rats in models of primarily or secondarily generalized seizures induced by convulsant drugs. The effect of a single MA challenge dose in adulthood on chemically induced generalized seizures however, depends on the prenatal MA exposure history. Thus, the present study used a model of focal electrical stimulation to determine whether prenatal MA exposure with or without the adult challenge MA dose has the same outcome in a focal seizure model. Total of six groups of adult male rats were tested (prenatally MA-exposed, prenatally saline-exposed and rats without prenatal injections), each of these groups was either postnatally challenged with MA or with vehicle injection (MA-MA, MA-S; S-MA, S-S; C-MA, C-S). Seizures were induced by repetitive electrical stimulation (15 s/8 Hz) of sensorimotor cortex. Stimulation threshold, duration of afterdischarges (ADs), and presence and duration of spontaneous ADs (SAD) were evaluated. Additionally, behaviors associated with stimulation and ADs, and occurrence of wet-dog shakes (WDS) were analyzed. Our data demonstrate that daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) within prenatal period decreased the occurrence of WDS and SADs, and shortened the duration of ADs and SADs suggesting anticonvulsant effects. Moreover, the challenge dose of MA (1 mg/kg) increased seizure threshold in all groups of rats, shortened duration of ADs in controls and prenatally saline-exposed animals, shortened duration of SADs in prenatally saline-exposed rats and totally eliminated WDS in all groups. Thus, the present study demonstrates that both chronic prenatal MA exposure and a single dose of MA in adulthood decrease focally induced epileptiform activity in adult male rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Volunteers Receiving Escherichia coli Phage T4 Orally: a Safety Test of Phage Therapy


    Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald


    Fifteen healthy adult volunteers received in their drinking water a lower Escherichia coli phage T4 dose (103 PFU/ml), a higher phage dose (105 PFU/ml), and placebo. Fecal coliphage was detected in a dose-dependent way in volunteers orally exposed to phage. All volunteers receiving the higher phage dose showed fecal phage 1 day after exposure; this prevalence was only 50% in subjects receiving the lower phage dose. No fecal phage was detectable a week after a 2-day course of oral phage applic...

  15. Evaluation of a pilot 'peer support' training programme for volunteers in a hospital-based cancer information and support centre. (United States)

    Kinnane, Nicole Anne; Waters, Trish; Aranda, Sanchia


    Volunteers from Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (Peter Mac) Patient Information and Support Centre (PISC) assist the Cancer Support Nurse by helping patients and families/carers find information and provide face-to-face peer support. Benefits of shared personal experiences between volunteer and patient are clearly different from professional support. Volunteers require specific skill sets and detailed preparation for this role. Volunteers completed a 3-day training programme adapted from the Cancer Council Victoria's 'Cancer Connect Telephone Peer Support Volunteer' training programme. The focus was role expectations and boundaries for peer support volunteers, debriefing, communication skills training, support services, complementary and alternative therapies and internet information. Assessment included a quiz and observation for a range of competencies. Role-play with simulated patients developed appropriate support skills. Eight volunteers participated. Pre-training questionnaires revealed all volunteers highly self-rated existing skills supporting people affected by cancer. During training, volunteers recognised these skills were inadequate. All agreed that role-play using an actor as a 'simulated patient' helped develop communication skills; however, the experience proved challenging. Post-training all reported increased knowledge of role definition and boundaries, supportive communication skills, supports available for patients and families/carers and importance of self-care. Facilitators recommended seven of the eight participants be accredited PISC Peer Support Volunteers. One volunteer was assessed unsuitable for consistently overstepping the boundaries of the peer support role and withdrew from training. Success of the programme resulted in a trained 'face-to-face peer support volunteer' group better equipped for their role. Sixteen months following training, all who completed the programme remain active volunteers in the PISC. Planned educational updates

  16. The Effect of Volunteer Work on Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Holm, Anders


    In addition to benefiting others, volunteer work is argued to supply volunteers themselves with skills, reputation, and social connections that increase overall employability. We test this hypothesized causal link between volunteer work and employability with a high-quality 2012 Danish survey sam...... show that performing volunteer work does not statistically significantly affect the risk or rate of unemployment for the typical individual on the labour market....... sample of 1,867 individuals of working age. The survey data are linked to administrative registers containing individual-level data on unemployment. A combination of detailed controls, lagged dependent variables, and instrumental variable regression is used to determine cause and effect. Our findings...

  17. 20 CFR 10.730 - What are the conditions of coverage for Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured... (United States)


    ... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? 10.730 Section... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? (a) Any injury sustained by a volunteer or volunteer leader while he or she is located abroad shall be presumed to have...

  18. Post-Event Volunteering Legacy: Did the London 2012 Games Induce a Sustainable Volunteer Engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Koutrou


    Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.

  19. Reference values for peak oxygen uptake: cross-sectional analysis of cycle ergometry-based cardiopulmonary exercise tests of 10 090 adult German volunteers from the Prevention First Registry. (United States)

    Rapp, Daniel; Scharhag, Jürgen; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Scholl, Johannes


    This study aims to construct quantile reference values for peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2peak ) measured by cycle ergometry-based incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Cross-sectional study using quantile regressions to fit sex-specific and age-specific quantile curves. Exercise tests were conducted using cycle ergometry. Maximal effort in the exercise tests wass assumed when respiratory exchange ratio  ≥1.1 or lactate ≥8 mmol/L or maximal heart rate ≥90% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate. This was assessed retrospectively for a random subsample with an a priori calculated sample size of n=252 participants. A network of private outpatient clinics in three German cities recorded the results of cycle ergometry-based cardiopulmonary exercise tests to a central database (Prevention First Registry) from 2001 to 2015. 10 090 participants (6462 men, 3628 women) from more than 100 local companies volunteered in workplace health promotion programmes. Participants were aged 21 to 83 years, were free of acute complaints and had primarily sedentary working environments. Peak oxygen uptake was measured as absolute V̇O 2peak in litres of oxygen per minute and relative V̇O 2peak in millilitres of oxygen per kilogram of body mass per minute. The mean age for both men and women was 46 years. Median relative V̇O 2peak was 36 and 30 mL/kg/min at 40 to 49 years, as well as 32 and 26 mL/kg/min at 50 to 59 years for men and women, respectively. An estimated proportion of 97% of the participants performed the exercise test until exertion. Reference values and nomograms for V̇O 2peak were derived from a large sample of preventive healthcare examinations of healthy white-collar workers. The presented results can be applied to participants of exercise tests using cycle ergometry who are part of a population that is comparable to this study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved

  20. Relative bioavailability of griseofulvin lyophilized dry emulsion tablet vs. immediate release tablet: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, six-period, crossover study in healthy adult volunteers in the fasted and fed states. (United States)

    Ahmed, Iman Saad; Aboul-Einien, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Osama Hussein; Farid, Samar Farghali


    The oral bioavailability of griseofulvin (GF) formulated as a fast disintegrating lyophilized dry emulsion (LDE) tablet was studied and compared to the commercially available immediate release (IR) tablet, as a reference, in both the fasted and fed states in nine healthy volunteers after a single oral dose (125 mg) in a crossover design. Furthermore the LDE tablets were ingested with and without water under both the fasted and fed states. In the fasted state, the rate of absorption was found to be significantly faster from LDE tablets, in the presence and absence of water, as shown by a higher C(max) (more than two times higher, p=0.0001) and a shorter t(max) (by more than 3h, p=0.0001) compared to IR tablets. The extent of absorption, expressed as AUC, from LDE tablets in the presence and absence of water was 65% and 77% larger and statistically significantly different relative to the mean AUC from IR tablets (p=0.006). In the fed state, C(max) from LDE tablets ingested with and without water was found to be about 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than the immediate release tablets. A shorter t(max) was also shown whether LDE tablets were ingested with or without water in the fed state as compared to immediate release tablets. The mean AUC from LDE tablets under fed conditions in the presence of water was about 21% larger and was not statistically significantly different from AUC from immediate release tablets (p=0.517). When ingested without water, AUC from LDE tablets was about 43% larger and statistically significantly different relative to AUC from IR tablets (p=0.033). The mean AUC from the LDE tablet ingested with water under fed conditions relative to AUC from LDE tablet ingested without water was not statistically significantly different (p=0.454). Results show that the food effect of the high fat meal is very pronounced in case of the immediate release tablets, Fulvin, than in case of LDE tablets whether given with or without water.

  1. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers' perception and actual well-being of volunteers. (United States)

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita


    Background : Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods : Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results : Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life

  2. How?--Where To? About the Changes and Challenges of Adult Education in Poland in the Years 1989-2013 (United States)

    Maliszewski, Tomasz; Solarczyk-Szwec, Hanna


    The purpose of this article is to present the changes that have taken place in Polish adult education in the years 1989-2013 under the influence of multiple factors, i.e. social, economic, political and those relating to civilization on the whole. This article is an attempt to answer the following questions: does modern adult education in Poland…

  3. Older Adults, in Lebanon, Committed to Learning: Contextualizing the Challenges and the Benefits of Their Learning Experience (United States)

    Hachem, Hany; Vuopala, Essi


    The University for the Third Age, a relatively new concept in Lebanon, provides educational and social opportunities for older adults. The goal of later-life educational institutions supposedly covers more than a mere provision of learning. This being said, highlighting the significance of rewards associated with older adult learning--and the…

  4. Expanding Continuous Quality Improvement Capacity in the Medical Intensive Care Unit: Prehealth Volunteers as a Solution. (United States)

    Priest, Kelsey C; Lobingier, Hannah; McCully, Nancy; Lombard, Jackie; Hansen, Mark; Uchiyama, Makoto; Hagg, Daniel S


    Health care delivery systems are challenged to support the increasing demands for improving patient safety, satisfaction, and outcomes. Limited resources and staffing are common barriers for making significant and sustained improvements. At Oregon Health & Science University, the medical intensive care unit (MICU) leadership team faced internal capacity limitations for conducting continuous quality improvement, specifically for the implementation and evaluation of the mobility portion of an evidence-based care bundle. The MICU team successfully addressed this capacity challenge using the person power of prehealth volunteers. In the first year of the project, 52 trained volunteers executed an evidence-based mobility intervention for 305 critically ill patients, conducting more than 200 000 exercise repetitions. The volunteers contributed to real-time evaluation of the project, with the collection of approximately 26 950 process measure data points. Prehealth volunteers are an untapped resource for effectively expanding internal continuous quality improvement capacity in the MICU and beyond.

  5. An accelerated rabies vaccine schedule based on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant augments rabies virus specific antibody and T cell response in healthy adult volunteers. (United States)

    Wijaya, Limin; Tham, Christine Y L; Chan, Yvonne F Z; Wong, Abigail W L; Li, L T; Wang, Lin-Fa; Bertoletti, Antonio; Low, Jenny G


    Rabies is a fatal disease where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is crucial in preventing infection. However, deaths even after appropriate PEP, have been reported. The PIKA Rabies vaccine adjuvant is a TLR3 agonist that activates B and T cells leading to a robust immune response. We conducted a phase I, open label, randomized study in healthy adults to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the PIKA Rabies vaccine and an accelerated vaccine regimen. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized into 3 groups: control vaccine classic regimen, PIKA vaccine classic regimen and PIKA vaccine accelerated regimen. Subjects were followed up for safety, rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) and T cell responses. Both the control and PIKA Rabies vaccine were well tolerated. All adverse events (AEs) were mild and self-limiting. Seventy-five percent of subjects in the PIKA accelerated regimen achieved a RVNA titer ⩾0.5IU/mL on day 7, compared to 53.9% in the PIKA classic regimen (p=0.411) and 16.7% in control vaccine classic regimen (p=0.012). The PIKA rabies vaccine elicited multi-specific rabies CD4 mediated T cell response already detectable ex vivo at day 7 after vaccination and that was maintained at day 42. The investigational PIKA rabies vaccine was well tolerated and more immunogenic than the commercially available vaccine in healthy adults. Clinical trial registry: The study was registered with NCT02657161. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety and Immunogenicity Testing of an Intranasal Group B Meningococcal Native Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine in Healthy Volunteers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drabick, Joseph


    An intranasal vaccine composed of native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV) not exposed to detergent or denaturing agents was prepared from the group B meningococcal strain and tested in 32 healthy adult volunteers...

  7. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program. (United States)

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others


    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  8. Motivations and Benefits of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, and Non-Volunteers in Five Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith


    Full Text Available Programmes targeting student volunteering and service learning are part of encouraging civic behaviour amongst young people. This article reports on a large scale international survey comparing volunteering amongst tertiary students at universities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The data revealed high rates of student volunteering and the popularity of occasional or episodic volunteering. There were strong commonalities in student volunteering behaviour, motivations and benefits across the five Western predominately English-speaking countries. Altruism and self-orientated career motivations and benefits were most important to students; however volunteering and non-volunteering students differed in the relative value they attached to volunteering for CV-enhancement and social factors.

  9. Motivations for volunteers in food rescue nutrition. (United States)

    Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H


    A variety of organizations redistribute surplus food to low-income populations through food rescue nutrition. Why volunteers participate in these charitable organizations is unclear. The aim of this study is to document the participation and motivations of volunteers who are involved specifically in food rescue nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, a new instrument, Motivations to Volunteer Scale, was developed and validated in 40 participants (aged ≥18 years). In phase 2, the new scale and a demographics questionnaire were administered to 300 participants who were volunteering in food pantries and churches. The pilot study showed that Motivations to Volunteer Scale exhibited an internal consistency of Cronbach's α of 0.73 (P  0.05). The scale was validated also by comparison to the Volunteer Function Inventory (r = 0.86, P Motivations to Volunteer Scale were requirement, career improvement, social life, and altruism. The mean motivation score of the 300 volunteers was 9.15 ± 0.17. Greater motivations were observed among participants who were aged >45 years, women, Hispanics, college/university graduates, physically inactive, non-smokers, and had an income ≥ $48,000. The Motivations to Volunteer Scale is a valid tool to assess why individuals volunteer in food rescue nutrition. The extent of motivations of participants was relatively high, and the primary reason for volunteering was altruism. Health professionals should be encouraged to participate in food redistribution. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Volunteering is associated with increased survival in able-bodied participants of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. (United States)

    Rogers, Nina Trivedy; Demakakos, Panayotes; Taylor, Mark Steven; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark; Shankar, Aparna


    Volunteering has been linked to reduced mortality in older adults, but the mechanisms explaining this effect remain unclear. This study investigated whether volunteering is associated with increased survival in participants of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and whether differences in survival are modified by functional disabilities. A multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to estimate the association of volunteering with survival over a period of 10.9 years in 10 324 participants, while controlling for selected confounders. To investigate effect modification by disability, the analyses were repeated in participants with and without self-reported functional disabilities. Volunteering was associated with a reduced probability of death from all causes in univariate analyses (HR=0.65, CI 0.58 to 0.73, pvolunteers had significantly increased survival compared with able-bodied non-volunteers (HR=0.81, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.95, p=0.009). There was no significant survival advantage among disabled volunteers, compared with disabled non-volunteers (HR=1.06, CI 0.88 to 1.29, p=0.53). Volunteering is associated with reduced mortality in older adults in England, but this effect appears to be limited to volunteers who report no disabilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. Challenges of intra-institutional transfer of care from paediatric to adult congenital cardiology: the need for retention as well as transition. (United States)

    Bohun, Claudine M; Woods, Patricia; Winter, Christiane; Mitchell, Julie; McLarry, Joel; Weiss, Joseph; Broberg, Craig S


    Transferring patients with CHD from paediatric to adult care has been challenging, especially across institutions. Within a single institution, some issues such as provider interaction, information exchange, or administrative directives should not play a significant role, and should favour successful transfer. We studied patients who were eligible for transfer to the adult congenital heart disease service within our institution in order to identify factors associated with successful transfer to adult care providers versus failure to transfer. Patients above18 years of age with CHD who were seen by paediatric cardiologists before January, 2008 were identified through a patient-care database. Records were reviewed to determine follow-up between 2008 and 2011 and to determine whether the patient was seen in the adult congenital cardiology clinic, paediatric cardiology clinic, or had no follow-up, and statistical comparisons were made between groups. After reviewing 916 records, 229 patients were considered eligible for transition to adult congenital cardiology. Of these, 77 (34%) were transferred successfully to adult congenital cardiology, 47 (21%) continued to be seen by paediatric cardiologists, and 105 (46%) were lost to follow-up. Those who transferred successfully differed with regard to complexity of diagnosis, insurance, and whether a formal referral was made by a paediatric care provider. Only a small fraction of the patients who were lost to follow-up could be contacted. Within a single institution, with shared information systems, administrations, and care providers, successful transfer from paediatric to adult congenital cardiology was still poor. Efforts for successful retention are just as vital as those for transfer.

  12. Volunteer labor supply in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jouke; Boin, Ronald


    The main aim of this paper is to provide insight in the determinants of the decision to participate (yes or no) in volunteer work and the decision with regard to the number of hours spent on volunteer work. These decisions are empirically analyzed with Dutch microdata for 1982 by means of a logit

  13. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work (United States)

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias


    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  14. Matching Expectations for Successful University Student Volunteering (United States)

    Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam; MacCallum, Judith; Young, Susan; Walker, Gabrielle; Holmes, Kirsten; Haski-Leventha, Debbie; Scott, Rowena


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six…

  15. Volunteer map data collection at the USGS (United States)

    Eric, B. Wolf; Poore, Barbara S.; Caro, Holly K.; Matthews, Greg D.


    Since 1994, citizen volunteers have helped the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) improve its topographic maps. Through the Earth Science Corps program, citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in 2001, as many as 300 volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process.

  16. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance (United States)

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.


    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  17. Can micro-volunteering help in Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L


    Full Text Available Micro-volunteering has been defined as convenient, bite-sized, crowdsourced, and network-managed. Micro-volunteers donate their time and energy for organisations which they may not have previously encountered (crowd-sourced), at a time which...

  18. 4-H Volunteer Continuing Education Academy (United States)

    Culp, Ken, III; Bullock, Leslie R.


    The 4-H Volunteer Continuing Education Academy was developed to provide 4-H club leaders a continuing education opportunity, to assist them in developing and enhancing the skills and knowledge necessary for their volunteer role, and to provide a means for 4-H livestock and horse club leaders to recertify. All participants reported satisfaction…

  19. Stereochemical metabolism of styrene in volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenker, M. A.; Kezić, S.; Monster, A. C.; de Wolff, F. A.


    To study the stereochemistry of styrene metabolism in volunteers, and its interindividual variability. Twenty healthy male volunteers (aged 18-37 years) were exposed to 360 mg/m3 styrene for 1 h while they performed 50 W physical exercise. Venous blood was drawn during and for up to 2 h after

  20. Volunteer Teachers' Associates as School Reformers. (United States)

    Wagener, James W.

    This paper explores the role of volunteer teacher associates in school reform. Three theses are examined: (1) qualified and well trained volunteers as teachers' associates can be important in remedying the difficulties students experience in public school classrooms; (2) many public school reform efforts produce mixed results because of difficult…

  1. School Volunteers: Hidden Benefits and Hidden Costs. (United States)

    Brent, Brian O.


    A survey of 68 schools shows that half of all volunteers have college degrees; most support classroom and tutoring activities. Volunteers are beneficial, despite costs associated with program administration, recruitment, interviewing, screening, orientation, training, performance assessment, motivation, recognition, record keeping, reporting,…

  2. Enhancing inclusive sports participation through volunteer coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effectiveness of using trained volunteer coaches to improve the physical activity level of youth with and without intellectual disabilities enrolled in an inclusive programme. In total, 106 youths with and without intellectual disabilities participated in the programme. Thirty two trained volunteers served ...

  3. Self-Organized Volunteers in Rural Schools (United States)

    Lu, Kun


    This paper reports some findings from a longitudinal study of a group of volunteers at an independent school in China. Founded by a committed group of volunteers, Springfield School has been self-sustaining and has provided junior high school education for the past eight years. The author describes the demographic and education background of the…

  4. Non-Alumni Advisory Board Volunteers (United States)

    Nagai, Judy; Nehls, Kimberly


    Advisory boards typically offer guidance, support, social, and financial capital to academic units within colleges and universities. They are generally comprised of prominent volunteers from the community and appropriate industries or businesses. The results of this exploratory study found that non-alumni advisory board volunteers developed…

  5. Volunteers for Researchers’ Night wanted

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony


    Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night (see here) takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe - promoting research in engaging and fun ways for the general public. This year, CERN will be participating once again, hosting dozens of events across the Balexert shopping centre – and we’ll need YOUR help to make the celebration a success.   From film screenings and celebrity Q&A sessions to “Ask a Researcher” and build-your-own LEGO LHC events, this year’s Researchers’ Night is going to be jam-packed! The fun will kick off prior to the night itself with a mock-up of the LHC tunnel installed in the central court of the Balexert shopping centre, 8-12 September*. CERN people will be on hand to speak to shoppers about the LHC, and to encourage them to participate in Researchers’ Night! The CERN organisers are recruiting volunteers and support staff for Researchers’ ...

  6. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers’ perception and actual well-being of volunteers (United States)

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita


    Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an

  7. Cancer survivorship research: the challenge of recruiting adult long term cancer survivors from a cooperative clinical trials group


    Ganz, Patricia A.; Land, Stephanie R.; Antonio, Cynthia; Zheng, Ping; Yothers, Greg; Petersen, Laura; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Wolmark, N.; Ko, Clifford Y.


    Introduction With the growing number of adult cancer survivors, there is increasing need for information that links potential late and long term effects with specific treatment regimens. Few adult cancer patients are treated on clinical trials; however, patients previously enrolled in these trials are an important source of information about treatment-related late effects. Methods Focusing on colorectal cancer survivors, we used the database from five phase III randomized clinical trials from...

  8. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Juzbasic


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  9. Nursing children after a disaster: a qualitative study of nurse volunteers and children after the Haiti earthquake. (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Ho, Grace; Klimmek, Rachel; Pho, Anthony; Kub, Joan


    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurse volunteers caring for children after the Haiti earthquake in January 2010. This descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews focuses on the experiences of 10 nurse volunteers. Four themes emerged: hope amid devastation, professional compromises, universality of children, and emotional impact on nurses. Nurses who volunteer after natural disasters have rich personal and professional experiences, including extremes of sadness and joy. Nurse volunteers will likely need to care for children. Nurses and humanitarian agencies should prepare for the unique challenges of pediatric care. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities: A qualitative study in rural Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Chatio

    Full Text Available The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana.This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers' activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data.Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities.Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities at the

  11. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge. (United States)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M


    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUFA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet challenge. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were subjected to a control diet (CTRL; 3.16 En% linoleic acid [LA]) or a low n-6 PUFA diet (low LA; 1.36 En% LA) from postnatal days (PNs) 2 to 42. Subsequently, all animals were switched to a Western-style diet (2.54 En% LA) until PN98. We monitored body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and glucose homeostasis by an intravenous glucose and insulin tolerance test in rats and by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mice. At PN98, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured and adipocyte number and size were analyzed. In mice, the postnatal low-LA diet decreased fat accumulation during the adult Western-style diet challenge (-27% compared with CTRL, P diet did not affect adult body composition, but decreased the number of retroperitoneal adipocytes and increased the number of large adipocytes. In conclusion, lowering dietary n-6 PUFA intake in early life protected against detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood on metabolic homeostasis and fat mass accumulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate extended-release multiple layer beads administered as intact capsule or sprinkles versus methylphenidate immediate-release tablets (Ritalin(®)) in healthy adult volunteers. (United States)

    Adjei, Akwete; Teuscher, Nathan S; Kupper, Robert J; Chang, Wei-Wei; Greenhill, Laurence; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Connor, Daniel F; Wigal, Sharon


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative bioavailability and safety of a multilayer extended-release bead methylphenidate (MPH) hydrochloride 80 mg (MPH-MLR) capsule or sprinkles (37% immediate-release [IR]) versus MPH hydrochloride IR(Ritalin(®)) tablets, and to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) model simulating MPH concentration-time data for different MPH-MLR dosage strengths. This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study conducted in 26 fasted healthy adults (mean weight±standard deviation, 70.4±11.7 kg) assigned to single-dose oral MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule or sprinkles with applesauce, or Ritalin IR 25 mg (1×5 mg and 1×20 mg tablet) administered at 0, 4, and 8 hours. MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule and sprinkles were bioequivalent; ratios for maximum concentration (Cmax), area under plasma drug concentration versus time curve (AUC)0-t, and AUC0-inf were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 96.3-112.4), 0.99 (95% CI, 95.3-102.8), and 0.99 (95% CI, 95.4-103.0), respectively. MPH-MLR capsule/sprinkles produced highly comparable, biphasic profiles of plasma MPH concentrations characterized by rapid initial peak, followed by moderate decline until 5 hours postdose, and gradual increase until 7 hours postdose, culminating in an attenuated second peak. Based on 90% CIs, total systemic exposure to MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule/sprinkles was similar to that for Ritalin IR 25 mg three times daily, but marked differences in Cmax values indicated that MPH-MLR regimens were not bioequivalent to Ritalin. MPH Cmax and total systemic exposure over the first 4 hours postdose with MPH-MLR capsule/sprinkles was markedly higher than that associated with the first dose of Ritalin. All study drugs were safe and well tolerated. The PK modeling in adults suggested that differences in MPH pharmacokinetics between MPH-MLR and Ritalin are the result of dosage form design attributes and the associated absorption profiles of MPH. MPH-MLR 80

  13. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate Extended-Release Multiple Layer Beads Administered as Intact Capsule or Sprinkles Versus Methylphenidate Immediate-Release Tablets (Ritalin®) in Healthy Adult Volunteers (United States)

    Teuscher, Nathan S.; Kupper, Robert J.; Chang, Wei-Wei; Greenhill, Laurence; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Connor, Daniel F.; Wigal, Sharon


    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative bioavailability and safety of a multilayer extended-release bead methylphenidate (MPH) hydrochloride 80 mg (MPH-MLR) capsule or sprinkles (37% immediate-release [IR]) versus MPH hydrochloride IR(Ritalin®) tablets, and to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) model simulating MPH concentration-time data for different MPH-MLR dosage strengths. Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study conducted in 26 fasted healthy adults (mean weight±standard deviation, 70.4±11.7 kg) assigned to single-dose oral MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule or sprinkles with applesauce, or Ritalin IR 25 mg (1×5 mg and 1×20 mg tablet) administered at 0, 4, and 8 hours. Results: MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule and sprinkles were bioequivalent; ratios for maximum concentration (Cmax), area under plasma drug concentration versus time curve (AUC)0-t, and AUC0-inf were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 96.3–112.4), 0.99 (95% CI, 95.3–102.8), and 0.99 (95% CI, 95.4–103.0), respectively. MPH-MLR capsule/sprinkles produced highly comparable, biphasic profiles of plasma MPH concentrations characterized by rapid initial peak, followed by moderate decline until 5 hours postdose, and gradual increase until 7 hours postdose, culminating in an attenuated second peak. Based on 90% CIs, total systemic exposure to MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule/sprinkles was similar to that for Ritalin IR 25 mg three times daily, but marked differences in Cmax values indicated that MPH-MLR regimens were not bioequivalent to Ritalin. MPH Cmax and total systemic exposure over the first 4 hours postdose with MPH-MLR capsule/sprinkles was markedly higher than that associated with the first dose of Ritalin. All study drugs were safe and well tolerated. The PK modeling in adults suggested that differences in MPH pharmacokinetics between MPH-MLR and Ritalin are the result of dosage form design attributes and the associated

  14. Consequences of adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on tone and context fear retention: effects of an acute ethanol challenge during conditioning. (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret; Spear, Linda P


    An acute ethanol (EtOH) challenge prior to fear conditioning typically disrupts fear retention to contextual cues to a greater degree than fear retention to a discrete tone cue, and adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to these EtOH-induced disruptions of context fear memory. Given that some research suggests that repeated EtOH exposure during adolescence may "lock-in" adolescent-typical EtOH sensitivity into adulthood, the purpose of this study was to determine whether adults exposed to EtOH as adolescents would be less sensitive to EtOH-induced disruptions of context fear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 4 g/kg intragastric EtOH (25% v/v) or water every 48 hours for a total of 11 exposures during adolescence (postnatal day [P] 28 to 48) or adulthood (P70-90). After a 22-day non-EtOH period, animals were acutely challenged with 1 g/kg intraperitoneal EtOH or saline 10 minutes prior to tone or context (noncued) fear conditioning. Tone and context fear retention was subsequently examined. Regardless of age or exposure history, typical deficits in context fear retention were evident after EtOH challenge during conditioning. Similarly, tone fear retention was disrupted in all animals that were trained in the presence of EtOH, which was somewhat surprising given the relative resistance of tone fear retention to an acute EtOH challenge. These results do not support the notion of a "lock-in" of adolescent-typical EtOH sensitivity as there was no influence of exposure age on sensitivity to the disruptive effects of an acute EtOH challenge. Thus, it appears that not all adolescent-like EtOH sensitivities persist into adulthood after prior EtOH exposure during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Vaccination of adult and newborn mice of a resistant strain (C57BL/6J) against challenge with leukemias induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, A.E.


    Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. Then, the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths were calculated for immunized and control mice. The logarithm of their ratio quantified the degree of protection provided by immunization. For adult C57BL/6J mice, a single immunization with MuLV-induced leukemia cells was not effective; either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or Corynebacterium parvum, or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not by immunization with isogenic carcinogen-induced tumors or with an isogenic spontaneous leukemia. For newborn mice, a single injection of irradiated leukemia cells provided 1.3 to 1.5 logs of protection, and admixture of B. Calmette-Guerin or C. parvum increased this protection to 2.4 to 2.7 logs. Since irradiated and frozen-thawed MuLV-induced leukemia cells contained viable MuLV, leukemia cells treated with 0.5 or 1.0% formalin were tested as an alternative. A single injection of formalin-treated isogenic leukemia cells admixed with C. parvum provided between 1.7 and 2.8 logs of protection. These results demonstrate that a single vaccination of newborn animals against a highly antigenic virally induced leukemia produces strong protection against a subsequent challenge with viable leukemia cells

  16. Volunteering to Care for People with Severe Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study of the Significance of Professional and Private Life Experience. (United States)

    Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Væggemose, Ulla; Gissel, Lene; Nissen, Nina Konstantin


    Challenges in recruiting volunteers encountered by psychiatric services are barely elucidated despite a general societal increase in volunteering. The aim of the study was to explore the significance of professional and private life experiences in willingness to volunteer to care for people with severe mental illness. Focus group interviews with volunteers in the Community Family Programme was conducted, followed by thematic analysis. All interviewees had professional and/or private experience of SMI, which had a major influence on their initial willingness to volunteer. Volunteering was an opportunity to pass on their experiences and to care for SMI people in ways that were not possible in their professions. The interviewees did not distinguish between the influences of professional and/or private life experiences on their willingness to volunteer. The study demonstrates the importance of professional and/or private life experiences in initial considerations about volunteering for mental health care. The consequences for recruitment practices are discussed.

  17. Analysis of field reports from anaesthesia volunteers in low- to middle-income countries. (United States)

    Pieczynski, Lauren M; Laudanski, Krzysztof; Speck, Rebecca M; McCunn, Maureen


    The objective of this study was to identify key experiences and common motifs of volunteer doctors who have participated in anaesthesia-related volunteer experiences abroad through the Health Volunteers Overseas (HVO) programme. An additional goal was to understand the effects of medical volunteerism in developing countries on the volunteers themselves. After a medical mission with HVO, anaesthesia volunteers submit a post-experience report. Twenty-five reports were randomly selected from the 58 available trip reports, including five from each of the five countries collaborating with HVO. Data in the reports were analysed using a modified grounded theory and constant comparative technique until thematic saturation was achieved. Three major discoveries emerged from the analysis of post-experience reports: (i) anaesthesia residents and attending physicians find their volunteer experiences in the developing world to be personally rewarding and positive; (ii) most participants feel their educational interventions have a positive impact on local students and anaesthesia providers, and (iii) global volunteerism poses challenges, primarily caused by lack of resource availability and communication issues. Our results give new insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by a cohort of HVO-sponsored anaesthesia volunteers while abroad and validates the positive effects these global health experiences have on the volunteers themselves. This group of anaesthesia volunteers was able to further their personal and professional growth, sharpen their physical diagnosis and clinical reasoning skills in resource-poor environments and, most importantly, provide education and promote an exchange of ideas and information. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Negotiating the boundary between paid and unpaid hospice workers: a qualitative study of how hospice volunteers understand their work. (United States)

    Field-Richards, Sarah E; Arthur, Antony


    To explore the nurse-volunteer relationship in a day hospice. Underpinned by an interpretive approach, face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 day hospice volunteers. The nature and dynamics of the relationship between nursing staff and volunteers within the day hospice were characterized by increasing formality and changes in the division of labor, which challenged smooth working relationships. Volunteers see their role as becoming increasingly formalized partly as a response to increasing administrative demands on hospice nurses. The willingness of volunteers to take on new roles is variable. For volunteers to feel secure and valued and working relationships to remain strong, the process of how boundaries between paid and unpaid workers are negotiated needs to be transparent.

  19. Volunteering as a determinant of civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Matiychyk


    Another prerequisite of volunteerism was the surge of Advantages Revolution in 2013-2014, and after it – the anti-terrorist operation in eastern Ukraine. In 2015 the aid organization in terms of ATO and internally displaced persons has increased directions volunteering. Important indicators of volunteering were high levels of involvement of Ukrainian philanthropy and consequently public confidence in voluntary organizations, qualitative growth of volunteerism, the founders of which were gradually included among the managerial elite Ukraine. At the same time, there are number of problems that discredit the work of volunteers and the idea of volunteering in general, for example, fraud volunteers and fake organizations. Moreover, the increased activity of the volunteer movement was caused by the internal crisis that led to the imbalance of public administration, lack of high-quality management decisions, lack of resource capabilities. Also it was caused by external factors, such as the need to participate in the organization of international events and conduct military operations against separatist groups in eastern Ukraine. So, volunteer activity gradually becomes an effective mechanism of self-organization of citizens.

  20. Poor agreement in questionnaire-based diagnostic criteria for adult atopic dermatitis is a challenge when examining cardiovascular comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Y M F; Egeberg, A; Hamann, C R


    versions of the UK Working Party Diagnostic Criteria. Associations between AD status and cardio-metabolic endpoints were estimated using survey weighted logistic and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: We identified 462 (4.8%) adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed AD, whereas 903 (9.4%) and 226 (2.......3%) had AD according to the UK Working Party Criteria when at least 2 and 3of 4 minor criteria were fulfilled. The populations were not comparable in terms of occurrence of cardio-metabolic risk factors. For example, the prevalence of obesity was lower in participants with physician-diagnosed AD......BACKGROUND: The association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and cardio-metabolic risk factors is not yet established. Furthermore, no validated questionnaire-based method of identifying adults with AD is currently available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cardio-metabolic risk in adults with a history...

  1. Balance Training Reduces Brain Activity during Motor Simulation of a Challenging Balance Task in Older Adults: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ruffieux


    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a shift from an automatic to a more cortical postural control strategy, which goes along with deteriorations in postural stability. Although balance training has been shown to effectively counteract these behavioral deteriorations, little is known about the effect of balance training on brain activity during postural tasks in older adults. We, therefore, assessed postural stability and brain activity using fMRI during motor imagery alone (MI and in combination with action observation (AO; i.e., AO+MI of a challenging balance task in older adults before and after 5 weeks of balance training. Results showed a nonsignificant trend toward improvements in postural stability after balance training, accompanied by reductions in brain activity during AO+MI of the balance task in areas relevant for postural control, which have been shown to be over-activated in older adults during (simulation of motor performance, including motor, premotor, and multisensory vestibular areas. This suggests that balance training may reverse the age-related cortical over-activations and lead to changes in the control of upright posture toward the one observed in young adults.

  2. Balance Training Reduces Brain Activity during Motor Simulation of a Challenging Balance Task in Older Adults: An fMRI Study. (United States)

    Ruffieux, Jan; Mouthon, Audrey; Keller, Martin; Mouthon, Michaël; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Taube, Wolfgang


    Aging is associated with a shift from an automatic to a more cortical postural control strategy, which goes along with deteriorations in postural stability. Although balance training has been shown to effectively counteract these behavioral deteriorations, little is known about the effect of balance training on brain activity during postural tasks in older adults. We, therefore, assessed postural stability and brain activity using fMRI during motor imagery alone (MI) and in combination with action observation (AO; i.e., AO+MI) of a challenging balance task in older adults before and after 5 weeks of balance training. Results showed a nonsignificant trend toward improvements in postural stability after balance training, accompanied by reductions in brain activity during AO+MI of the balance task in areas relevant for postural control, which have been shown to be over-activated in older adults during (simulation of) motor performance, including motor, premotor, and multisensory vestibular areas. This suggests that balance training may reverse the age-related cortical over-activations and lead to changes in the control of upright posture toward the one observed in young adults.

  3. Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering. (United States)

    Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H


    This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period (United States)

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.


    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period.  Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and mortality that has followed a cohort of 6,928 adults since 1965. Using logistic and multiple regression models, we examined the prospective association between environmental and other volunteerism and three outcomes (physical activity, self-reported health, and depression), with 1974 volunteerism predicting 1994 outcomes, controlling for a number of relevant covariates.  Results: Midlife environmental volunteering was significantly associated with physical activity, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms.  Implications: This population-based study offers the first epidemiological evidence for a significant positive relationship between environmental volunteering and health and well-being outcomes. Further research, including intervention studies, is needed to confirm and shed additional light on these initial findings. PMID:20172902

  5. International neurosurgical volunteerism: a temporal, geographic, and thematic analysis of foundation for international education in neurological surgery volunteer reports. (United States)

    Sedney, Cara L; Siu, Jennifer; Rosseau, Gail; Dempsey, Robert; Bernstein, Mark


    To examine the experiences of volunteers of the Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery. A qualitative analysis of >150 volunteer reports from 2004-2013 was performed using grounded theory. Various themes were explored based on their occurrence in the reports. Volunteer reports of extended trips appeared to peak in 2009, with a heavy emphasis on activity in Africa. Prominent themes in the reports included volunteer contributions, successful strategies, challenges, and future directions. Volunteers demonstrated wide-ranging contributions. Successful strategies included continuity and collaboration with other organizations. Challenges were overwhelmingly related to equipment or infrastructure. Common suggestions for future directions included institutional collaboration and subspecialty development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 20 CFR 10.731 - What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation purposes? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation purposes? 10.731 Section 10.731 Employees' Benefits OFFICE... Volunteers § 10.731 What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation...

  7. Codes, Silences, and Homophobia: Challenging Normative Assumptions about Gender and Sexuality in Contemporary LGBTQ Young Adult Literature (United States)

    Wickens, Corrine M.


    Since the publication of the first young adult novel to deal with issues of sexual identity, John Donovan's ("1969") "I'll Get There, It Better Be Worth the Trip", over 200 novels have been published centered around gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning (LGBTQ) characters and conflicts (Cart and Jenkins, "2006", "The Heart has…

  8. Expanding the test of counterfeit deviance: are sexual knowledge, experience and needs a factor in the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lockhart, Karen


    It is posited within the literature that the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability may be influenced by low levels of sexual knowledge, lack of sexual experience and unmet sexual needs. In this study, individuals with sexualised challenging behaviour were identified and matched for gender, age and ability level with individuals recruited to the non-sexualised and no challenging behaviour groups. All (n=24) were interviewed using the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Tool - Revised (SSKAAT-R) and the Sexual Knowledge, Experience and Needs Scale for Intellectual Disability (Sex-Ken-ID) to assess their sexual knowledge, experience and needs. Adaptive behaviour was measured as a covariate. In the current study, contrary to expectations in the wider literature, the sexualised challenging behaviour group showed significantly higher levels of sexual knowledge in several areas when adaptive behaviour was controlled. Their needs in relation to Dating and Intimacy were also significantly higher but no differences were found between groups in relation to sexual experience. The implications of these findings for service provision are outlined along with the considerations of directions for future research.

  9. Motivation of Volunteers to Work in Palliative Care Setting: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Muckaden, M A; Pandya, Sachi Sanjay


    Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships. In-depth interviews were conducted using semistructured interview guide to study above mentioned aspects. Themes were identified and coding was used to analyze the data. The results suggested that the basic motivation for all the volunteers to work in a palliative care setting is an inherent urge, a feeling of need to give back to the society by serving the sick and the suffering. Other motivating factors identified were team spirit, comfort shared, warm and respectful treatment by the team, satisfying nature of work, experience of cancer in the family, and aligned values and beliefs. Some intrinsic rewards mentioned by volunteers were joy of giving, personal growth, enriching experiences, and meaningful nature of work. The study attempted to improve opportunities of working for these volunteers. Although limited in scope, it offers insight for future research in the area of volunteerism in palliative care setup.

  10. The Volunteering-in-Place (VIP) Program: Providing meaningful volunteer activity to residents in assisted living with mild cognitive impairment. (United States)

    Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara


    The Volunteering-in-Place (VIP) Program was developed to provide individualized meaningful volunteer activities matched to interests and capabilities for older adults with MCI in assisted living. The purposes of this single-site pre-test/post-test pilot study were to (1) establish feasibility of the VIP Program based on treatment fidelity (design, treatment, delivery, enactment); and (2) evaluate preliminary efficacy via improvement in psychological health (depressive symptoms, usefulness, purpose, resilience, and life satisfaction) and decreased sedentary activity (survey and Fitbit) at 3 and 6 months. Ten residents participated. The majority was white, female and educated, and on average 88 years old. The VIP Program was feasible and most participants continued to volunteer at 6 months. There were non-significant improvements in depressive symptoms, usefulness, purpose, resilience and recreational physical activity. The results of this study provide support for the feasibility of the VIP Program. Further study is necessary to examine efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Working with refugees--a manual for caseworkers and volunteers. (United States)

    Duncan, Geraldine; Shepherd, Madeleine; Symons, Jessica


    workforce encounters a multitude of issues when working with newly arrived refugees, including language barriers, client expectations and challenges in developing living skills. Workers reported that accessing refugees' information is time-consuming, and that available resources are fragmented. Refugees expressed frustration at being categorised but acknowledged the efforts of volunteers and caseworkers. Findings and feedback from the literature review, focus groups, consultations with resettlement stakeholders and interviews supported the concept of developing a basic manual and conversation-starter flashcards. The limitations of the developed manual are acknowledged, as is a need for agency specific information on common topics for volunteers, caseworkers and clients, is suggested. Volunteer and caseworker training should be expanded.

  12. 5 CFR 315.605 - Appointment of former ACTION volunteers. (United States)


    ... full-time community volunteer (including criminal justice volunteer, volunteer in justice, and VET... institution of higher learning; or (3) In another activity which, in the agency's view, warrants extension. (c...

  13. Irradiation of volunteers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.; Scrimger, J.W.


    The preliminary assessment of many radiopharmaceuticals is often carried out with the help of normal volunteers. These volunteers are drawn from the general public, are fully informed of the procedure to be performed and its attendant risks, and in many cases are compensated financially for their trouble. The cooperation of such people is of vital importance to the full understanding of the normal kinetics and metabolism of many new radiopharmaceuticals. The restrictions on the choice of normal volunteers, and the radiation dose limits which must be observed are not explicitly defined in any of the current guidelines, and in this paper we propose a rationale, based upon available information, which sets acceptable limits for volunteers, and provides a framework within which scientists and physicians can work

  14. A Zen Approach to Volunteer Management. (United States)

    Barnett, Michael L.; Cahill, Gloria


    New York University's Zen approach to community service focuses on the principles of mindfulness, awareness, compassion, and engagement in the present moment. It enables a more holistic approach to the measurement of volunteer management objectives. (SK)

  15. The hospice volunteer: a person of hospitality. (United States)

    Welk, T A


    Volunteers are integral members of the hospice interdisciplinary team. They are distinguished from other members of the team only by role, not by expectation. The distinction is not between "volunteer" and "professional," because every team member is to be professional in the best sense of that word. If a distinction is to be made, it is that some hospice staff members are salaried while others donate their services. Volunteer staff members are expected to be as responsible and accountable as every other member of the team. ALL staff members must realize the importance of taking care of personal needs in order to be able to care for others. Even though the following article deals primarily with the volunteer hospice staff member, the points outlined can just as easily be applied to the salaried staff member.

  16. Planning Educational Volunteer Forums: Steps to Success. (United States)

    Culp, Ken III


    Five steps that can help ensure the success of workshops, conferences, or forums for extension volunteers: constructing the steering/planning committee; contracting facilities; planning the program; arranging for food, meals, and catering; and developing the budget. (SK)

  17. 77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012 (United States)


    ...--National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0...-class education for every child to an economy built to last. During National Volunteer Week, we pay...

  18. Options of recognizing volunteers in non-profit organizations




    Bachelor thesis deals with the possibilities of evaluating volunteers in nonprofit organizations. Presents basic concepts related to volunteering, issues relating to the performance of volunteer work in the Czech Republic and abroad, such as the current Czech law on voluntary service, International year of volunteering, European voluntary service or monetary quantification of volunteer work. Main Chapter is a list of options, how can nonprofit organizations motivate their volunteers and evalu...

  19. Disaster relief volunteerism: Evaluating cities' planning for the usage and management of spontaneous volunteers. (United States)

    Rivera, Jason David; Wood, Zachary David


    This exploratory study sought to observe the perceptions, usage, and planned management of spontaneous volunteers in disaster planning and response within various urban environments. The authors discuss the perceptions of spontaneous volunteerism in America, specifically the challenges of using spontaneous volunteers in disaster response activities. A content analysis of the 50 largest cities in the US Office of Emergency Management Web sites and a survey instrument administered to emergency managers in these 50 cities were used to explore various questions raised throughout the discussion of the literature. The authors found significant discrepancies between what is stated in the disaster plans of cities and what emergency managers claim is covered in their plans. Of the managers surveyed, only a handful mention spontaneous volunteers in their plans at all, and even fewer cities discuss them extensively. In addition, stated perceptions of the value of spontaneous volunteers may impact both how we plan for them and the value they provide.

  20. Associations between Mental Health Problems and Challenging Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Test of the Behavioral Equivalents Hypothesis (United States)

    Painter, Jon; Hastings, Richard; Ingham, Barry; Trevithick, Liam; Roy, Ashok


    Introduction: Current research findings in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) regarding the relationship between mental health problems and challenging behavior are inconclusive and/or contradictory. The aim of this study was to further investigate the putative association between these two highly prevalent phenomena in people with ID,…

  1. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; ten Brug, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give

  2. Recruitment and Retention of Volunteers in a Citizen Science Network to Detect Invasive Species on Private Lands. (United States)

    Andow, David A; Borgida, Eugene; Hurley, Terrance M; Williams, Allison L


    Volunteer citizen monitoring is an increasingly important source of scientific data. We developed a volunteer program for early detection of new invasive species by private landowners on their own land. Early detection of an invasive species, however, subjects the landowner to the potentially costly risk of government intervention to control the invasive species. We hypothesized that an adult experiential learning module could increase recruitment and retention because private landowners could learn more about and understand the social benefits of early detection and more accurately gauge the level of personal risk. The experiential learning module emphasized group discussion and individual reflection of risks and benefits of volunteering and included interactions with experts and regulatory personnel. A population of woodland owners with >2 ha of managed oak woodland in central Minnesota were randomly assigned to recruitment treatments: (a) the experiential learning module or (b) a letter inviting their participation. The recruitment and retention rates and data quality were similar for the two methods. However, volunteers who experienced the learning module were more likely to recruit new volunteers than those who merely received an invitation letter. Thus the module may indirectly affect recruitment of new volunteers. The data collection was complex and required the volunteers to complete timely activities, yet the volunteers provided sufficiently high quality data that was useful to the organizers. Volunteers can collect complex data and are willing to assume personal risk to contribute to early detection of invasive species.

  3. Holding on to what you have got: keeping hospice palliative care volunteers volunteering. (United States)

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Jones, Richard


    In all, 119 hospice palliative care volunteers from 3 community-based hospice programs completed the Volunteer Retention Questionnaire (VRQ), a 33-item survey designed for this study. The VRQ asks volunteers to rate the importance of each item to their decision to continue volunteering. The items that received the highest mean importance ratings included enjoying the work they do, feeling adequately prepared/trained to perform their role, and learning from their patients' experiences/listening to their patients' life stories. Being recognized (eg, pins for years of service or being profiled in the hospice newsletter), receiving phone calls/cards from their volunteer coordinator on special occasions, and being reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses were among the items that received the lowest mean importance ratings. Suggestions for improving volunteer retention are provided.

  4. Healthy Volunteer 2020: Comparing Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics with Healthy People 2020 national objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Henderson


    Full Text Available Healthy People 2020 (HP2020 provides a set of quantifiable objectives for improving the health and well-being of Americans. This study examines Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics in comparison with the Leading Health Indicators (LHIs in order to set baseline measures for Volunteers' health care and align our measurements with Healthy People 2020 standards. Health data from multiple internal Peace Corps datasets were compared with relevant LHIs and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Seventeen (65% of the 26 LHIs were relevant to Peace Corps Volunteers. Of these, Volunteers' health measures met or were more favorable than the goals of 13 (76% of the LHIs. There were no data available for 4 (24% of the LHIs. The entire Volunteer population has full access to primary care, oral health, and reproductive health services. No suicides or homicides were reported among Volunteers during the analyzed time period. Utilizing the LHIs, we have identified high-priority public health issues relevant for the Peace Corps Volunteer population. We discuss the need for quality data to measure and monitor Volunteers' health progress and outcomes over time, and also to standardize our measurements with Healthy People 2020 benchmarks. This framework may foster greater collaboration to engage in health promotion and disease prevention activities driven by evidence-based information, which may, in turn, encourage healthy behavior among Volunteers.

  5. Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering (United States)

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall


    Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…

  6. 3 CFR 8363 - Proclamation 8363 of April 21, 2009. National Volunteer Week, 2009 (United States)


    ... today, will help millions of Americans of all ages to volunteer and to direct that service towards... new service opportunities for seniors, baby boomers, and young adults, and improves service learning... thousand nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-third...

  7. The Rewards and Restrictions of Recess: Reflections on Being a Playground Volunteer. (United States)

    O'Brien, Leigh M.

    Based on the experiences of a participant observer (weekly playground volunteer) over the course of one school year, this paper recounts the experiences of first through third graders during recess and discusses the importance of outdoor play for providing children an opportunity to speak and act unfettered by adult expectations, thereby promoting…

  8. A process-based approach to characterizing the effect of acute alprazolam challenge on visual paired associate learning and memory in healthy older adults. (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Scott, James Cobb; Harel, Brian T; Lim, Yen Ying; Snyder, Peter J; Maruff, Paul


    Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine that, when administered acutely, results in impairments in several aspects of cognition, including attention, learning, and memory. However, the profile (i.e., component processes) that underlie alprazolam-related decrements in visual paired associate learning has not been fully explored. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study of healthy older adults, we used a novel, "process-based" computerized measure of visual paired associate learning to examine the effect of a single, acute 1-mg dose of alprazolam on component processes of visual paired associate learning and memory. Acute alprazolam challenge was associated with a large magnitude reduction in visual paired associate learning and memory performance (d = 1.05). Process-based analyses revealed significant increases in distractor, exploratory, between-search, and within-search error types. Analyses of percentages of each error type suggested that, relative to placebo, alprazolam challenge resulted in a decrease in the percentage of exploratory errors and an increase in the percentage of distractor errors, both of which reflect memory processes. Results of this study suggest that acute alprazolam challenge decreases visual paired associate learning and memory performance by reducing the strength of the association between pattern and location, which may reflect a general breakdown in memory consolidation, with less evidence of reductions in executive processes (e.g., working memory) that facilitate visual paired associate learning and memory. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement (CARE): An evidence-informed program for children with a history of trauma and other behavioral challenges. (United States)

    Gurwitch, Robin H; Messer, Erica Pearl; Masse, Joshua; Olafson, Erna; Boat, Barbara W; Putnam, Frank W


    Child maltreatment impacts approximately two million children each year, with physical abuse and neglect the most common form of maltreatment. These children are at risk for mental and physical health concerns and the ability to form positive social relationships is also adversely affected. Child Adult Relationship Enhancement (CARE) is a set of skills designed to improve interactions of any adult and child or adolescent. Based on parent training programs, including the strong evidence-based treatment, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), CARE was initially developed to fill an important gap in mental health services for children of any age who are considered at-risk for maltreatment or other problems. CARE subsequently has been extended for use by adults who interact with children and youth outside of existing mental health therapeutic services as well as to compliment other services the child or adolescent may be receiving. Developed through discussions with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) therapists and requests for a training similar to PCIT for the non-mental health professional, CARE is not therapy, but is comprised of a set of skills that can support other services provided to families. Since 2006, over 2000 caregivers, mental health, child welfare, educators, and other professionals have received CARE training with a focus on children who are exposed to trauma and maltreatment. This article presents implementation successes and challenges of a trauma-informed training designed to help adults connect and enhance their relationships with children considered at-risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aportes y Desafíos de Estudiar el Voluntariado Desde la Mirada del Sujeto: Análisis de los Hallazgos de Marta, Pozzi y Marzana (2010 Contributions and Challenges of Studying Volunteering From a Subject's Perspective: Analysis of Marta, Pozzi and Marzana's Findings (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Cadena


    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza los resultados del estudio Voluntarios y Ex Voluntarios: Perfiles de Participación Ciudadana a Través del Voluntariado, realizado por Marta, Pozzi y Marzana (en este número, quienes proponen 4 perfiles de voluntarios: voluntarios en ejercicio, voluntarios por necesidades personales, ex voluntarios ciudadanos activos y ex voluntarios por oportunidad. La discusión se articula en base a los beneficios que tiene una aproximación multidimensional desde la perspectiva del sujeto. Para ello se analizan sus aportes a la comprensión de temáticas como el rol de las motivaciones en la participación prosocial, los mecanismos que promueven este tipo de conductas y la diferenciación entre causas y consecuencias de ella. Se discuten algunas ideas, como la importancia de la reelaboración de las motivaciones, el posible rol mediador de estas en la relación entre familia y participación voluntaria y la importancia de considerar en futuros diseños la organización temporal que los propios jóvenes dan a sus experiencias. Se mencionan, además, algunas limitaciones del estudio relacionadas con variables religiosas que pudieran explicar los resultados y con la dificultad de establecer si estos son específicos a esta forma de participación.This article analyzes the results of the study Volunteers and Ex-Volunteers: Paths to Civic Engagement Through Volunteerism, by Marta, Pozzi, and Marzana (in this issue, who propose 4 types of volunteers: volunteers in action, volunteers for personal need, active citizens ex-volunteers and ex-volunteers by chance. The discussion builds upon the benefits of a multidimensional approach from the subject's perspective. To accomplish this, its contributions to the understanding of topics, such as the role of motivation in prosocial involvement, the mechanisms that promote this type of behavior, and the differentiation between causes and consequences of it, are analyzed. Some ideas are

  11. Voice identity discrimination and hallucination-proneness in healthy young adults: a further challenge to the continuum model of psychosis? (United States)

    Chhabra, Saruchi; Badcock, Johanna C; Maybery, Murray T; Leung, Doris


    Auditory hallucinations occur in schizophrenia and also in the general population. However, evidence points to differences in the nature and the mechanisms of clinical and non-clinical hallucinations, challenging the dominant assumption that they represent the same phenomenon. The current study extended this evidence by examining voice identity perception in hallucination-prone individuals. In schizophrenia, deficiencies discriminating between real (external) voices have been linked to basic acoustic cues, but voice discrimination has not yet been investigated in non-clinical hallucinations. Using a task identical to that employed in patients, multidimensional scaling of voice dissimilarity judgements was used to examine how healthy individuals differing in hallucination-proneness (30 high and 30 low hallucination-prone individuals) distinguish pairs of unfamiliar voices. The resulting dimensions were interpreted with reference to acoustic measures relevant to voice identity. A two-dimensional "voice space", defined by fundamental frequency (F0) and formant dispersion (Df), was derived for high and low hallucination-prone groups. There were no significant differences in speaker discrimination for high versus low hallucination-prone individuals on the basis of either F0 or Df. These findings suggest voice identity perception is not impaired in healthy individuals predisposed to hallucinations, adding a further challenge to the continuum model of psychotic symptoms.

  12. Characteristics of the Essence of Volunteering in Psychology (United States)

    Shagurova, Angelina Alexandrovna; Ivanovna, Efremova Galina; Aleksandrovna, Bochkovskaya Irina; Denisenko, Sergey Ivanovich; Valerievich, Tarasov Mihail; Viktorovna, Nekrasova Marina; Potutkova, Svetlana Anatolievna


    The article discusses the basic ideas of volunteering; it analyzes the data of psychological studies on social activity and it highlights the importance of studying the motivational part of volunteering. The conclusion on structure and content of volunteering is made. Key focus is on the fact that volunteering is of particular importance in the…

  13. Motivation, Personality and Well-Being in Older Volunteers (United States)

    Pushkar, Dolores; Reis, Myrna; Morros, Melinda


    This study examined the effects of personality traits and motivation to volunteer on well-being as 107 older participants went through an intervention to increase volunteering. Three groups of volunteers, current, new, and former volunteers, participated. Participants were assessed four times on standardized measures of personality, health,…

  14. An Analysis of volunteer motivation in HIV/AIDS community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many have had difficulty attracting and retaining volunteers because of failure to understand volunteer motivation. The study explores volunteerism and emphasizes that volunteers derive personal satisfactions from voluntary activities other than monetary compensation. Volunteers “expect a return on their investment”.

  15. The Effect of Motivational Practices on Volunteer Motivation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?

  16. Neighbourly Acts--Volunteering, Social Capital and Democracy. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jennifer; Bittman, Michael


    Robert Putnam's view of social capital considers the decline in volunteering as a crisis for democracy. However, data on volunteering in Australia from 1974-1997 indicate that there is likely to be a significant increase in total volunteer hours. Beyond the contribution to democratic society, the values implicit in volunteering increase the…

  17. Volunteer Computing Experience with ATLAS@Home

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Bourdarios, Claire; Lan\\c con, Eric


    ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers' resources make up a sizable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one job to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.

  18. Volunteered Cloud Computing for Disaster Management (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.


    Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects

  19. Results from the national hospice volunteer training survey. (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Schneider, Greg; Oliver, Debra Parker


    Although the role of volunteers is at the heart of hospice care, little is known about hospice volunteer training and volunteer activity. A survey was used to assess current training programs for hospice volunteers. Hospices were invited to participate in the study from a link on the website for the Hospice Volunteer Association and Hospice Educators Affirming Life Project. Survey results revealed that the majority of volunteer work is in patient care, with most hospice agencies requiring a minimum 12-month volunteer commitment and an average 4-hour volunteer shift per week. Volunteer training is separate from staff training, is provided by paid agency staff, and costs approximately $14,303 per year. Communication and family support are considered important curriculum topics. Revisions to current volunteer training curriculum and format are suggested.

  20. The impact of learning disabilities on adulthood: a review of the evidenced-based literature for research and practice in adult education. (United States)

    Gerber, Paul J


    It is now well established that learning disabilities (LD) persist into the adult years, yet despite a developing literature base in this area, there is a paucity of evidence-based research to guide research and practice. Consistent with the demands of the adult stage of development, autonomy and self-determination are crucial to quality-of-life issues to adults in general, and specifically to adults with LD. There are many areas of functioning in which adults need to adapt successfully, such as employment, family, social and emotional, daily living routines, community, and recreation and leisure. In essence, there are a myriad of challenges and outcomes as adults navigate the trials and tribulations of LD as it manifests itself into adulthood. This review of the extant evidence-based literature seeks to discover relevant knowledge that can be shared with practitioners who serve adults with LD in a variety of professional and volunteer roles, particularly in adult education settings.

  1. [Reality and challenges of the oral health for older adults in Chile and the role of a new discipline: geriatric dentistry]. (United States)

    León, Soraya; Giacaman, Rodrigo A


    Chile is experiencing one of the fastest aging processes in Latin America. The implications derived from this phenomenon involve many aspects of the society, especially health care. In particular, insufficient oral health coverage in the country limits oral care provision for a population with a high prevalence and severity of oral diseases. These conditions include dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, defective prostheses, oral mucosa lesions and xerostomia, among others, and strongly affect quality of life of the elderly population. Furthermore, dental curriculum of most dental schools lack specific training of students in geriatric dentistry or gerodontology. Hence, newly graduated professionals are not competent to satisfy the needs of this growing and increasingly demanding population of older adults. Within this demanding context, Chile may find the potential to become a model and referent to deal with the challenge, incorporating innovative changes in education and public health strategies for the older population by an interdisciplinary approach.

  2. Fall Prevention Self-Assessments Via Mobile 3D Visualization Technologies: Community Dwelling Older Adults' Perceptions of Opportunities and Challenges. (United States)

    Hamm, Julian; Money, Arthur; Atwal, Anita


    In the field of occupational therapy, the assistive equipment provision process (AEPP) is a prominent preventive strategy used to promote independent living and to identify and alleviate fall risk factors via the provision of assistive equipment within the home environment. Current practice involves the use of paper-based forms that include 2D measurement guidance diagrams that aim to communicate the precise points and dimensions that must be measured in order to make AEPP assessments. There are, however, issues such as "poor fit" of equipment due to inaccurate measurements taken and recorded, resulting in more than 50% of equipment installed within the home being abandoned by patients. This paper presents a novel 3D measurement aid prototype (3D-MAP) that provides enhanced measurement and assessment guidance to patients via the use of 3D visualization technologies. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of older adults with regard to the barriers and opportunities of using the 3D-MAP application as a tool that enables patient self-delivery of the AEPP. Thirty-three community-dwelling older adults participated in interactive sessions with a bespoke 3D-MAP application utilizing the retrospective think-aloud protocol and semistructured focus group discussions. The system usability scale (SUS) questionnaire was used to evaluate the application's usability. Thematic template analysis was carried out on the SUS item discussions, think-aloud, and semistructured focus group data. The quantitative SUS results revealed that the application may be described as having "marginal-high" and "good" levels of usability, along with strong agreement with items relating to the usability (P=.004) and learnability (Passessment (SA). The application was seen as a useful tool to enhance visualization of measurement guidance and also to promote independent living, ownership of care, and potentially reduce waiting times. Several design and functionality recommendations

  3. Maternal obesity in sheep increases fatty acid synthesis, upregulates nutrient transporters, and increases adiposity in adult male offspring after a feeding challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Long

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity in women is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in adipose tissue metabolism and function in adult male offspring from obese and control fed mothers subjected to an ad libitum feeding challenge. We developed a model in which obese ewes were fed 150% of feed provided for controls from 60 days before mating to term. All ewes were fed to requirements during lactation. After weaning, F1 male offspring were fed only to maintenance requirements until adulthood (control = 7, obese = 6, when they were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with intake monitored. At the end of the feeding challenge offspring were given an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, necropsied, and adipose tissue collected. During the feeding trial F1obese males consumed more (P < 0.01, gained more weight (P < 0.01 and became heavier (P < 0.05 than F1control males. During IVGTT, Obese F1 offspring were hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.01 compared to F1 control F1. At necropsy perirenal and omental adipose depots weights were 47% and 58% greater respectively and subcutaneous fat thickness 41% greater in F1obese vs. F1control males (P < 0.05. Adipocyte diameters were greater (P ≤ 0.04 in perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose depots in F1obese males (11, 8 and 7% increase vs. control, respectively. When adipose tissue was incubated for 2 hrs with C-14 labeled acetate, subcutaneous, perirenal, and omental adipose tissue of F1 obese males exhibited greater incorporation (290, 83, and 90% increase vs. control, respectively P < 0.05 of acetate into lipids. Expression of fatty acid transporting, binding, and syntheses mRNA and protein was increased (P < 0.05 compared to F1 control offspring. Maternal obesity increased appetite and adiposity associated with increased adipocyte diameters and increased fatty acid synthesis in over-nourished adult male offspring.

  4. The Computational and Storage Potential of Volunteer Computing


    Anderson, David P.; Fedak, Gilles


    "Volunteer computing" uses Internet-connected computers, volunteered by their owners, as a source of computing power and storage. This paper studies the potential capacity of volunteer computing. We analyzed measurements of over 330,000 hosts participating in a volunteer computing project. These measurements include processing power, memory, disk space, network throughput, host availability, user-specified limits on resource usage, and host churn. We show that volunteer computing can support ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Andam


    Full Text Available Understanding personality characteristics of volunteers are important for their recruitment and retention in sport associations. This study compared self-concept as a personality characteristic between volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations. The method of this research was survey and descriptive. The statistical population consisted of volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations of Iran universities. Two hundred and fifty two students (120 volunteers and 132 non-volunteers from 10 universities were selected as subjects by using random clustered sampling method. Pyryt and Mandaglio Self Perceived Survey (PMSPS was used to collect the data. The content and face reliability of questionnaire was checked and confirmed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire (alfa=0.90. Independent t test and U Mann-Whitney test were used for comparison of the factors between volunteers and non-volunteers. Findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference between volunteer and non-volunteer students in social and athletic self-concept. The mean of scientific and value factors were higher in volunteers than non-volunteers, however, they were not statistically significant. We concluded that the nature of sport (active and sport volunteering (social encourage students who have higher self-concept for volunteering. Moreover, the characteristics of sport associations can increase self-concept in sport volunteers.

  6. Endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Malik, M.O.; Khan, M.J.; Fatima, S.; Habib, S.H.


    Angiogenesis is involved in many cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, including atherosclerosis and is controlled by a fine balance between angiogenic and angiostatic mediators. Endostatin is one of the main angiostatic mediators, and inhibits angiogenesis and prevents progression of atherosclerosis. The available literature shows a broad range of concentrations in relatively small samples of healthy controls and is calculated by using different techniques. This study was aimed to determine the basal endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy volunteers, to fully understand its physiological role. Methods: Fifty healthy adult volunteers were recruited to the study. Participants were advised not to participate in any physical activity on the day before the blood sampling. The volunteers' physical activity, height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. The samples were analysed for plasma endostatin concentration, using ELISA. The participants were divided by gender and ethnic groups to calculate any difference. Results: Endostatin and other variables were normally distributed. Most of the participants had a moderate level of physical activity with no gender related difference (p=0.370). The mean value for plasma endostatin in all samples was 105+-12 ng/ml with range of 81-132 ng/ml. For males, it was 107+-13 ng/ml, while for females; 102+-12 ng/ml. There were no significant gender or ethnicity related differences in endostatin concentration. Moreover, endostatin was not significantly related with any anthropometric and physical variable. Conclusion: This study gives endostatin levels in normal healthy people and show no gender and ethnicity related differences in endostatin levels. Endostatin was not related with any anthropometric and physical variable. (author)

  7. The Role of the Adult with Disabilities’ Family in the Labor Inclusion Processes: A Challenge for Special Education in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Magaly Madrigal-Lizano


    Full Text Available The following essay presents the author’s thoughts regarding positive and negative family impacts of the process of including the adult with disabilities. It also discusses the significance and challenges faced by those teachers and schools in charge of special education based on the responsibility of establishing the most mechanisms possible to provide, along with their families, a free environment when it comes to decision making for the population with disabilities in regards to their job future and the special skills needed to provide a free independent lifestyle.  The essay focuses on a social model in an inclusive paradigm based on a human rights perspective. In accordance with Vargas (2012, it suggests a social model that highlights social barriers and their environment with a holistic view, which does not exclude individual intervention but emphasizes the inclusion of this population in a world which has been designed by and for people that do not experience any disability.  When shifting from the medical model to the social one, responsibility is also transferred to the social and political aspects, hence making the family a relevant pillar to be considered in different training and information environments in support of the adult with disabilities who needs and deserves the opportunity of having a job as a way to be autonomous and independent.

  8. A Survey of Hospice Volunteer Coordinators: Training Methods and Objectives of Current Hospice Volunteer Training Programs. (United States)

    Brock, Cara M; Herndon, Christopher M


    Currently more than 5800 hospice organizations operate in the United States. 1 Hospice organizations are required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to use volunteers for services provided to patients. 2 Although CMS regulates the amount of hours hospice volunteers should provide, there are currently no national requirements for objectives of training. 3 The purpose of this study was to gather information from a sample of hospices regarding volunteer coordinator background, current training for volunteers, importance of training objectives, and any comments regarding additional objectives. Representative state hospice organizations were contacted by e-mail requesting their participation and distribution of the survey throughout their member hospices. The survey asked demographical questions, along with ratings of training components based on perceived level of importance and time spent on each objective. A total of 90 surveys were received, and the response rate was undeterminable. Results showed the majority of hospices were nonprofit, had less than 100 currently trained volunteers, and maintained an average daily patient census of less than 50. Questions regarding training programs indicated that most use live lecture methods of approximately 19 hours or less in duration. Overall, responding hospice organizations agreed that all objectives surveyed were important in training volunteers. The small number of respondents to this survey makes generalization nationwide difficult, however it is a strong starting point for the development of further surveys on hospice volunteer training and achieving a standardized set of training objectives and delivery methods.

  9. Safety of ingestion of yellow tartrazine by double-blind placebo controlled challenge in 26 atopic adults. (United States)

    Pestana, S; Moreira, M; Olej, B


    Yellow dye tartrazine is a potential cause of exacerbations of asthma, allergic rhinitis and urticaria in atopic patients. The Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) published a consultation about the possibility of issuing a label warning addressing these potential effects of food and drugs containing tartrazine. The present study aims to evaluate tartrazine dye safety in atopic subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis, asthma, urticaria or sensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Atopic patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, urticaria or pseudo-allergic reactions to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were studied (n=26). The gold standard, double-blind placebo controlled, crossed-over challenge was used There were no statistical differences between placebo and drug in cutaneous, respiratory or cardiovascular aspects. In a group of atopic subjects with allergic rhinitis, asthma, urticaria or pseudo-allergic reactions to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the administration of 35 mg of the tartrazine dye did not precipitate any kind of significant cutaneous, respiratory or cardiovascular reactions when compared to placebo. 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Beliefs about Volunteerism, Volunteering Intention, Volunteering Behavior, and Purpose in Life among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong


    Ben M. F. Law; Daniel T. L. Shek


    The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunt...

  11. BOINC service for volunteer cloud computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høimyr, N; Blomer, J; Buncic, P; Giovannozzi, M; Gonzalez, A; Harutyunyan, A; Jones, P L; Karneyeu, A; Marquina, M A; Mcintosh, E; Segal, B; Skands, P; Grey, F; Lombraña González, D; Zacharov, I


    Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name “LHC at home 2.0” and the BOINC project: “Test4Theory”. At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC at home, and has been running the “Sixtrack” beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup into a generic BOINC application service that will allow scientists and engineers at CERN to profit from volunteer computing. This paper describes the experience with the two different approaches to volunteer computing as well as the status and outlook of a general BOINC service.

  12. The Benefits of Volunteering for Psychology Students (United States)

    Bromnick, Rachel; Horowitz, Ava; Shepherd, Daniel


    Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of…

  13. Dynamics of Volunteering in Older Europeans (United States)

    Hank, Karsten; Erlinghagen, Marcel


    Purpose: To investigate the dynamics of volunteering in the population aged 50 years or older across 11 Continental European countries. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data from the first 2 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, we run multivariate regressions on a set of binary-dependent variables indicating…

  14. International Volunteering: Employability, Leadership and More (United States)

    Rothwell, Andrew; Charleston, Brandon


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of individuals in transition between education and work during international volunteering expeditions. While it was expected that outcomes might include employability enhancement and skill development, the authors aimed to clarify what the main factors were, examine employability…

  15. The Invention and Institutionalization of Volunteer Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Håkon; Henriksen, Lars Skov


    the Norwegian centers lacked a national coordinating unit. Third, an independent legal form in which local associations are members may have helped Danish centers bring about a sense of local ownership. In Norway, volunteer centers had weak ties to other local voluntary associations and were at times perceived...

  16. Using Volunteer Families in Teaching Family Sociology (United States)

    Gunter, B. G.


    Describes a method for teaching family sociology to students by utilizing volunteer families. Benefits of the approach were that students became involved in subject matter of a course on a semi-empirical level, and they became aware of all dimensions of family life. (EK)

  17. BOINC service for volunteer cloud computing (United States)

    Høimyr, N.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Giovannozzi, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Harutyunyan, A.; Jones, P. L.; Karneyeu, A.; Marquina, M. A.; Mcintosh, E.; Segal, B.; Skands, P.; Grey, F.; Lombraña González, D.; Zacharov, I.


    Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name “LHC@home 2.0” and the BOINC project: “Test4Theory”. At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC@home, and has been running the “Sixtrack” beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup into a generic BOINC application service that will allow scientists and engineers at CERN to profit from volunteer computing. This paper describes the experience with the two different approaches to volunteer computing as well as the status and outlook of a general BOINC service.

  18. Volunteers in Wikipedia: Why the Community Matters (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Pfaffman, Jay


    Wikipedia is a reliable encyclopedia with over seven million articles in several languages all contributed and maintained by volunteers. To learn more about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to building and maintaining this remarkable resource, surveys with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations were…

  19. Personalized genomic disease risk of volunteers. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; McGuire, Amy L; Pereira, Stacey; Caskey, C Thomas


    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used for researching the causes of genetic disorders. However, its usefulness in clinical practice for medical diagnosis is in early development. In this report, we demonstrate the value of NGS for genetic risk assessment and evaluate the limitations and barriers for the adoption of this technology into medical practice. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 81 volunteers, and for each volunteer, we requested personal medical histories, constructed a three-generation pedigree, and required their participation in a comprehensive educational program. We limited our clinical reporting to disease risks based on only rare damaging mutations and known pathogenic variations in genes previously reported to be associated with human disorders. We identified 271 recessive risk alleles (214 genes), 126 dominant risk alleles (101 genes), and 3 X-recessive risk alleles (3 genes). We linked personal disease histories with causative disease genes in 18 volunteers. Furthermore, by incorporating family histories into our genetic analyses, we identified an additional five heritable diseases. Traditional genetic counseling and disease education were provided in verbal and written reports to all volunteers. Our report demonstrates that when genome results are carefully interpreted and integrated with an individual's medical records and pedigree data, NGS is a valuable diagnostic tool for genetic disease risk.

  20. Effectiveness of trained community volunteers in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 18, 2015 ... Introduction: Malaria accounts for 70% of illnesses and 30% of deaths among children under 5 years in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of trained community volunteers in delivering multiple anti‑malaria interventions to achieve rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality among ...

  1. Effectiveness of trained community volunteers in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both groups were compared at baseline and after 6 months of the experiment on their knowledge of malaria prevention and treatment. Level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: In the ... attainment of millennium development goals 4. Key words: Community volunteers, malaria, Nigeria, task shifting, under ‑ 5 children ...

  2. What constitutes successful commissioning of transition from children's to adults' services for young people with long-term conditions and what are the challenges? An interview study. (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Niina; McCafferty, Sara; Maniatopoulos, Gregory; Vale, Luke; Le-Couteur, Ann S; Colver, Allan


    We explored what constitutes successful commissioning for transition and what challenges are associated with this. We aimed: (1) to identify explicit and implicit organisational structures, processes and relationships that drive commissioning around transition; (2) to identify challenges faced by commissioners; and (3) to develop a conceptual model. A qualitative interview study. Commissioning and provider organisations across primary and secondary care and third sector in England, UK. Representatives (n=14) from clinical commissioning groups, health and well-being boards and local authorities that commission national health services (NHS) for transition from children's to adults' services in England; NHS directors, general practitioners and senior clinicians (n=9); and frontline NHS and third sector providers (n=6). Both commissioners and providers thought successful transition is personalised, coordinated and collaborative with a focus on broad life outcomes and actualised through building pathways and universal services. A multitude of challenges were described, including inconsistent national guidance, fragmented resources, incompatible local processes, lack of clear outcomes and professional roles and relationships. No single specific process of commissioning for transition emerged-instead complex, multi-layered, interactive processes were described. The findings indicate a need to consider more explicitly the impact of national policies and funding streams on commissioning for transition. Commissioners need to require care pathways that enable integrated provision for this population and seek ways to ensure that generalist community providers engage with children with long-term conditions from early on. Future research is needed to identify a core set of specific, meaningful transition outcomes that can be commissioned, measured and monitored.

  3. A dietary cholesterol challenge study to assess Chlorella supplementation in maintaining healthy lipid levels in adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Kim, Sangmi; Kim, Joohee; Lim, Yeni; Kim, You Jin; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran


    Previous animal studies suggested that Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, has a preventive role in maintaining serum cholesterol levels against excess dietary cholesterol intake. This study aimed to conduct a pioneering investigation to clarify this issue in healthy subjects by adopting a dietary cholesterol challenge, which has not been used previously in similar studies of Chlorella in hypercholesterolemia. In this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 34 participants ingested 510 mg of dietary cholesterol from three eggs concomitantly with a usual dose of Chlorella (5 g/d) or a matched placebo for 4 weeks. The dietary cholesterol challenge induced consistently higher concentrations of serum total cholesterol (TC, P Chlorella in maintaining serum TC versus placebo levels (3.5 % versus 9.8 %, respectively; P = 0.037) and LDL-C versus placebo levels (1.7 % versus 14.3 %, respectively; P = 0.012) against excessive dietary cholesterol intake and in augmenting HDL-C versus placebo levels (8.3 % versus 3.8 %, respectively). Furthermore, serum α-carotene showed the best separation between the placebo and Chlorella groups (R(2)X and R(2)Y > 0.5; Q(2) > 0.4). The results suggest that a fully replicated dietary cholesterol challenge may be useful in assessing the effectiveness of dietary supplements in maintaining the serum lipid profiles of adults whose habitual diets are high in cholesterol. WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ( KCT0000258 ).

  4. Recruitment of hypothalamic orexin neurons after formalin injections in adult male rats exposed to a neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jane Campbell


    Full Text Available Exposure to early life physiological stressors, such as infection, is thought to contribute to the onset of psychopathology in adulthood. In animal models, injections of the bacterial immune challenge, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, during the neonatal period has been shown to alter both neuroendocrine function and behavioural pain responses in adulthood. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests a role for the lateral hypothalamic peptide orexin in stress and nociceptive processing. However, whether neonatal LPS exposure affects the reactivity of the orexin system to formalin-induced inflammatory pain in later life remains to be determined. Male Wistar rats (n=13 were exposed to either LPS or saline (0.05mg/kg, i.p on postnatal days (PND 3 and 5. On PND 80-97, all rats were exposed to a subcutaneous hindpaw injection of 2.25% formalin. Following behavioural testing, animals were perfused and brains processed for Fos-protein and orexin immunohistochemistry. Rats treated with LPS during the neonatal period exhibited decreased licking behaviours during the interphase of the formalin test, the period typically associated with the active inhibition of pain, and increased grooming responses to formalin in adulthood. Interestingly, these behavioural changes were accompanied by an increase in the percentage of Fos-positive orexin cells in the dorsomedial and perifornical hypothalamus in LPS-exposed animals. Similar increases in Fos-protein were also observed in stress and pain sensitive brain regions that receive orexinergic inputs. These findings highlight a potential role for orexin in the behavioural responses to pain and provide further evidence that early life stress can prime the circuitry responsible for these responses in adulthood.

  5. Targeted outreach hepatitis B vaccination program in high-risk adults: The fundamental challenge of the last mile. (United States)

    Mangen, M-J J; Stibbe, H; Urbanus, A; Siedenburg, E C; Waldhober, Q; de Wit, G A; van Steenbergen, J E


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the on-going decentralised targeted hepatitis B vaccination program for behavioural high-risk groups operated by regional public health services in the Netherlands since 1-November-2002. Target groups for free vaccination are men having sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSW) and hard drug users (HDU). Heterosexuals with a high partner change rate (HRP) were included until 1-November-2007. Based on participant, vaccination and serology data collected up to 31-December-2012, the number of participants and program costs were estimated. Observed anti-HBc prevalence was used to estimate the probability of susceptible individuals per risk-group to become infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in their remaining life. We distinguished two time-periods: 2002-2006 and 2007-2012, representing different recruitment strategies and target groups. Correcting for observed vaccination compliance, the number of future HBV-infections avoided was estimated per risk-group. By combining these numbers with estimates of life-years lost, quality-of-life losses and healthcare costs of HBV-infections - as obtained from a Markov model-, the benefit of the program was estimated for each risk-group separately. The overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the program was €30,400/QALY gained, with effects and costs discounted at 1.5% and 4%, respectively. The program was more cost-effective in the first period (€24,200/QALY) than in the second period (€42,400/QALY). In particular, the cost-effectiveness for MSM decreased from €20,700/QALY to €47,700/QALY. This decentralised targeted HBV-vaccination program is a cost-effective intervention in certain unvaccinated high-risk adults. Saturation within the risk-groups, participation of individuals with less risky behaviour, and increased recruitment investments in the second period made the program less cost-effective over time. The project should therefore

  6. Training and supporting hospice volunteers: a regional survey. (United States)

    Lavenburg, Philip; Bernt, Frank M


    We surveyed volunteers from 8 hospices in the Delaware Valley regarding training, perceived needs, and role satisfaction. Results were consistent with previous studies: satisfaction with preservice training and with volunteering was very high; respondents reported feeling very prepared and confident about doing hospice work as a result of their volunteer training. In addition, longer volunteer preservice training was associated with higher levels of overall satisfaction with training; levels of volunteer satisfaction and fulfillment tended to be lower during the first year of volunteering; and participation in volunteer support teams was associated with finding volunteer work rewarding and with feeling a part of the hospice team. Implications for preservice training and ongoing support and education of hospice volunteers are discussed.

  7. Assessing the readiness of hospice volunteers to utilize technology. (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Shaunfield, Sara; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Schneider, Greg


    Although hospice volunteer programs contribute to patient care, little is known about their utilization and adaptation of technology. A survey was posted to the Hospice Volunteer Association Web site to assess technology use among volunteer coordinators and volunteers. Results revealed that participants have access to computers, Internet, and e-mail at the hospice agency and routinely use cellular phones and e-mail. Despite the use of technology, communication problems with volunteers hindered the coordinator's ability to manage scheduling, training, and volunteer assignments for patient care. Coordinators and volunteers felt comfortable utilizing technology but were less comfortable using technology in the patients' home. Several areas are identified for development and integration of advanced technology in volunteer programs. Future research is needed to ease technology implementation and increase volunteer acceptance.

  8. Exploring the experiences of older Chinese adults with comorbidities including diabetes: surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life (United States)

    Ho, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Hui


    Background Many people with diabetes have comorbidities, even multimorbidities, which have a far-reaching impact on the older adults, their family, and society. However, little is known of the experience of older adults living with comorbidities that include diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes. Methods A qualitative approach was employed. Data were collected from a selected field of 12 patients with diabetes mellitus in a medical center in northern Taiwan. The data were analyzed by Colaizzi’s phenomenological methodology, and four criteria of Lincoln and Guba were used to evaluate the rigor of the study. Results The following 5 themes and 14 subthemes were derived: 1) expecting to heal or reduce the symptoms of the disease (trying to alleviate the distress of symptoms and trusting in health practitioners combining the use of Chinese and Western medicines); 2) comparing complex medical treatments (differences in physician practices and presentation, conditionally adhering to medical treatment, and partnering with medical professionals); 3) inconsistent information (inconsistent health information and inconsistent medical advice); 4) impacting on daily life (activities are limited and hobbies cannot be maintained and psychological distress); and 5) weighing the pros and cons (taking the initiative to deal with issues, limiting activity, adjusting mental outlook and pace of life, developing strategies for individual health regimens, and seeking support). Surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life was explored. Conclusion This study found that the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes was similar to that of a single disease, but the extent was greater than a single disease. The biggest difference is that the elderly think that their most serious problem is not diabetes, but rather, the comorbidities causing life limitations

  9. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.

  10. Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs. (United States)

    Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried


    This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect.

  11. Build Trust Index for Volunteered Geographic Information: A Case Study of Safecast (United States)

    Xin, Y.; Cervone, G.


    Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), defined as geographic information contributed voluntarily by amateurs, have grown exponentially nowadays with the aid of ubiquitous GPS-enabled telecommunication technologies. VGI projects, like Wikimapia, OpenStreetMap, Flickr and Safecast have shown remarkable success on leveraging citizen science to increase our knowledge about the geographic world. However, in spite of its growing popularity, VGI is still facing the most challenging problem of ensuring data quality. In this study, we proposed a methodology to filter outliers in Safecast measurements through cross-reference among volunteers. Based on the outliers filtered, a trust index is generated for each volunteer. The results are validated using official radiation measurements surveyed by Department of Energy. The validation shows that removing the outliers filtered by our methodology, Safecast measurements yield a better correlation with official measurements.

  12. LHC@Home: a BOINC-based volunteer computing infrastructure for physics studies at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barranco Javier


    Full Text Available The LHC@Home BOINC project has provided computing capacity for numerical simulations to researchers at CERN since 2004, and has since 2011 been expanded with a wider range of applications. The traditional CERN accelerator physics simulation code SixTrack enjoys continuing volunteers support, and thanks to virtualisation a number of applications from the LHC experiment collaborations and particle theory groups have joined the consolidated LHC@Home BOINC project. This paper addresses the challenges related to traditional and virtualized applications in the BOINC environment, and how volunteer computing has been integrated into the overall computing strategy of the laboratory through the consolidated LHC@Home service. Thanks to the computing power provided by volunteers joining LHC@Home, numerous accelerator beam physics studies have been carried out, yielding an improved understanding of charged particle dynamics in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC and its future upgrades. The main results are highlighted in this paper.

  13. submitter LHC@Home: a BOINC-based volunteer computing infrastructure for physics studies at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, Javier; Cameron, David; Crouch, Matthew; De Maria, Riccardo; Field, Laurence; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal; Høimyr, Nils; Kaltchev, Dobrin; Karastathis, Nikos; Luzzi, Cinzia; Maclean, Ewen; McIntosh, Eric; Mereghetti, Alessio; Molson, James; Nosochkov, Yuri; Pieloni, Tatiana; Reid, Ivan D; Rivkin, Lenny; Segal, Ben; Sjobak, Kyrre; Skands, Peter; Tambasco, Claudia; Van der Veken, Frederik; Zacharov, Igor


    The LHC@Home BOINC project has provided computing capacity for numerical simulations to researchers at CERN since 2004, and has since 2011 been expanded with a wider range of applications. The traditional CERN accelerator physics simulation code SixTrack enjoys continuing volunteers support, and thanks to virtualisation a number of applications from the LHC experiment collaborations and particle theory groups have joined the consolidated LHC@Home BOINC project. This paper addresses the challenges related to traditional and virtualized applications in the BOINC environment, and how volunteer computing has been integrated into the overall computing strategy of the laboratory through the consolidated LHC@Home service. Thanks to the computing power provided by volunteers joining LHC@Home, numerous accelerator beam physics studies have been carried out, yielding an improved understanding of charged particle dynamics in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its future upgrades. The main results are highlighted i...

  14. LHC@Home: a BOINC-based volunteer computing infrastructure for physics studies at CERN (United States)

    Barranco, Javier; Cai, Yunhai; Cameron, David; Crouch, Matthew; Maria, Riccardo De; Field, Laurence; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal; Høimyr, Nils; Kaltchev, Dobrin; Karastathis, Nikos; Luzzi, Cinzia; Maclean, Ewen; McIntosh, Eric; Mereghetti, Alessio; Molson, James; Nosochkov, Yuri; Pieloni, Tatiana; Reid, Ivan D.; Rivkin, Lenny; Segal, Ben; Sjobak, Kyrre; Skands, Peter; Tambasco, Claudia; Veken, Frederik Van der; Zacharov, Igor


    The LHC@Home BOINC project has provided computing capacity for numerical simulations to researchers at CERN since 2004, and has since 2011 been expanded with a wider range of applications. The traditional CERN accelerator physics simulation code SixTrack enjoys continuing volunteers support, and thanks to virtualisation a number of applications from the LHC experiment collaborations and particle theory groups have joined the consolidated LHC@Home BOINC project. This paper addresses the challenges related to traditional and virtualized applications in the BOINC environment, and how volunteer computing has been integrated into the overall computing strategy of the laboratory through the consolidated LHC@Home service. Thanks to the computing power provided by volunteers joining LHC@Home, numerous accelerator beam physics studies have been carried out, yielding an improved understanding of charged particle dynamics in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its future upgrades. The main results are highlighted in this paper.

  15. Volunteers in the Danish Home Guard 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridberg, Torben; Larsen, Mona

    This report maps the composition of a group of volunteer members of the Home Guard, as well as their opinions and expectations of the Home Guard and their own voluntary efforts. The report is a follow-up to two previous surveys completed in 2007 and 2011 and it therefore also highlights changes...... from 2007 to 2011 and 2016. Based on a questionnaire survey, the report paints a picture of who the volunteers are, what motivates them and how they perceive their surrounding environment’s view of them as members of the Home Guard. The report also focuses on the volunteers’ view of the Home Guard......’s tasks and activities both in Denmark and abroad. Finally, the report describes the volunteers’ perception of the Home Guards’ communication and campaigns. The report was commissioned and financed by the Danish Home Guard Command....

  16. Volunteer computing experience with ATLAS@Home

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00068610; The ATLAS collaboration; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Cameron, David; Filipčič, Andrej; Lançon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing


    ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers’ resources make up a sizeable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one task to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.

  17. Volunteer Computing Experience with ATLAS@Home (United States)

    Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Bianchi, R.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.; Isacchini, G.; Lançon, E.; Wu, W.; ATLAS Collaboration


    ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers’ resources make up a sizeable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one task to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.

  18. Molecular helpers wanted... Call for volunteers!

    CERN Multimedia


    The Task Force in charge of the organization of the LHC Inauguration is looking for 40 volunteers to support the team of molecular cooks directed by international chef Ettore Bocchia. The "molecular" volunteers will help in the preparation of liquid nitrogen ice-cream. Your help is requested from 12h to 18h on October 21st. Your participation in a general rehearsal on October 20th is also required - (the time of the rehearsal will be communicated at a later moment). Dress code: black pants and shoes, long sleeved white shirt. Do not miss this opportunity to take part in an extraordinary event! For further information and to enrol, contact:

  19. Monitoring and Evaluation of Volunteer Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taplin, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne; Scherrer, Pascal


    The rapid expansion and commercialisation of the volunteer tourism sector and the potential for negative impacts on host communities have put the sector under increasing scrutiny. Monitoring and evaluation are key aspects of sustainable tourism planning and management, and play important roles...... in the project planning and implementation cycles of volunteer tourism organisations and destination managements. However, they can be both value-laden and politically charged, making an understanding of context, purpose and various approaches to monitoring and evaluation important. Drawing from evaluation...... and critical management studies, this conceptual paper reviews the literature, presenting an analytical framework aimed at improving the quality of monitoring and evaluation. The paper is positioned within the adaptancy platform and focuses on qualitative, critical approaches to evaluation. The framework...

  20. Interdependence between the Social and Material Convoy: Links between Volunteering, Widowhood, and Housing Transitions (United States)

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Perry, Tam


    Relocation in older adulthood may occur due to triggering events, such as widowhood. Guided by Kahn and Antonucci’s convoy model, this study explores the influence of volunteering on decision to relocate following the death of a spouse. Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (2006, 2008, and 2010), 5,146 community-dwelling married older individuals who were 65 years or older in 2008 were included. Findings from two multinomial logistic regression models showed that widows and widowers who were not volunteering in 2008 were more likely to move out of area in 2010 than their married counterparts, whereas the relationship between widowhood and relocation was not detected among those involved in volunteering. This article emphasizes the interdependency of social relationships and residences, a fundamental of one’s material convoy, for older adults. Volunteering experiences may not only affect instrumental and emotional support after the loss of a key anchor in one’s social convoy, but may also facilitate a widowed older adult to age in place rather than relocate. PMID:27257361

  1. Virtual Mentoring for Volunteer Leadership Development


    Guloy, Sheryl


    Calls to investigate leadership development in the nonprofit and voluntary sector have been put forth as concerns about leadership succession have increased. To respond to this call to investigate this under-researched area, this design-based, multiple case study provides rich, thick descriptions of the development of the mentoring relationships, between mentor and mentee pairs, over the course of a virtual mentoring program for volunteer leadership development, in a Catholic nonprofit. I exp...

  2. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource (United States)


    looking for marijuana growing sites).59 These DHS and LE support missions account for 37 percent of CAP’s flying-hour budget. CAP uses the other 63...Achieving the CHP recurrent training and meeting the legal requirements of the FAA biennial flight review keeps CHP’s air division in line with PSAAC...MCAS’s volunteer pilots safely operate within the legal constraints imposed by Monterey County. In addition, the MCAS

  3. Volunteer Educators' Influence on Youth Participation and Learning in 4-H STEM Learning by Design Programs (United States)

    Worker, Steven Michael

    The purpose of this study was to describe the co-construction of three 4-H STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning by design programs by volunteer educators and youth participants in the 4-H Youth Development Program. The programs advanced STEM learning through design, a pedagogical approach to support youth in planning, designing, and making shareable artifacts. This pedagogical approach is a special case of project-based learning, related to the practices found in the science learning through design literature as well as the making and tinkering movements. Specifically, I explored adult volunteer educators' roles and pedagogical strategies implementing the 4-H Junk Drawer Robotics curriculum (Mahacek, Worker, and Mahacek, 2011) and how that, in turn, afforded and constrained opportunities for youth to display or report engagement in design practices; learning of STEM content; strengthening tool competencies; dispositions of resilience, reciprocity, and playfulness; and psychological ownership. The curriculum targeted middle school youth with a sequence of science inquiry activities and engineering design challenges. This study employed naturalist and multiple-case study methodology relying on participant observations and video, interviews with educators, and focus groups with youth within three 4-H educational robotics programs organized by adult 4-H volunteer educators. Data collection took place in 2014 and 2015 at Santa Clara with an educator and seven youth; Solano with three educators and eight youth; and Alameda with an educator and seven youth. Data analysis revealed six discrete categories of pedagogy and interactions that I labeled as participation structures that included lecture, demonstration, learning activity, group sharing, scripted build, and design & build. These participation structures were related to the observed pedagogical practices employed by the educators. There was evidence of youth engagement in design

  4. Defecographic findings of young asymptomatic volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Wook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; Ji, Hoon


    Defacography is a technique of examining the rectum and anal canal by using fluoroscopy during detection. This study was done to determine the range of normal findings of defecography in young asymptomatic Korean volunteers. Twenty nine asymptomatic young volunteers underwent defecography. Anorectal angle, perineal descent, length and width of anal, rectocele, rectal intussusception and incontinence were evaluated. The range of anorectal angle was 82 .deg- 149 .deg in resting state, compared to the 63 .deg-116 .deg in squeezing state, and 95 .deg- 116 .deg in straining state respectively. The pelvic floor in straining state descended on average of 1.62 cm from the inferior margin of ischial tuberosity that its broad range of position from-5.2 cm to 0.8 cm implies a wide variation of anorectal angle and perineal descent. Mild degree of rectocele with less than 2 cm of depth was found in 12 out of 29 cases. Rectal intussusception was noted in six and rectal incontinence was seen in one case. Formation of rectocele and intussusception during defecation was common in asymptomatic young volunteers. The wide range of defacographic measurements warrants the necessity of other complementary studies on anorectal function to improve the diagnostic accuracy. The interpretation of defecographic measurement should therefore be made with caution and should not be used as the sole criteria for selection of treatment modality

  5. Wireless Capsule Enteroscopy in Healthy Volunteers. (United States)

    Tachecí, Ilja; Bradna, Petr; Douda, Tomáš; Baštecká, Drahomíra; Kopáčová, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Lutonský, Martin; Soukup, Tomáš; Bureš, Jan

    The aim of our prospective study was to define endoscopy appearance of the small bowel in healthy volunteers. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent wireless capsule endoscopy, clinical investigation, laboratory tests, and completed a health-status questionnaire. All subjects were available for a 36-month clinical follow-up. Eleven subjects (26%) had fully normal endoscopy findings. Remaining 31 persons (74%), being asymptomatic, with normal laboratory results, had some minor findings at wireless capsule endoscopy. Most of those heterogeneous findings were detected in the small intestine (27/31; 87%), like erosions and/or multiple red spots, diminutive polyps and tiny vascular lesions. During a 36-month clinical follow-up, all these 42 healthy volunteers remained asymptomatic, with fully normal laboratory control. Significant part of healthy subjects had abnormal findings at wireless capsule endoscopy. These findings had no clinical relevance, as all these persons remained fully asymptomatic during a 36-month follow-up. Such an endoscopic appearance would be previously evaluated as "pathological". This is a principal report alerting that all findings of any control group of wireless capsule endoscopic studies must be evaluated with caution.

  6. Wireless Capsule Enteroscopy in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Tachecí


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of our prospective study was to define endoscopy appearance of the small bowel in healthy volunteers. Method: Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent wireless capsule endoscopy, clinical investigation, laboratory tests, and completed a health-status questionnaire. All subjects were available for a 36-month clinical follow-up. Results: Eleven subjects (26% had fully normal endoscopy findings. Remaining 31 persons (74%, being asymptomatic, with normal laboratory results, had some minor findings at wireless capsule endoscopy. Most of those heterogeneous findings were detected in the small intestine (27/31; 87%, like erosions and/or multiple red spots, diminutive polyps and tiny vascular lesions. During a 36-month clinical follow-up, all these 42 healthy volunteers remained asymptomatic, with fully normal laboratory control. Conclusions: Significant part of healthy subjects had abnormal findings at wireless capsule endoscopy. These findings had no clinical relevance, as all these persons remained fully asymptomatic during a 36-month follow-up. Such an endoscopic appearance would be previously evaluated as “pathological”. This is a principal report alerting that all findings of any control group of wireless capsule endoscopic studies must be evaluated with caution.

  7. ATLAS@Home looks for CERN volunteers

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino


    ATLAS@Home is a CERN volunteer computing project that runs simulated ATLAS events. As the project ramps up, the project team is looking for CERN volunteers to test the system before planning a bigger promotion for the public.   The ATLAS@home outreach website. ATLAS@Home is a large-scale research project that runs ATLAS experiment simulation software inside virtual machines hosted by volunteer computers. “People from all over the world offer up their computers’ idle time to run simulation programmes to help physicists extract information from the large amount of data collected by the detector,” explains Claire Adam Bourdarios of the ATLAS@Home project. “The ATLAS@Home project aims to extrapolate the Standard Model at a higher energy and explore what new physics may look like. Everything we’re currently running is preparation for next year's run.” ATLAS@Home became an official BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network ...

  8. The public service-motivated volunteer devoting time or effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costello, Joyce; Homberg, Fabian; Secchi, Davide


    and thus may inform subsequent empirical work. First, we address academic debates concerning the measurement of volunteer effort. Second, we propose using public service motivation (PSM) theory as a means to understand the motivation of volunteers across sectors. We suggest that different PSM dimensions......The purpose of this conceptual article is to further our understanding of how evolving volunteer trends impact on volunteering intensity. The aim is to provide clarity by applying to the volunteer literature a theoretical framework that can be adapted to different ways in which people volunteer...... may be more dominant in certain volunteer settings than others and incorporate person–organisation fit as a means to understand the relationship between PSM and volunteering intensity. Finally, this article proposes directions for future research....

  9. Towards a sustainable volunteer mobile, online tutoring model for mathematics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L


    Full Text Available is the phenomenon of people volunteering their services and expertise via the Internet. This paper describes work towards a sustainable model of sourcing volunteers for a mobile, online tutoring environment. This is a work in progress....

  10. Volunteer Tourism Program Development, Case Vietnam Heritage Travel


    Nguyen, Leminh


    The purpose of this thesis project is to figure out what kinds of volunteer tourism programs should be developed for Vietnam Heritage Travel, a tour operator in Vietnam, and what business and volunteering factors need to be considered for the development. In order to answer those research questions, the thesis reviewed current studies and researches on volunteer tourism, including its definitions, theoretical frameworks and practices, various types of projects worldwide and overview of volunt...

  11. Comparison of 0.5% articaine and 0.5% prilocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia of the arm: a cross-over study in volunteers. (United States)

    Pitkänen, M T; Xu, M; Haasio, J; Rosenberg, P H


    Earlier studies of the use of articaine in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) are conflicting. In fact, despite similar physicochemical properties and regional anesthetic action, significant differences between articaine and prilocaine in IVRA have been reported. Articaine, being a potent local anesthetic with low degree of toxicity and being rapidly metabolized by esterases, could be a useful local anesthetic particularly in IVRA and, perhaps, could challenge prilocaine, the present local anesthetic of choice for this technique. A double-blind, cross-over study of IVRA of the upper extremity in 10 healthy volunteers was performed. There was at least a 1-week interval between the use of the two anesthetics in each volunteer. After exsanguination with an Esmarch bandage, IVRA was induced either with preservative-free 0.5% articaine (5% Ultracaine, Hoechst, Germany, diluted with 0.9% NaCl) or 0.5% prilocaine (Citanest, Astra, Södertälje, Sweden) (35-50 mL, according to weight), injected in 2 minutes. Sensation at defined skin spots that were innervated by the median, musculocutaneous, radial, and ulnar nerves was tested by pinprick; motor function was tested by the movements of the wrist. After 20 minutes, the tourniquet cuff was deflated in one step. Circulatory, toxic, and skin reactions were registered. At least 1 week after the second IVRA intracutaneous allergy testing with 0.5% articaine, 0.5% prilocaine, histamine, and saline was performed. There were no significant differences between the two local anesthetics in the onset of analgesia or anesthesia, degree of motor block, and recovery of IVRA. Onset of analgesia occurred 4.2-5.6 minutes, on average, after the injection. One volunteer had short-lasting tinnitus after tourniquet cuff deflation when prilocaine was used. Erythematous nonitching skin rashes developed in 8 of 10 volunteers when articaine was used, and two volunteers had rashes when prilocaine was used. These rashes disappeared within an hour

  12. Needs and Lifestyle Challenges of Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Summary of an Institute of Medicine and Livestrong Foundation Workshop. (United States)

    Daniel, Casey L; Emmons, Karen M; Fasciano, Karen; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy


    Among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in the United States, cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death. AYA survivors face numerous short- and long-term health and psychosocial issues, as well as increased risk for behavioral and lifestyle challenges, including poor diet, low physical activity (PA), and substance abuse. Many of these behaviors are modifiable, but gaps in care serve as barriers for AYA survivors. The purpose of this article is to (a) raise awareness of AYAs' increased risk for poor diet, low PA, and substance abuse; (b) examine previous interventions addressing these issues; and (c) provide recommendations for future directions. This article summarizes a workshop coordinated by the Institute of Medicine and the Livestrong Foundation to address AYA survivors' needs and ways to enhance their quality of care. Oncology nurses can promote the inclusion of lifestyle behaviors in survivorship care plans of AYA patients and serve as a valuable resource in improving AYA care on a larger scale. In addition, oncology nurse researchers may offer greater understanding of AYA patients' and survivors' needs and best practices by conducting much-needed research with this understudied population.

  13. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement (United States)

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.


    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  14. Village health volunteers: key issues facing agencies in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants discussed recruitment, training, rewards, retention, and roles of village health volunteers. This paper presents background data on village health volunteers in Malawi and elsewhere and reviews the key issues facing health care providers in working with village health volunteers. A copy of the workshop ...

  15. Canadian Youth Volunteering Abroad: Rethinking Issues of Power and Privilege (United States)

    Ngo, Mai


    This paper discusses the role of institutions in the ethical engagement of Canadian youth volunteers abroad. In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the international field have questioned the ethics of volunteering as part of development, with scrutiny on who actually benefits from volunteering initiatives. Since the 1960s, over 65,000…

  16. 42 CFR 432.32 - Training and use of volunteers. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION Training Programs; Subprofessional and Volunteer Programs § 432.32 Training and use of volunteers. (a) State plan requirement. A State plan must... responsible for: (1) The development, organization, and administration of the volunteer program; and (2...

  17. English as a Second Language Volunteer Tutor Manual. (United States)

    Minnesota Literacy Council, St. Paul.

    This manual was designed to help prepare volunteer tutors to teach English as a Second Language (ESL). An introductory section outlines the role and responsibilities of the volunteer tutor and provides information on tax deductions for volunteers. Subsequent sections provide practical information on varied aspects of ESL instruction, including:…

  18. Women Empower Women: Volunteers and Their Clients in Community Service (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Megidna, Hofit


    The study is aimed at examining the relationship between psychological empowerment of women volunteers and their clients in community volunteer projects in Israel. Based on an ecological approach, the study also aimed at examining whether the variables that explain empowerment of women who volunteer also explain empowerment of their clients. The…

  19. The Motivation to Volunteer: A Systemic Quality of Life Theory (United States)

    Shye, Samuel


    A new approach to volunteer motivation research is developed. Instead of asking what motivates the volunteer (accepting "any" conceptual category), we ask to what extent volunteering rewards the individual with each benefit taken from a complete set of possible benefits. As a "complete set of benefits" we use the 16 human functioning modes…

  20. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers (United States)

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III


    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  1. Managing the Impact of Organizational Change on Volunteers. (United States)

    Grubbs, Arlene


    Volunteers are affected by organizational change, though with a different focus and priority. There may be tension between volunteers and paid staff. Volunteers may pass through stages of resistance, confusion, integration and recommitment; they may have different change styles: resisters, adapters, or seekers. (SK)

  2. Volunteer motivation in special events for people with disabilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been little research attention in the South African context on volunteer motivation for special events for people with disabilities. This study explored the key factors that motivated volunteers to volunteer their services at three major sport events for people with disabilities in South Africa. A 28-item questionnaire was ...

  3. Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen


    The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…

  4. Motivation of volunteers at disability sports events: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few cross-cultural comparisons have been done to assess the motivations of volunteers at similar events. This study explored the key factors that motivate volunteers to provide humanitarian services at disability sport events in Malaysia, South Africa, and the United States. Participants in the study were volunteers at the ...

  5. Motivations of Volunteer Leaders in an Extension Exercise Program (United States)

    Washburn, Lisa T.; Cornell, Carol E.; Traywick, LaVona; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha


    This article describes findings from a qualitative study of volunteer leaders in the StrongWomen strength training program in Arkansas. The study explored reasons volunteers initially agreed to serve, perceptions of volunteer role, and motivations for continuing to lead strength training groups long-term. Findings suggest a combination of factors…

  6. Pharmacokinetic comparison and bioequivalence evaluation of losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide tablet between Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. (United States)

    Kumar, Sudershan; Monif, Tausif; Khuroo, Arshad; Reyar, Simrit; Jain, Rakesh; Singla, Ajay K; Kurachi, Kazuya


    as a single oral dose when administered to healthy adult subjects under fasted conditions. Although Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers are ethnically different, results of these studies indicate that pharmacokinetic parameters of Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers are comparable to each other in terms of bioavailability of losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide. Similar least square means ratios were obtained in Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers demonstrating that a bioequivalence study conducted on Japanese volunteers seems to be substituted by Asian Indian volunteers' studies.

  7. Public Bike Volunteerism: Individual Motivation and Attachment to Volunteering and Organizational Management -- A Case Study of Hangzhou Volunteers Association


    Liu, Qing


    The aim of this thesis is to explore the impacts of organizational factors and individual attributes on volunteering participation in the Chinese context. The study focuses on public bike volunteerism and uses the case of the Hangzhou Volunteers Association (HVA), which organized the regular and long-term volunteering service program for the largest bike-sharing system in the world. The theoretical framework is based on the volunteer functions inventory (VFI) approach to the motivation to vol...

  8. When Teaching and Volunteering Go Together: Exploring Participation Characteristics and Demographic Backgrounds of Senior Volunteer Teachers and Their Teaching Satisfaction (United States)

    Leung, D. D. M.


    Senior volunteer teachers play important roles in learning programmes for the elderly. These volunteers' level of teaching satisfaction was assumed to influence programmes, their organizational behaviours and outcomes. However, scant research has focused specifically on volunteers' levels of satisfaction with teaching and how their satisfaction is…

  9. Volunteering predicts happiness among older Māori and non-Māori in the New Zealand health, work, and retirement longitudinal study. (United States)

    Dulin, Patrick L; Gavala, Jhanitra; Stephens, Christine; Kostick, Marylynne; McDonald, Jennifer


    This study sought to understand the relationship between volunteer activity and happiness among a sample of older adult New Zealanders. It specifically sought to determine if ethnicity (Māori vs. non-Māori) and economic living standards (ELS) functioned as moderators of the relationship between volunteering and happiness. Data were garnered from the 2008 administration of the New Zealand Health, Work, and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Correlational and multiple regression procedures were employed to examine study hypotheses. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that the amount of volunteering per week was a unique predictor of the overall level of happiness. Moderation analyses indicated that ethnicity did not function as a moderator of the relationship between volunteering and happiness, but ELS did. Those with low ELS evidenced a stronger relationship between volunteering and happiness than those with high ELS. Results also indicated that Maori and those with low ELS volunteered more frequently than non-Māori and those with high ELS. This study provides evidence that volunteering is related to increased happiness, irrespective of ethnicity. It also provides further evidence that the relationship between volunteering and happiness is moderated by economic resources. Older individuals at the low end of the economic spectrum are likely to benefit more from volunteering than those at the high end.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisawa T


    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  11. Addressing challenges of clinical trials in acute pain: The Pain Management of Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Children and Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease Study. (United States)

    Nottage, Kerri A; Hankins, Jane S; Faughnan, Lane G; James, Dustin M; Richardson, Julie; Christensen, Robbin; Kang, Guolian; Smeltzer, Matthew; Cancio, Maria I; Wang, Winfred C; Anghelescu, Doralina L


    Neuropathic pain is a known component of vaso-occlusive pain in sickle cell disease; however, drugs targeting neuropathic pain have not been studied in this population. Trials of acute pain are complicated by the need to obtain consent, to randomize participants expeditiously while optimally treating pain. We describe the challenges in designing and implementing the Pain Management of Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Children and Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease Study (NCT01954927), a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of gabapentin for vaso-occlusive crisis. In the Pain Management of Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Children and Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease Study, we aim to assess the analgesic effect of gabapentin during vaso-occlusive crisis. Difficulties we identified included avoiding delay of notification of study staff of potential participants which we resolved by automated notification. Concern for rapid randomization and drug dispensation was addressed through careful planning with an investigational pharmacy and a single liquid formulation. We considered obtaining consent during well-visits to avoid the time constraints with acute presentations, but the large number of patients and limited duration that consent is valid made this impractical. In all, 79% of caregivers/children approached have agreed to participate. The trial is currently active, and enrollment is at 45.8% of that targeted (76 of 166) and expected to continue for two more years. Maintaining staff availability after-hours remains problematic, with 8% of screened patients missed for lack of available staff. Lessons learned in designing a trial to expedite procedures in the acute pain setting include (1) building study evaluations upon a standard-of-care backbone; (2) implementing a simple study design to facilitate consent and data capture; (3) assuring ample, well-trained study staff; and (4) utilizing technology to automate procedures

  12. Volunteers in the Danish Home Guard 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridberg, Torben; Damgaard, Malene

    This report describes the composition of the Home Guard’s volunteer members and their attitudes to and expectations for the Home Guard. A similar survey was carried out in 2007, and the present report therefore also examines the trends from 2007 to 2011. Among other things, the report shows...... voluntary work than the population as a whole. The report also shows that one in three active members of the Home Guard would like to be deployed on international operations to support the armed forces. The young members are especially willing – and these members have increased in recent years. This report...

  13. Main components and content of sports volunteer activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Petrenkо


    Full Text Available Purpose: identification of the main structural components and content of sports volunteer activities. Material & Methods: used analysis of literature and documents, organizational analysis. Result: basic structural components of sports volunteer activity are defined. The content of sports volunteer activity is disclosed. Conclusion: sports volunteer activity includes the following structural components: subject, object, purpose, motivation, means, actions; subject is a sports volunteer, the object is a sports competition, the goal is to provide gratuitous assistance for a quality competition, the means are the special knowledge, skills, communication abilities of sports volunteers, actions should be understood as types of volunteer activities and functions that volunteers perform during the preparation and conduct of competitions. Main types of sports volunteer activity are: 1 organizational; 2 judiciary; 3 coaching; 4 legal; 5 medical. Functions that volunteers perform in the competition system are general and special. Content of the functions of sports volunteering depends on the specifics of the sports, the rank of the competition, the specifics of the competition for people with special needs.

  14. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences? (United States)

    Jones, David A.


    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  15. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences? (United States)

    Jones, David A


    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  16. Modelling and mapping tick dynamics using volunteered observations. (United States)

    Garcia-Martí, Irene; Zurita-Milla, Raúl; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Takken, Willem


    Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands. We aimed at finding the main environmental drivers of AQT at multiple time-scales, and to devise daily AQT maps at the national level for 2014. Tick dynamics is a complex ecological problem driven by biotic (e.g. pathogens, wildlife, humans) and abiotic (e.g. weather, landscape) factors. We enriched the volunteered AQT collection with six types of weather variables (aggregated at 11 temporal scales), three types of satellite-derived vegetation indices, land cover, and mast years. Then, we applied a feature engineering process to derive a set of 101 features to characterize the conditions that yielded a particular count of AQT on a date and location. To devise models predicting the AQT, we use a time-aware Random Forest regression method, which is suitable to find non-linear relationships in complex ecological problems, and provides an estimation of the most important features to predict the AQT. We trained a model capable of fitting AQT with reduced statistical metrics. The multi-temporal study on the feature importance indicates that variables linked to water levels in the atmosphere (i.e. evapotranspiration, relative humidity) consistently showed a higher explanatory power than previous works using temperature. As a product of this study, we are able of mapping daily tick dynamics at the national level. This study paves the way towards the design of new applications in the fields of environmental research, nature management, and public

  17. Modelling and mapping tick dynamics using volunteered observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Garcia-Martí


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands. We aimed at finding the main environmental drivers of AQT at multiple time-scales, and to devise daily AQT maps at the national level for 2014. Method Tick dynamics is a complex ecological problem driven by biotic (e.g. pathogens, wildlife, humans and abiotic (e.g. weather, landscape factors. We enriched the volunteered AQT collection with six types of weather variables (aggregated at 11 temporal scales, three types of satellite-derived vegetation indices, land cover, and mast years. Then, we applied a feature engineering process to derive a set of 101 features to characterize the conditions that yielded a particular count of AQT on a date and location. To devise models predicting the AQT, we use a time-aware Random Forest regression method, which is suitable to find non-linear relationships in complex ecological problems, and provides an estimation of the most important features to predict the AQT. Results We trained a model capable of fitting AQT with reduced statistical metrics. The multi-temporal study on the feature importance indicates that variables linked to water levels in the atmosphere (i.e. evapotranspiration, relative humidity consistently showed a higher explanatory power than previous works using temperature. As a product of this study, we are able of mapping daily tick dynamics at the national level. Conclusions This study paves the way towards the design of new applications in the fields

  18. Benefits and Dynamics of Learning Gained through Volunteering: A Qualitative Exploration Guided by Seniors' Self-Defined Successful Aging (United States)

    Chen, Li-Kuang


    Social participation is an important strategy in promoting successful aging. Although participating in volunteering has been proven to benefit older adults' health and well-being, we often ignore its role as a process of learning while helping others. The purpose of this study was to use the self-defined successful aging concept of seniors to…

  19. Measuring Engagement in Later Life Activities: Rasch-Based Scenario Scales for Work, Caregiving, Informal Helping, and Volunteering (United States)

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Matz-Costa, Christina; Johnson, Clair; Brown, Melissa; Besen, Elyssa; James, Jacquelyn B.


    The development of Rasch-based "comparative engagement scenarios" based on Guttman's facet theory and sentence mapping procedures is described. The scenario scales measuring engagement in work, caregiving, informal helping, and volunteering illuminate the lived experiences of role involvement among older adults and offer multiple…

  20. 2008 LHC Open Days Training for volunteers

    CERN Document Server


    Information and training sessions are being organised for Open Day volunteers. The Open Days Organising Committee is offering information and training sessions every Thursday in March from 2.00 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. in the Main Building Auditorium. It is important that volunteers attend these sessions to familiarise themselves with the practical arrangements for the two Open Days and with the main messages to be conveyed to the general public in order to make the event a success. General information will be given at each session, followed by information on a specific theme. The sessions will be organised as follows: 2.00 - 2.45 p.m. : first part - general information 2.45 - 3.30 p.m. : second part - specific information * 20 March - specific theme "Organisation of the information points and the visits to the tunnel" 27 March - specific theme "Safety issues for the Open Days" Presentation by Gilles Colin, member of the CERN Fire Brigade 3 April - specific theme "Last-m...

  1. 2008 LHC Open Days Training for volunteers

    CERN Multimedia


    Information and training sessions are being organised for Open Day volunteers. The Open Days Organising Committee is offering information and training sessions every Thursday in March from 2.00 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. in the Main Building Auditorium. The first session will be on Thursday 6 March. It is important that volunteers attend these sessions to familiarise themselves with the practical arrangements for the two Open Days and with the main messages to be conveyed to the general public in order to make the event a success. General information will be given out at each session, followed by information on a specific theme. The sessions will be organised as follows: 2.00 - 2.45 p.m. : first part - general information 2.45 - 3.30 p.m. : second part - specific information * 6 March - specific theme "How to answer questions about the fears surrounding the LHC" * A different theme will be addressed at each session. The themes of subsequent sessions (13 , 20, 27 March and 3 Ap...

  2. Evolutionary stability in the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhou He

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that in public goods games, contributors are either strong or weak players and each individual has an equal probability of exhibiting cooperation. It is difficult to explain why the public good is produced by strong individuals in some cooperation systems, and by weak individuals in others. Viewing the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma game as an evolutionary game, we find that whether the strong or the weak players produce the public good depends on the initial condition (i.e., phenotype or initial strategy of individuals. These different evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS associated with different initial conditions, can be interpreted as the production modes of public goods of different cooperation systems. A further analysis revealed that the strong player adopts a pure strategy but mixed strategies for the weak players to produce the public good, and that the probability of volunteering by weak players decreases with increasing group size or decreasing cost-benefit ratio. Our model shows that the defection probability of a "strong" player is greater than the "weak" players in the model of Diekmann (1993. This contradicts Selten's (1980 model that public goods can only be produced by a strong player, is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, and will therefore disappear over evolutionary time. Our public good model with ESS has thus extended previous interpretations that the public good can only be produced by strong players in an asymmetric game.

  3. BOINC service for volunteer cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Høimyr, N; Buncic, P; Giovannozzi, M; Gonzalez, A; Harutyunyan, A; Jones, P L; Karneyeu, A; Marquina, M A; Mcintosh, E; Segal, B; Skands, P; Grey, F; Lombraña González, D; Zacharov, I; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name "LHC@home 2.0" and the BOINC project: "Test4Theory". At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC@home, and has been running the "Sixtrack" beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup i...

  4. Volunteer Notes on Reforestation. A Handbook for Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-45. (United States)

    Seefeldt, Steve, Comp.

    Provided in this document are descriptions of reforestation projects and techniques presented by Peace Corps volunteers from Chad, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, and Niger. The purpose of the document is to aid individuals in trying to find solutions to the problems facing forestry in the Sahel. These projects include: (1) reforestation of Ronier palm…

  5. BelleII@home: Integrate volunteer computing resources into DIRAC in a secure way (United States)

    Wu, Wenjing; Hara, Takanori; Miyake, Hideki; Ueda, Ikuo; Kan, Wenxiao; Urquijo, Phillip


    The exploitation of volunteer computing resources has become a popular practice in the HEP computing community as the huge amount of potential computing power it provides. In the recent HEP experiments, the grid middleware has been used to organize the services and the resources, however it relies heavily on the X.509 authentication, which is contradictory to the untrusted feature of volunteer computing resources, therefore one big challenge to utilize the volunteer computing resources is how to integrate them into the grid middleware in a secure way. The DIRAC interware which is commonly used as the major component of the grid computing infrastructure for several HEP experiments proposes an even bigger challenge to this paradox as its pilot is more closely coupled with operations requiring the X.509 authentication compared to the implementations of pilot in its peer grid interware. The Belle II experiment is a B-factory experiment at KEK, and it uses DIRAC for its distributed computing. In the project of BelleII@home, in order to integrate the volunteer computing resources into the Belle II distributed computing platform in a secure way, we adopted a new approach which detaches the payload running from the Belle II DIRAC pilot which is a customized pilot pulling and processing jobs from the Belle II distributed computing platform, so that the payload can run on volunteer computers without requiring any X.509 authentication. In this approach we developed a gateway service running on a trusted server which handles all the operations requiring the X.509 authentication. So far, we have developed and deployed the prototype of BelleII@home, and tested its full workflow which proves the feasibility of this approach. This approach can also be applied on HPC systems whose work nodes do not have outbound connectivity to interact with the DIRAC system in general.

  6. Safety Evaluation of Crocin (a constituent of saffron Tablets in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mohamadpour


    Full Text Available Objective(s: Crocin is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anticancer and memory improving activities. Crocin tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of one month treatment of crocin tablets. Volunteers who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized into 2 groups of 22 each (males and females and received 20 mg crocin tablets or placebo. General measures of health were recorded during the study such as hematological, biochemical, hormonal and urinary parameters in pre and post-treatment periods. Results: No major adverse events were reported during the trial. Crocin tablets did not change the above parameters except that it decreased amylase, mixed white blood cells and PTT in healthy volunteers after one month. Conclusion: This clinical safety evaluation showed a relatively safe and normal profile for crocin in healthy volunteers at the given doses within the trial period.

  7. Factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among community volunteers during the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang


    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics associated with volunteerism and identify the factors that contributed to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among community volunteers following the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea. In total, 2,298 adults (aged 30-70 years) from the Jin-do area, where the Sewol ferry disaster occurred, participated in this study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 1 month after the disaster. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IES-R), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Clinically relevant PTSD symptoms were observed in 151 (19.7%) community volunteers. Age, education, socioeconomic status, religion, and lifetime experiences of natural disasters were associated with volunteering following the disaster. Logistic regression analysis revealed that volunteering was a significant risk factor for the development of PTSD symptoms in this sample. Personal experience with property damage associated with a traumatic event, depression, and anxiety were also significantly associated with the PTSD symptoms of community volunteers. Our results suggest the need for assessment and mental health programs for community volunteers performing rescue work to prevent posttraumatic stress symptoms following a community disaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recruitment to the All Volunteer Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harries-Jenkins, Gwyn


    Western military establishments which have decided to shift from conscription (the draft) to volunteerism as the basis of recruitment to their armed forces, commonly face very considerable challenges...

  9. A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Fast


    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.

  10. Chosen Aspects of Non‑Profit Sector and Volunteering in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gavurova


    Full Text Available The significance of voluntary activities in Slovakia constantly increases as it is one of the fundamental areas, which is of particular interest to chosen communities as well as the general public, with the scope of these activities exceeding religious or social groups and national character. The current situation of voluntary activities is not satisfactory and there is an absence of primary research studies that would provide a relevant and complex overview of the volunteering system. Further worsening the situation is the fact that volunteering actions were not even defined in the legal system until 2011. Evaluation of the existing situation and development of voluntary activities realized in Slovakia is carried out using a questionnaire survey, identifying the fundamental barriers of its development and evaluating the potential for implementing new challenges and trends. The most problematic issue is area of financing, closely related to non‑governmental sector financing issues. A lack of understanding by the donors concerning the process of investing in volunteers, even in high quality programs, is also an important problem, along with the lack of legislation and mistrust. Organization and volunteer motivation was also investigated.

  11. Religiosity and Volunteering Intention among Undergraduate Malaysian Muslim Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sallam Abdullah AbdulElah


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that religious attendance is related positively to volunteering. These results confirm the idea that support of the religious attributes community plays quite a large role in volunteering process.. However, it a bear that volunteering is not only dependent on religious community, but also on individual motivation.

  12. Religiosity and Volunteering Intention Among Undergraduate Malaysian Muslim Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallam A.A.A.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that religious attendance is related positively to volunteering. These results confirm the idea that support of the religious attributes community plays quite a large role in volunteering process. However, it a bear that volunteering is not only dependent on religious community, but also on individual motivation.

  13. Using Infrastructure Awareness to Support the Recruitment of Volunteer Computing Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    The Mini-Grid is a volunteer computing infrastructure that gathers computational power from multiple participants and uses it to execute bio-informatics algorithms. The Mini-Grid is an instance of a larger set of systems that I call participative computational infrastructures (PCI). PCIs depend......), and argues that participative computational infrastructures face a fundamental recruitment challenge derived from their being “invisible” computational systems. To counter this challenge this dissertation proposes the notion of Infrastructure Awareness: a feedback mechanism on the state of, and changes in...

  14. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  15. Why Volunteer? The Complexities of International Pre-Service Teachers' Intercultural Adjustment Experiences through Community Service Engagement (United States)

    Soong, Hannah


    Anecdotal evidence suggests that pre-service teachers who have volunteered in schools demonstrate greater awareness of the general operational aspects of a school and, thus, are better prepared for the teaching practicum. However, there is little documented evidence about the cross-cultural challenges of international pre-service teachers…

  16. Effect of age on toxicokinetics among human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME). (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Vernez, David; Berthet, Aurelie; Charriere, Nicole; Arnoux, Christine; Tomicic, Catherine


    Aging adults represent the fastest growing population segment in many countries. Physiological and metabolic changes in the aging process may alter how aging adults biologically respond to pollutants. In a controlled human toxicokinetic study (exposure chamber; 12 m³), aging volunteers (n=10; >58 years) were exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME, CAS no. 107-98-2) at 50 ppm for 6 h. The dose-dependent renal excretion of oxidative metabolites, conjugated and free PGME could potentially be altered by age. (1) Compare PGME toxicokinetic profiles between aging and young volunteers (20-25 years) and gender; (2) test the predictive power of a compartmental toxicokinetic (TK) model developed for aging persons against urinary PGME concentrations found in this study. Urine samples were collected before, during, and after the exposure. Urinary PGME was quantified by capillary GC/FID. Differences in urinary PGME profiles were not noted between genders but between age groups. Metabolic parameters had to be changed to fit the age adjusted TK model to the experimental results, implying a slower enzymatic pathway in the aging volunteers. For an appropriate exposure assessment, urinary total PGME should be quantified. Age is a factor that should be considered when biological limit values are developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Volunteering and older women: psychosocial and health predictors of participation. (United States)

    Parkinson, Lynne; Warburton, Jeni; Sibbritt, David; Byles, Julie


    As populations age, there will be a need for more volunteers in social welfare, and consequently a need to better understand potential effects of volunteering for older people. Whilst there is a body of international literature exploring health benefits of volunteering in later life, there are currently no longitudinal studies of Australian populations. Internationally, there is a lack of studies focusing on older women, who comprise the majority of the ageing population. The aim of this article was to explore the relationship between volunteering and psychosocial and health factors for a cohort of older Australian women over time. Data for this study were from the oldest cohort of Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a 20-year longitudinal survey of Australian women aged 70-75 years in 1996. Volunteering status was the factor of interest and study factors included a broad range of demographic, health and social factors. A longitudinal model was developed for mediators of volunteering over time. Of 7088 women in 2005, 24.5% reported actively volunteering, 15.5% were continuing, 7.5% were new, 15.3% were intermittent and 34.7% had never been volunteers. Volunteering was associated with increased quality of life and social support. Women were more likely to continue volunteering over time if they lived in a rural area, had higher socioeconomic indicators, and better levels of physical and mental health. This study contributes to the literature on the relationship between volunteering and health for older women. Understanding the potential health implications of volunteering is a critical issue in current policy debates.

  18. Moral assemblages of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru


    Burrai, E; Mostafanezhad, M; Hannam, K


    In this paper, we develop a conceptual approach from which to examine the moral landscape of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru. Drawing from recent work on assemblage theory in geography and tourism studies, we explore how assemblage thinking can facilitate new understandings of volunteer tourism development. Using assemblage as an analytical framework allows us to understand volunteer tourism as a series of relational, processual, unequal and mobile practices. These practices, we ...

  19. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates. (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C


    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  20. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites. (United States)

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na


    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs.

  1. Towards a Production Volunteer Computing Infrastructure for HEP (United States)

    Høimyr, N.; Marquina, M.; Asp, T.; Jones, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Field, L.


    Following the successful inclusion of virtualisation to volunteer computing for theory simulations back in 2011, the use of volunteer computing with BOINC and CernVM has been extended to cover simulations for the LHC experiments ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. This paper describes the status of the BOINC volunteer computing platform at CERN used for LHC@home and how it has been designed to address a heterogeneous environment of different user communities with different computing infrastructure. The aim of the recent developments is to provide a volunteer computing platform that the experiments can build upon to exploit opportunistic resources. Furthermore, new developments of common solutions to span user authentication domains are explained.

  2. "I didn't think we'd be dealing with stuff like this": A qualitative study of volunteer support for very disadvantaged pregnant women and new mothers. (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie


    to identify the particular issues associated with volunteer support for very disadvantaged mothers (who were young, had insecure immigration status, were recent migrants whose English was poor,misused drugs or alcohol, or were involved in crime), from the perspective of the volunteers. a qualitative descriptive study, informed by phenomenological social psychology. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out between July 2013 and March 2015. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. nine volunteer support projects for pregnant women and new mothers, run by third sector organisations in England. 38 volunteer supporters. three key themes were identified: 'Meeting challenges', 'Needing support' and 'Identifying successes'. 'Meeting challenges' contained the subthemes 'making the relationship of trust','remaining non-judgemental', 'maintaining boundaries' and 'dealing with child protection'. 'Needing support' contained the subthemes 'feeling prepared', 'feeling supported' and 'staying safe'. 'Identifying successes' contained the subthemes 'celebrating the small wins', 'validation as a mother', and 'supporting access to services'. volunteers were able to build strong, empowering relationships with some very disadvantaged women during pregnancy and afterwards, including where the mothers did not readily engage with professionals. However, supporting women with complex needs is emotionally challenging and volunteers need to be carefully selected, realistically trained and robustly supervised and supported during their volunteering. third sector organisations offering volunteer support for pregnant women and new mothers can be valuable partners in reaching very disadvantaged women who may find it difficult to engage with services. Volunteers can build up a relationship of trust with vulnerable mothers over time, but need to be well supported to do this safely and effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Il volontariato nei musei italiani. La formazione dei professionisti e dei volontari / Volunteering in Italian museums. Professionals and volunteers training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Visser Travagli


    This paper deals with the topic of volunteering in museums and for museums. It aims to define the frame of reference and identify the different types of volunteering. It outlines a critical profile of the personnel, both museum professionals and volunteers. It also deals with the issues of specific museum professional training and with the public recognition of museum professions. Problematic issues not yet resolved.

  4. [Indirect effects of school volunteering by senior citizens on parents through the "REPRINTS" intergenerational health promotion program]. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Naoki; Nishi, Mariko; Ohba, Hiromi; Lee, Sangyoon; Kousa, Youko; Yajima, Satoru; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fukaya, Taro; Sakuma, Naoko; Uchida, Hayato; Shinkai, Shoji


    We have launched a new intervention study, called "REPRINTS" (Research of productivity by intergenerational sympathy), in which senior volunteers aged 60 years and over are engaged in reading picture books to school children, regularly visiting public elementary schools since 2004. So far, no repeated cross-sectional studies to demonstrate indirect effects on parents have been reported, although reciprocal effects on senior volunteers and children have been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes of evaluation of "REPRINTS" program by parents of school children during the 2 years. Four to six volunteers as a group visited an elementary school in a suburb of Kawasaki city twice a week to read picture books. A baseline survey was conducted one month after launching the volunteer activity. First to fourth follow-up surveys were conducted every 6 months after baseline surver. Of 368 parents, 230 whose children were in 1st-4th grade were analyzed. School grade of children, gender, emotional image scale of older adults by the SD (Semantic Differential) method (13 items), parents' evaluation of activity of "REPRINTS" volunteers such as promotion of reading for children, or children's respect for older adults, appreciation, familiarity with older adults, indirect effects on promotion of safety in the community, and reducing parent's physical and psychological burdens of volunteer service for school. Repeated cross-sectional analyses by ANCOVA, adjusted for confounding factors, were conducted in order to compare changes in responses between parents of 1st-2nd grade children (lower-grade children) with those of 3rd-4th grade-children (middle-grade children). We examined experiences of being read with picture books, greeting and having conversations with volunteers among all of 330 students of 1st-4th grade. These three items were examined using Chi-squared test to compare longitudinal change between parents of lower-grade and middle-grade children

  5. Supporting Urban Energy Efficiency with Volunteered Roof Information and the Google Maps API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Abdulkarim


    Full Text Available The Heat Energy Assessment Technologies (HEAT project uses high-resolution airborne thermal imagery, Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA, and a Geoweb environment to allow the residents of Calgary, Alberta, Canada to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their houses, communities, and the city. To ensure the accuracy of these measures, the correct emissivity of roof materials needs to be known. However, roof material information is not readily available in the Canadian public domain. To overcome this challenge, a unique Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI application was developed using Google Street View that engages citizens to classify the roof materials of single dwelling residences in a simple and intuitive manner. Since data credibility, quality, and accuracy are major concerns when using VGI, a private Multiple Listing Services (MLS dataset was used for cross-verification. From May–November 2013, 1244 volunteers from 85 cities and 14 countries classified 1815 roofs in the study area. Results show (I a 72% match between the VGI and MLS data; and (II in the majority of cases, roofs with greater than, or equal to five contributions have the same material defined in both datasets. Additionally, this research meets new challenges to the GEOBIA community to incorporate existing GIS vector data within an object-based workflow and engages the public to provide volunteered information for urban objects from which new geo-intelligence is created in support of urban energy efficiency.

  6. Effectiveness of the 'Who's Challenging Who' support staff training intervention to improve attitudes and empathy towards adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviours: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Randell, Elizabeth; Hastings, Richard P; McNamara, Rachel; Knight, Roseanna; Gillespie, David; Taylor, Zachary


    Findings suggest approximately one in six people with intellectual disability engage in 'challenging behaviours', which include aggression towards others/property and self-injurious actions. In residential settings, actions of staff members can make challenging behaviours more likely to occur, or make these behaviours worse. In particular, negative attitudes from members of staff and lack of understanding about the reasons for challenging behaviour are contributory factors. 'Who's Challenging Who?' (WCW) training is designed to emphasise the role of staff in residential settings as a challenge also to people with intellectual disability. The course is delivered jointly by a trainer with intellectual disability who has been labelled as having challenging behaviour, along with a trainer without intellectual disability. This is a cluster randomised two-arm trial of WCW training versus a waiting list control. Overall, 118 residential settings will be recruited and randomised on a 1:1 ratio. Within each setting, two members of staff will be invited to take part in the trial. Participants will complete assessments at baseline and at 6 and 20 weeks. WCW is a half day initial training course with some follow-on coaching to ensure implementation. The primary outcome is changes in staff empathy towards people with challenging behaviour. Secondary outcomes at the staff level include confidence, attitudes and work-related well-being. Secondary outcomes at the residential setting level include recorded incidents of aggressive challenging behaviour, and use of any restrictive practices. If the results of the cluster randomised trial are positive, we will disseminate the findings widely and make all training manuals and materials freely available for anyone in intellectual disability services (and beyond) to use. Our training approach may have wider implications in other areas of social care. It may also provide a generally applicable model for how to train people with

  7. Leveraging Telehealth to Bring Volunteer Physicians Into Underserved Communities. (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Rudin, Robert; Mehrotra, Ateev


    Many disadvantaged communities lack sufficient numbers of local primary care and specialty physicians. Yet tens of thousands of physicians, in particular those who are retired or semiretired, desire meaningful volunteer opportunities. Multiple programs have begun to use telehealth to bridge the gap between volunteer physicians and underserved patients. In this brief, we describe programs that are using this model and discuss the promise and pitfalls. Physician volunteers in these programs report that the work can be fulfilling and exciting, a cutting-edge yet convenient way to remain engaged and contribute. Given the projected shortfall of physicians in the United States, recruiting retired and semiretired physicians to provide care through telehealth increases the total supply of active physicians and the capacity of the existing workforce. However, programs typically use volunteers in a limited capacity because of uncertainty about the level and duration of commitment. Acknowledging this reality, most programs only use volunteer physicians for curbside consults rather than fully integrating them into longitudinal patient care. The part-time availability of volunteers may also be difficult to incorporate into the workflow of busy safety net clinics. As more physicians volunteer in a growing number of telehealth programs, the dual benefits of enriching the professional lives of volunteers and improving care for underserved communities will make further development of these programs worthwhile.

  8. Village Health Volunteers: Key Issues Facing Agencies in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOs) and the Min- istry of Health (MoH) in Malawi. The use of volunteers is not new; publications on teaching community health volunteers are available from the. MoH I.2. It is unfortunate that there is a paucity of information in the existing ...

  9. Evaluation of five pre-emergence herbicides for volunteer potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volunteer potatoes can cause significant weed problems in crops following potatoes as large numbers of potato tubers remain behind in the field after mechanical harvesting. These volunteer plants can create havoc with rotation programs and serve as a source of pests and diseases. The aim of this project was to identify a ...

  10. National Context, Religiosity, and Volunteering : Results from 53 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Stijn; Graaf, Nan Dirk de


    To what extent does the national religious context affect volunteering? Does a religious environment affect the relation between religiosity and volunteering? To answer these questions, this study specifies individual level, contextual level, and cross-level interaction hypotheses. The authors test

  11. The Impact of Institutional Mission on Student Volunteering (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan Crawford; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Singleton, Royce A., Jr.


    This study examined patterns and predictors of volunteering among students at a liberal arts college with an institutional culture that strongly promotes community service. Results showed that predictors varied across four different types of volunteering: community service, social action, religious service, and service to the college. Year in…

  12. Pressure pain thresholds in volunteers and herniorrhaphy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Molke Jensen, F


    surgery. PPT was determined in 20 healthy volunteers on two separate examinations, and in 14 patients at the incisional site before and following inguinal herniotomy. In volunteers, PPT was higher for men than for women, and no difference was observed between the first and second day of examination...

  13. Will Volunteers in a Youth Sports Event Become Paying Visitors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Renuka; Ren, Carina Bregnholm


    This article explores possible factors that influence the willingness of volunteers to reattend as paying visitors. Using the 2016 Arctic Winter Games in Greenland as a case study, it was found that 47% of the volunteers were willing to reattend as paying visitors; some self-related benefits and ...

  14. Three Steps to Engage Volunteers in Membership Marketing (United States)

    Rossell, Tony


    There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…

  15. Seven characteristics of a successful virtual volunteering platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L


    Full Text Available People volunteer their time and energy to projects for many different reasons. For some people, the reason may be that family members are involved in the project such as parents volunteering at their children's schools or parents becoming Scout...

  16. Encouraging Volunteer Participation in Health Research: The Role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health research mainly relies on volunteers to generate data. Volunteer participants not only help provide necessary information to solve problems but also contribute to free participation which in turn helps the research wheel to continue. People mainly contribute to different nonprofit organizations by giving money for ...

  17. Dedicating time to volunteering : Values, engagement, and commitment to beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shantz, A.; Saksida, T.; Alfes, K.


    A moderated mediation model was developed to explain the variation in the amount of time volunteers dedicate to their chosen voluntary cause. Data from 534 volunteers of an international aid and development agency in the United Kingdom revealed a positive relationship between prosocial values and

  18. Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Do they modify volunteers' attitudes, professional choices, consumption patterns and work ethics? What cumulative impact do short-term postings have on host ... 2009, Carleton University, Ottawa. Rapports. Creating global citizens? : the impact of learning/volunteer abroad programs; final report, January 2006 - June 2012 ...

  19. Isolation of Helicobacter pylori from dental plaques in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Majmudar, P; Shah, S M; Dhunjibhoy, K R; Desai, H G


    The presence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) was looked for in dental plaques of 40 healthy volunteers by CLO test, culture and smear stained with Warthin-Starry stain. H pylori was found to be present in the dental plaques of all 40 volunteers. The dental plaque is an important reservoir of H pylori.

  20. Sustaining Members, Volunteers, and Leaders in Community Organizations (United States)

    Culp, Ken, III


    Community organizations must be self-sustaining in order to remain active, viable, and strong. The three primary steps involved in sustaining members, volunteers, and leaders include evaluate, recognize, and either retain, redirect, or disengage. A volunteer performance evaluation will determine whether individual and organizational goals are…