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  1. Tribal ethnicity and CYP2B6 genetics in Ugandan and Zimbabwean populations in the UK: implications for efavirenz dosing in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Y; Moreton, M; McKeown, D A; Andrews, S; Nithiyananthan, T; Tinworth, L; Holt, D W; Sadiq, S T

    2010-12-01

    To determine differences in CYP2B6 loss of function (LoF) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes between Zimbabweans and Ugandans, and within Ugandan populations (Bantu and Nilotic). Genetic epidemiological study enrolling adult black African Ugandan and Zimbabwean patients attending a UK HIV-1 clinic, irrespective of antiretroviral therapy status. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and the presence of CYP2B6 alleles was determined by direct sequencing of all nine exons of the CYP2B6 gene. Blood was also collected, where appropriate, for determination of efavirenz concentrations. Frequency of SNPs in all patients and LoF haplotype frequencies were calculated. The relationship between the number of LoF haplotype alleles possessed and efavirenz trough concentration (ETC) was determined. Thirty-six Zimbabweans and 74 Ugandans (58 Bantu and 16 Nilotic) were recruited. The definite haplotypes determined were *6, *18, *20 and *27 as LoF and *4 as gain of function. Among those with definite genotypes, the frequency of LoF alleles was 65% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 51-80] of Zimbabweans versus 22% (95% CI: 12-31) of Ugandan Bantus (P = 10(-6)) and versus 39% (95% CI: 14-64) of Ugandan Nilotics (P = 0.09). Among the 19 patients with definite genotype and with available ETCs, log ETCs were associated with a greater number of LoF haplotype alleles [848 ng/mL (n = 12), 1069 ng/mL (n = 4) and 1813 ng/mL (n = 3) for 0, 1 or 2 LoF haplotypes, respectively (P = 0.016)]. Among Zimbabweans, LoF haplotypes constitute the majority of CYP2B6 alleles and are significantly higher in prevalence compared with Ugandans. Frequencies of LoF haplotypes and SNPs in Ugandan Nilotics appear to lie between those of Zimbabweans and Ugandan Bantus. These findings may have relevance to pharmacokinetics and dosing of efavirenz in African populations.

  2. Presentation, management, and outcomes of sepsis in adults and children admitted to a rural Ugandan hospital: A prospective observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina E Rudd

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on sepsis in low-resource settings, particularly outside of urban referral centers. We conducted a prospective observational single-center cohort study in May 2013 to assess the presentation, management and outcomes of adult and pediatric patients admitted with sepsis to a community hospital in rural Uganda.We consecutively screened all patients admitted to medical wards who met sepsis criteria. We evaluated eligible patients within 24 hours of presentation and 24-48 hours after admission, and followed them until hospital discharge. In addition to chart review, mental status evaluation, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and point-of-care venous whole blood lactate and glucose testing were performed.Of 56 eligible patients, we analyzed data on 51 (20 adults and 31 children. Median age was 8 years (IQR 2-23 years. Sepsis accounted for a quarter of all adult and pediatric medical ward admissions during the study period. HIV prevalence among adults was 30%. On enrollment, over half of patients had elevated point-of-care whole blood lactate, few were hypoglycemic or had altered mental status, and one third were hypoxic. Over 80% of patients received at least one antibiotic, all severely hypoxic patients received supplemental oxygen, and half of patients with elevated lactate received fluid resuscitation. The most common causes of sepsis were malaria and pneumonia. In-hospital mortality was 3.9%.This study highlights the importance of sepsis among adult and pediatric patients admitted to a rural Ugandan hospital and underscores the need for continued research on sepsis in low resource settings.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous artesunate during severe malaria treatment in Ugandan adults

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline

    2012-04-27

    AbstractBackgroundSevere malaria is a medical emergency with high mortality. Prompt achievement of therapeutic concentrations of highly effective anti-malarial drugs reduces the risk of death. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous artesunate in Ugandan adults with severe malaria.MethodsFourteen adults with severe falciparum malaria requiring parenteral therapy were treated with 2.4 mg\\/kg intravenous artesunate. Blood samples were collected after the initial dose and plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin measured by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study was approved by the Makerere University Faculty of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee (Ref2010-015) and Uganda National Council of Science and Technology (HS605) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01122134).ResultsAll study participants achieved prompt resolution of symptoms and complete parasite clearance with median (range) parasite clearance time of 17 (8–24) hours. Median (range) maximal artesunate concentration (Cmax) was 3260 (1020–164000) ng\\/mL, terminal elimination half-life (T1\\/2) was 0.25 (0.1-1.8) hours and total artesunate exposure (AUC) was 727 (290–111256) ng·h\\/mL. Median (range) dihydroartemisinin Cmax was 3140 (1670–9530) ng\\/mL, with Tmax of 0.14 (0.6 – 6.07) hours and T1\\/2 of 1.31 (0.8–2.8) hours. Dihydroartemisinin AUC was 3492 (2183–6338) ng·h\\/mL. None of the participants reported adverse events.ConclusionsPlasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were achieved rapidly with rapid and complete symptom resolution and parasite clearance with no adverse events.

  4. Statin therapy reduces the likelihood of suboptimal blood pressure control among Ugandan adult diabetic patients

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    Lumu W

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available William Lumu,1 Leaticia Kampiire,2 George Patrick Akabwai,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 Davis Kibirige5 1Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, 2Infectious Disease Research Collaboration, 3Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, 5Department of Medicine, Uganda Martyrs Hospital Lubaga, Kampala, Uganda Background: Hypertension is one of the recognized risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult diabetic patients. High prevalence of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control has been well documented in the majority of studies assessing BP control in diabetic patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, there is a dearth of similar studies. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of suboptimal BP control in an adult diabetic population in Uganda.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 425 eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending three urban diabetic outpatient clinics over 11 months. Data about their sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Suboptimal BP control was defined according to the 2015 American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care guideline as BP levels ≥140/90 mmHg.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, with the majority being females (283, 66.9%. Suboptimal BP control was documented in 192 (45.3% study participants and was independently associated with the study site (private hospitals; odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.18–3.43, P=0.01 and use of statin therapy (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.96, P=0.037.Conclusion: Suboptimal BP control was highly prevalent in this study population. Strategies to improve optimal BP control, especially in the private hospitals, and the use of statin therapy should be encouraged in adult diabetic patients

  5. Cybersenga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cybersenga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet-Delivered Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programme. ... Information sources of information include family members, teachers and peers. Ugandan youth perceive the concept of receiving Internet-based sexuality information as a way to obtain private ...

  6. A prospective study of trends in consumption of cigarettes and alcohol among adults in a rural Ugandan population cohort, 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiki, Gershim; Baisley, Kathy; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Seeley, Janet; Newton, Robert

    2015-04-01

    To characterise trends over time in smoking and alcohol consumption in a rural Ugandan population between 1994 and 2011. We used self-reported data from a long-standing population cohort - the General Population Cohort. From 1989 to 1999, the study population comprised about 10 000 residents of 15 adjacent villages. From 1999, 10 more villages were added, doubling the population. Among adults (≥13 years, who comprise about half of the total study population), data on smoking were collected in 1994/1995, 2008/2009 and in 2010/2011. Data on alcohol were collected in 1996/1997, 2000/2001, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The reported prevalence of smoking among men was 17% in 1994/1995, 14% in 2008/2009 and 16% in 2010/2011; equivalent figures for women were 1.5%, 1% and 2%. In the most recent time period, for both sexes combined, prevalence of smoking increased from 1.5% in those aged <29 years, to 18% in those 50+ years (P < 0.001); prevalence was 14.8% in the lowest tertile of socio-economic status, decreasing to 3.7% in the highest (P < 0.001). For alcohol consumption, current drinking was reported by 39% in 1996/1997, 35% in 2000/2001 and 28% in 2010/2011; men were more likely to drink than women (32.9% vs. 23.5% in 2010/2011) and consumption increased with age (P < 0.001); and was associated with low socio-economic status, riskier sexual behaviour and being HIV positive (P < 0.001). In this rural Ugandan population, consumption of cigarettes and alcohol is higher among men than women, increases with age and is more frequent among those with low socio-economic status. We find no evidence of increases in either exposure over time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Bolann, Bjørn J.; Ndugwa, Christopher M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementatio...

  8. Near-peer mentorship for undergraduate training in Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Near-peer mentorship for undergraduate training in Ugandan medical schools: views of undergraduate students. Godfrey Zari Rukundo, Aluonzi Burani, Jannat Kasozi, Claude Kirimuhuzya, Charles Odongo, Catherine Mwesigwa, Wycliff Byona, Sarah Kiguli ...

  9. Effect of Food on the Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine plus Efavirenz in Ugandan Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Lamorde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of food on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of a proprietary fixed-dose combination (FDC tablet containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF/emtricitabine/efavirenz. Fifteen Ugandan HIV-1 patients at steady-state dosing with TDF/emtricitabine/efavirenz were admitted for 24-hour intensive pharmacokinetic sampling after dosing in the fasting state. Blood sampling was repeated seven days later with TDF/emtricitabine/efavirenz administered with food (19 g fat. Drug concentrations in plasma were determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs and confidence intervals (CIs of parameters were calculated (reference, fasting. For efavirenz, GMRs (90% CIs for Cmax, AUC0-24, and C24 were 1.47 (1.24–1.75, 1.13 (1.03–1.23, and 1.01 (0.91–1.11, respectively. Corresponding GMRs were 1.04 (0.84–1.27, 1.19 (1.10–1.29, and 0.99 (0.82–1.19 for tenofovir, 0.83 (0.76–0.92, 0.87 (0.78–0.97, and 0.91 (0.73–1.14 for emtricitabine. Stable patients may take the FDC without meal restrictions. The FDC should be taken without food by patients experiencing central nervous system toxicities.

  10. Constructing the popular: challenges of archiving ugandan 'popular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructing the popular: challenges of archiving ugandan 'popular' music. ... on the intention of the one defining, the popular is also time- and culture-specific. ... in Uganda is commercially determined – by the media and the music industry.

  11. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  12. Distance Learning Library Services in Ugandan Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayende, Jackline Estomihi Kiwelu; Obura, Constant Okello

    2013-01-01

    The study carried out at Makerere University and Uganda Martyrs University in 2010 aimed at providing strategies for enhanced distance learning library services in terms of convenience and adequacy. The study adopted a cross sectional descriptive survey design. The study revealed services provided in branch libraries in Ugandan universities were…

  13. Low Blood Sodium in Older Adults: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium in older adults: A concern? Why is low blood sodium a health concern for older adults? ... treated? Answers from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an ...

  14. 'They wrote "gay" on her file': transgender Ugandans in HIV prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor Peters, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which HIV-related programmes for heterosexual Ugandans and also for men who have sex with men work to deny healthcare services to transgender people in Uganda. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, the study found that the widespread use of the term 'men who have sex with men' produces greater barriers to healthcare for queer Ugandans than identity categories such as 'lesbian' or 'transgender'. Interventions for men who have sex with men assume a male-identified sexual subject with agency over sexual practices, such as frequency of condom use. Based on two years of ethnographic research in Kampala, I suggest that the focus on individual sexual practices harms transgender people in two ways. First, current HIV prevention and treatment programmes fail to account for risk factors that accrue to both male and female transgender Ugandans due to the social enforcement of gender norms. Second, the term men who have sex with men directs attention towards stigmatised sexual practices, producing the neglect and abuse of non-heteronormative individuals. In the context of Ugandan healthcare, terms such as 'transgender' and kuchu instead focus attention on the dignity and humanity of the rights-bearing person. These findings emphasise how health practitioners must pay attention to emic categories in order to address the ways in which vulnerability is distributed along social vectors of difference.

  15. Acceptance of Umbilical Cord Blood as an Alternative to Adult Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inadequate supply of safe blood has been a source of worry to health facilities in Nigeria. One way of addressing this is problem is to consider the use of Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) as an alternative to adult blood for the purpose of blood transfusion. This will only be possible if we accept this alternative.

  16. The discourses on induced abortion in Ugandan daily newspapers: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Sofia; Eliasson, Miriam; Klingberg Allvin, Marie; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Atuyambe, Lynn; Fritzell, Sara

    2015-06-25

    Ugandan law prohibits abortion under all circumstances except where there is a risk for the woman's life. However, it has been estimated that over 250 000 illegal abortions are being performed in the country yearly. Many of these abortions are carried out under unsafe conditions, being one of the most common reasons behind the nearly 5000 maternal deaths per year in Uganda. Little research has been conducted in relation to societal views on abortion within the Ugandan society. This study aims to analyze the discourse on abortion as expressed in the two main daily Ugandan newspapers. The conceptual content of 59 articles on abortion between years 2006-2012, from the two main daily English-speaking newspapers in Uganda, was studied using principles from critical discourse analysis. A religious discourse and a human rights discourse, together with medical and legal sub discourses frame the subject of abortion in Uganda, with consequences for who is portrayed as a victim and who is to blame for abortions taking place. It shows the strong presence of the Catholic Church within the medial debate on abortion. The results also demonstrate the absence of medial statements related to abortion made by political stakeholders. The Catholic Church has a strong position within the Ugandan society and their stance on abortion tends to have great influence on the way other actors and their activities are presented within the media, as well as how stakeholders choose to convey their message, or choose not to publicly debate the issue in question at all. To decrease the number of maternal deaths, we highlight the need for a more inclusive and varied debate that problematizes the current situation, especially from a gender perspective.

  17. Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan women. ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among ...

  18. Perceptual Influence of Ugandan Biology Students' Understanding of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutonyi, Harriet; Nashon, Samson; Nielsen, Wendy S.

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS has largely depended on public and private media messages about the disease. Media campaigns based on Uganda’s cultural norms of communication are metaphorical, analogical and simile-like. The topic of HIV/AIDS has been introduced into the Senior Three (Grade 11) biology curriculum in Uganda. To what extent do students’ pre-conceptions of the disease, based on these media messages influence students’ development of conceptual understanding of the disease, its transmission and prevention? Of significant importance is the impact the conceptions students have developed from the indirect media messages on classroom instruction on HIV/AIDS. The study is based in a theoretical framework of conceptual change in science learning. An interpretive case study to determine the impact of Ugandan students’ conceptions or perceptions on classroom instruction about HIV/AIDS, involving 160 students aged 15-17, was conducted in four different Ugandan high schools: girls boarding, boys boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day. Using questionnaires, focus group discussions, recorded biology lessons and informal interviews, students’ preconceptions of HIV/AIDS and how these impact lessons on HIV/AIDS were discerned. These preconceptions fall into four main categories: religious, political, conspiracy and traditional African worldviews. Results of data analysis suggest that students’ prior knowledge is persistent even after biology instructions. This has implications for current teaching approaches, which are mostly teacher-centred in Ugandan schools. A rethinking of the curriculum with the intent of offering science education programs that promote understanding of the science of HIV/AIDS as opposed to what is happening now—insensitivity to misconceptions about the disease—is needed.

  19. Professional development on innovation competence of teaching staff in Ugandan universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasule, G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Professional Development on Innovation Competence of Teaching Staff in Ugandan Universities

    George Wilson Kasule

    Abstract

    Sufficient university teaching staff with innovation competence is key if universities want to play a significant role

  20. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  1. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

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    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  2. Water hyacinth hotspots in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth invaded Lake Victoria in the 1980s and, by 1998, had attained peak coverage of approximately 2 000 ha in the Ugandan waters of the lake. Control interventions, especially via biological means, significantly reduced the weed's coverage to non-nuisance levels (<10 ha) by 1999. Although resurgence was ...

  3. Finding a path through the health unit: practical experience of Ugandan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Hanne O

    2005-01-01

    Finding one's way through a health facility is not necessarily an easy task for Ugandan patients. Our understanding of how people succeed in doing so, and of the obstacles they encounter on their way, is incomplete if we focus only on the cognitive level of the clinical encounter. Much research in public health and medical anthropology implicitly works with the notion that agency is located in the mind and that cognitive understanding is a precondition for practice. Based on material from eastern Uganda, this article explores the practical experience of Ugandan patients and their relatives and reflects upon the ways in which this notion of agency has often caused us to confuse the spectator's point of view with the actor's point of view. Thus, as Pierre Bourdieu has argued, we are made to look for answers to "questions that practice never asks because it has no need to ask them."

  4. Constructing English as a Ugandan Language through an English Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger-Johannessen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    English is a national language in Uganda and is widely used in elite areas such as politics and business, but most Ugandans master English to only a limited degree. In this situation, English can be seen as either a foreign language or a second language--influencing how English is taught. One goal of language teaching espoused in this article is…

  5. Antimicrobial-resistant infections among postpartum women at a Ugandan referral hospital.

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    Lisa M Bebell

    Full Text Available Puerperal sepsis causes 10% of maternal deaths in Africa, but prospective studies on incidence, microbiology and antimicrobial resistance are lacking.We performed a prospective cohort study of 4,231 Ugandan women presenting to a regional referral hospital for delivery or postpartum care, measured vital signs after delivery, performed structured physical exam, symptom questionnaire, and microbiologic evaluation of febrile and hypothermic women. Malaria rapid diagnostic testing, blood and urine cultures were performed aseptically and processed at Epicentre Mbarara Research Centre. Antimicrobial susceptibility and breakpoints were determined using disk diffusion per EUCAST standards. Hospital diagnoses, treatments and outcomes were abstracted from patient charts.Mean age was 25 years, 12% were HIV-infected, and 50% had cesarean deliveries. Approximately 5% (205/4176 with ≥1 temperature measurement recorded developed postpartum fever or hypothermia; blood and urine samples were collected from 174 (85%, and 17 others were evaluated clinically. Eighty-four (48% had at least one confirmed source of infection: 39% (76/193 clinical postpartum endometritis, 14% (25/174 urinary tract infection (UTI, 3% (5/174 bloodstream infection. Another 3% (5/174 had malaria. Overall, 30/174 (17% had positive blood or urine cultures, and Acinetobacter species were the most common bacteria isolated. Of 25 Gram-negatives isolated, 20 (80% were multidrug-resistant and cefepime non-susceptible.For women in rural Uganda with postpartum fever, we found a high rate of antibiotic resistance among cultured urinary and bloodstream infections, including cephalosporin-resistant Acinetobacter species. Increasing availability of microbiology testing to inform appropriate antibiotic use, development of antimicrobial stewardship programs, and strengthening infection control practices should be high priorities.

  6. Intra-operative blood transfusion among adult surgical patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective study was designed to audit the pattern of intra-operative whole blood transfusion among adult surgical patients over a two-year period. Data were collected on the rate of intra-operative transfusion, estimated blood loss, units of donor blood transfused, pattern of use of autologous blood and circumstances ...

  7. The 24-hour profiles of thyrotropin, throxine and triiodothyronine in goitrous and goitre-free Ugandans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajubi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay with commercial assay kits in serial blood samples collected over a 24-hour period from 6 normal and 6 clinically euthyroid but goitrous male Ugandan subjects. Measurements on normal subjects revealed two peaks in plasma TSH concentration, one at about 08.00 hrs, the other at about 20.00 hrs. Plasma T4 concentrations showed two corresponding peaks, while plasma T3 concentrations showed no discernable pattern. Measurement on goitrous subjects revealed only the earlier peak in plasma TSH concentration, while the pooled mean TSH concentration was lower than in normal subjects. Plasma T4 concentrations showed two peaks, as for normal subjects, but the pooled mean T4 concentration was also lower than in normal subjects. Measurements on plasma T3 concentration again showed no discernable pattern. The significance of these findings is discussed

  8. Tuberculosis incidence and treatment completion among Ugandan prison inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitters, A.; Kaggwa, M.; Omiel, P.; Nagadya, G.; Kisa, N.; Dalal, S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African prisons. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of Ugandan prisoners diagnosed with TB from June 2011 to November 2012. We analyzed TB diagnosis, TB-HIV comorbidity and treatment completion from national registers and tracked prison transfers and releases. RESULTS A total of 469 prisoners were diagnosed with TB over the 1.5-year period (incidence 955/100 000 person-years). Of 466 prisoners starting treatment, 48% completed treatment, 43% defaulted, 5% died and 4% were currently on treatment. During treatment, 12% of prisoners remaining in the same prison defaulted, 53% of transfers defaulted and 81% of those released were lost to follow-up. The odds of defaulting were 8.36 times greater among prisoners who were transferred during treatment. CONCLUSIONS TB incidence and treatment default are high among Ugandan prisoners. Strategies to improve treatment completion and prevent multidrug resistance could include avoiding transfer of TB patients, improving communications between prisons to ensure treatment follow-up after transfer and facilitating transfer to community clinics for released prisoners. PMID:24902552

  9. Parental satisfaction in Ugandan children with cleft lip and palate following synchronous lip and palatal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Anke; D'haeseleer, Evelien; Budolfsen, Dorte; Hodges, Andrew; Galiwango, George; Vermeersch, Hubert; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present case control study was to assess parental satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Ugandan children with complete unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP), who underwent a synchronous lip and palatal closure. The results are compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. The experimental group consisted of the parents or guardians of 44 Ugandan patients (21 males, 23 females) with complete unilateral or bilateral CLP (mean age: 3;1 years). The control group included the foster mothers of 44 orphan children matched by age and gender (mean age: 3;7 years). A survey based on the Cleft Evaluation Profile was used to assess the perceived satisfaction for individual features related to cleft care. Overall high levels of satisfaction were observed in the experimental group for all features (range: 56-100%). No significant differences could be established regarding age, gender, age of lip and palatal closure, cleft type or maternal vs. paternal judgments. In participants who were dissatisfied with the appearance of the lip, the time period between the cleft closure and the survey was significantly larger compared with satisfied participants. Furthermore, significantly lower levels of satisfaction were observed in the cleft group for speech and the appearance of the teeth and the nose compared with the control group. Satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Ugandan children with cleft lip and/or palate is important since normal esthetics and speech predominantly determine the children's social acceptance in the Ugandan society. As a result of reading this manuscript, the reader will be able to explain the attitudes of parents toward the surgical repair of their children's cleft lip and palate. As a result of reading this manuscript, the reader will be able to identify differences in parental attitudes toward synchronous lip and palate repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide population structure and admixture analysis reveals weak differentiation among Ugandan goat breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Upadhyay, M.R.; Mukiibi, R.; Kanis, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Uganda has a large population of goats, predominantly from indigenous breeds reared in diverse production systems, whose existence is threatened by crossbreeding with exotic Boer goats. Knowledge about the genetic characteristics and relationships among these Ugandan goat breeds and the potential

  11. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  12. ASSOCIATION OF DAIRY CONSUMPTION AND 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE IN OLDER ADULTS WITH HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Alberto; Banegas, Jose R; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2018-05-25

    The aim was to examine the association between habitual consumption of dairy products and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring among older adults with hypertension. We conducted an analysis of 715 community-living hypertensive adults aged ≥60. Habitual dairy consumption was assessed with a validated diet history. Blood pressure was recorded by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; controlled blood pressure was defined as 24-hour blood pressure blood pressure 1.40 mm Hg higher (95% confidence interval: 0.01, 2.81) than consumers of blood pressure 1.74 mm Hg lower (95% confidence interval: -3.26, -0.23) than consumers of blood pressure was 1.83 (1.05-3.08) for those consuming ≥7 servings/wk of low-fat milk/yogurt, when comparing with consumers of blood pressure. Regular consumption of low-fat milk/yogurt was associated with lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure and with better blood pressure control among older adults with hypertension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Protein-energy malnutrition and intellectual abilities : a study of teen-age Ugandan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    This study is concerned with the relation between protein-energy malnutrition and the intellectual abilities of children in Uganda. The findings are based on the investigation of a group of 60 Ugandan boys and girls who became severely malnourished during the first 27 months of their life, resulting

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... Cardiometabolic risk among HIV-Positive Ugandan adults: prevalence, predictors and effect of ... term HIV infection, lifestyle changes, aging and the toxic effects of. ART, are ... Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured using the Omron M6 ..... guidelines on the prevention and management of metabolic.

  15. Ugandan Adolescents' Sources, Interpretation and Evaluation of Sexual Content in Entertainment Media Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Nalugya, Evangeline; Gabolya, Charles; Lagot, Sarah; Mulwanya, Richard; Kiva, Joseph; Nabasaaka, Grace; Chibita, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Although mounting evidence in Western nations indicates that entertainment media influence young people's sexual socialisation, virtually no research has addressed the topic in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study employed 14 focus groups of Ugandan high school students to identify media through which they were exposed to sexual content, how they…

  16. The relationship between visual-spatial and auditory-verbal working memory span in Senegalese and Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Boivin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC Conant et al. (1999 observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children. The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children. METHOD: In a linear regression analysis we used visual (Spatial Memory, Hand Movements and auditory (Number Recall WM along with education and physical development (weight/height as predictors. The predicted variable in this analysis was Word Order, which is a verbal memory task that has both visual and auditory memory components. RESULTS: Both the younger (8.5 yrs Ugandan children had auditory memory span (Number Recall that was strongly predictive of Word Order performance. For both the younger and older groups of Senegalese children, only visual WM span (Spatial Memory was strongly predictive of Word Order. Number Recall was not significantly predictive of Word Order in either age group. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that greater literacy from more schooling for the Ugandan age groups mediated their greater degree of interdependence between auditory and verbal WM. Our findings support those of Conant et al., who observed in their cross-cultural comparisons that stronger education seemed to enhance the dominance of the phonological-auditory processing loop for WM.

  17. The relationship between visual-spatial and auditory-verbal working memory span in Senegalese and Ugandan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Michael J; Bangirana, Paul; Shaffer, Rebecca C; Smith, Rebecca C

    2010-01-27

    Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) Conant et al. (1999) observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM) span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children. The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children. In a linear regression analysis we used visual (Spatial Memory, Hand Movements) and auditory (Number Recall) WM along with education and physical development (weight/height) as predictors. The predicted variable in this analysis was Word Order, which is a verbal memory task that has both visual and auditory memory components. Both the younger (8.5 yrs) Ugandan children had auditory memory span (Number Recall) that was strongly predictive of Word Order performance. For both the younger and older groups of Senegalese children, only visual WM span (Spatial Memory) was strongly predictive of Word Order. Number Recall was not significantly predictive of Word Order in either age group. It is possible that greater literacy from more schooling for the Ugandan age groups mediated their greater degree of interdependence between auditory and verbal WM. Our findings support those of Conant et al., who observed in their cross-cultural comparisons that stronger education seemed to enhance the dominance of the phonological-auditory processing loop for WM.

  18. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood lipids in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Van Berge-Landry, Helene M; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Nicolaisen, Nicola M; Bindon, James R; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated serum cholesterol, and aberrant lipoprotein fractions (low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein fractions and triglycerides) have all been used as measures that assess the "metabolic syndrome" and more recently in indexes of allostatic load, which are designed to assess the degree of integrated metabolic pathology. While there are ample data regarding the interrelationships of these measures in various pathophysiological settings, there are limited data regarding the interrelationship of ambulatory BP (ABP) and blood lipids in healthy subjects. The present study evaluates ABP-blood lipid relationships in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults. The subjects were 37 men (age = 40.9 ± 10.7 years) and 42 women (age = 35.8 ± 10.4 years) who were employed as hotel workers in Hawaii. Each wore an ABP monitor for one midweek workday and had pressures averaged in three daily microenvironments (work, home, and during sleep). They also had fasting blood samples taken for lipid profiling. Multivariate analysis of covariance shows that there was a strong inverse relationship between HDL and both systolic (P act as a group in healthy adults but that higher HDL is associated with lower BP. This latter finding is consistent with research that shows that HDL promotes vasodilation via its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Homophobia as a barrier to comprehensive media coverage of the Ugandan anti-homosexual bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local media. This article explores to what degree a discriminatory social environment manifests itself in the Ugandan print media and discusses the potential implications for media's coverage of contentious policy options such as the Anti-Homosexuality Bill. A content analysis of 115 items from two daily newspapers (the government-owned New Vision and the privately owned the Daily Monitor, between October and December 2009) indicates the existence of two separate house styles; this is in spite of the fact that both newspapers reproduce the surrounding society's homophobia, albeit with different frequency. Unlike the New Vision, the Daily Monitor includes coverage on homophobia and discrimination, as well as provides space for criticism of the Bill. By acknowledging discrimination and its negative impact, the newspaper de-legitimizes homophobia and problematizes the proposed Anti-homosexuality Bill for their readers.

  20. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  1. Socioeconomic predictors of cognition in Ugandan children: implications for community interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bangirana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several interventions to improve cognition in at risk children have been suggested. Identification of key variables predicting cognition is necessary to guide these interventions. This study was conducted to identify these variables in Ugandan children and guide such interventions.A cohort of 89 healthy children (45 females aged 5 to 12 years old were followed over 24 months and had cognitive tests measuring visual spatial processing, memory, attention and spatial learning administered at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Nutritional status, child's educational level, maternal education, socioeconomic status and quality of the home environment were also measured at baseline. A multivariate, longitudinal model was then used to identify predictors of cognition over the 24 months.A higher child's education level was associated with better memory (p = 0.03, attention (p = 0.005 and spatial learning scores over the 24 months (p = 0.05; higher nutrition scores predicted better visual spatial processing (p = 0.002 and spatial learning scores (p = 0.008; and a higher home environment score predicted a better memory score (p = 0.03.Cognition in Ugandan children is predicted by child's education, nutritional status and the home environment. Community interventions to improve cognition may be effective if they target multiple socioeconomic variables.

  2. Nutritional supplement practices of professional Ugandan athletes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Haruna; Zavuga, Robert; Kabenge, Peninnah Aligawesa; Makubuya, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements (NS) places athletes at great risk for inadvertent doping. Due to the paucity of data on supplement use, this study aimed to determine the proportion of Ugandan athletes using nutritional supplements and to investigate the athletes' motivation to use these supplements. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 359 professional athletes participating in individual (boxing, cycling, athletics) and team (basketball, rugby, football, netball, and volleyball) sports. The data were categorized, and a Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Of the 359 athletes, 48 (13.4%) used nutritional supplements. Carbohydrate supplements, energy drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, fish oils, and protein supplements were the most common supplements used by athletes. NS use was significantly more common among athletes who played rugby and basketball ( X 2 = 61.101, p sport for 5-10 years ( X 2 = 7.460, p = 0.024), and athletes who had attained a tertiary education ( X 2 = 33.377, p performance and health. Compared to NS use by athletes elsewhere, NS use among Ugandan athletes was low. However, determinants of athlete NS use in the current study (category of sport and duration of time spent playing the sport) are similar to those reported elsewhere.

  3. The optimal blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoning; Ross, Paul; Tori, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Glycaemic control is recognized as one of the important aspects in managing critically ill patients. Both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia independently increase the risk of patient mortality. Hence, the identification of optimal glycaemic control is of paramount importance in the management of critically ill patients. The aim of this literature review is to examine the current status of glycaemic control in critically ill adult patients. This literature review will focus on randomized controlled trials comparing intensive insulin therapy to conventional insulin therapy, with an objective to identify optimal blood glucose level targets for critically ill adult patients. A literature review was conducted to identify large randomized controlled trials for the optimal targeted blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients published since 2000. A total of eight studies fulfilled the selection criteria of this review. With current human and technology resources, the results of the studies support commencing glycaemic control once the blood glucose level of critically ill patients reaches 10 mmol/L and maintaining this level between 8 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. This literature review provides a recommendation for targeting the optimal blood glucose level for critically ill patients within moderate blood glucose level target range (8-10 mmol/L). The need for uniformed glucometrics for unbiased reporting and further research for optimal blood glucose target is required, especially in light of new technological advancements in closed-loop insulin delivery and monitoring devices. This literature review has revealed a need to call for consensus in the measurement and reporting of glycaemic control using standardized glucometrics. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment.

  5. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C. Barrett; Sim, John J.; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  6. Physical Activity, Sleep, and BMI Percentile in Rural and Urban Ugandan Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Baingana, Rhona; Ntambi, James M

    Uganda is experiencing a dual burden of over- and undernutrition, with overweight prevalence increasing while underweight remains common. Potential weight-related factors, particularly physical activity, sleep, and rural/urban status, are not currently well understood or commonly assessed in Ugandan youth. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a survey measuring weight-related factors in rural and urban Ugandan schoolchildren. A cross-sectional survey measured sociodemographics, physical activity, sleep patterns, and dietary factors in 148 rural and urban schoolchildren aged 11-16 in central Uganda. Height and weight were objectively measured. Rural and urban youth were compared on these factors using χ 2 and t tests. Regression was used to identify correlates of higher body mass index (BMI) percentile in the full sample and nonstunted youth. Youth were on average 12.1 ± 1.1 years old; underweight (10%) was more common than overweight (1.4%). Self-reported sleep duration and subjective sleep quality did not differ by rural/urban residence. Rural children overall had higher BMI percentile and marginally higher stunting prevalence. In adjusted analyses in both the full and nonstunted samples, higher BMI percentile was related to living in a rural area, higher frequency of physical activity, and higher subjective sleep quality; it was negatively related to being active on weekends. In the full sample, higher BMI percentile was also related to female gender, whereas in nonstunted youth, higher BMI was related to age. BMI percentile was unrelated to sedentary time, performance of active chores and sports, and dietary factors. This study is one of the first to pilot test a survey assessing weight-related factors, particularly physical activity and sleep, in Ugandan schoolchildren. BMI percentile was related to several sociodemographic, sleep, and physical activity factors among primarily normal-weight school children in Uganda, providing a basis for

  7. Blood parasites of frogs from an equatorial African montane forest in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readel, Anne M; Goldberg, Tony L

    2010-04-01

    In a survey of blood parasites in Ugandan frogs, 30 (17%) of 180 frogs were infected with at least 1 species of Hepatozoon or Trypanosoma, or with microfilariae. There were significant differences in the prevalence of parasitism among species, with parasitemia detected in only 3 of 9 species. The intensity of blood parasite infection ranged from 1 to 1,080 infected cells per 5,000 cells examined. Seasonal changes in the prevalence and intensity of parasitemia were not observed, nor was there any association between parasitemia and infection with the pandemic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

  8. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndugwa Christopher M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementation at paediatric HIV clinics in Uganda (http://ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122941. Zinc status was determined using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared among zinc deficient (zinc Results Of the 247 children, 134 (54.3% had low serum zinc ( Conclusion Almost two thirds of HAART naïve and a third of HAART treated HIV infected children were zinc deficient. Increased access to HAART among HIV infected children living in Uganda might reduce the prevalence of zinc deficiency.

  9. Does this adult patient with suspected bacteremia require blood cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Bryan; Morris, Andrew M; Tomlinson, George; Detsky, Allan S

    2012-08-01

    Clinicians order blood cultures liberally among patients in whom bacteremia is suspected, though a small proportion of blood cultures yield true-positive results. Ordering blood cultures inappropriately may be both wasteful and harmful. To review the accuracy of easily obtained clinical and laboratory findings to inform the decision to obtain blood cultures in suspected bacteremia. A MEDLINE and EMBASE search (inception to April 2012) yielded 35 studies that met inclusion criteria for evaluating the accuracy of clinical variables for bacteremia in adult immunocompetent patients, representing 4566 bacteremia and 25,946 negative blood culture episodes. Data were extracted to determine the prevalence and likelihood ratios (LRs) of findings for bacteremia. The pretest probability of bacteremia varies depending on the clinical context, from low (eg, cellulitis: 2%) to high (eg, septic shock: 69%). Elevated temperatures alone do not accurately predict bacteremia (for ≥38°C [>100.3°F], LR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.4]; for ≥38.5°C [>101.2°F], LR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1-2.0]), nor does isolated leukocytosis (LR, cultures should not be ordered for adult patients with isolated fever or leukocytosis without considering the pretest probability. SIRS and the decision rule may be helpful in identifying patients who do not need blood cultures. These conclusions do not apply to immunocompromised patients or when endocarditis is suspected.

  10. Blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults according to age. Measurement with positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Toshikazu; Kimori, Kokuto; Nakamura, Fuminori; Inoue, Shigehiro; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Hirasawa, Yasusuke; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2001-01-01

    To deepen understanding of hemodynamics in the femoral head, i.e., the essential factor in clarifying pathogenesis of hip disorders, this study examined blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults, and their changes with age, by using positron emission tomography (PET). In 16 healthy adult males (age: 20-78 years old, mean age: 42 years), blood flow was measured by means of the H 2 15 O dynamic study method, and blood volume was measured by means of the 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide bolus inhalation method. Blood flow was 1.68-6.47 ml/min/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.52±1.2), and blood volume was 1.67-6.03 ml/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.00±1.27). Blood flow significantly decreased (p<0.01) with age, and blood volume significantly increased (P<0.05). PET was useful in the measurement of blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads. With age, physiological hemodynamic changes also increased in femoral heads. (author)

  11. Using the area under the curve to reduce measurement error in predicting young adult blood pressure from childhood measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nancy R; Rosner, Bernard A; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2004-11-30

    Tracking correlations of blood pressure, particularly childhood measures, may be attenuated by within-person variability. Combining multiple measurements can reduce this error substantially. The area under the curve (AUC) computed from longitudinal growth curve models can be used to improve the prediction of young adult blood pressure from childhood measures. Quadratic random-effects models over unequally spaced repeated measures were used to compute the area under the curve separately within the age periods 5-14 and 20-34 years in the Bogalusa Heart Study. This method adjusts for the uneven age distribution and captures the underlying or average blood pressure, leading to improved estimates of correlation and risk prediction. Tracking correlations were computed by race and gender, and were approximately 0.6 for systolic, 0.5-0.6 for K4 diastolic, and 0.4-0.6 for K5 diastolic blood pressure. The AUC can also be used to regress young adult blood pressure on childhood blood pressure and childhood and young adult body mass index (BMI). In these data, while childhood blood pressure and young adult BMI were generally directly predictive of young adult blood pressure, childhood BMI was negatively correlated with young adult blood pressure when childhood blood pressure was in the model. In addition, racial differences in young adult blood pressure were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for childhood blood pressure, childhood BMI, and young adult BMI, suggesting that other genetic or lifestyle factors contribute to this difference. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Blood trihalomethane levels and the risk of total cancer mortality in US adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although animal data have suggested the carcinogenic activity of trihalomethanes (THMs), there is inconsistent evidence supporting the link between THM exposure and cancers in humans. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific and total blood THM levels with the risk of total cancer mortality in adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Linked Mortality File of the United States. A total of 933 adults (20–59 years of age) with available blood THM levels and no missing data for other variables were included. Four different THM species (chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform) were included, and the codes associated with cancer (malignant neoplasm) were C00 through C97, based on the underlying causes of death listed in the International Classification of Disease 10the Revision. Results: Compared with adults in the lowest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles, those in the highest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles exhibited adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of total cancer mortality of 4.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59–15.50), 4.94 (95% CI = 1.56–15.61), and 3.42 (95% CI = 1.21–15.43) respectively. The risk of total cancer mortality was not associated with increases in blood chloroform and total THM levels. Conclusions: We found that the baseline blood THM species, particularly brominated THMs, were significantly associated with total cancer mortality in adults. Although this study should be confirm by other studies, our findings suggest a possible link between THM exposures and cancer. - Highlights: • Trihalomethanes (THM) are classified as either probable or possible carcinogens. • Limited evidence on the link between THM and the incidence of cancer in humans. • We investigated the association between blood THM levels and the risk of total cancer mortality. • High

  13. Protecting Adults and Children from Blood-Borne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Nancy K.; Corning, Lisa L.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends universal precautions policies and procedures to minimize for children and adults in early childhood settings the risk of infection from exposure to blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B or HIV. Outlines symptoms of hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Discusses legal and ethical implications related to inclusion. Lists resources for teachers…

  14. Doping knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Ugandan athletes': a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Haruna; Zavuga, Robert; Kabenge, Peninnah Aligawesa

    2015-09-22

    Despite the development of advanced drug testing systems, both deliberate and inadvertent doping in sports is increasing in elite, amateur and school sports. As a result, alternative approaches that seek to influence an athlete's attitudes are needed to address the growing doping concerns that threaten both the health and well being of the athlete as well as the legitimacy of the sport. Therefore, the current study set out to establish the doping attitudes, knowledge and practices of professional Ugandan athletes, gathering information that may guide the design of more efficient doping prevention programs. This was a cross-sectional study of 384 professional Ugandan athletes from four contact team sports (basketball, football, handball and rugby) and two individual sports (athletics and cycling). An Interviewer administered questionnaire used contained; questions about the doping behavior, the performance enhancement attitude scale (PEAS), and doping use belief (DUB) statements. Approximately 60 % of the athletes reported familiarity with information on doping and that most of this information came from fellow colleagues (41.9 %), individual or team coaches (29.7 %) or the media (15.6 %). However, nearly 80 % of these athletes could not correctly define doping. The overall mean PEAS score, a measure of doping attitudes, for all study participants was 39.8 ± 14.8. Female athletes (PEAS: 41.1 ± 15.1), athletes with a prior doping history (PEAS: 44.1 ± 15.6) and athletes from the sport of athletics (PEAS: 56.6 ± 17.4) had higher mean PEAS scores than their respective counterparts. Regarding doping behaviors/practices, 9.3 % of the study participants had been offered a doping agent at some point, although only 3.9 % of the athletes acknowledged recent use. The confessed use of doping agents in this study was low, which may suggest that fewer athletes use doping agents in Uganda. However, there is still an urgent need for educational anti

  15. Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land and in water: A comparative study. AI Bello, BOA Adegoke, OA Abass, O Addo. Abstract. Objective: The study compared cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy adults in erect standing posture on land and whilst immersed in water at rest. Methods: ...

  16. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Yanfeng; Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-01-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  17. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wu, Qian [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Zhang, Yanfeng [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Jing [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  18. Association between Blood Mercury Level and Visceral Adiposity in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Suk Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFew studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations and indices of obesity in adults.MethodsA total of 200 healthy subjects, aged 30 to 64 years, who had no history of cardiovascular or malignant disease, were examined. Anthropometric and various biochemical profiles were measured. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA.ResultsAll subjects were divided into three groups according to blood mercury concentrations. Compared with the subjects in the lowest tertile of mercury, those in the highest tertile were more likely to be male; were current alcohol drinkers and smokers; had a higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and VAT; had higher levels of blood pressure, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance; and consumed more fish. The blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with anthropometric parameters, showing relationships with BMI, WC, and VAT. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratios (ORs for high mercury concentration was significantly higher in the highest VAT tertile than in the lowest VAT tertile (OR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 6.62; P<0.05.ConclusionThe blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with VAT in healthy adults. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  19. Life course path analysis of birth weight, childhood growth, and adult systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Andersen, Per Kragh; Baker, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    body size, and thereby the total effect, of size and changes in size on later outcomes. Using data on childhood body size and adult systolic blood pressure from a sample of 1,284 Danish men born between 1936 and 1970, the authors compared results from path analysis with results from 3 standard...... regression methods. Path analysis produced easily interpretable results, and compared with standard regression methods it produced a noteworthy gain in statistical power. The effect of change in relative body size on adult blood pressure was more pronounced after age 11 years than in earlier childhood....... These results suggest that increases in body size prior to age 11 years are less harmful to adult blood pressure than increases occurring after this age....

  20. Vaginal Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Is a Useful Biomarker of Semen Exposure Among HIV-Infected Ugandan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf-King, Sarah E; Muyindike, Winnie; Hobbs, Marcia M; Kusasira, Adrine; Fatch, Robin; Emenyonu, Nneka; Johnson, Mallory O; Hahn, Judith A

    2017-07-01

    The practical feasibility of using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker of semen exposure was examined among HIV-infected Ugandan women. Vaginal fluids were obtained with self-collected swabs and a qualitative rapid test (ABAcard ® p30) was used to detect PSA. Trained laboratory technicians processed samples on-site and positive PSA tests were compared to self-reported unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) in the last 48 h. A total of 77 women submitted 126 samples for PSA testing at up to three study visits. Of these samples, 31 % (n = 39/126) were PSA positive, and 64 % (n = 25/39) of the positive PSA samples were accompanied by self-report of no UVS at the study visit the PSA was collected. There were no reported difficulties with specimen collection, storage, or processing. These findings provide preliminary data on high levels of misreported UVS among HIV-infected Ugandan women using practically feasible methods for PSA collection and processing.

  1. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion. Nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den [Laser Centre and Department of Obstetrics, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A [Division of Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Lopriore, Enrico [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.vangemert@amc.uva.nl

    2008-07-07

    Recently, we derived equations relating the flow of adult red blood cells through a placental arterio-venous anastomosis with intra-uterine and post-natal measured adult hemoglobin concentrations. In this letter, we re-derived the equations, now including a more realistic nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells, and re-evaluated the measurement accuracy of the arterio-venous flow and the lifetime of the red blood cells. (letter to the editor)

  2. Temporal stability of blood lead concentrations in adults exposed only to environmental lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delves, H T; Sherlock, J C; Quinn, M J

    1984-08-01

    The temporal stability of blood lead concentrations of 21 health adults (14 men and 7 women) exposed only to environmental lead was assessed by analysis of 253 blood specimens collected serially over periods from 7 to 11 months. The women had lower blood lead concentrations (mean 8.5, range 7.4-10.8 micrograms/100 ml) than did the men (mean 12.2, range 8.6-15.8 micrograms/100 ml). These are within the expected ranges for non-occupationally exposed persons. Blood lead concentrations in the serial specimens from both men and women changed very little over the study period, with standard deviations of less than 0.5 micrograms/100 ml for the majority of individual mean concentrations: for all except low subjects the standard deviations were less than 0.8 micrograms/100 ml. Two subjects showed significant changes in blood lead concentrations during the study. A temporary increase in oral lead intake was identified for one of these subjects. In the absence of substantial changes in lead exposure blood lead levels in adults are remarkably stable and for their environmental monitoring a single blood lead concentration is an excellent biological indicator.

  3. Integrating Emerging Technologies in Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances in K-12 Schools in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2015-01-01

    Schools in New York City have made attempts to embrace and support the strand of "making connections", which is laid out in the New York City Department of Dance blueprint for teaching and learning in dance for grades PreK-12. Accordingly, some schools have integrated Ugandan traditional dances into the dance curriculum, and dance…

  4. Control beliefs and health locus of control in Ugandan, German and migrated sub-Saharan African HIV infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, Ruth U; Husstedt, Ingo-W; Reichelt, Doris; Evers, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the influence of control beliefs on antiretroviral drug adherence in patients who migrated from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in health locus of control and control beliefs between HIV infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa with and without a lifetime experience of migration. A sample of 62 HIV infected consecutive patients referred to the HIV clinics at the University Hospital of Münster (Germany) and at the Rubaga Hospital Kampala (Uganda) were enrolled into this study. We compared three groups of patients: sub-Saharan African migrants, German patients, and local Ugandan patients. We used the German health and illness related control beliefs questionnaire (KKG), the Competence and control beliefs questionnaire (FKK), and the Powe Fatalism Inventory-HIV/AIDS-Version (PFI-HIV/AIDS-Version) and translated these scales into English and Luganda. In addition, the patients' sociodemographic, acculturation, clinical, and immunological data were registered. Significant results were shown in HIV related external locus of control between migrated sub-Saharan African and local Ugandan patients compared to German patients. General control beliefs showed no significant differences. In the PFI-HIV-Version, there was a significant difference between migrated sub-Saharan African and Ugandan patients compared to German patients. Our data suggest that the experience of migration does not influence the locus of control. Compared to German HIV patients, African patients in general showed a significantly higher external health locus of control which might have implications for drug adherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of Bubble CPAP in a Rural Ugandan Neonatal ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Ryan M; Hedstrom, Anna B; DiBlasi, Robert M; Mant, Jill E; Nyonyintono, James; Otai, Christine D; Lester, Debbie A; Batra, Maneesh

    2015-03-01

    Respiratory distress is a leading cause of neonatal death in low-income and middle-income countries. CPAP is a simple and effective respiratory support modality used to support neonates with respiratory failure and can be used in low-income and middle-income countries. The goal of this study was to describe implementation of the Silverman-Andersen respiratory severity score (RSS) and bubble CPAP in a rural Ugandan neonatal NICU. We sought to determine whether physicians and nurses in a low-income/middle-income setting would assign similar RSS in neonates after an initial training period and over time. We describe the process of training NICU staff to use the RSS to assist in decision making regarding initiation, titration, and termination of bubble CPAP for neonates with respiratory distress. Characteristics of all neonates with respiratory failure treated with bubble CPAP in a rural Ugandan NICU from January to June 2012 are provided. Nineteen NICU staff members (4 doctors and 15 nurses) received RSS training. After this, the Spearman correlation coefficient for respiratory severity scoring between doctor and nurse was 0.73. Twenty-one infants, all CPAP, with 17 infants starting on the day of birth. The majority of infants (16/21, 76%) were preterm, 10 (48%) were CPAP, 5.2 ± 2.3 after 2-4 h of CPAP, 4.9 ± 2.7 after 12-24 h of CPAP, and 3.5 ± 1.9 before CPAP was discontinued. Duration of treatment with CPAP averaged 79 ± 43 h. Approximately half (11/21, 52%) of infants treated with CPAP survived to discharge. Implementing bubble CPAP in a low-income/middle-income setting is feasible. The RSS may be a simple and useful tool for monitoring a neonate's respiratory status and for guiding CPAP management. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Effects of neighborhood socioeconomic status on blood pressure in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Jakovljevic Pudla Wagner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test if the neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension in older adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study with a sample of 1,705 older adults from Florianópolis, SC, Southern Brazil. The contextual variable used was the average years of schooling of the head of the household in census tracts. Participants were considered hypertensive when the systolic blood pressure was ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg, or both. Additionally, the use of antihypertensive medication was also considered. Data were analyzed by using multilevel models of logistic and linear regression. RESULTS The average age of the sample was 70.7 years and the average of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 133.5 mmHg (SD = 20.5 mmHg and 81.9 mmHg (SD = 12.5 mmHg, respectively. The systolic blood pressure was 4.46 mmHg (95%CI 1.00–7.92 higher and the chance of hypertension was 1.80 (95%CI 1.26–2.57 among those who lived in census tracts with lower level of schooling. When the use of antihypertensive medication was combined with blood pressure levels, none association was found between the outcome and the level of schooling of the census tract. CONCLUSIONS Analytical models more robust (such as multilevel analysis in Brazil are still little used, with a small number of articles published. Neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with systolic blood pressure and the chance of hypertension, regardless of individual characteristics.

  7. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkrajang, P; Chinswangwatanakul, W; Mokkhamakkun, C; Chuangsuwanich, N; Wesarachkitti, B; Thaowto, B; Laiwejpithaya, S; Komkhum, O

    2018-04-28

    Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples were taken from healthy adults aged 18-60 years that attended a health check-up program at our hospital during February 2015 to July 2015. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population. The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Gender difference in blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol in young adults with comparable routine physical exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Anish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gender differences in the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCD are a matter of debate. The susceptibility of a woman to NCD should be evaluated taking into consideration the social factors that limit the physical activity among women. It will be interesting to note what will happen if women are allowed to take part in physical exercise to the extent of men. Aims: To find out the gender difference in the pattern of the clinical and biochemical indices related to NCD in young adults with comparable daily physical activity. Settings and Design: This is an institution-based cross-sectional study and the setting was Lekshmibhai National College for Physical Education (LNCPE, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: The study participants were students who were regularly involved in more than three hours of physical exercise daily at least for the previous one year. The information on socio-demography, anthropometry, and blood pressure was recorded. Blood samples were taken for laboratory examination. Results: Out of 150 students registered, 126 (84% in the age group of 17 to 25 years who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were studied. Fifty-five (43.7% of them were women. Systolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and low-density lipoprotein were found significantly lower in women. No significant difference was noted in the case of diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Conclusion: Gender differences exist for NCD risk factors among young adults with comparable physical activity and physical exertion seems to be more protective for females.

  9. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  10. Changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Cunha, Raphael; Raiana Bentes, Mariana; Araújo, Victor H; DA Costa Souza, Mayara C; Vasconcelos Noleto, Marcelo; Azevedo Soares, Ademar; Machado Lehnen, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Blood glucose changes response during and after exercise are modulated by the postabsorptive state, intensity and duration of exercise, and the level of physical fitness as well. This study focused on the idea that high-intensity interval exercise, as mini-trampoline class, can reduce blood glucose. Thus, we examined acute changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session. Twenty-four normoglycemic adult subjects were enrolled in the study. After physical assessment they were randomly assigned to either the experimental (N.=12) or the control group (N.=12). The experimental group performed a 50-minute session of moderate-to-high intensity (70 to 85% HRmax) exercise on a mini-trampoline commonly used in fitness classes. The control group did not perform any exercise, and all procedures were otherwise similar to the experimental group. Capillary blood glucose was measured before and every 15 minutes during the exercise session. The effects of exercise on blood glucose levels (group; time; and group interaction) were estimated using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc Test (Ptrampoline can be used for reducing blood glucose levels and thus can potentially control blood glucose.

  11. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Mahmood, Shakil; Manirujjaman, M; Perveen, Rasheda; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim; Khanum, Farida Adib; Rahman, Mustafizur

    2017-07-25

    Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555-560, 2004) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in male (12.1%) than in the female (3.4%) students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI), as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adult students. The

  12. Minor drug-resistant HIV type-1 variants in breast milk and plasma of HIV type-1-infected Ugandan women after nevirapine single-dose prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Daniel; Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Mugenyi, Kizito; Kabasinguzi, Rose; Somogyi, Sybille; Harms, Gundel; Kunz, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) reduces mother-to-child transmission of HIV type-1 (HIV-1), but frequently induces resistance mutations in the HIV-1 genome. Little is known about drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in the breast milk of women who have taken NVP-SD. Blood and breast milk samples of 39 HIV-1-infected Ugandan women were taken 6-12 weeks after NVP-SD intake. Samples were analysed by population sequencing and allele-specific real-time PCR (AS-PCR) with detection limits for NVP-resistant HIV-1 variants (K103N and Y181C) of D n = 5, G n = 2 and C n = 1). A total of 7 (37%) and 10 (53%) women carried NVP-resistant virus in breast milk and plasma, respectively. Overall, 71% (5/7) women with NVP-resistant HIV-1 in breast milk displayed >1 drug-resistant variant. Resistance in breast milk was higher at week 6 (6/13 samples [46%]) compared with week 12 (1/6 samples [17%]). In total, 10 drug-resistant populations harbouring the K103N and/or Y181C mutation were detected in the 19 breast milk samples; 7 (70%) were caused by resistant minorities (< 5% of the total HIV-1 population). In the four women with drug-resistant virus in both plasma and breast milk, the mutation patterns differed between the two compartments. Minor populations of drug-resistant HIV-1 were frequently found in breast milk of Ugandan women after exposure to NVP-SD. Further studies need to explore the role of minor drug-resistant variants in the postnatal transmission of (resistant) HIV-1.

  13. The orphaning experience: descriptions from Ugandan youth who have lost parents to HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssebunnya Joshua

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic has continued to pose significant challenges to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of African children and youth have lost parents to HIV/AIDS leaving a generation of orphans to be cared for within extended family systems and communities. The experiences of youth who have lost parents to the HIV/AIDS epidemic provide an important ingress into this complex, evolving, multi-dimensional phenomenon. A fundamental qualitative descriptive study was conducted to develop a culturally relevant and comprehensive description of the experiences of orphanhood from the perspectives of Ugandan youth. A purposeful sample of 13 youth who had lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS and who were affiliated with a non-governmental organization providing support to orphans were interviewed. Youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS described the experience of orphanhood beginning with parental illness, not death. Several losses were associated with the death of a parent including lost social capitol, educational opportunities and monetary assets. Unique findings revealed that youth experienced culturally specific stigma and conflict which was distinctly related to their HIV/AIDS orphan status. Exploitation within extended cultural family systems was also reported. Results from this study suggest that there is a pressing need to identify and provide culturally appropriate services for these Ugandan youth prior to and after the loss of a parent(s.

  14. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  15. Comparison of Stored Umbilical Cord Blood and Adult Donor Blood: Transfusion Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola Sahyoun-tokan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the storage properties of red blood cell (RBC concentrates of umbilical cord blood (UCB and adult donor blood (ADB, and to evaluate the feasibility of UCB-RBC concentrate as an autologous source for blood transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW preterm neonates. METHODS: In all, 30 newborn (10 preterm, 20 full term UCB and 31 ADB units were collected. RBC concentrates were stored and compared with regard to pH, potassium (K+, 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2-3-BPG, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, plasma Hb, and bacterial contamination on d 1, 21, and 35 of storage. RESULTS: The K+ level increased with time and differed significantly between storage d 1 and 21, and between storage d 1 and 35 in both the UCB and ADB units. Initial and d 21 K+ levels were higher in the UCB units than in the ADB units. The 2,3-BPG level did not differ significantly between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. After 35 d of storage both UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples exhibited significant differences from the initial free Hb, intracellular ATP, and pH values. Significant differences in intracellular ATP and pH were also observed between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. CONCLUSION: The volume of harvested and prepared UCB-PRC can be used for some of the blood transfusions required during the neonatal period and thus may decrease the number of allogeneic transfusions, especially in preterm newborns. The hematological and biochemical changes that occurred in UCB during storage were comparable with those observed in ADB, and do not pose a risk to the immature metabolism of neonates. UCB-RPC prepared and stored under standard conditions can be a safe alternative RBC source for transfusions in VLBW newborns.

  16. Culture, Context and Stereotype Threat: A Comparative Analysis of Young Ugandan Women in Coed and Single-Sex Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picho, Katherine; Stephens, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST) has been linked to under performance and academic disidentification among girls in mathematics and science as well as African Americans in academics. However, it is still unclear whether ST and its negative effects extend to non-Western cultures. The authors explored the effects of ST on Ugandan females in coed and…

  17. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555–560, 2004 that basal metabolic rate (BMR and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. Method The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Results Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence in male (12.1% than in the female (3.4% students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI, as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001. Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. Conclusion This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors

  18. Aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in adult healthy Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.

  19. Influence of Child and Adult Elevated Blood Pressure on Adult Arterial Stiffness: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatola, Heikki; Koivistoinen, Teemu; Tuominen, Heikki; Juonala, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina

    2017-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) in childhood has been associated with increased adult arterial stiffness, the independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The favorable BP change from childhood to adulthood and the risk of high adult arterial stiffness has not been reported. We examined the effect of child and adult BP on pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessed in adulthood among 1540 white adults followed-up for 27 years since baseline (1980, aged 6-18 years). Childhood elevated BP was defined according to the tables from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. In adulthood, BP was classified as elevated if systolic BP ≥120 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg, or self-reported use of antihypertensive medications. PWV was measured in 2007 by whole-body impedance cardiography, and high PWV was defined as values at or above the age-, sex-, and heart rate-specific 80th percentile. Individuals with persistently elevated BP and individuals with normal child but elevated adult BP had increased risk of high adult PWV (relative risk [95% confidence interval], 3.18 [2.22-4.55] and 2.64 [1.79-3.88], respectively) in comparison with individuals with normal (both child and adult) BP. In contrast, individuals with elevated BP in childhood but not in adulthood did not have significantly increased risk of high PWV (relative risk [95% confidence interval], 1.26[0.80-1.99]). The results were consistent when different definitions for child and adult elevated BP were applied. These findings highlight the importance of BP control in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kirk, Martyn; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use). Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use), were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51), high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39), and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33), but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16). We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  1. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalin Rimpeekool

    Full Text Available Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers.A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use. Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake.Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use, were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51, high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39, and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33, but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16.We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  2. The influence of obesity on blood mercury levels for U.S. non-pregnant adults and children: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Korrick, Susan A; Fayad, Raja

    2015-04-01

    In animal studies obesity is associated with higher blood and tissue mercury concentrations; however human studies are lacking. Although the mechanism underlying this association is uncertain, obesity may alter the metabolism and distribution of methylmercury. We determined whether obesity influenced blood mercury levels, the majority of which was methylmercury, for U.S. non-pregnant adults (≥20 years) and children (2-19 years) after controlling for methylmercury intake through fish and shellfish consumption, and other confounders. We completed secondary data analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) for participants who consumed fish/shellfish within 24h of blood collection for mercury analysis. Weighted least squares regression models related blood mercury levels (the dependent variable) to methylmercury exposure (μg) from fish consumed in the previous 24h, body mass index (BMI) (for adults), BMI z-scores (for children), and other confounders. In adjusted models, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI for adults [β, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.54 (-0.90, -0.18)]. For children, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI z-scores but the trend was not significant [β (95% CI)=-0.016 (-0.066, 0.035)]. When obese adults or children were compared with those who were overweight/normal weight, blood mercury averaged 22% lower for obese adults (95% CI: -33%, -8.2%), while blood mercury did not differ significantly for obese children [β (95% CI)=-1.7% (-31%, +39%)]. After adjusting for the main, if not exclusive, exogenous source of methylmercury exposure (through fish/shellfish intake) and other confounders, our results support potential changes in the metabolism, distribution or excretion of methylmercury with increasing BMI (for adults). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quotas and women's substantive representation: Evidence from a content analysis of Ugandan plenary debates

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Amanda; Josefsson, Cecilia; Wang, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Despite the popularity of electoral gender quotas, the substantive impact of quotas on the plenary behavior of members of parliament (MPs) has yet to be thoroughly empirically explored, and in particular, there is a dearth of evidence from non-Western cases. Here we create a unique content analysis dataset from 14 years (1998–2011) of plenary debates, including the contents of more than 150,000 unique MP speeches recorded in some 40,000 pages of the Ugandan parliamentary Hansard to test how M...

  4. [Study on relationship between prevalence or co-prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood pressure level in adults in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z H; Zhang, M; Li, Y C; Zhao, Z P; Zhang, X; Huang, Z J; Li, C; Wang, L M

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood pressure level and major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adults in China. Methods: A total of 179 347 adults aged ≥18 years were recruited from 298 surveillance points in 31 provinces in China in 2013 through complex multistage stratified sampling. The survey included face to face interview and physical examination to collect information about risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, diet pattern, physical activity, overweight or obesity, and the prevalence of hypertension. The blood pressure was classified into 6 levels (ideal blood pressure, normal blood pressure, normal high blood pressure and hypertension phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ). The relationship between the prevalence or co-prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood pressure was analyzed. Results: The adults with ideal blood pressure, normal blood pressure, normal high pressure, hypertension phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ accounted for 36.14 % , 22.77 % , 16.22 % , 16.43 % , 5.97 % and 2.48 % , respectively. Among them, the blood pressure was higher in men, people in Han ethnic group and those married, and the blood pressure was higher in those with older age, lower income level and lower education level, the differences were all significant ( P blood pressure levels of both sexes ( P blood pressure levels of those taking no antihypertensive drug was influenced more by the co-prevalence of risk factors. Finally, multiple logistic analysis showed that the risks for high blood pressure in adults with 1, 2 and ≥3 risk factors were 1.36, 1.79 and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than that of the adults without risk factor. Conclusion: The more the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults, the higher their blood pressure were. It is necessary to conduct comprehensive behavior intervention targeting ≥ 2 risk factors for the better control of blood pressure in general population.

  5. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  6. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  7. Measurement of blood flow in the carotid arteries using color doppler in healthy Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ki Ho; Jeon, Do Ig; Choi, Chang Ho; Ro, Young Jin; Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow patterns and velocities of the carotid arteries in healthy Korean adults. We evaluated the blood flow patterns and measured the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the common, internal and external carotid arteries in 48 healthy adults who did not have cardiovascular disorders and neck lesions. The velocity difference was analyzed according to different age groups. In addition, peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery was estimated, and our data were compared with values reported by other authors. Generally, the velocity in the younger age group tends be to higher than in older group. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocities of the internal carotid artery were 84.5 cm/sec and 30.5 cm/sec. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery were 0.715 and 0.966. The internal carotid artery was less resistant in blood flow than the external carotid artery. Our data were lower than the values which were reported by Bluth et al. The blood flow velocities of the internal carotid artery in healthy adults were lower than those of previous reported foreign values, but the patterns were similar

  8. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion. Nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Pasman, Suzanne A.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-07-01

    Recently, we derived equations relating the flow of adult red blood cells through a placental arterio-venous anastomosis with intra-uterine and post-natal measured adult hemoglobin concentrations. In this letter, we re-derived the equations, now including a more realistic nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells, and re-evaluated the measurement accuracy of the arterio-venous flow and the lifetime of the red blood cells.

  9. Cytokine production by oral and peripheral blood neutrophils in adult periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, G M; Hagan, C; Steed, R B; Sanders, J J; Javed, T

    1997-09-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) also possess bone-resorptive properties, and are generally considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In the present study, TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production by oral and peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was examined in 40 patients with adult periodontitis and 40 orally healthy matched controls. Oral PMN released considerable amounts of both cytokines in unstimulated culture, and there was no difference between patients and controls when the cytokine levels were corrected for cell number. However, when the effect of disease activity was examined, cytokine release by oral PMN was found to be greatest in patients with advanced periodontitis. Within the healthy control group, IL-1 beta production by oral PMN was significantly higher in males (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.0008). Examination of IL-1 beta production by peripheral blood PMN exposed to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor revealed no difference between the patient and control groups. In contrast, IL-1 beta production by peripheral blood PMN was significantly reduced in patients with advanced disease (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.02), and peripheral PMN IL-1 beta synthesis was greater in female controls (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.054). No effect of race on cytokine production could be discerned in patients or controls. These results indicate that several factors influence cytokine production in oral health and disease, and that a dichotomy in cytokine gene expression exists between oral and peripheral blood PMN in adult periodontitis.

  10. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  11. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  12. Comparison of stored umbilical cord blood and adult donor blood: transfusion feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokan, Rola Sahyoun; Arsan, Saadet; Erdeve, Omer; Solaz, Nuri; Avcı, Aslıhan; Ulkar, Serenay Elgün; Gülyapar, Elif; Ustünyurt, Zeynep; Bıyıklı, Zeynep; Kemahlı, Sabri

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the storage properties of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates of umbilical cordblood (UCB) and adult donor blood (ADB), and to evaluate the feasibility of UCB-RBC concentrate as an autologoussource for blood transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates. In all, 30 newborn (10 preterm, 20 full term) UCB and 31 ADB units were collected.RBC concentrates were stored and compared with regard to pH, potassium (K(+)), 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2-3-BPG),adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), plasma Hb, and bacterial contamination on d 1, 21, and 35 of storage. The K(+) level increased with time and differed significantly between storage d 1 and 21, and between storaged 1 and 35 in both the UCB and ADB units. Initial and d 21 K(+) levels were higher in the UCB units than in the ADBunits. The 2,3-BPG level did not differ significantly between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. After 35 d of storageboth UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples exhibited significant differences from the initial free Hb, intracellular ATP, andpH values. Significant differences in intracellular ATP and pH were also observed between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRCsamples. The volume of harvested and prepared UCB-PRC can be used for some of the blood transfusions requiredduring the neonatal period and thus may decrease the number of allogeneic transfusions, especially in preterm newborns.The hematological and biochemical changes that occurred in UCB during storage were comparable with those observedin ADB, and do not pose a risk to the immature metabolism of neonates. UCB-RPC prepared and stored under standardconditions can be a safe alternative RBC source for transfusions in VLBW newborns.

  13. The effect of malnutrition on the pharmacokinetics and virologic outcomes of lopinavir, efavirenz and nevirapine in food insecure HIV-infected children in Tororo, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Imke H; Savic, Rada M; Dorsey, Grant; Ruel, Theodore; Gingrich, David; Scherpbier, Henriette J; Capparelli, Edmund; Jullien, Vincent; Young, Sera L; Achan, Jane; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Aweeka, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Malnutrition may impact the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of antiretroviral medications and virologic responses in HIV-infected children. The authors therefore evaluated the PK of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV) in associations with nutritional status in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan children. Sparse dried blood spot samples from Ugandan children were used to estimate plasma concentrations. Historical PK data from children from 3 resource-rich countries (RRC) were utilized to develop the PK models. Concentrations in 330 dried blood spot from 163 Ugandan children aged 0.7-7 years were analyzed in reference to plasma PK data (1189 samples) from 204 children from RRC aged 0.5-12 years. Among Ugandan children, 48% was malnourished (underweight, thin or stunted). Compared to RRC, Ugandan children exhibited reduced bioavailability of EFV and LPV; 11% (P=0.045) and 18% (P=0.008), respectively. In contrast, NVP bioavailability was 46% higher in Ugandan children (PChildren receiving LPV, EFV or NVP had comparable risk of virologic failure. Among children on NVP, low height and weight for age Z scores were associated with reduced risk of virologic failure (P=0.034, P=0.068, respectively). Ugandan children demonstrated lower EFV and LPV and higher NVP exposure compared to children in RRC, perhaps reflecting the consequence of malnutrition on bioavailability. In children receiving NVP, the relation between exposure, malnutrition and outcome turned out to be marginally significant. Further investigations are warranted using more intensive PK measurements and adequate adherence assessments, to further assess causes of virologic failure in Ugandan children.

  14. Short-term effect of short, intensive speech therapy on articulation and resonance in Ugandan patients with cleft (lip and) palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anke Luyten; H. Vermeersch; A. Hodges; K. Bettens; K. van Lierde; G. Galiwango

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to assess the short-term effectiveness of short and intensive speech therapy provided to patients with cleft (lip and) palate (C(L)P) in terms of articulation and resonance. Methods: Five Ugandan patients (age: 7.3-19.6 years) with non-syndromic C(L)P

  15. Measuring the Degree of Monopsony Power in the EU Fish Importing Industry: Implications for Ugandan Fresh and Chilled Fish Fillet Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Although France, Belgium and the Netherlands import a significant percentage of chilled fish fillet from Uganda, results suggest no significant degree of monopsony power is exercised by these countries. If Ugandan firms export to a few countries the competitive price should still prevail if there are many importing firms.

  16. Evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention program to decrease blood pressure in low-income African-American older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Page, G; Piferi, R L; Gill, J M; Hayat, M J; Connolly, A B; Szanton, S L

    2012-04-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults.While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based program for low income, minority older adults provided in residence. The secondary purpose was to learn if the mindfulness-based program produced differences in blood pressure between the intervention and control groups. Participants were at least 62 years old and residents of a low-income senior residence. All participants were African-American, and one was male.Twenty participants were randomized to the mindfulness-based intervention or a social support control group of the same duration and dose. Blood pressure was measured with the Omron automatic blood pressure machine at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. A multivariate regression analysis was performed on the difference in scores between baseline and post-intervention blood pressure measurements, controlling for age,education, smoking status, and anti-hypertensive medication use. Effect sizes were calculated to quantify the magnitude of the relationship between participation in the mindfulness-based intervention and the outcome variable, blood pressure. Attendance remained 980%in all 8 weeks of both the intervention and the control groups. The average systolic blood pressure decreased for both groups post-intervention. Individuals in the intervention group exhibited a 21.92-mmHg lower systolic blood pressure compared to the social support control group post-intervention and this value was statistically significant(p=0.020). The average diastolic blood pressure decreased in the

  17. Health Risks in Same-Sex Attracted Ugandan University Students: Evidence from Two Cross-Sectional Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Agardh

    Full Text Available Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group's health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study aimed to systematically examine prevalence of same-sex sexuality and related health risks in young Ugandan adults. We conducted two cross-sectional survey studies in south-western Uganda targeting student samples (n = 980, n = 1954 representing 80% and 72% of the entire undergraduate classes attending a university in 2005 and 2010, respectively. A questionnaire assessed items concerning same-sex sexuality (same-sex attraction/fantasies, same-sex sexual relations, mental health, substance use, experience of violence, risky sexual behavior, and sexual health counseling needs. Our findings showed that same-sex sexual attraction/fantasies and behavior were common among male and female students, with 10-25% reporting having sexual attraction/fantasies regarding persons of the same-sex, and 6-16% reporting same-sex sexual relations. Experiences of same-sex sexuality were associated with health risks, e.g. poor mental health (2010, AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3, sexual coercion (2010, AOR 2.9; CI: 1.9-4.6, and unmet sexual health counseling needs (2010, AOR 2.2; CI: 1.4-3.3. This first study of young adults in Uganda with same-sex sexuality found high levels of health needs but poor access to health care. Effective response is likely to require major shifts in current policy, efforts to reduce stigmatization, and reorientation of health services to better meet the needs of this vulnerable group of young people.

  18. Health Risks in Same-Sex Attracted Ugandan University Students: Evidence from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, Anette; Ross, Michael; Östergren, Per-Olof; Larsson, Markus; Tumwine, Gilbert; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Simpson, Julie A.; Patton, George

    2016-01-01

    Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group’s health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study aimed to systematically examine prevalence of same-sex sexuality and related health risks in young Ugandan adults. We conducted two cross-sectional survey studies in south-western Uganda targeting student samples (n = 980, n = 1954) representing 80% and 72% of the entire undergraduate classes attending a university in 2005 and 2010, respectively. A questionnaire assessed items concerning same-sex sexuality (same-sex attraction/fantasies, same-sex sexual relations), mental health, substance use, experience of violence, risky sexual behavior, and sexual health counseling needs. Our findings showed that same-sex sexual attraction/fantasies and behavior were common among male and female students, with 10–25% reporting having sexual attraction/fantasies regarding persons of the same-sex, and 6–16% reporting same-sex sexual relations. Experiences of same-sex sexuality were associated with health risks, e.g. poor mental health (2010, AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.3), sexual coercion (2010, AOR 2.9; CI: 1.9–4.6), and unmet sexual health counseling needs (2010, AOR 2.2; CI: 1.4–3.3). This first study of young adults in Uganda with same-sex sexuality found high levels of health needs but poor access to health care. Effective response is likely to require major shifts in current policy, efforts to reduce stigmatization, and reorientation of health services to better meet the needs of this vulnerable group of young people. PMID:26982494

  19. An innovative simple technique of blood conservation in adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot and severely raised hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-12-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients because of the fear of possible hemodynamic instability, and hypoxemic spell. We describe an innovative, simple technique of blood conservation for adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot with severely raised hemoglobin. With this technique, hemoglobin can be normalized on CPB; moreover, there is no fear of hypoxemic spell or hemodynamic instability. Furthermore, the blood conserved is readily available for transfusion in the perioperative period, if needed.

  20. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  1. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  2. A Cardiopulmonary Bypass Based Blood Management Strategy in Adult Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Ali Baran; McCusker, Kevin; Gunaydin, Serdar

    2017-10-24

    Despite the recent introduction of a number of technical and pharmacologic blood conservation measures, bleeding and allogeneic transfusion remain persistent problems in open-heart surgical procedures. Efforts should be made to decrease or completely avoid transfusions to avoid these negative reactions. Our coronary artery bypass grafting database was reviewed retrospectively and a total of 243 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied in a 12-month period (January-December 2016) after the implementation of the new program, and compared with 275 patients of the previous 12-month period.All the staff involved in the care of the patients were educated about the risks and benefits of blood transfusions and the new transfusion guidelines in a 45-min training. We revised our guidelines for transfusions based on the STS. A transfusion log was created. Reduction in IV fluid volume was targeted. CPB circuitry was redesigned to achieve significantly less prime volume. Results: The proportion of patients transfused with red blood cells was 56% (n =154) in the control group and reduced by 26.8% in the study group (29.2%; 71 patients; P conservation group.  Conclusion: These findings, in addition to risks and side effects of blood transfusion and the rising cost of safer blood products, justify blood conservation in adult cardiac operations.

  3. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  4. The Current Working Conditions in Ugandan Apparel Assembly Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebyetekerwa, Mike; Akankwasa, Nicholus Tayari; Marriam, Ifra

    2017-12-01

    The present rapid shift of industrialization from developed to developing countries requires developing countries to understand issues related to work organization, management, and working conditions. There are many factors slackening production, of which working conditions is part. A complete inquiry into the workers' working conditions can enable managements to reduce risks in the workplaces and improve productivity. Understanding and awareness of the benefits of workplace research and a probe into the working conditions in the Ugandan apparel assembly plants are urgently required. A total of 103 (70 women and 33 men) workers from five different plants were interviewed. Together with the top management of various plants, questionnaires about the workers' opinions of their physical working conditions were prepared. Data was collected using two methods: (1) questionnaire; and (2) observation of the workers during their work. The results indicated that poor plant working conditions were mainly contributed by the workers' social factors and the management policies. The government, together with the management, should work to improve the working conditions in the apparel assembly plants, as it greatly affects both.

  5. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Ashley; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-11-01

    In healthy normal-weight adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, is commonly observed in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare declines in postprandial glycemic response in normal-weight and obese subjects with ingestion of 6 g ground cinnamon. In a crossover study, subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate in instant farina cereal, served plain or with 6 g ground cinnamon. Blood glucose concentration, the main outcome measure, was assessed at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) group, dietary condition, and time on blood glucose. Paired t-test assessed blood glucose at individual time points and glucose area under the curve (AUC) between dietary conditions. Thirty subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, 15 with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 and 15 with BMIs of 30.0 or more, completed the study. There was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two BMI groups at any time point. However, in a combined analysis of all subjects, the addition of cinnamon to the cereal significantly reduced 120-minute glucose AUC (P=0.008) and blood glucose at 15 (P=0.001), 30 (Pblood glucose was significantly higher with cinnamon consumption (Pglucose response in normal weight and obese adults. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV 1 /FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R 2 =0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV 1 /FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations

  7. Emotional-motivational barriers to blood donation among Togolese adults: a structural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinon, K; Gbati, K; Sorum, P C; Mullet, E

    2014-02-01

    Although the number of blood donors has been rapidly increasing in Togo since 2003, it is nevertheless insufficient to cover the demand. To increase needed blood donation in Togo, it is necessary to understand why most people are reluctant to do it. A sample of 400 adult volunteers in Lomé, mostly university educated, rated, on a scale of 0-10, the relevance to them of a comprehensive list of reasons that might deter people from donating blood. The ratings of 250 participants were subjected to factor analysis, and the resulting factorial structure was confirmed on the ratings of the other 150 participants. The resulting six factors were labelled (in order of their ratings of a representative sample of items): Lack of Courage and Lack of Information (mean 5·43 of 10), Concerns about the Use of Blood (4·72), Risk Aversion (4·37), Fear of Medical Settings (2·41), Conformity with Tradition (1·88) and Indifference to Others and Hostility to the Procedure (1·69). To increase blood donation, a public information campaign should address the emotional-motivational barriers found even in the most educated segment of Togolese society. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  8. Readiness of Ugandan health services for the management of outpatients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katende, David; Mutungi, Gerald; Baisley, Kathy; Biraro, Samuel; Ikoona, Eric; Peck, Robert; Smeeth, Liam; Hayes, Richard; Munderi, Paula; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, health systems in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on acute conditions. Few data exist on the readiness of African health facilities (HFs) to address the growing burden of chronic diseases (CDs), specifically chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). A stratified random sample of 28 urban and rural Ugandan HFs was surveyed to document the burden of selected CDs by analysing the service statistics, service availability and service readiness using a modified WHO Service Availability and Readiness Assessment questionnaire. Knowledge, skills and practice in the management of CDs of 222 health workers were assessed through a self-completed questionnaire. Among adult outpatient visits at hospitals, 33% were for CDs including HIV vs. 14% and 4% at medium-sized and small health centres, respectively. Many HFs lacked guidelines, diagnostic equipment and essential medicines for the primary management of CDs; training and reporting systems were weak. Lower-level facilities routinely referred patients with hypertension and diabetes. HIV services accounted for most CD visits and were stronger than NCD services. Systems were weaker in lower-level HFs. Non-doctor clinicians and nurses lacked knowledge and experience in NCD care. Compared with higher level HFs, lower-level ones are less prepared and little used for CD care. Health systems in Uganda, particularly lower-level HFs, urgently need improvement in managing common NCDs to cope with the growing burden. This should include the provision of standard guidelines, essential diagnostic equipment and drugs, training of health workers, supportive supervision and improved referral systems. Substantially better HIV basic service readiness demonstrates that improved NCD care is feasible. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  10. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. The relationship between cord blood immunoglobulin E levels and allergy-related outcomes in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Purvee S; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R; Zoratti, Edward M

    2011-03-01

    Elevated cord blood IgE may be associated with a higher risk of allergic disease. To determine whether cord blood IgE is associated with allergic biomarkers or allergic disorders in young adults. Data was collected from 670 subjects 18-21 years of age that were among 835 original participants in the Detroit Childhood Allergy Study, a general risk, population-based birth cohort. Cord blood IgE was assessed in relation to biomarkers associated with allergy and asthma including total IgE, allergen-specific IgE, blood eosinophilia, and spirometry. Cord blood IgE was also analyzed for associations to subsequent allergic disease including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Cord blood IgE, analyzed as a continuous measure, was modestly correlated with total IgE (r = 0.18, P Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Media ownership and news framing: an analysis of HIV/AIDS coverage by Ugandan press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Albada, Kelly F; Payton, Fay Cobb

    2012-12-01

    Applying framing theory, the present research analyzes trends in Ugandan news coverage and the prominent issue frames for HIV/AIDS-related stories. In order to determine the influence of other factors, such as media ownership and journalist origin, nearly 800 articles, from 2000 to 2004, were gathered from the major private newspaper and government-owned newspaper in Uganda. After systematic sampling, 365 articles constitute the sample. The results indicate that print news coverage of HIV and AIDS followed a non-linear trajectory, declining from 2000-2002 and then increasing from 2003-2004. Curative medicine emerged as the most prominent issue frame. Higher-risk behaviour was the least prominent issue frame overall. The 'solutions' issue frame nearly doubled in prominence from 2000-2004, while the HIV-prevention frame decreased from 2000-2002 and then rebounded from 2003-2004. Concerning HIV-related topics, the private newspaper included more features, printed lengthier articles, incorporated a greater variety of news frames, and published more articles by foreign journalists than the government-owned newspaper. The private newspaper employed the 'HIV-prevention,' 'action,' and 'victims' frames more often than the government-owned newspaper. Journalists at the government-owned newspaper adopted a 'solutions' frame more often than their private-press counterparts. Though foreign journalists were more likely than local journalists to employ the HIV-prevention frame, additional tests revealed that the news organisation for which the journalists worked contributed to issue framing to a greater extent than did either a local or foreign reporting origin. Local (Ugandan) journalists working for the two news organisations differed in their tendencies to apply the HIV-prevention, action, victims, and tragedy frames in news stories on HIV and AIDS, with journalists at the private newspaper using these frames more often than did journalists at the government-owned newspaper.

  13. Genome-wide population structure and admixture analysis reveals weak differentiation among Ugandan goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onzima, R B; Upadhyay, M R; Mukiibi, R; Kanis, E; Groenen, M A M; Crooijmans, R P M A

    2018-02-01

    Uganda has a large population of goats, predominantly from indigenous breeds reared in diverse production systems, whose existence is threatened by crossbreeding with exotic Boer goats. Knowledge about the genetic characteristics and relationships among these Ugandan goat breeds and the potential admixture with Boer goats is still limited. Using a medium-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we assessed the genetic diversity, population structure and admixture in six goat breeds in Uganda: Boer, Karamojong, Kigezi, Mubende, Small East African and Sebei. All the animals had genotypes for about 46 105 SNPs after quality control. We found high proportions of polymorphic SNPs ranging from 0.885 (Kigezi) to 0.928 (Sebei). The overall mean observed (H O ) and expected (H E ) heterozygosity across breeds was 0.355 ± 0.147 and 0.384 ± 0.143 respectively. Principal components, genetic distances and admixture analyses revealed weak population sub-structuring among the breeds. Principal components separated Kigezi and weakly Small East African from other indigenous goats. Sebei and Karamojong were tightly entangled together, whereas Mubende occupied a more central position with high admixture from all other local breeds. The Boer breed showed a unique cluster from the Ugandan indigenous goat breeds. The results reflect common ancestry but also some level of geographical differentiation. admixture and f 4 statistics revealed gene flow from Boer and varying levels of genetic admixture among the breeds. Generally, moderate to high levels of genetic variability were observed. Our findings provide useful insights into maintaining genetic diversity and designing appropriate breeding programs to exploit within-breed diversity and heterozygote advantage in crossbreeding schemes. © 2018 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. The Effect of Acute Consumption of Energy Drinks on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Blood Glucose in the Group of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are very popular among young people, who consume them for various reasons. A standard ED typically contains 80 mg of caffeine, as well as glucose, taurine, vitamins and other ingredients. Excessive consumption of EDs and accumulation of the above ingredients, as well as their mutual interactions, can be hazardous to the health of young adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute consumption of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose. Methods: The study involved 68 volunteers, healthy young adults (mean age 25 years, who were divided into two groups: the first consumed three EDs at one-hour intervals, and the second drank the same amount of water. All participants had their blood pressure (BP—systolic and diastolic (SBP and DBP—as well as heart rate (HR and blood glucose (BG measured. In addition, participants could report any health problems before and after consuming each portion of ED. Results: In the above experiment, having consumed three portions of ED (240 mg of caffeine, the participants presented a significant increase in DBP (p = 0.003, by over 8%, which coincided with a lack of any significant impact on SBP (p = 0.809. No significant changes were noted in HR (p = 0.750. Consumption of EDs caused a significant increase (p < 0.001 in BG, by ca. 21%, on average. Some participants reported various discomforts, which escalated after 2 and 3 EDs. Conclusions: Acute consumption of EDs contributed to increased diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and level of discomfort in healthy young people. Our results reinforce the need for further studies on a larger population to provide sufficient evidence.

  15. Haemodynamics of aerobic and resistance blood flow restriction exercise in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig A; May, Anthony K; Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2015-11-01

    Light-load blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) may provide a novel training method to limit the effects of age-related muscle atrophy in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the haemodynamic response to resistance and aerobic BFRE between young adults (YA; n = 11; 22 ± 1 years) and older adults (OA; n = 13; 69 ± 1 years). On two occasions, participants completed BFRE or control exercise (CON). One occasion was leg press (LP; 20 % 1-RM) and the other was treadmill walking (TM; 4 km h(-1)). Haemodynamic responses (HR, Q, SV and BP) were recorded during baseline and exercise. At baseline, YA and OA were different for some haemodynamic parameters (e.g. BP, SV). The relative responses to BFRE were similar between YA and OA. Blood pressures increased more with BFRE, and also for LP over TM. Q increased similarly for BFRE and CON (in both LP and TM), but with elevated HR and reduced SV (TM only). While BFR conferred slightly greater haemodynamic stress than CON, this was lower for walking than leg-press exercise. Given similar response magnitudes between YA and OA, these data support aerobic exercise being a more appropriate BFRE for prescription in older adults that may contribute to limiting the effects of age-related muscle atrophy.

  16. Diagnosis of imported Ugandan typhoid fever based on local outbreak information: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Shinichiro; Maki, Yohei; Mori, Kazuma; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Kurokawa, Atsushi; Ishihara, Masashi; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Imai, Kazuo; Misawa, Kazuhisa; Yuki, Atsushi; Fujikura, Yuji; Maeda, Takuya; Kawana, Akihiko

    2016-11-01

    Re-emerging multidrug-resistant typhoid fever is becoming a worldwide threat, especially in East Africa. At the beginning of 2015, an outbreak of typhoid fever started in the capital city of Uganda, and 1940 suspected cases were reported by 5 March 2015. In this report, we describe a case of typhoid fever caused by a MDR strain with HIV infection and hemoglobin S-syndrome thalassemia in an Ugandan from Kampala City. It is essential to consider MDR strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infections, including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, in patients from Africa and Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Shahid, K.U.; Mazahir, I.; Lakho, G.R.; Nafees, M.

    2006-01-01

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  18. The Current Working Conditions in Ugandan Apparel Assembly Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Tebyetekerwa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present rapid shift of industrialization from developed to developing countries requires developing countries to understand issues related to work organization, management, and working conditions. There are many factors slackening production, of which working conditions is part. A complete inquiry into the workers' working conditions can enable managements to reduce risks in the workplaces and improve productivity. Understanding and awareness of the benefits of workplace research and a probe into the working conditions in the Ugandan apparel assembly plants are urgently required. Methods: A total of 103 (70 women and 33 men workers from five different plants were interviewed. Together with the top management of various plants, questionnaires about the workers' opinions of their physical working conditions were prepared. Data was collected using two methods: (1 questionnaire; and (2 observation of the workers during their work. Results: The results indicated that poor plant working conditions were mainly contributed by the workers' social factors and the management policies. Conclusion: The government, together with the management, should work to improve the working conditions in the apparel assembly plants, as it greatly affects both. Keywords: apparel assembly plants, ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, Uganda, working conditions

  19. An Innovative Simple Technique of Blood Conservation in Adult Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot and Severely Raised Hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients...

  20. Factors associated with lack of awareness and uncontrolled high blood pressure among Canadian adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marianne E; Bienek, Asako; McAlister, Finlay A; Robitaille, Cynthia; Joffres, Michel; Tremblay, Mark S; Johansen, Helen; Campbell, Norm R C

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 17% of Canadians with high blood pressure were unaware of their condition, and of Canadians aware of having the condition, approximately 1 in 5 have uncontrolled high blood pressure despite high rates of pharmacotherapy. The objectives of the current study are to estimate the prevalence of resistant hypertension and examine factors associated with (1) lack of awareness and (2) uncontrolled hypertension despite pharmacotherapy. Using the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (N = 3473, aged 20-79 years) and logistic regression, we quantified relationships between characteristics and (1) presence of hypertension, (2) lack of awareness (among those with hypertension), and (3) uncontrolled high blood pressure (among those treated for hypertension). Older age, lowest income, and less than high school education were associated with presence of hypertension. Men (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2) and adults high blood pressure (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.2) despite treatment. Elevated systolic blood pressure was the issue in over 90% of women and 80% of men with uncontrolled hypertension. Depending on the definition employed, 4.4% (95% CI, 2.4-6.4) to 7.8% (95% CI, 6.0-9.6) of the population with hypertension had resistant hypertension. Messaging or interventions encouraging screening may be helpful for all younger Canadian adults and men; programs encouraging blood pressure control may help older women. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Elements concentrations and relationship of whole blood and urine in 40 identical adult men in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.D.; Wu, Q; Fan, T.J.; Liu, Q.F; Wang, J.Y; Wang, N.F; Liu, H.S; Wang, X.Y; Ou-Yang, L.; Liu, Y.Q.; Xie, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine elemental concentrations in whole blood and 24 hr. urine of identical adult men, relative daily urinary excretion and verify relationship between both of concentrations in the blood and urine. Methods: During the same time as sampling organ or tissue samples from autopsy, whole blood and 24 hr. urine samples of identical subjects were obtained from each of 10 healthy adult male volunteers, living in 4 areas with different dietary types in China. The concentrations of 56 elements in both the two kinds of samples were analyzed by using ICP-MS as the principal, assisted with ICP-AES as well GFAAS techniques and necessary QC measures. The concentrations of urinary creatinine in the urine samples were determined by using spectrophotometric method. Results: Concentrations of both the 56 elements in these whole blood and urine samples of identical subjects and urinary creatinine and related daily urinary excretions were obtained. Conclusion: This research obtained the new data on both concentrations of these elements in whole blood and urine samples of identical subjects and their daily urinary excretions for the first time in China. These results have provided preliminary basis for understanding concentrations of these elements in the whole blood, daily urinary excretions of identical subjects as well their differences for different areas, and developing relative background values and parameters for Chinese Reference Man. Furthermore, the obtained results have been compared with both internal and external literature data and discussed. (author)

  2. High mortality among children with sickle cell anemia and overt stroke who discontinue blood transfusion after transition to an adult program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Joseph F; Ballas, Samir K

    2016-05-01

    Chronic blood transfusion is the standard of care in the management of overt stroke due to sickle cell anemia (SS) to prevent recurrence of stroke. The problem arises when children are transitioned to adult care where blood transfusion may be discontinued. The purpose of this study was to report the outcome of 22 patients with SS and overt stroke who were transitioned to our adult program between 1993 and 2009. Transitioned patients were kept on chronic blood transfusion they had as children. Blood bank data were performed and computerized according to FDA and AABB regulations. Records were kept prospectively. Blood counts and percent hemoglobin (Hb)S were obtained before and after transfusion. HbS was kept below 30% after transfusion. Metabolic profiles were obtained every 6 months or more often if needed. Statistical analysis was by the two-tailed t-test. Patients who were compliant with blood transfusion were rarely hospitalized for painful crises. Alloimmunization and iron overload were the major complications of blood transfusion. Eight patients who refused to be maintained on chronic blood transfusion or who were noncompliant died within 1 to 5 years after transition. Causes of death included stroke in two, sudden in three, and multiorgan failure in three. The overall rate of death after transition was 36% and the major cause was discontinuation of blood transfusion. Efforts must be made to maintain adequate chronic simple or exchange blood transfusion for children with SS and stroke after transition to adult care. © 2015 AABB.

  3. Cardiac autonomic activity and blood pressure among Nunavik Inuit adults exposed to environmental mercury: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier Paul

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is a contaminant that reaches high levels in Nunavik (North of Quebec. It is transformed into methylmercury (MeHg and accumulated in marine mammals and predator fish, an important part of the traditional Inuit diet. MeHg has been suggested to affect BP in adults and children while the influence on HRV has only been studied in children. We aimed to assess the impact of MeHg levels on HRV and BP in Inuit adults from Nunavik. Methods In the fall of 2004, the «Qanuippitaa?» Health Survey was conducted in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada and information on HRV was collected among 280 adults aged 40 years and older. Indicators of the time and frequency domains of HRV were derived from a 2-hour Holter recording. BP was measured according to the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure technique. Pulse pressure (PP was the difference between systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Blood mercury concentration was used as exposure biomarker. Statistical analysis was conducted through linear regression and multivariable linear regression was used to control for confounders. Results Mercury was negatively correlated with low frequency (LF (r = -0.18; p = 0.02, the standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN (r = -0.14; p = 0.047 and the coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CVRR (r = -0.18; p = 0.011 while correlations with other HRV parameters did not reach statistical significance. After adjusting for confounders, the association with LF (beta = -0.006; p = 0.93 became non significant. However, the association with SDANN became statistically significant (beta = -0.086; p = 0.026 and CVRR tended to decrease with blood mercury concentrations (beta = -0.057; p = 0.056. Mercury was positively correlated with SBP (r = 0.25; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest a deleterious impact of mercury on BP and HRV in adults. SBP and PP increased with blood mercury concentrations while SDANN decreased with blood mercury

  4. Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults With Blood Pressure Hg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Booth, John N; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Howard, George; Lackland, Daniel T; O'Brien, Emily C; Oparil, Suzanne; Ravenell, Joseph; Safford, Monika M; Seals, Samantha R; Shimbo, Daichi; Shea, Steven; Spruill, Tanya M; Tanner, Rikki M; Muntner, Paul

    2017-08-29

    Data from before the 2000s indicate that the majority of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occur among US adults with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Over the past several decades, BP has declined and hypertension control has improved. We estimated the percentage of incident CVD events that occur at SBP/DBP Hg in a pooled analysis of 3 contemporary US cohorts: the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) (n=31 856; REGARDS=21 208; MESA=6779; JHS=3869). Baseline study visits were conducted in 2003 to 2007 for REGARDS, 2000 to 2002 for MESA, and 2000 to 2004 for JHS. BP was measured by trained staff using standardized methods. Antihypertensive medication use was self-reported. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined by the first occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, or heart failure. Events were adjudicated in each study. Over a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, 2584 participants had incident CVD events. Overall, 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.9-71.1) of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg; 58.4% (95% CI, 47.7-69.2) and 68.1% (95% CI, 60.1-76.0) among those taking and not taking antihypertensive medication, respectively. The majority of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg among those Hg, 76.6% (95% CI, 75.8-77.5) were eligible for statin treatment, but only 33.2% (95% CI, 32.1-34.3) were taking one, and 19.5% (95% CI, 18.5-20.5) met the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) eligibility criteria and may benefit from a SBP target goal of 120 mm Hg. Although higher BP levels are associated with increased CVD risk, in the modern era, the majority of incident CVD events occur in US adults with SBP/DBP Hg. While absolute risk and cost-effectiveness should be considered, additional CVD risk

  5. Blood pressure response to psychological stressors in adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, Rebecca C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Phillips, David I.; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J.; Bleker, Otto P.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that restricted prenatal growth is associated with exaggerated blood pressure responses to stress. We investigated the effect of maternal undernutrition on the adult offspring's stress response. DESIGN: A historical cohort study. METHODS: We performed

  6. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48±9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77±12/7 mm Hg. During a follow‐up of 5±3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new‐onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. Conclusions In normotensive middle‐aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. PMID:25904593

  7. Microvascular Blood Flow Improvement in Hyperglycemic Obese Adult Patients by Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastantuono, T; Di Maro, M; Chiurazzi, M; Battiloro, L; Starita, N; Nasti, G; Lapi, D; Iuppariello, L; Cesarelli, M; D'Addio, G; Colantuoni, A

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the changes in skin microvascular blood flow (SBF) in newly diagnosed hyperglycemic obese subjects, administered with hypocaloric diet. Adult patients were recruited and divided in three groups: NW group (n=54), NG (n=54) and HG (n=54) groups were constituted by normal weight, normoglycemic and hyperglycemic obese subjects, respectively. SBF was measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring technique and oscillations in blood flow were analyzed by spectral methods under baseline conditions, at 3 and 6 months of dietary treatment. Under resting conditions, SBF was lower in HG group than in NG and NW ones. Moreover, all subjects showed blood flow oscillations with several frequency components. In particular, hyperglycemic obese patients revealed lower spectral density in myogenic-related component than normoglycemic obese and normal weight ones. Moreover, post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) was impaired in hyperglycemic obese compared to normoglycemic and normal weigh subjects. After hypocaloric diet, in hyperglycemic obese patients there was an improvement in SBF accompanied by recovery in myogenic-related oscillations and arteriolar responses during PORH. In conclusion, hyperglycemia markedly affected peripheral microvascular function; hypocaloric diet ameliorated tissue blood flow.

  8. Inconsistent condom use among Ugandan university students from a gender perspective: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Devika; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ekman, Björn; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy), and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,179 (60.3%) students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4%) males and 209 (49.2%) females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth-friendly counseling of young people, which in turn may improve their interpersonal

  9. A year-long caregiver training program improves cognition in preschool Ugandan children with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Michael J; Bangirana, Paul; Nakasujja, Noeline; Page, Connie F; Shohet, Cilly; Givon, Deborah; Bass, Judith K; Opoka, Robert O; Klein, Pnina S

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate mediational intervention for sensitizing caregivers (MISC). MISC biweekly caregiver training significantly enhanced child development compared with biweekly training on health and nutrition (active control) and to evaluate whether MISC training improved the emotional well-being of the caregivers compared with controls. Sixty of 120 rural Ugandan preschool child/caregiver dyads with HIV were assigned by randomized clusters to biweekly MISC training, alternating between home and clinic for 1 year. Control dyads received a health and nutrition curriculum. Children were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year with the Mullen Early Learning Scales and the Color-Object Association Test for memory. Caldwell Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment and videotaped child/caregiver MISC interactions also were evaluated. Caregivers were evaluated for depression and anxiety with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. Between-group repeated-measures ANCOVA comparisons were made with age, sex, CD4 levels, viral load, material socioeconomic status, physical development, and highly active anti-retroviral therapy treatment status as covariates. The children given MISC had significantly greater gains compared with controls on the Mullen Visual Reception scale (visual-spatial memory) and on Color-Object Association Test memory. MISC caregivers significantly improved on Caldwell Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale and total frequency of MISC videotaped interactions. MISC caregivers also were less depressed. Mortality was less for children given MISC compared with controls during the training year. MISC was effective in teaching Ugandan caregivers to enhance their children's cognitive development through practical and sustainable techniques applied during daily interactions in the home. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between dietary patterns and blood lipid profiles in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong; Song, YoonJu

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugasch, Lucie B; Ugarriza, Doris N

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) usage of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are not using insulin. Nineteen adults were asked to describe their experiences with self-monitoring. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The theory of "SMBG as a Cue in T2DM Self-Care" emerged from the data and is composed of four categories: (a) Engaging, (b) Checking, (c) Responding, and (d) Establishing a Pattern. Engaging marks the beginning. Frequent monitoring characterizes this stage. Checking involves evaluating and validating the blood glucose level. The most common item evaluated or validated was the effect of foods. Responding involves taking action or experiencing emotion. Actions taken centered on dietary changes. Emotions felt were dependent on the level and ranged from blame to happiness. Participants established a pattern and used SMBG regularly or sporadically. Frequency was based on obtaining "normal" patterns, the absence of symptoms, provider disinterest, and fingertip pain. Participants described many benefits and struggles when incorporating SMBG into their self-care. Information from this study could be used to develop effective guidelines for the use of SMBG in T2DM. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Differences and effects of medium and large adult cuffs on blood pressure readings in individuals with muscular arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Reyes, Salvador; Fajardo-Flores, Ismael; Montes-Casillas, Mayra; Forsyth-Macquarrie, Avril

    2009-08-01

    This study analyzed systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) reading differences in individuals with muscular arms, using medium and large adult cuffs. Resting blood pressures (BPs) were measured in bodybuilders competing at the Mexican National Bodybuilding and Fitness Championship. The means of two bilateral simultaneous arm BP measurements were obtained using two different cuff sizes, 12 cm (medium adult) and 16 cm (large adult). A total of 193 bodybuilders completed the measurements. With an arm circumference greater than 33 cm, the SBP and DBP average taken with the medium adult cuff was higher than that obtained with the large adult cuff, 8.2+/-10.6 and 1.6+/-7.4 mmHg, respectively; however, a significant difference was observed only with the SBP. With the medium adult cuff, 48 of 144 individuals showed SBP at least 140 mmHg, whereas with the large adult cuff there were only 17 of 144 individuals. In those participants with an arm circumference less than 33 cm, the BP was nonsignificantly lower with the large cuff, -4.24+/-9.2 and -2.24+/-5.4 mmHg for the SBP and DBP, respectively. Incorrect cuffing of a muscular arm leads to significant errors in the measurement of SBP and DBP, similar to that observed in miscuffing of nonmuscular arms.

  13. Twenty weeks of isometric handgrip home training to lower blood pressure in hypertensive older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Ryg, Jesper; Danielsen, Mathias Aalkjær Brix

    2018-01-01

    (IHG) training was superior to traditional endurance and strength training in lowering resting systolic blood pressure (SBP). The average length of previous IHG training studies is approximately 7.5 weeks with the longest being 10 weeks. Therefore, presently it is unknown if it is possible to further...... lower blood pressure levels beyond the 10-week mark. Recently, we developed a novel method for monitoring handgrip intensity using a standard Nintendo Wii Board (Wii). The primary aim of this study is to explore the effects of a 20-week IHG home training facilitated by a Wii in hypertensive older adults...... on previous evidence, we calculated that 50 hypertensive (SBP between 140 and 179 mmHg), older adults (50 + years of age) are needed to achieve a power of 80% or more. Participants will be randomly assigned to either an intervention >group (IHG home training + hypertension guidelines on lifestyle changes...

  14. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  15. The Effect of Malnutrition on the Pharmacokinetics and Virologic Outcomes of Lopinavir, Efavirenz and Nevirapine in Food Insecure HIV-Infected Children in Tororo, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Imke H.; Savic, Rada M.; Dorsey, Grant; Ruel, Theodore; Gingrich, David; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Capparelli, Edmund; Jullien, Vincent; Young, Sera L.; Achan, Jane; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Aweeka, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition may impact the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral medications and virologic responses in HIV-infected children. We therefore evaluated the PK of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV) in associations with nutritional status in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan children. Methods Sparse dried blood spot (DBS) samples from Ugandan children were used to estimate plasma concentrations. Historical PK data from children from three resource-rich countries (RRC) were utilized to develop the PK models. Results Concentrations in 330 DBS from 163 Ugandan children aged 0.7–7 years were analyzed in reference to plasma PK data (1189 samples) from 204 children from RRC aged 0.5–12 years. Among Ugandan children 48% was malnourished (underweight, thin or stunted). Compared to RRC, Ugandan children exhibited reduced bioavailability of EFV and LPV; 11% (P=0.045) and 18% (P=0.008) respectively. In contrast, NVP bioavailability was 46% higher in Ugandan children (Pmalnutrition on bioavailability. In children receiving NVP, the relation between exposure, malnutrition and outcome turned out to be marginally significant. Further investigations are warranted using more intensive PK measurements and adequate adherence assessements, to further assess causes of virologic failure in Ugandan children. PMID:25742090

  16. Parental and offspring contribution of genetic markers of adult blood pressure in early life: The FAMILY study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Robiou-du-Pont

    Full Text Available Previous genome wide association studies (GWAS identified associations of multiple common variants with diastolic and systolic blood pressure traits in adults. However, the contribution of these loci to variations of blood pressure in early life is unclear. We assessed the child and parental contributions of 33 GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for blood pressure in 1,525 participants (515 children, 406 mothers and 237 fathers of the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In early life (FAMILY study followed-up for 5 years. Two genotype scores for systolic (29 SNPs and diastolic (24 SNPs blood pressure were built. Linear mixed-effect regressions showed significant association between rs1378942 in CSK and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.98±0.46, P = 3.4×10-2. The child genotype scores for diastolic and systolic blood pressure were not associated in children. Nominally significant parental genetic effects were found between the SNPs rs11191548 (CYP17A1 (paternal, β = 2.78±1.49, P = 6.1×10-2 for SBP and β = 3.60±1.24, P = 3.7×10-3 for DBP, rs17367504 (MTHFR (paternal, β = 2.42±0.93, P = 9.3×10-3 for SBP and β = 1.89±0.80, P = 1.8×10-2 for DBP and maternal, β = -1.32±0.60, P = 2.9×10-2 and β = -1.97±0.77, P = 1.0×10-2, for SBP and DBP respectively and child blood pressure. Our study supports the view that adult GWAS loci have a limited impact on blood pressure during the five first years of life. The parental genetic effects observed on blood pressure in children may suggest epigenetic mechanisms in the transmission of the risk of hypertension. Further replication is needed to confirm our results.

  17. Exercise blood pressure and the risk for future hypertension among normotensive middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-04-22

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle-aged adults. We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48 ± 9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77 ± 12/7 mm Hg. During a follow-up of 5 ± 3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new-onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. In normotensive middle-aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Childhood social class and adult adiposity and blood-pressure trajectories 36-53 years: gender-specific results from a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Murray, Emily T; Guralnik, Jack; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigate gender-specific effects of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) on adiposity and blood pressure at three time points in adulthood. Mixed models were used to assess the association of childhood SEP with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years in a British birth cohort. The adverse effect of lower childhood SEP on adiposity increased between ages 36 and 53 years in women (BMI: trend test: p=0.03) and remained stable in men, but the opposite was seen for SBP, where inequalities increased in men (p=0.01). Childhood SEP inequalities in DBP were stable with age in both men and women. Educational attainment mediated some but not all of the effects of childhood SEP on adiposity and SBP, and their rate of change; adult social class was a less important mediator. Childhood SEP is important for adult adiposity and blood pressure across midlife, especially for BMI in women and for blood pressure in men. Thus, pathways to adult health differ for men and women, and public health policies aimed at reducing social inequalities need to start early in life and take account of gender.

  19. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  20. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  1. Portrayal of the human resource crisis and accountability in healthcare: a qualitative analysis of ugandan newspapers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wojczewski

    Full Text Available Uganda is one of the 57 countries with a critical shortage of health workers. The aim of this study was to determine how the human resources and health service crisis was covered in Ugandan newspapers and, in particular, how the newspapers attributed accountability for problems in the health services.We collected all articles related to health workers and health services for the calendar year 2012 in the two largest national newspapers in Uganda (collection on daily basis and in one local newspaper (collection on weekly basis. These articles were analysed qualitatively regarding the main themes covered and attribution of accountability.The two more urban national newspapers published 229 articles on human resources and health services in Uganda (on average over two articles per week, whereas the local more rural newspaper published only a single article on this issue in the 12 month period. The majority of articles described problems in the health service without discussing accountability. The question of accountability is raised in only 46% of articles (106 articles. The responsibility of the government was discussed in 50 articles (21%, and negligence, corruption and misbehaviour by individual health workers was reported in 56 articles (25%. In the articles about corruption (n=35, 60% (21 articles mention corruption by health workers and 40% (14 articles mention corruption by government officials. Six articles defended the situation of health workers in Uganda.The coverage of accountability in the Ugandan newspapers surveyed is insufficient to generate informed debate on what political actions need to be taken to improve the crisis in health care and services. There exists not only an "inverse care law" but also an "inverse information law": those sections of society with the greatest health needs and problems in accessing quality health care receive the least information about health services.

  2. Portrayal of the human resource crisis and accountability in healthcare: a qualitative analysis of ugandan newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Willcox, Merlin; Mubangizi, Vincent; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Natukunda, Silvia; Maling, Samuel; Maier, Manfred; Mant, David; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Uganda is one of the 57 countries with a critical shortage of health workers. The aim of this study was to determine how the human resources and health service crisis was covered in Ugandan newspapers and, in particular, how the newspapers attributed accountability for problems in the health services. We collected all articles related to health workers and health services for the calendar year 2012 in the two largest national newspapers in Uganda (collection on daily basis) and in one local newspaper (collection on weekly basis). These articles were analysed qualitatively regarding the main themes covered and attribution of accountability. The two more urban national newspapers published 229 articles on human resources and health services in Uganda (on average over two articles per week), whereas the local more rural newspaper published only a single article on this issue in the 12 month period. The majority of articles described problems in the health service without discussing accountability. The question of accountability is raised in only 46% of articles (106 articles). The responsibility of the government was discussed in 50 articles (21%), and negligence, corruption and misbehaviour by individual health workers was reported in 56 articles (25%). In the articles about corruption (n=35), 60% (21 articles) mention corruption by health workers and 40% (14 articles) mention corruption by government officials. Six articles defended the situation of health workers in Uganda. The coverage of accountability in the Ugandan newspapers surveyed is insufficient to generate informed debate on what political actions need to be taken to improve the crisis in health care and services. There exists not only an "inverse care law" but also an "inverse information law": those sections of society with the greatest health needs and problems in accessing quality health care receive the least information about health services.

  3. Portrayal of the Human Resource Crisis and Accountability in Healthcare: A Qualitative Analysis of Ugandan Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Willcox, Merlin; Mubangizi, Vincent; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Natukunda, Silvia; Maling, Samuel; Maier, Manfred; Mant, David; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Uganda is one of the 57 countries with a critical shortage of health workers. The aim of this study was to determine how the human resources and health service crisis was covered in Ugandan newspapers and, in particular, how the newspapers attributed accountability for problems in the health services. Methods We collected all articles related to health workers and health services for the calendar year 2012 in the two largest national newspapers in Uganda (collection on daily basis) and in one local newspaper (collection on weekly basis). These articles were analysed qualitatively regarding the main themes covered and attribution of accountability. Results The two more urban national newspapers published 229 articles on human resources and health services in Uganda (on average over two articles per week), whereas the local more rural newspaper published only a single article on this issue in the 12 month period. The majority of articles described problems in the health service without discussing accountability. The question of accountability is raised in only 46% of articles (106 articles). The responsibility of the government was discussed in 50 articles (21%), and negligence, corruption and misbehaviour by individual health workers was reported in 56 articles (25%). In the articles about corruption (n=35), 60% (21 articles) mention corruption by health workers and 40% (14 articles) mention corruption by government officials. Six articles defended the situation of health workers in Uganda. Conclusions The coverage of accountability in the Ugandan newspapers surveyed is insufficient to generate informed debate on what political actions need to be taken to improve the crisis in health care and services. There exists not only an “inverse care law” but also an “inverse information law”: those sections of society with the greatest health needs and problems in accessing quality health care receive the least information about health services. PMID

  4. Comparison study of upper arm and forearm non-invasive blood pressures in adult Emergency Department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanski, Karen; Jull, Andrew; Mitchell, Nancy; McLay, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Forearm blood pressures have been suggested as an alternative site to measure blood pressures when the upper arm is unavailable. However there is little evidence utilising clinical populations to support this substitution. To determine agreement between blood pressures measured in the left upper arm and forearm using a singular oscillometric non-invasive device in adult Emergency Department patients. The secondary objective was to explore the relationship of blood pressure differences with age, sex, ethnicity, smoking history and obesity. Single centre comparison study. Adult Emergency Department, Tertiary Trauma Centre. Forty-four participants who met inclusion/exclusion criteria selected sequentially from the Emergency Department arrival board. A random assignment of order of measurement for left upper arm and forearm blood pressures was utilised. Participants were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had been assigned an Australasian Triage Scale code of 2, 3, 4, or 5, were able to consent, and able to have blood pressures measured on their left arm whilst lying at a 45° angle. The Bland-Altman method of statistical analysis was used, with the level of agreement for clinical acceptability for the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure defined as ±10 mmHg. The forearm measure overestimated systolic (mean difference 2.2 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±19 mmHg), diastolic (mean difference 3.4 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±14.4 mmHg), and mean arterial pressures (mean difference 4.1 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±13.7 mmHg). The systolic measure was not significantly different from zero. Evidence of better agreement was found with upper arm/forearm systolic measures below 140 mmHg compared to systolic measures above 140 mmHg using the Levene's test (p=0.002, F-statistic=11.09). Blood pressure disparity was not associated with participant characteristics. Forearm measures cannot routinely replace upper arm measures for blood pressure measurement

  5. Interaction between VEGF receptor-2 gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on blood glucose and lipid levels in Chinese Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Shidoji, Yoshihiro; Hon, Wei Min; Masaki, Motofumi

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases is increasing and gene-diet interaction studies are limited among the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on anthropometric and biochemical risk factors of chronic diseases in 179 Chinese Malaysian adults. Genotyping of rs1870377 and rs2071559 was performed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Dietary patterns were constructed from the food frequency questionnaire using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements: body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and biomarkers: blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipids were obtained. Two dietary patterns: 'Balanced diet' and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' (MRND) were extracted. MRND was associated with higher BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids, while T alleles in both rs1870377 and rs2071559 were associated with higher blood lipids (p Malaysian adults. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Is there any reason to prefer cord blood instead of adult donors for hematopoietic stem cell transplants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral eBeksac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As cord blood (CB enables rapid access and tolerance to HLA mismatches, number of unrelated cord blood transplants have reached 30 000. Such transplant activity has been the result of international accreditation programs maintaining highly qualified CBUs reaching more than 600 000 CBUs stored worldwide. Efforts to increase stem cell content or engraftment rate of the graft by ex vivo expansion, modulation by molecules such as fucose, Prostaglandin E2 derivative, complement, CD26 inhibitors or CXCR4/CXCL12 axis have been able to accelerate engraftment speed and rate. Furthermore introduction of reduced intensity conditioning protocols, better HLA matching and recognition of the importance of HLA-C have improved CBT success by decreasing Transplant Related Mortality (TRM. Cord blood progenitor/stem cell content has been compared with adult stem cells revealing higher long-term repopulating capacity compared to BM-MSC and less oncogenic potential than Induced Progenitor Stem Cells. This chapter summarizes the advantage and disadvantages of CB compared to adult stem cells within the context of stem cell biology and transplantation.

  7. Inconsistent condom use among Ugandan university students from a gender perspective: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mehra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. Objective: To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. Design: In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy, and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 1,179 (60.3% students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4% males and 209 (49.2% females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. Conclusion: The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth

  8. Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress and coronary calcification in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Zhu, Sha; Tucker, Diane C; Whooley, Mary A

    2006-03-01

    A longstanding hypothesis is that individuals who exhibit large increases in blood pressure during psychological stress are at risk for atherosclerosis. We tested whether blood pressure changes during psychological stress predict subsequent coronary calcification (CaC) in young healthy adults. We evaluated 2816 healthy black and white women, 20 to 35 years of age, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, who were not using medication for hypertension or diabetes in 1987-1988. Participants completed video game and star tracing tasks while their blood pressure was recorded. Thirteen years later (2000-2001), they completed computed tomography measures of CaC. Overall 9.3% (261 of 2816) had CaC present at follow-up. Each 10 mm Hg change in systolic blood pressure during the video game was associated with a 24% increased odds of having CaC at follow-up (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.46; P=0.008). This association persisted after adjustment for age, race, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, family history of myocardial infarction, smoking, daily alcohol consumption, body mass index, and resting or baseline blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58; P=0.006). Blood pressure changes during the star tracing task were not associated with subsequent CaC. Blood pressure changes during a video game predicted the presence of CaC 13 years later. To our knowledge, this is the first study that reports blood pressure reactivity to a stressor being related to calcification in the coronary arteries. Blood pressure reactivity may provide useful prognostic information about future risk beyond standard risk factors.

  9. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of health insurance and facility quality improvement on blood pressure in adults with hypertension in Nigeria: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marleen E; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Akande, Tanimola M; Kramer, Berber; Osagbemi, Gordon K; Tanovic, Zlata; Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Brewster, Lizzy M; Lange, Joep M A; Schultsz, Constance

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Hypertension is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, but the lack of affordable treatment and the poor quality of health care compromise antihypertensive treatment coverage and outcomes. OBJECTIVE To report the effect of a community-based health insurance (CBHI) program on blood pressure in adults with hypertension in rural Nigeria. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We compared changes in outcomes from baseline (2009) between the CBHI program area and a control area in 2011 through consecutive household surveys. Households were selected from a stratified random sample of geographic areas. Among 3023 community-dwelling adults, all nonpregnant adults (aged ≥18 years) with hypertension at baseline were eligible for this study. INTERVENTION Voluntary CBHI covering primary and secondary health care and quality improvement of health care facilities. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The difference in change in blood pressure from baseline between the program and the control areas in 2011, which was estimated using difference-in-differences regression analysis. RESULTS Of 1500 eligible households, 1450 (96.7%) participated, including 564 adults with hypertension at baseline (313 in the program area and 251 in the control area). Longitudinal data were available for 413 adults (73.2%) (237 in the program area and 176 in the control area). Baseline blood pressure in respondents with hypertension who had incomplete data did not differ between areas. Insurance coverage in the hypertensive population increased from 0% to 40.1% in the program area (n = 237) and remained less than 1% in the control area (n = 176) from 2009 to 2011. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 10.41 (95% CI, -13.28 to -7.54) mm Hg in the program area, constituting a 5.24 (-9.46 to -1.02)-mm Hg greater reduction compared with the control area (P = .02), where systolic blood pressure decreased by 5.17 (-8.29 to -2.05) mm Hg. Diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4.27 (95

  11. Environmental lead exposure is associated with visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability in the US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramawi, Mohammed F; Delongchamp, Robert; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Youcheng; Abouelenien, Saly; Fischbach, Lori; Jadhav, Supriya

    2015-04-01

    The association between environmental lead exposure and blood pressure variability, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unexplored and unknown. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lead exposure is associated with blood pressure variability. American participants 17 years of age or older from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were included in the analysis. Participants' blood lead concentrations expressed as micrograms per deciliter were determined. The standard deviations of visit-to-visit systolic and diastolic blood pressure were calculated to determine blood pressure variability. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking and socioeconomic status were employed. The participants' mean age and mean blood lead concentration were 42.72 years and 3.44 mcg/dl, respectively. Systolic blood pressure variability was significantly associated with environmental lead exposure after adjusting for the effect of the confounders. The unadjusted and adjusted means of visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and the β coefficient of lead exposure were 3.44, 3.33 mcg/dl, β coefficient = 0.07, P variability. Screening adults with fluctuating blood pressure for lead exposure could be warranted.

  12. Malnutrition is common in Ugandan children with cerebral palsy, particularly those over the age of five and those who had neonatal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Tumwine, James K; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Namusoke, Hanifa K; Forssberg, Hans

    2015-12-01

    Poor growth and malnutrition are frequently reported in children with cerebral palsy in developed countries, but there is limited information from developing countries. We investigated the nutritional status of Ugandan children with cerebral palsy and described the factors associated with poor nutrition. We examined 135 children from two to 12 years with cerebral palsy, who attended Uganda's national referral hospital. A child was considered underweight, wasted, stunted or thin if the standard deviation scores for their weight for age, weight for height, height for age and body mass index for age were ≤-2.0 using World Health Organization growth standards. Multivariable logistic regression identified the factors associated with nutritional indicators. Over half (52%) of the children were malnourished, with underweight (42%) being the most common category, followed by stunting (38%), thinness (21%) and wasting (18%). Factors that were independently associated with being malnourished were as follows: presence of cognitive impairment, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 4.5, being 5 years or older (aOR = 3.4) and feeding difficulties in the perinatal period (aOR = 3.2). Malnutrition was common in Ugandan children with cerebral palsy and more likely if they were 5 years or more or had experienced neonatal complications. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. Prospective Characterization of the Risk Factors for Transmission and Symptoms of Primary Human Herpesvirus Infections Among Ugandan Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Orem, Jackson; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Schiffer, Joshua T; Jerome, Keith R; Nakaganda, Annet; Wald, Anna; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections are common during infancy. Primary infections are frequently asymptomatic and best studied prospectively by using direct viral detection. Oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected weekly from Ugandan newborn infants, their mothers, and other children in the household. Blood specimens were collected every 4 months. Samples were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-8, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-two infants, 32 mothers, and 49 other household children were followed for a median of 57 weeks. Seventeen mothers had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection; no infants acquired HIV-1. The 12-month incidence of postnatal infection was 76% for HHV-6B, 59% for CMV, 47% for EBV, 8% for HSV-1, and 0% for HHV-8. The quantity of oropharyngeal shedding by contacts was associated with HHV-6A or HHV-6B transmission. Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with EBV transmission, while breastfeeding and younger child contacts were associated with CMV transmission. Except for HSV-1, primary HHV infections were subclinical. By capturing exposures and acquisition events, we found that the incidence and risk factors of infection vary by HHV type. HSV-1 infection, unlike other HHV infections, caused acute clinical illness in these infants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Contribution of dietary patterns to blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adults: findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ju Yeon; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and blood levels of lead and mercury in Korean adults. A total of 858 Korean adults (≥20 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1 2010 were included in this study. Data of biochemical measurements including blood lead and mercury levels, nutrients intakes and anthropometric measurements were acquired. 'Balanced diet', 'Grain and kimchi', and 'Alcohol and noodle' dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis, and the subjects were divided into tertiles by each dietary pattern score. A logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the balanced diet pattern was negatively associated with blood levels of lead before and after adjustment. On the other hand, the alcohol and noodle pattern was positively associated with blood lead and mercury levels. These results indicate that the alcohol and noodle dietary pattern characterized by high alcohol consumption and lack of various foods, and the balanced dietary pattern, including vegetable, fish, meat and milk intake, was associated with the blood concentrations of heavy metals in Korean adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship of blood lead levels and blood pressure in NHANES II: additional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartside, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    In performing research for associations and relationships among the data thus far published from the NHANES II survey, only the data for the 64 communities involved may be used. The simple omission of a few essential data makes impossible any valid analysis from the data for the 20,325 individual respondents. In this research for associations between blood lead levels and blood pressure in NHANES II, the method of forward stepwise regression was used. This avoids the problem of inflated error rates for blood lead, maximizes the number of data analyzed, and minimizes the number of independent variables entered into the regression model, thus avoiding the pitfalls that previous NHANES II research of blood lead and blood pressure has fallen into when using backward stepwise regression. The results of this research for white male adults, white female adults, and black adults were contradictory and lacked consistency and reliability. In addition, the overall average association between blood lead level and blood pressure was so minute that the only rational conclusion is that there is no evidence for this association to be found in the NHANES II data

  16. Male circumcision for HIV prevention - a cross-sectional study on awareness among young people and adults in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizaamu Ramadhan NB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical male circumcision is now part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. It has been shown that awareness of the protective effect of male circumcision leads to high acceptability towards the introduction of medical male circumcision services within countries. The objective of this survey was to identify factors determining awareness of male circumcision for HIV prevention. Methods We interviewed 452 participants (267 adults >24 years of age; 185 youths 14-24 years living in three rural Ugandan districts in 2008. Using a standardized questionnaire, we assessed socio-demographic parameters, awareness of MC for HIV prevention, general beliefs/attitudes regarding MC and MC status. Determinants for awareness of MC for HIV prevention were examined with multiple logistic regression models. Results Out of all adults, 52.1% were male (mean ± SD age 39.8 ± 11 years, of whom 39.1% reported to be circumcised. Out of all youths, 58.4% were male (18.4 ± 2.5, 35.0% circumcised. Adults were more aware of MC for HIV prevention than youths (87.1% vs. 76.5%; p = 0.004. In adults, awareness was increased with higher educational level compared to no school: primary school (adjusted OR 9.32; 95%CI 1.80-48.11, secondary (5.04; 1.01-25.25, tertiary (9.91; 0.76-129.18, university education (8.03; 0.59-109.95. Younger age and male sex were further significant determinants of increased awareness, but not marital status, religion, district, ethnicity, employment status, and circumcision status. In youths, we found a borderline statistically significant decrease of awareness of MC for HIV prevention with higher educational level, but not with any other socio-demographic factors. Conclusions Particularly Ugandans with low education, youths, and women, playing an important role in decision-making of MC for their partners and sons, should be increasingly targeted by information campaigns about positive health effects of MC.

  17. Whole-grain and blood lipid changes in apparently healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollænder, Pernille Lærke Bjørndal; Ross, Alastair B; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole grains are recognized for their potential role in preventing cardiovascular diseases; however, results from randomized controlled studies on blood lipids are inconsistent, potentially because of compositional differences between individual grain types for some nutrients, including...... dietary fiber. OBJECTIVE: Using a meta-analytic approach, we assessed the effect of whole-grain compared with non-whole-grain foods on changes in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic literature search in selected databases. Studies...... were included if they were randomized controlled comparisons between whole-grain foods and a non-whole-grain control in adults. A total of 6069 articles were screened for eligibility, and data were extracted from 24 studies. Weighted mean differences were calculated, and meta-regression analyses were...

  18. High blood pressure - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  19. Peripheral arterial disease among adult diabetic patients attending a large outpatient diabetic clinic at a national referral hospital in Uganda: a descriptive cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Mbayo Mwebaze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is one of the recognised diabetic macro vascular complications. It is a marker of generalised systemic atherosclerosis and is closely associated with symptomatic coronary and cerebrovascular disease, hence significant morbidity and mortality. Among African adult diabetic populations, screening and diagnosis of PAD is frequently suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated clinical factors of PAD in adult ambulatory diabetic patients attending the outpatient diabetic clinic of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, Kampala Uganda. METHODS: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 146 ambulatory adult diabetic patients were studied. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, fasting lipid profile status, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels and presence of albuminuria was collected using a pre tested questionnaire. Measurement of ankle brachial index (ABI to assess for PAD, defined as a ratio less than 0.9 was performed using a portable 5-10 MHz Doppler device. Clinical factors associated with PAD were determined by comparing specific selected characteristics in patients with PAD and those without. RESULTS: The mean age/standard deviation of the study participants was 53.9/12.4 years with a male predominance (75, 51.4%. PAD was prevalent in 57 (39% study participants. Of these, 34 (59.6% had symptomatic PAD. The noted clinical factors associated with PAD in this study population were presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a high prevalence of PAD among adult ambulatory Ugandan diabetic patients. Aggressive screening for PAD using ABI measurement in adult diabetic patients should be emphasised in Uganda especially in the presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria.

  20. 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and Illumina MiSeq Reveals B Cell Receptor Features in Healthy Adults, Adults With Chronic HIV-1 Infection, Cord Blood, and Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltari, Eric; Jia, Manxue; Jiang, Caroline S; Lu, Hong; Huang, Jing; Fernandez, Cristina; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Markowitz, Martin; Tsuji, Moriya; Wu, Xueling

    2018-01-01

    Using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Illumina MiSeq, and basic flow cytometry, we systematically analyzed the expressed B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 14 healthy adult PBMCs, 5 HIV-1+ adult PBMCs, 5 cord blood samples, and 3 HIS-CD4/B mice, examining the full-length variable region of μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains for V-gene usage, somatic hypermutation (SHM), and CDR3 length. Adding to the known repertoire of healthy adults, Illumina MiSeq consistently detected small fractions of reads with high mutation frequencies including hypermutated μ reads, and reads with long CDR3s. Additionally, the less studied IgA repertoire displayed similar characteristics to that of IgG. Compared to healthy adults, the five HIV-1 chronically infected adults displayed elevated mutation frequencies for all μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains examined and slightly longer CDR3 lengths for γ, α, and λ. To evaluate the reconstituted human BCR sequences in a humanized mouse model, we analyzed cord blood and HIS-CD4/B mice, which all lacked the typical SHM seen in the adult reference. Furthermore, MiSeq revealed identical unmutated IgM sequences derived from separate cell aliquots, thus for the first time demonstrating rare clonal members of unmutated IgM B cells by sequencing.

  1. Allergen specific responses in cord and adult blood are differentially modulated in the presence of endotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiwegger, T.; Mayer, E.; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2008-01-01

    Background Endotoxins are common contaminants in allergen preparations and affect antigen-specific cellular responses. Distinct effects of endotoxin on cells in human umbilical cord and adult blood are poorly defined. Objectives To examine the effect of endotoxins in allergen preparations...... on cellular responses in human cord and peripheral blood (PB). Methods The endotoxin content in beta lactoglobulin (BLG), the peanut allergen Ara h 1 and the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was assessed. Proliferation and cytokine response of mononuclear cells towards contaminated and lipopolysaccharide....... Results The proliferative response of cord blood (CB)-derived mononuclear cells towards allergen-preparations at day 3 was related to the level of LPS contamination. At day 7, proliferation was also detected in the absence of endotoxin. Cytokine production in CB was strongly affected by the content...

  2. Referral practices and perceived barriers to timely obstetric care among Ugandan traditional birth attendants (TBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, L; Kaye, D; Sibylle, K

    2010-03-01

    To assess current beliefs, knowledge and practices of Ugandan traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and their pregnant patients regarding referral of obstructed labors and fistula cases. Six focus groups were held in rural areas surrounding Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. While TBAs, particularly those with previous training, appear willing to refer problematic pregnancies and labors, more serious problems exist that could lessen any positive effects of training. These problems include reported abuse by doctors and nurses, and seeing fistula as a disease caused by hospitals. Training of TBAs can be helpful to standardize knowledge about and encourage timely emergency obstetric referrals, as well as increase knowledge about the causes and preventions of obstetric fistula. However, for full efficacy, training must be accompanied by greater collaboration between biomedical and traditional health personnel, and increased infrastructure to prevent mistreatment of pregnant patients by medical staff.

  3. The Effects of a Hypocaloric Diet on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Blood Hormone Response in Healthy Male Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shunsuke; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss and management. Consumption of food and nutrients stimulates diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), as well as pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormone secretion that may regulate energy metabolism. Yet, little is known about the impact of hypocaloric diets on energy metabolism-related parameters. In this study, we assessed the effects of hypocaloric diets on hormonal variance in relation to DIT in healthy adults. Ten healthy male adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study comprising three meal trials. Each subject was given a meal of 200 (extremely hypocaloric), 400 (moderately hypocaloric), or 800 kcal (normocaloric). Postprandial blood variables and energy expenditure were measured for 4 h (after the 200- and 400-kcal meals) or 6 h (after the 800-kcal meal). DIT and postprandial changes in blood pancreatic peptide and ghrelin were significantly smaller after the extremely or moderately hypocaloric diet than after the normocaloric diet but were similar between the hypocaloric diets. Postprandial blood insulin, amylin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide type-1 (GLP-1) increased in a calorie-dependent manner. Thermogenic efficiency (DIT per energy intake) was negatively correlated with the maximum blood level (Cmax) (p=0.01) and incremental area under the curve (p=0.01) of the blood GIP response. Calorie restriction thus leads to hormonal responses and lower DIT in healthy adults. Extreme calorie restriction, however, led to greater thermogenic efficiency compared with moderate calorie restriction. The postprandial GIP response may be a good predictor of postprandial thermogenic efficiency.

  4. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blo...

  5. Examining the relationship between psychological distress and adherence to anti-retroviral therapy among Ugandan adolescents living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumba, Massy; Musiime, Victor; Lepkwoski, James M; Harper, Gary W; Snow, Rachel C; Resnicow, Ken; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress is common among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) worldwide, and has been associated with non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), leading to poor virologic suppression, drug resistance, and increased risk for AIDS morbidity and mortality. However, only a few studies have explored the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper examines the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence, and effect of psychosocial resources on ART adherence. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 464 ALHIV (aged 12-19; 53% female) seeking HIV care at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala, Uganda. ALHIV were recruited during routine clinic visits. Three self-reported binary adherence measures were utilized: missed pills in the past three days, non-adherence to the prescribed medical regimen, and self-rated adherence assessed using a visual analog scale. Psychological distress was measured as a continuous variable, and computed as the mean score on a locally developed and validated 25-item symptom checklist for Ugandan ALHIV. Psychosocial resources included spirituality, religiosity, optimism, social support, and coping strategies. After adjusting for respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial resources, a unit increase in psychological distress was associated with increased odds of missing pills in past 3 days (Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.75; Confidence Interval (CI): 1.04-2.95), not following the prescribed regimen (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.08-2.46), and lower self-rated adherence (OR = 1.79; CI: 1.19-2.69). Psychosocial resources were associated with lower odds for non-adherence on all three self-report measures. There is a need to strengthen the psychosocial aspects of adolescent HIV care by developing interventions to identify and prevent psychological distress among Ugandan ALHIV.

  6. Prediction of width of un-erupted incisors, canines and premolars in a Ugandan population: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buwembo William

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate prediction of the space forms an important part of an orthodontic assessment in the mixed dentition. However the most commonly used methods of space analysis are based on data developed on Caucasian populations. In order to provide more accurate local data we set out to develop a formula for predicting the widths of un-erupted canines and premolars for a Ugandan population and to compare the predicted widths of the teeth from this formula with those obtained from Moyers’ tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Methods Dental casts were prepared using mandibular and maxillary arch impressions of 220 children (85 boys/135 girls aged 12–17 years recruited from schools in Kampala, Uganda. The mesio-distal width of the mandibular incisors, mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars were measured with a pair of digital calipers. Based on regression analysis, predictive equations were derived and the findings were compared with those presented in Moyers’ probability tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the tooth widths predicted by our equations and those from Moyers’ probability tables at the 65th and 75th percentile probabilities for the girls and at 75th level in boys in the mandibular arch. While in the maxillary arch no statistically significant differences at the 75th and 95th levels were noted in girls. There were statistically significant differences between predicted tooth sizes using equations from the present study and those predicted from the Tanaka and Johnston regression equations. Conclusions In this Ugandan population, Moyers’ probability tables could be used to predict tooth widths at specific percentile probabilities, but generally, Tanaka and Johnston technique tends to overestimate the tooth widths.

  7. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yutaka, E-mail: yaoki@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Yee, Jennifer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Epidemiology Elective Program, MS E-92, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, 4000 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington D.C 20057 (United States); Mortensen, Mary E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, MS F-20, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  8. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  10. Herbal medicine use and linked suspected adverse drug reactions in a prospective cohort of Ugandan inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguba, Ronald; Ononge, Sam; Karamagi, Charles; Bird, Sheila M

    2016-05-26

    Clinical history-taking can be employed as a standardized approach to elucidate the use of herbal medicines and their linked suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among hospitalized patients. We sought to identify herbal medicines nominated by Ugandan inpatients; compare nomination rates by ward and gender; confirm the herbs' known pharmacological properties from published literature; and identify ADRs linked to pre-admission use of herbal medicines. Prospective cohort of consented adult inpatients designed to assess medication use and ADRs on one gynaecological and three medical wards of 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Baseline and follow-up data were obtained on patients' characteristics, including pre-admission use of herbal medicines. Fourteen percent (26/191) of females in Gynaecology nominated at least one specific herbal medicine compared with 20 % (114/571) of inpatients on medical wards [20 % (69/343) of females; 20 % (45/228) of males]. Frequent nominations were Persea americana (30), Mumbwa/multiple-herb clay rods (23), Aloe barbadensis (22), Beta vulgaris (12), Vernonia amygdalina (11), Commelina africana (7), Bidens pilosa (7), Hoslundia opposita (6), Mangifera indica (4), and Dicliptera laxata (4). Four inpatients experienced 10 suspected ADRs linked to pre-admission herbal medicine use including Commelina africana (4), multiple-herb-mumbwa (1), or unspecified local-herbs (5): three ADR-cases were abortion-related and one kidney-related. The named herbal medicines and their nomination rates generally differed by specialized ward, probably guided by local folklore knowledge of their use. Clinical elicitation from inpatients can generate valuable safety data on herbal medicine use. However, larger routine studies might increase the utility of our method to assess herbal medicine use and detect herb-linked ADRs. Future studies should take testable samples of ADR-implicated herbal medicines for further analysis.

  11. A randomized controlled trial to increase information, motivation, and behavioral skills in Ugandan adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Prescott, Tonya L.; Birungi, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background One in twenty-five Ugandan adolescents is HIV positive. Purpose Examine the impact of an Internet-based HIV prevention program on Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills Model-related constructs. Methods Three hundred and sixty-six sexually experienced and inexperienced students 12-18+ years-old in Mbarara, Uganda were randomly assigned to: the five-lesson CyberSenga program or treatment-as-usual. Half of the intervention participants were further randomized to a booster session. Assessments were collected at three and six months post-baseline. Results Participants’ HIV-related information improved over time at a greater rate for the intervention groups compared to the control group. Motivation for condom use changed to a greater degree over time for the intervention group – especially those in the intervention+booster group - compared to the control group. Behavioral skills for condom use, and motivation and behavioral skills for abstinence were statistically similar over time for both groups. Conclusions CyberSenga improves HIV preventive information and motivation to use condoms. PMID:25633626

  12. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  13. 5′ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and Illumina MiSeq Reveals B Cell Receptor Features in Healthy Adults, Adults With Chronic HIV-1 Infection, Cord Blood, and Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Waltari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Illumina MiSeq, and basic flow cytometry, we systematically analyzed the expressed B cell receptor (BCR repertoire in 14 healthy adult PBMCs, 5 HIV-1+ adult PBMCs, 5 cord blood samples, and 3 HIS-CD4/B mice, examining the full-length variable region of μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains for V-gene usage, somatic hypermutation (SHM, and CDR3 length. Adding to the known repertoire of healthy adults, Illumina MiSeq consistently detected small fractions of reads with high mutation frequencies including hypermutated μ reads, and reads with long CDR3s. Additionally, the less studied IgA repertoire displayed similar characteristics to that of IgG. Compared to healthy adults, the five HIV-1 chronically infected adults displayed elevated mutation frequencies for all μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains examined and slightly longer CDR3 lengths for γ, α, and λ. To evaluate the reconstituted human BCR sequences in a humanized mouse model, we analyzed cord blood and HIS-CD4/B mice, which all lacked the typical SHM seen in the adult reference. Furthermore, MiSeq revealed identical unmutated IgM sequences derived from separate cell aliquots, thus for the first time demonstrating rare clonal members of unmutated IgM B cells by sequencing.

  14. Unrelated cord blood transplantation in adults with myelodysplasia or secondary acute myeloblastic leukemia: a survey on behalf of Eurocord and CLWP of EBMT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, M.; Sanz, G.F.; Ionescu, I.; Rio, B.; Sirvent, A.; Renaud, M.; Carreras, E.; Milpied, N.; Mohty, M.; Beguin, Y.; Bordigoni, P.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Picardi, A.; Purtill, D.; Gluckman, E.; Kroger, N.; Rocha, V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate, through the Eurocord and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registries, outcomes and risk factors for outcomes in adult patients who underwent single or double unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)

  15. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Satija, Ambika; Dhillon, Preet K; Agrawal, Sutapa; Gupta, Ruby; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A V; Prabhakaran, D; Srinath Reddy, K; Ebrahim, Shah

    2018-02-08

    Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. We used cross-sectional data from the Indian Migration Study (2005-2007). Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents and their urban siblings from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore (n = 7067, mean age 40.8 yrs). Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered, 184-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, physical activity, medical history, as well as anthropometric measurements were collected. Fasting-blood samples were collected for estimation of blood lipids and glucose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify major DPs based on eigenvalue> 1 and component interpretability. Robust standard error multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the association of DPs (tertiles) with total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, fasting-blood glucose (FBG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) levels. Three major DPs were identified: 'cereal-savoury' (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), 'fruit-vegetable-sweets-snacks' (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and 'animal food' (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs) patterns. High intake of the 'animal food' pattern was positively associated with levels of TC (β = 0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17 mmol/L; p

  16. Time course and recovery of arterial blood gases during exacerbations in adults with Cystic Fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, D F

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia and hypercapnia are closely linked to morbidity and mortality in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The aims of this study were to describe the changes in blood gases during and following an acute pulmonary exacerbation in adults with CF. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of patients with CF admitted for management of an acute exacerbation. Blood gas and spirometric analysis was performed on admission, throughout the treatment period, and 31 days after discharge (day 45). RESULTS: At presentation, eight of nineteen patients had evidence of either hypoxia (PaO(2)<8 kPa) and\\/or hypercapnia (PaCO(2)>6.6 kPa). Blood gas parameters stabilized following two weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, with little difference evident in between treatment completion and subsequent review following discharge. Hypercapnia reversed in three patients, with persistent hypercapnia evident in two patients. CONCLUSION: In our study group, hypoxemia and hypercapnia were frequently observed at presentation of the acute exacerbation. Blood gases stabilized following two weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, with arterial PCO(2) one month following hospital discharge generally similar to that at time of discharge.

  17. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwok-Wai; Chen, Chao-Long; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Tseng, Chia-Chih; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Yaw-Sen; Wang, Chih-Chi; Huang, Tung-Liang; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chiu, King-Wah; Wang, Shih-Hor; Lin, Chih-Che; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Jawan, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group I (GI), those not transfused in Group II (GII). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group III (GIII); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group IV (GIV). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in blood glucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels in this study. PMID:15884124

  18. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Takao [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO{sub 2} inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO{sub 2} inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO{sub 2}, CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO{sub 2} and PaCO{sub 2} during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  19. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Takao

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO 2 inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO 2 inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO 2 , CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO 2 and PaCO 2 during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  20. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were ...

  1. Safety and tolerability of combination antimalarial therapies for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ugandan children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Catherine; Jagannathan, Prasanna; Yau, Vincent M; Clark, Tamara D; Njama-Meya, Denise; Nzarubara, Bridget; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Kamya, Moses R; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Staedke, Sarah G

    2008-01-01

    Background Combination antimalarial therapy is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa; however, some concerns about the safety and tolerability of new regimens remain. This study compared the safety and tolerability of three combination antimalarial regimens in a cohort of Ugandan children. Methods A longitudinal, single-blind, randomized clinical trial of children was conducted between November 2004 and May 2007 in Kampala, Uganda. Upon diagnosis of the first episode of uncomplicated malaria, participants were randomized to treatment with amodiaquine + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ+SP), artesunate + amodiaquine (AS+AQ), or artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Once randomized, participants received the same regimen for all subsequent episodes of uncomplicated malaria. Participants were actively monitored for adverse events for the first 14 days after each treatment, and then passively followed until their next study medication treatment, or withdrawal from study. Outcome measures included the risk of adverse events at 14 and 42 days after treatment. Results Of 601 enrolled children, 382 were diagnosed with at least one episode of uncomplicated malaria and were treated with study medications. The median age at treatment was 6.3 years (range 1.1 – 12.3 years). At 14 days of follow-up, AQ+SP treatment was associated with a higher risk of anorexia, weakness, and subjective fever than treatment with AL, and a higher risk of weakness, and subjective fever than treatment with AS+AQ. Treatment with AL was associated with a higher risk of elevated temperature. Repeated episodes of neutropaenia associated with AS+AQ were detected in one participant. Considering only children less than five years, those who received AQ+SP were at higher risk of developing moderate or severe anorexia and weakness than those treated with AL (anorexia: RR 3.82, 95% CI 1.59 – 9.17; weakness: RR 5.40, 95% CI 1.86 – 15.7), or AS+AQ (anorexia: RR 2.10, 95% CI 1

  2. Safety and tolerability of combination antimalarial therapies for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ugandan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamya Moses R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination antimalarial therapy is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa; however, some concerns about the safety and tolerability of new regimens remain. This study compared the safety and tolerability of three combination antimalarial regimens in a cohort of Ugandan children. Methods A longitudinal, single-blind, randomized clinical trial of children was conducted between November 2004 and May 2007 in Kampala, Uganda. Upon diagnosis of the first episode of uncomplicated malaria, participants were randomized to treatment with amodiaquine + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ+SP, artesunate + amodiaquine (AS+AQ, or artemether-lumefantrine (AL. Once randomized, participants received the same regimen for all subsequent episodes of uncomplicated malaria. Participants were actively monitored for adverse events for the first 14 days after each treatment, and then passively followed until their next study medication treatment, or withdrawal from study. Outcome measures included the risk of adverse events at 14 and 42 days after treatment. Results Of 601 enrolled children, 382 were diagnosed with at least one episode of uncomplicated malaria and were treated with study medications. The median age at treatment was 6.3 years (range 1.1 – 12.3 years. At 14 days of follow-up, AQ+SP treatment was associated with a higher risk of anorexia, weakness, and subjective fever than treatment with AL, and a higher risk of weakness, and subjective fever than treatment with AS+AQ. Treatment with AL was associated with a higher risk of elevated temperature. Repeated episodes of neutropaenia associated with AS+AQ were detected in one participant. Considering only children less than five years, those who received AQ+SP were at higher risk of developing moderate or severe anorexia and weakness than those treated with AL (anorexia: RR 3.82, 95% CI 1.59 – 9.17; weakness: RR 5.40, 95% CI 1.86 – 15.7, or AS

  3. Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A

    2013-11-01

    Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/Adult Congenital Heart Association Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M.; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S.; Daniels, Curt J.; Fuller, Stephanie M.P.N.; Honein, Margaret A.; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mahle, William T.; Mann, Douglas L.; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W.; Pearson, Gail D.; Starling, Randall C.; Tringali, Glenn R.; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C.; Califf, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD (ACHD). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary Working Group to identify high-impact research questions in ACHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy. PMID:27102511

  5. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  6. Risk of Exposure to Zika Virus and Impact on Cord Blood Banking and Adult Unrelated Donors in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The Canadian Blood Services Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary; Morris, Gail; Campbell, Todd; Mostert, Karen; Dibdin, Nicholas; Fearon, Margaret; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Mercer, Dena; Young, Kimberly; Allan, David

    2018-04-01

    Zika virus has emerged as a potential threat to the Canadian blood supply system. Stem cell donors within Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBB) and OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network (OM) now undergo screening measures designed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission. The impact these screening measures have on cord blood and unrelated adult stem cell donations is currently unknown. Among 146 donor workups initiated by OM between July 2016 and May 2017, 102 were completed and 44 workups were canceled. There were 17 potential donors (11.6%) with a risk of Zika virus exposure identified by the donor questionnaire (13 completed, 4 canceled workups). None of the workups involved a donor diagnosed with confirmed Zika virus within the past 6 months. Only 1 of the 44 canceled workups (and only 1 of 4 cases with a risk of Zika transmission) was canceled because of the risk of Zika transmission, and a backup donor was selected. Canadian Blood Services' CBB identified 25 of 875 cord blood units (2.9%) from women who donated their infants' cord blood and underwent screening that otherwise met the initial cell number thresholds for banking and had at least 1 risk factor for exposure to Zika virus. No women were diagnosed with Zika virus at any point of their pregnancy. All 25 units were discarded. Unrelated donors at OM have a higher incidence of a risk of exposure to Zika virus compared with cord blood donors. Only rarely did transplant centers cancel donor workups due to potential Zika virus exposure. The impact of screening for Zika virus exposure risk on cord blood banking was minor. Continued vigilance and surveillance is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is There Any Reason to Prefer Cord Blood Instead of Adult Donors for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beksac, Meral

    2015-01-01

    As cord blood (CB) enables rapid access and tolerance to HLA mismatches, a number of unrelated CB transplants have reached 30,000. Such transplant activity has been the result of international accreditation programs maintaining highly qualified cord blood units (CBUs) reaching more than 600,000 CBUs stored worldwide. Efforts to increase stem cell content or engraftment rate of the graft by ex vivo expansion, modulation by molecules such as fucose, prostaglandin E2 derivative, complement CD26 inhibitors, or CXCR4/CXCL12 axis have been able to accelerate engraftment speed and rate. Furthermore, introduction of reduced intensity conditioning protocols, better HLA matching, and recognition of the importance of HLA-C have improved CB transplants success by decreasing transplant-related mortality. CB progenitor/stem cell content has been compared with adult stem cells revealing higher long-term repopulating capacity compared to bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells and lesser oncogenic potential than progenitor-induced stem cells. This chapter summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of CB compared to adult stem cells within the context of stem cell biology and transplantation.

  8. ABO Genotype Does Not Modify the Association between the "Blood-Type" Diet and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Disease in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhou; Jamnik, Joseph; García-Bailo, Bibiana; Nielsen, Daiva E; Jenkins, David J A; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Although 7 million copies of Eat Right 4 Your Type have been sold in >60 languages, there has been a lack of evidence supporting the "blood-type" diet hypothesis. The present study aimed to examine the validity of this diet in overweight adults. A total of 973 adults [mean ± SEM age: 44.6 ± 0.4 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 32.5 ± 0.2; 758 women, 215 men] were participants of the Toronto Healthy Diet Study. A 1-mo, 196-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to determine dietary intakes before and after a 6-mo dietary intervention. Diet scores were calculated to determine relative adherence to each of the 4 blood-type diets as a secondary analysis. ABO blood group was determined by genotyping rs8176719 and rs8176746. ANCOVA was used to compare cardiometabolic risk factors across tertiles of diet scores. At baseline, individuals with a higher adherence score to the type A diet had lower diastolic blood pressure (tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 70.9 ± 1.1 compared with 73.3 ± 1.1 mm Hg; P type B (tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 100.8 ± 1.8 compared with 105.4 ± 1.7 cm; P type AB (tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 101.2 ± 1.8 compared with 104.8 ± 1.7 cm; P type A and type B diets had greater reductions in BMI and waist circumference, respectively (P type O diet adherence showed decreases in both BMI and waist circumference (P blood-type diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease in overweight adults, suggesting that the theory behind this diet is not valid This study was based on the data of a trial that was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00516620.

  9. Role of autonomic nervous activity, as measured by heart rate variability, on the effect of mortality in disabled older adults with low blood pressure in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Koji; Ogawa, Sumito; Yamada, Shizuru; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Akishita, Masahiro

    2018-04-11

    Previous studies have shown the relationship between low blood pressure and high mortality in frail, disabled older adults in long-term care. However, the mechanism of this relationship is still unclear. We hypothesized that autonomic nervous activity decline is involved in the relationship between low blood pressure and high mortality. The present prospective cohort study recruited 61 participants aged ≥75 years. The data from 24-h Holter monitoring and blood pressure recorded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were collected. Measured data were divided into three categories: 24-h, daytime and night-time. From power spectral density in the electrocardiogram, low frequency, high frequency and low frequency/high frequency ratio were calculated. The primary end-point was death. High blood pressure was connected to both high daytime low frequency and high frequency (partial correlation coefficients: 0.42, P blood pressure group had higher mortality than the high blood pressure group, and disabled older adults in long-term care and those with elevated daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure had less risk of mortality compared with those without (systolic: hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.96, P = 0.003; diastolic: hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.00, P = 0.049). The average blood pressures in the high blood pressure groups were approximately 140/80 mmHg and were connected to low mortality. Attenuated autonomic nervous activity might lead to low blood pressure in the daytime and high mortality in disabled older adults in long-term care. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. HPRT gene mutation frequency and the factor of influence in adult peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingyong; Zheng Siying; Cui Fengmei; Wang Liuyi; Lao Qinhua; Wu Hongliang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the HPRT gene loci mutation frequencies and the factor of influence in peripheral blood lymphocytes of adult with ages ranging from 21-50. Methods: HPRT gene mutation frequency (GMf) were examined by the technique of multinuclear cell assay. Relation between GMf and years were fitted with a computer. Results: Relation could be described by the following equation: y = 0.7555 + 0.0440x, r = 0.9829. Smoking has influence on GMf and sex hasn't. Conclusion: HPRT gene mutation frequency increases with increasing of age. Increasing rate is 0.00440% per year

  11. SMS texts on corruption help Ugandan voters hold elected councillors accountable at the polls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntaine, Mark T; Jablonski, Ryan; Nielson, Daniel L; Pickering, Paula M

    2018-06-11

    Many politicians manipulate information to prevent voters from holding them accountable; however, mobile text messages may make it easier for nongovernmental organizations to credibly share information on official corruption that is difficult for politicians to counter directly. We test the potential for texts on budget management to improve democratic accountability by conducting a large ( n = 16,083) randomized controlled trial during the 2016 Ugandan district elections. In cooperation with a local partner, we compiled, simplified, and text-messaged official information on irregularities in local government budgets. Verified recipients of messages that described more irregularities than expected reported voting for incumbent councillors 6% less often; verified recipients of messages conveying fewer irregularities than expected reported voting for incumbent councillors 5% more often. The messages had no observable effect on votes for incumbent council chairs, potentially due to voters' greater reliance on other sources of information for higher profile elections. These mixed results suggest that text messages on budget corruption help voters hold some politicians accountable in settings where elections are not free and fair. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins.

  13. The Association Between Blood Alcohol Content and Cheerfulness, Focus Distraction, and Sluggishness Among Young Adults Attending High School Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students...

  14. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    of this study suggest that the experience of sexual coercion is common among youth/young adults in Uganda and is subsequently associated with risky sexual behavior in both sexes. The existence of individual and contextual factors that buffer the effects mentioned was also demonstrated. In the Ugandan context, this has implications for policy formulation and the implementation of preventive strategies for combating HIV/AIDS. PMID:21726433

  15. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2011-07-01

    . Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the experience of sexual coercion is common among youth/young adults in Uganda and is subsequently associated with risky sexual behavior in both sexes. The existence of individual and contextual factors that buffer the effects mentioned was also demonstrated. In the Ugandan context, this has implications for policy formulation and the implementation of preventive strategies for combating HIV/AIDS.

  16. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, Anette; Odberg-Pettersson, Karen; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2011-07-04

    experience of sexual coercion is common among youth/young adults in Uganda and is subsequently associated with risky sexual behavior in both sexes. The existence of individual and contextual factors that buffer the effects mentioned was also demonstrated. In the Ugandan context, this has implications for policy formulation and the implementation of preventive strategies for combating HIV/AIDS.

  17. Tracking of blood pressure among adolescents and young adults in an urban slum of Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis of hypertension (HT is an important strategy in its control. Tracking of blood pressure (BP has been found useful in identifying persons with potential HT, particularly in youngsters. A cohort of 756 subjects (with baseline information as a cross-sectional study in 2002 was followed up in 2006 to comment on the distribution of BP and its attributes. Objectives: To track BP distribution in a cohort of adolescents and young adults, and assess the persistence of high/low normotensives; to measure the incidence of HT and study the relationship of BP with age, sex, socioeconomic status, BMI, physical exercise, salt intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. Materials and Methods: The baseline study cohort (2002 of 756 subjects (19-24 years in urban field area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, was followed up between May and November 2006 by house visits for measurement of sociodemographic variables, anthropometry, salt intake, physical activity and BP. Results: A total of 555 subjects from the 2002 cohort were contacted (73.4%, in that 54.5% subjects who were below 5 th percentile, 93.6% subjects between 5 th and 95 th percentiles and 72% of those above 95 th percentile previously persisted in the same cut-offs for systolic blood pressure (SBP. The corresponding figures for diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 46.2, 92.2 and 74.1%, respectively. Shift from one cut-off to another was not significant for both SBP and DBP, proving the tracking phenomenon. Annual incidence of HT was 9.8/1000. Baseline BP was the significant predictor of current BP for the entire cohort; BMI and salt intake were significant predictors only in certain sections of the study cohort. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of hypertension even among adolescents/young adults is an important preventive measure, as tracking exists in the population.

  18. Twenty weeks of isometric handgrip home training to lower blood pressure in hypertensive older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Ryg, Jesper; Danielsen, Mathias Brix

    2018-01-01

    lower blood pressure levels beyond the 10-week mark. Recently, we developed a novel method for monitoring handgrip intensity using a standard Nintendo Wii Board (Wii). The primary aim of this study is to explore the effects of a 20-week IHG home training facilitated by a Wii in hypertensive older adults......) or to a control group (hypertension guidelines on lifestyle changes). Participants in the intervention group will perform IHG home training (30% of maximum grip strength for a total of 8 min per day per hand) three times a week for 20 weeks. Resting blood pressure and maximal handgrip strength will be obtained......BACKGROUND: Hypertension markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and overall mortality. Lifestyle modifications, such as increased levels of physical activity, are recommended as the first line of anti-hypertensive treatment. A recent systematic review showed that isometric handgrip...

  19. Relationships between in vitro lymphoproliferative responses and levels of contaminants in blood of free-ranging adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Aurélie; Siebert, Ursula; Covaci, Adrian; Weijs, Liesbeth; Eppe, Gauthier; Debier, Cathy; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Blood samples were taken from adult harbour seals in good body condition. •Trace element and POP levels, as well as haematological parameters were determined. •Peripheral blood leucocytes were isolated from the same blood samples. •The in vitro lymphocyte stimulation indices were calculated. •No clear correlation between the lymphocyte stimulation indices and pollutants could be highlighted. -- Abstract: In vitro culture of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) is currently used in toxicological studies of marine mammals. However, blood cells of wild individuals are exposed in vivo to environmental contaminants before being isolated and exposed to contaminants in vitro. The aim of this study was to highlight potential relationships between blood contaminant levels and in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation in free-ranging adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North Sea. Blood samples of 18 individuals were analyzed for trace elements (Fe, Zn, Se, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cd) and persistent organic contaminants and metabolites (ΣPCBs, ΣHO-PCBs, ΣPBDEs, 2-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE47, ΣDDXs, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, pentachlorophenol and tribromoanisole). The same samples were used to determine the haematology profiles, cell numbers and viability, as well as the in vitro ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation expressed as a stimulation index (SI). Correlation tests (Bravais-Pearson) and Principal Component Analysis with multiple regression revealed no statistically significant relationship between the lymphocyte SI and the contaminants studied. However, the number of lymphocytes per millilitre of whole blood appeared to be negatively correlated to pentachlorophenol (r = −0.63, p = 0.005). In adult harbour seals, the interindividual variations of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation did not appear to be directly linked to pollutant levels present in the blood, and it is likely that other factors such as age, life

  20. Impaired T-lymphocyte colony formation by cord blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrod, H.G.; Valenski, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    When compared to adult mononuclear cells, cord blood mononuclear cells demonstrated significantly decreased T-lymphocyte colony formation (1351 +/- 643 vs 592 +/- 862, P less than 0.01). This diminished colony-forming activity did not appear to be associated with impaired responsiveness to the stimulant phytohemagglutinin or with excessive suppressor-cell activity. Irradiation reduced the colony-forming capacity of cord blood mononuclear cells more than it did that of adult mononuclear cells. Depletion of adherent cells reduced cord blood mononuclear-cell colony-forming capacity by 40%, while similar treatment reduced adult colony formation by 10%. Lymphocyte proliferation in liquid culture of cord and adult cells was minimally affected by these procedures. The colony-forming capacity of cord blood could be enhanced by the addition of irradiated adult cells (284 +/- 72 vs 752 +/- 78, P less than 0.01). This enhancement was demonstrated to be due to a soluble factor produced by a population of irradiated adult cells depleted of the OKT8+ subpopulation of lymphocytes. These results indicate that the progenitor cells of T-lymphocyte colonies in cord blood have distinct biologic characteristics when compared to colony progenitors present in adult blood. This assay may prove to be useful in our efforts to understand the differentiation of T-cell function in man

  1. Validation of the Artsana CSI 610 automated blood pressure monitor in adults according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Claudio; Pastori, Marco; Baccheschi, Jordan; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence that blood pressure measurement outside the doctor's office can provide valuable information for the diagnostic evaluation of hypertensive patients and for monitoring their response to treatment. Home blood pressure monitoring devices have a major role in this setting, provided that their accuracy in measuring blood pressure is demonstrated by validation studies. This study aimed at verifying whether the automatic electronic oscillometric blood pressure measuring device Artsana CSI 610 complied with the standard of accuracy indicated by the ESH International Protocol. Sequential measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were obtained in 33 participants using the mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the test device (one supervisor). A standard adult cuff was always employed during the study. According to the ESH validation protocol, 99 couples of test device and reference blood pressure measurements were obtained during the two phases of the study (three pairs for each of the 33 participants). The Artsana CSI 610 device successfully passed phase 1 of study validation with the number of absolute differences between test and reference device never validation study with a mean (+/-SD) device-observer difference of -1.4+/-4.8 mmHg for systolic and -0.9+/-3.5 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. According to the results of the validation study on the basis of the ESH International Protocol, the Artsana CSI 610 can be recommended for clinical use in adults.

  2. In-traffic air pollution exposure and CC16, blood coagulation, and inflammation markers in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Meliefste, Kees; Krop, Esmeralda; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events, probably involving mechanisms of inflammation and coagulation. Little is known about effects of the short exposures encountered while participating in traffic. The objective of the study was to examine effects of exposure of commuters to air pollution on cardiovascular biomarkers. Thirty-four healthy adult volunteers commuted for 2 hr by bus, car, or bicycle during the morning rush hour. During the commute, exposure to particle number, particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), PM ≤ 10 µm in diameter (PM10), and soot was measured. We estimated inhaled doses based on heart rate monitoring. Shortly before exposure and 6 hr after exposure, blood samples were taken and analyzed for CC16 (Clara cell protein 16), blood cell count, coagulation markers, and inflammation markers. Between June 2007 and June 2008, 352 pre- and postexposure blood samples were collected on 47 test days. We used mixed models to analyze the associations between exposure and changes in health parameters. We observed no consistent associations between the air pollution exposures and doses and the various biomarkers that we investigated. Air pollution exposure during commuting was not consistently associated with acute changes in inflammation markers, blood cell counts, or blood coagulation markers.

  3. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  4. On-Treatment Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Older Adults With Isolated Systolic Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Bakris, George L; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Oparil, Suzanne; Saruta, Takao; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Imai, Yutaka; Ogihara, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to assess optimal on-treatment blood pressure (BP) at which cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality risks are minimized in Japanese older adults with isolated systolic hypertension. We used data from the VALISH study (Valsartan in Elderly Isolated Systolic Hypertension) that recruited older adults (n=3035; mean age, 76 years) with systolic BP (SBP) of ≥160 mm Hg and diastolic BP of secondary outcome being all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the CVD risk for each group. Over a median 3-year follow-up (8022 person-years), 93 CVD events and 52 deaths occurred. Using the on-treatment SBP of 130 to hypertension, SBP in the range between 130 and 144 mm Hg was associated with minimal adverse outcomes and a reduction in CVD and all-cause mortality. The BP range will need to be confirmed in randomized controlled trials. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00151229. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Graded Association Between Kidney Function and Impaired Orthostatic Blood Pressure Stabilization in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, Mark; O'Connell, Matthew D L; Sexton, Donal J; O'Leary, Neil; Kenny, Rose Anne; Little, Mark A; O'Seaghdha, Conall M

    2017-05-04

    Impaired orthostatic blood pressure (BP) stabilization is highly prevalent in older adults and is a predictor of end-organ injury, falls, and mortality. We sought to characterize the relationship between postural BP responses and the kidney. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 4204 participants from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a national cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years. Beat-to-beat systolic and diastolic BP were measured during a 2-minute active stand test. The primary predictor was cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categorized as follows (mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ): ≥90 (reference, n=1414); 75 to 89 (n=1379); 60 to 74 (n=942); 45 to 59 (n=337); postural BP response merits further study in kidney disease as a potential means of identifying those at risk of hypotension-related events. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Prenatal programming of adult mineral metabolism: relevance to blood pressure, dietary prevention strategies, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulter, Günter; Goessler, Walter; Papousek, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that adult health outcomes such as the development of cardiovascular disease or diabetes can trace some of their roots back to prenatal development. This study investigated the epigenetic impact of a particular prenatal hormonal condition on specific health-related consequences, i.e., on concentrations of minerals and mineral metabolism in adults. In 70 university students, the second-to-fourth digit length (2D:4D) was measured as a proxy of prenatal sex steroid action, and the concentrations of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) were determined in hair samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mineral concentrations and the mineral ratios Na/K, Na/Mg, and Na/Ca were analyzed in multivariate analyses of variance, with digit ratios and sex of participants as grouping variables. The results were validated in a replication cohort from the general population, and with a wider age-range. In addition, the correlation of mineral concentrations and mineral ratios with blood pressure was examined. Men with relatively lower (i.e., more masculine) and women with relatively higher (i.e., more feminine) digit ratios had higher Na/K, Na/Mg, and Na/Ca ratios than their counterparts. Virtually identical results were obtained in the replication study. Moreover, Na concentrations and Na/K ratios were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. The findings suggest that the individual variation in mineral metabolism can be predicted by 2D:4D, indicating that prenatal sex steroid action may be involved in the epigenetic programming of specific metabolic conditions which are highly relevant to adult health and disease. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%

  8. Porcine neonatal blood dendritic cells, but not monocytes, are more responsive to TLRs stimulation than their adult counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gael Auray

    Full Text Available The neonatal immune system is often considered as immature or impaired compared to the adult immune system. This higher susceptibility to infections is partly due to the skewing of the neonatal immune response towards a Th2 response. Activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs play an important role in shaping the immune response, therefore, DCs are a target of choice for the development of efficient and protective vaccine formulations able to redirect the neonatal immune response to a protective Th1 response. As pigs are becoming more important for vaccine development studies due to their similarity to the human immune system, we decided to compare the activation and maturation of a subpopulation of porcine DCs in adult and neonatal pigs following stimulation with different TLR ligands, which are promising candidates for adjuvants in vaccine formulations. Porcine blood derived DCs (BDCs were directly isolated from blood and consisted of a mix of conventional and plasmacytoid DCs. Following CpG ODN (TLR9 ligand and imiquimod (TLR7 ligand stimulation, neonatal BDCs showed higher levels of expression of costimulatory molecules and similar (CpG ODN or higher (imiquimod levels of IL-12 compared to adult BDCs. Another interesting feature was that only neonatal BDCs produced IFN-α after TLR7 or TLR9 ligand stimulation. Stimulation with CpG ODN and imiquimod also induced enhanced expression of several chemokines. Moreover, in a mixed leukocyte reaction assay, neonatal BDCs displayed a greater ability to induce lymphoproliferation. These findings suggest that when stimulated via TLR7 or TLR9 porcine DCs display similar if not better response than adult porcine DCs.

  9. The influence of moderate-intensity physical effort on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander-Szymanowicz, P; Marchewka, A; Dabrowski, Z; Teleglow, A; Bac, A; Glodzik, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a six-week aerobic training on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome. Fifteen men with Down syndrome (average age 22.4 years ± 0.91) with moderate or severe intellectual disability took part in the study. Patients underwent a training program three times a week for six weeks. Venous blood samples of 10 ml were collected from every examined patient, 24 hours before and after the exercise. The blood samples were submitted to hematological examination (hematocrit, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) number, RBC indicators: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)), reduced glutathione (GSH) level and number of macrocytes, polikilocytrometric examination of RBC and rheological blood examination (elongation index (EI), aggregation index (AI), syllectogram amplitude (AMP), aggregation half time (t1/2)) was made by LORCA. Amoderate six-week physical training performed on a cycloergometer resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the MCV value, hematocrit and plasma viscosity. The six-week cycloergometer training caused a statistically significant increase in the GSH level and erythrocyte pliability at a shear stress of 0.58 Pa.

  10. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  11. Nurses' Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers in Care of Patients with Pressure Ulcers in a Ugandan Teaching Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebaza, Ivan; Katende, Godfrey; Groves, Sara; Nankumbi, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcers have been identified as a major burden of hospitalization worldwide, and nurses are at the forefront of prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the nurses' knowledge and practices regarding risk factors, prevention, and management of pressure ulcers at a teaching hospital in Uganda. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Fifty-six Ugandan registered practicing nurses were sampled. A composite self-administered questionnaire and an observation checklist were utilized. The nurses had limited knowledge about critical parameters of pressure ulcers. Prevention practices were observed to be unreliable and uncoordinated related to a significant shortage of staff and logistics for pressure ulcer prevention. Nurses had poor access to current literature on pressure ulcer prevention. Translation of nurses' knowledge into practice is possible if barriers like staff shortage, pressure relieving devices provision, and risk assessment tools are addressed at Mulago. PMID:24707398

  12. Nurses’ Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers in Care of Patients with Pressure Ulcers in a Ugandan Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mwebaza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers have been identified as a major burden of hospitalization worldwide, and nurses are at the forefront of prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the nurses’ knowledge and practices regarding risk factors, prevention, and management of pressure ulcers at a teaching hospital in Uganda. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Fifty-six Ugandan registered practicing nurses were sampled. A composite self-administered questionnaire and an observation checklist were utilized. The nurses had limited knowledge about critical parameters of pressure ulcers. Prevention practices were observed to be unreliable and uncoordinated related to a significant shortage of staff and logistics for pressure ulcer prevention. Nurses had poor access to current literature on pressure ulcer prevention. Translation of nurses’ knowledge into practice is possible if barriers like staff shortage, pressure relieving devices provision, and risk assessment tools are addressed at Mulago.

  13. High incidence of antibodies to HTLV-I tax in blood relatives of adult T cell leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayama, A; Chen, Y M; Tachibana, N; Shioiri, S; Lee, T H; Tsuda, K; Essex, M

    1991-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is caused by the human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Although the mechanisms of the leukemogenic process are unknown, the tax gene may have a role in this process. Because clustering occurs with HTLV-I and ATL, members of ATL families were examined for antibodies to the tax protein and compared with matched HTLV-I-positive blood donors. To investigate the antibody response to this protein, a plasmid, pBHX-4, was constructed to express a recombinant tax protein (r-tax). For ATL patients and their HTLV-I antibody-positive blood relatives, the rate of seroreactivity with the r-tax protein was 67.3% (35/52), compared with 51.6% (97/188) for HTLV-I antibody-positive control blood donors (P less than .05). The difference between direct offspring of ATL patients and matched HTLV-I blood donors was even greater (84.2% [16/91] vs. 44.2% [42/95]; P less than .005). Thus, tax antibody positivity in direct offspring of ATL patients may reflect differences in time or route of HTLV-I infection. Alternatively, it might reflect genetic differences in host susceptibility or virus strain.

  14. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  15. Work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opollo, J G; Gray, J; Spies, L A

    2014-03-01

    To describe perceived work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers. A secondary aim was to seek participant input on ways to improve work environments. Poor patient outcomes, decreased employee motivation and decisions to leave the organization have been linked to poor work conditions. Interventions to correct healthcare worker shortage in developing countries require information about work quality of life. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in health and educational settings in Uganda in July 2011. Participants completed the Biographical Information Scale demographic questionnaire and the validated 24-item Work-Related Quality of Life scale. Sample included 146 healthcare workers employed in various settings. Participants reported poorer quality of work life on the work conditions, control at work and home-work interface subscales. Participants perceived stress at work to be low and experienced higher job career satisfaction. There was a significant relationship between work-related quality of life, gender and hours worked. Participants' suggestions to improve work life ranged from simple no-cost suggestions to more complex system level interventions. Work-related quality of life was low in this convenience sample. Perceived stress at work was lower than expected, but may have been due to nurses' expectations of a normal work assignment. Predominantly women, the participants had significant caregiving responsibilities. Nurses must acquire a seat at the table where crucial decisions about nursing and its future are made. By advancing leadership skills, nurses can effectively advocate for organizational changes that address broad factors related to increasing job satisfaction, and retaining and attracting nurses. Nurses can influence work quality of life individually and collectively by identifying workplace concerns, demanding safe work environments, fostering teamwork and enhancing professional growth. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  16. Internalized homonegativity/homophobia is associated with HIV-risk behaviours among Ugandan gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Kajubi, P; Mandel, J S; McFarland, W; Raymond, H F

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the relationship of internalized homonegativity/homophobia (IH) to sexual risk behaviours among 216 Ugandan gay and bisexual men, using the 7-item IH scale previously developed on this population. IH was significantly associated with unprotected anal intercourse, and more so with unprotected receptive anal intercourse. Higher IH was also associated with more sex while intoxicated. There was a strong association between anal intercourse of any type and IH, suggesting a complex relationship between anal sex and identification with, or internalization of, homonegativity/homophobia. Specifically, it may be the anal component of sex rather than the sex with another man that is seen as labeling one as homosexual or stigmatizing. Those men who stated that they engaged in sex with other men for love, rather than for the physical feeling or for money, had higher IH scores. These data suggest that there may be an interactive relationship between IH and sexual behaviour, with greater internalization being associated with more stereotypically gay activities, which in turn may lead to more self-identification as gay and thus greater susceptibility to internalization.

  17. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Neutralizing antibodies against flaviviruses, Babanki virus, and Rift Valley fever virus in Ugandan bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, Rebekah C; Kityo, Robert M; Mossel, Eric C; Borland, Erin M; Nakayiki, Teddie; Nalikka, Betty; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Panella, Nicholas A; Gilbert, Amy T; Crabtree, Mary B; Peterhans, Julian Kerbis; Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Nichol, Stuart T; Powers, Ann M; Lutwama, Julius J; Miller, Barry R

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: A number of arboviruses have previously been isolated from naturally-infected East African bats, however the role of bats in arbovirus maintenance is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure history of Ugandan bats to a panel of arboviruses. Materials and methods: Insectivorous and fruit bats were captured from multiple locations throughout Uganda during 2009 and 2011-2013. All serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), Babanki virus (BBKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Sera from up to 626 bats were screened for antibodies against each virus. Results and Discussion:  Key findings include the presence of neutralizing antibodies against RVFV in 5/52 (9.6%) of little epauletted fruit bats ( Epomophorus labiatus ) captured from Kawuku and 3/54 (5.6%) Egyptian rousette bats from Kasokero cave. Antibodies reactive to flaviviruses were widespread across bat taxa and sampling locations. Conclusion: The data presented demonstrate the widespread exposure of bats in Uganda to arboviruses, and highlight particular virus-bat associations that warrant further investigation.

  19. The aetiology of anaemia during pregnancy: a study to evaluate the contribution of iron deficiency and common infections in pregnant Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baingana, Rhona K; Enyaru, John K; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W; Davidsson, Lena

    2015-06-01

    To describe the aetiology of anaemia in pregnant Ugandan women and explore Fe deficiency and common infections as contributors to anaemia in this population. Cross-sectional study in which Hb, ferritin, transferrin receptor (sTfR), C-reactive protein, α-1 acid glycoprotein, hepcidin, malaria, hookworm infestation, syphilis and Helicobacter pylori infection were assessed. Antenatal care clinic at Kawempe Health Centre, Kampala, Uganda. HIV-negative women (n 151) in their first or second pregnancy at 10-16 weeks' gestation. The prevalence of anaemia was 29·1 %. Fe deficiency was 40·4 % and 14·6 % based on ferritin 8·3 μg/ml. The prevalence of Fe-deficiency anaemia was 9·3 % based on ferritin 8·3 μg/ml. Hepcidin concentration was positively correlated with ferritin concentration (n 151, r=0·578, P1 g/l and/or C-reactive protein >5 mg/l. Malaria parasitaemia (OR=6·85; 95 % CI 1·25, 37·41, P=0·026) and Fe deficiency defined using sTfR (OR=5·58; 95 % CI 1·26, 24·80, P=0·024) were independently and positively associated with anaemia. Population-attributable risk factors for anaemia for raised C-reactive protein, Fe deficiency defined by sTfR >8·3 μg/ml and presence of malaria parasites were 41·6 (95 % CI 11·1, 72·2) %, 13·5 (95 % CI 2·0, 25·0) % and 12·0 (95 % CI 1·4, 22·6) %, respectively. Infections and inflammation are of greater significance than Fe deficiency in the aetiology of anaemia in pregnant Ugandan women during the first trimester.

  20. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Print this issue Blood Pressure Matters Keep Hypertension in Check En español Send us your comments ... 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, but many don’t realize it. High blood ...

  1. Socioeconomic position and ten-year survival and virologic outcomes in a Ugandan HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy.

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    Andrew G Flynn

    Full Text Available Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years. We documented baseline employment status, regular household income, education level, housing description, physical ability, and CD4 count. Viral load was measured every six months. Proportional hazard regression tested for associations between baseline characteristics and 1 mortality, 2 virologic failure, and 3 mortality or virologic failure as a composite outcome. Over ten years 23% (n = 127 of participants died, 6% (n = 31 were lost-to-follow-up and 23% (107/472 experienced virologic treatment failure. In Kaplan-Meier analysis we observed an association between employment and mortality, with the highest cumulative probability of death occurring in unemployed individuals. In univariate analysis unemployment and disease severity were associated with mortality, but in multivariable analysis the only association with mortality was disease severity. We observed an association between higher household income and an increased incidence of both virologic failure and the combined outcome, and an association between self-employment and lower incidence of virologic failure and the combined outcome when compared to unemployment. Formal education level and housing status were unrelated to outcomes. It is feasible to achieve good ten-year survival, retention-in-care, and viral suppression in a socioeconomically diverse population in a resource-limited setting. Unemployment appears to be related to adverse 10

  2. Blood pressure levels and body mass index in Brazilian adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pucci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased life expectancy among people with Down syndrome (DS has introduced new environmental factors that may affect blood pressure (BP and/or lead to obesity in this population. The aim here was to investigate BP levels and body mass index (BMI in adults with DS, correlating these data with the patients' sex and age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional observational study conducted in special schools in Curitiba (PR, Brazil. METHODS: 97 adult patients were included. BP was measured in accordance with the established guidelines. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight by the height squared (kg/m2. RESULTS: Sex had no influence on BMI; nor did systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP. The age range was from 18 to 56 years. No correlation was observed between increasing age and greater BMI or BP. Eighty-six individuals (88.7% presented normal BP, eleven (11.3% prehypertension and none hypertension. Twenty patients (20.4% presented BP lower than 90 × 60 mmHg. BMI ranged from 18 to 48 kg/m2 (mean of 28.8 ± 3.92 kg/m2: 21.9% had normal weight; 40.7% were overweight; and 25.3% had obesity class I, 9.9% class II and 2.2% class III. Higher BMI was associated with significantly greater SBP and DBP (P = 0.0175 and P = 0.0015. CONCLUSION: Sex and age did not influence SBP, DBP or BMI in Brazilian adults with DS. Higher BMI was associated with greater BP (both systolic and diastolic.

  3. The Effect of Reduced Physical Activity and Retraining on Blood Lipids and Body Composition in Young and Older Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Jesper; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . Daily physical activity decreased by 31±9 (Y) and 37±9 (O) % (Polder adults. FFA and glycerol......We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged...... increased with reduced activity (Pphysical activity for two weeks increases blood lipids in both Y and O men. Six weeks of training improved...

  4. Effect of beetroot juice on lowering blood pressure in free-living, disease-free adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coles Leah T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of beetroot juice on a low nitrate diet may lower blood pressure (BP and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown if its inclusion as part of a normal diet has a similar effect on BP. The aim of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial with free-living adults to investigate if consuming beetroot juice in addition to a normal diet produces a measureable reduction in BP. Method Fifteen women and fifteen men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to receive 500 g of beetroot and apple juice (BJ or a placebo juice (PL. Volunteers had BP measured at baseline and at least hourly for 24-h following juice consumption using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM. Volunteers remained at the clinic for 1-h before resuming normal non-strenuous daily activities. The identical procedure was repeated 2-wk later with the drink (BJ or PL not consumed on the first visit. Results Overall, there was a trend (P=0.064 to lower systolic blood pressure (SBP at 6-h after drinking BJ relative to PL. Analysis in men only (n=13 after adjustment for baseline differences demonstrated a significant (P Conclusions Beetroot juice will lower BP in men when consumed as part of a normal diet in free-living healthy adults. Trial registration anzctr.org.au ACTRN12612000445875

  5. "People will say that I am proud": a qualitative study of barriers to bed net use away from home in four Ugandan districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, April; Harvey, Steven A; Lam, Yukyan; Muhangi, Denis; Loll, Dana; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Weber, Rachel

    2014-03-06

    Despite increased access and ownership, barriers to insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use persist. While barriers within the home have been well documented, the challenges to net use when sleeping away from home remain relatively unexplored. This study examines common situations in which people sleep away from home and the barriers to ITN use in those situations. To explore these issues, a group of researchers conducted 28 in-depth interviews and four focus groups amongst adults from net-owning households in four Ugandan districts. In addition to sleeping outside during hot season, participants identified social events, livelihood activities, and times of difficulty as circumstances in which large numbers of people sleep away from home. Associated challenges to ITN use included social barriers such as fear of appearing proud, logistical barriers such as not having a place to hang a net, and resource limitations such as not having an extra net with which to travel. Social disapproval emerged as an important barrier to ITN use in public settings. Unique barriers to ITN use exist when people spend the night away from home. It is essential to identify and address these barriers in order to reduce malaria exposure in such situations. For events like funerals or religious "crusades" where large numbers of people sleep away from home, alternative approaches, such as spatial repellents may be more appropriate than ITNs. Additional research is required to identify the acceptability and feasibility of alternative prevention strategies in situations where ITNs are unlikely to be effective.

  6. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts.

  7. Validation of the Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) upper-arm blood pressure measuring device according to the International Protocol in adults and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkan, Sekip; Ilman, Nevzat; Kayatürk, Nur; Altunkan, Erkan

    2007-08-01

    Electronic blood pressure (BP) measurement devices are the preferred choice of patients owing to their user-friendly nature; however, there is a requirement to investigate the accuracy and reliability of these devices. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the Omron M6 upper-arm BP device against the mercury sphygmomanometer in adults and obese adults according to the International Protocol criteria. One hundred and twenty-one patients, older than 30 years of age, were studied and classified on the basis of the range of the International Protocol. BP measurements at the upper arm with the Omron M6 were compared with the results obtained by two trained observers using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Nine sequential BP measurements were taken. A total of 33 participants were selected for each validation study. During the validation study, 99 measurements were performed on 33 participants for comparison. The first phase was performed on 15 participants, and if the device passed this phase, 18 more participants were selected. Having a two-fold purpose, this study was conducted on both adult and obese adult patients. Mean discrepancies and standard deviations of the monitor-mercury sphygmomanometer were 1.1+/-4.0 mmHg for systolic BP (SBP) and -0.5+/-3.5 mmHg for diastolic BP (DBP) in the adult group. The device passed phase 1 in 15 participants. In phase 2.1, out of a total of 99 comparisons, 88, 96, and 97 for SBP, and 88, 98, and 99 for DBP were M6 automatic monitor, which measures BP at the upper arm, produced results in accordance with the criteria of phases 2.1 and 2.2 in both SBP and DBP, when applied to adults and to obese adults. It was concluded that the Omron M6 device, which measures BP at the upper arm, was deemed to be in accordance with the International Protocol criteria and can be recommended for use by adults and obese adults.

  8. Validation of the Samsung SBM-100A and Microlife BP 3BU1-5 wrist blood pressure measuring devices in adults according to the International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkan, Sekip; Ilman, Nevzat; Altunkan, Erkan

    2007-04-01

    A variety of automatic blood measurement devices with diverse features have been introduced to the medical markets recently. Among these devices, models that measure at the wrist have become increasingly popular in self measurements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Samsung SBM-100A and Microlife BP 3BU1-5 wrist blood pressure devices against the mercury sphygmomanometer in adults according to the International Protocol criteria. Fifty-four patients over 30 years of age were studied and classified based on the International Protocol range. Blood pressure measurements at the wrist with the Samsung SBM-100A and Microlife BP 3BU1-5 were compared with the results obtained by two trained observers using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Nine sequential blood pressure measurements were taken. A total of 33 participants with randomly distributed arm circumferences were selected for both of the validation studies. During each validation study, 99 measurements were obtained for comparison from 33 participants. The first phase was performed on 15 participants and if the device passed this phase, 18 more participants were selected. Mean discrepancies and standard deviations of the device-sphygmomanometer were 0.9+/-9.2 and -2.7+/-9.3 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and -1.4+/-8.0 mmHg and 1.4+/-5.7 for diastolic blood pressure in the Samsung and Microlife study groups, respectively. The Samsung SBM-100A passed Phase 1 in 15 participants. Despite the fact that Microlife BP 3BU1-5 passed Phase 1 for diastolic pressure, it failed according to the systolic pressure criteria. Eighteen patients were added and Phase 2 was continued, in which Samsung SBM-100A failed to meet the criteria of Phases 2.1 and 2.2 for adults in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It was found that the Microlife BP 3BU1-5 does not meet the criteria of either of Phases 2.1 and 2.2 for systolic blood pressure and Phase 2.2 for diastolic blood pressure. In this study, Samsung SBM

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow and Amyloid-β Interact to Affect Memory Performance in Cognitively Normal Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Bangen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow (CBF alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years underwent neuroimaging and memory testing. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify CBF and florbetapir PET amyloid imaging was used to measure Aβ deposition. Aβ status (i.e., positivity versus negativity was determined based on established cutoffs (Landau et al., 2013. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess memory. Linear regression models adjusted for age, education, and sex, demonstrated significant interactions between CBF and Aβ status on memory performance. Among Aβ positive older adults, there were significant negative associations between higher CBF in hippocampus, posterior cingulate, and precuneus and poorer memory performance. In contrast, among Aβ negative older adults, there were no significant associations between CBF and cognition. Our findings extend previous CBF studies of dementia risk by reporting interactions between Aβ status and CBF on memory performance in a sample of well-characterized, cognitively normal older adults. Results suggest that differential CBF-cognition associations can be identified in healthy, asymptomatic Aβ positive older adults relative to Aβ negative individuals. Associations between higherCBF and poorer memory among Aβ positive older adults may reflect a cellular and/or vascular compensatory response to pathologic processes whereby higher CBF is needed to maintain normal memory

  10. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in a Clinical Sample of Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2017-02-01

    Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake was evaluated with 4-day food records. Participants were 328 adults recruited from the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 and April 2015. Resting BP and 24-hour urine sodium and potassium were measured. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 21 food groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the extracted dietary patterns and BP. The participants' mean age was 43.6±8.0 years, mean body mass index was 32.4±4.2, and mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 124.9±14.5/73.3±9.9 mm Hg. Six major dietary patterns were identified: "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish," "milk and meat," "breads, cereals, and snacks," "cereal-based products, fats, and oils," "alcohol, eggs, and legumes," and "savoury sauces, condiments, and meat." The "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish" dietary pattern was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP (F [7,320]=15.248; Ppattern rich in nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish was inversely associated with blood pressure in this clinical sample. The findings suggest that current dietary guidelines are relevant to an overweight clinical population and support the value of dietary pattern analysis when exploring the diet-disease relationship. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood...... pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. METHODS: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends...... from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. FINDINGS...

  12. Barriers to safe abortion access: uterine rupture as complication of unsafe abortion in a Ugandan girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Rose McKeon; Kamurari, Solomon

    2017-10-20

    A 15-year-old girl at 18 weeks gestation by the last menstrual period presented to a rural Ugandan healthcare facility for termination of her pregnancy as a result of rape by her uncle. Skilled healthcare workers at the facility refused to provide the abortion due to fear of legal repercussions. The patient subsequently obtained an unsafe abortion by vaginal insertion of local herbs and sharp objects. She developed profuse vaginal bleeding and haemorrhagic shock. She was found to have uterine rupture and emergent hysterectomy was performed. Young and poor women are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and subsequent mortality during pregnancy and childbirth. Unsafe abortion is a leading and entirely preventable cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Multiple barriers restrict access to safe abortions including social and moral stigma, gender-based power imbalances, inadequate contraceptive use and sexual education, high cost and poor availability, and restrictive abortion laws. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  14. Prevalence of and factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    To analyze factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure among adults in Brazilian state capitals. The study uses data from Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel - Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey) collected in 2013. Prevalence rates and their respective 95% confidence intervals by gender were estimated according to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, reported noncommunicable diseases and self-rated health status. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify variables associated with self-reported high blood pressure with α high blood pressure among adults living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District was 24.1%. The following variables were associated with self-reported high blood pressure: age group, taking 18-24 as reference (all age groups presented increased risk - from 25-34 years [OR = 2.6; 95%CI 2.0-3.4] up to 65 years or more [OR = 28.1; 95%CI 21.7-36.4]); low education level (9 to 11 years of study [OR = 0.8; 95%CI 0.7-0.9] and 12 years or more [OR = 0.6; 95%CI 0.6-0.7]); Black race or skin color (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.5); being a former smoker (OR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.1-1.3); obesity (OR = 2.7; 95%CI 2.4-3.0); diabetes (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 2.5-3.5%), and high cholesterol (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.2). Approximately one quarter of the adult population living in Brazilian state capitals reported having high blood pressure. Information from Vigitel is useful to monitor high blood pressure and identity its associated factors, supporting public policies for health promotion, surveillance and care. Analisar os fatores associados à hipertensão arterial autorreferida entre adultos nas capitais brasileiras. Estudo com os dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) coletados no ano de 2013. Foram estimadas

  15. The Effect of Specific Oral Nutritional Supplements Compared to Tea with Sugar on Gastric Emptying Time, Blood Glucose Level, and Hunger Response in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Evangeline Bela

    2017-09-01

    Methods: This study was a clinical, parallel, random allocation, and single-blind trial. This study was conducted at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The subjects were 12 healthy adults divided into 2 groups: intervention group (n = 6 and control group (n = 6. Patients in the intervention group received 200 mL S-ONS (200 kcal, 18% protein, 20% fat and 62% carbohydrate and control group received 200 mL of tea with 10 grams of sugar (40 kcal. Gastric volume was measured using 2D-sonography every 30 minutes. Blood glucose level was measured using blood peripheral sample. Hunger response was measured using visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Gastric emptying time in the intervention group was <90 minutes, and in the control group <60 minutes. Blood glucose level was increased in the intervention group and decreased in control group. Hunger response was decreased in intervention group and increased in control group. Conclusion: Gastric emptying time after either drinking S-ONS and drinking tea with sugar in healthy adults subjects were less than 2 hours. Patients receiving S-ONS had significantly higher blood glucose level and were less hungry than the control group.

  16. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  17. The effect of aprotinin, tranexamic acid, and aminocaproic acid on blood loss and use of blood products in major pediatric surgery : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Esther S.; van de Pol, Alma C.; Schouten, Anton N. J.; Turner, Nigel M.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.

    Objective: Aprotinin reduces the blood loss and transfusion of blood products in children undergoing major surgery. Aprotinin has been associated with severe side effects in adults, and tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid have been found to be safer alternatives in adults. This systematic review

  18. Relationship Between 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Cognitive Function in Community-Living Older Adults: The UCSD Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kyle S; Forbang, Nketi; Beben, Tomasz; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rifkin, Dena E

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) patterns have been associated with diminished cognitive function in hypertensive and very elderly populations. The relationship between ambulatory BP patterns and cognitive function in community-living older adults is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour ambulatory BP, in-clinic BP, and cognitive function measures were obtained from 319 community-living older adults. The mean age was 72 years, 66% were female, and 13% were African-American. We performed linear regression with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as the primary outcome and 24-hour BP patterns as the independent variable, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and comorbidities. Greater nighttime systolic dipping (P = 0.046) and higher 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP; P = 0.015) were both significantly associated with better cognitive function, whereas 24-hour systolic BP (SBP), average real variability, and ambulatory arterial stiffness were not. Higher 24-hour DBP and greater nighttime systolic dipping were significantly associated with improved cognitive function. Future studies should examine whether low 24-hour DBP and lack of nighttime systolic dipping predict future cognitive impairment. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evaluation of a combined blood glucose monitoring and gaming system (Didget®) for motivation in children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Aisenberg, Javier; Kaufman, Francine; Halvorson, Mary; Cruz, Eric; Riordan, Mary Ellen; Varma, Chandrasekhar; Pardo, Scott; Viggiani, Maria T; Wallace, Jane F; Schachner, Holly C; Bailey, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance and acceptability of a blood glucose meter coupled with a gaming system for children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. During an in-clinic visit, duplicate blood samples were tested by subjects (N = 147; aged 5-24 yr) and health care providers (HCPs) to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the Didget® system. Subjects' meter results were compared against Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) reference results and HCP results using least squares regression and error grid analyses. Precision was measured by average within-subject and within-HCP coefficient of variation (CV). During the home-use component of this study, subjects (n = 58) tested their blood glucose at least two to three times daily for 3-5 d to evaluate routine use of the system. Subjects' meter results showed significant correlations with both YSI (r(2) = 0.94; p motivating, and helpful for building good blood glucose monitoring habits. Most HCPs agreed that the system fulfilled a need in diabetes management. In conclusion, the Didget® system was precise and clinically accurate in the hands of children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Constitutive activation and accelerated maturation of peripheral blood t cells in healthy adults in burkina faso compared to Germany: The case of malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiba F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective It is not exactly known how frequent exposure to Plasmodium falciparum shapes the peripheral blood T-cell population in healthy West Africans. Methods The frequency of peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes responding to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP-1 by production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was determined using a commercially available flow cytometric activation assay (Fastlmmune in 17 healthy adults in Nouna, Burkina Faso. T-cell activation and maturation in peripheral blood of healthy adults in Burkina Faso (n = 40 and Germany (n = 20 were compared using immunophenotyping and three-colour flow cytometry. Results Significant numbers of PfMSV-1 -specific CD4+ lymphocytes producing IFN-γ, IL-2 and/or TNF-α were detected in 14 healthy adults in Nouna. Cytokine profiles showed predominant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Compared to Germans, Burkinabé showed markedly lower proportions of CCR7+ CD45RA+ naïve CD4+ cells and slightly higher frequencies of CD95+ CD4+ T-cells and of CD38+ CD8+ T-cells. The median antibody-binding capacity of CD95dim CD4+ T-cells in Burkinabé was more than twice the value observed in Germans (263 vs. 108 binding sites per cell, p Conclusions We hypothesize that an IFN-γ-induced increase in the expression level of CD95 on CD4+ lymphocytes may lower the activation threshold of resting naïve CD4+ T-cells in healthy adults living in Burkina Faso. Bystander activation of these cells deserves further study as a molecular mechanism linking strong IFN-γ responses against Plasmodium falciparum to decreased susceptibility to parasitemia observed in specific ethnic groups in West Africa.

  1. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... blood. RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA......-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required...

  2. Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Berman, Sara E; Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Krause, Rachel A; Oh, Jennifer M; Beeri, Michal S; Rowley, Howard A; Wieben, Oliver; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Schrage, William G

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. We hypothesized that higher HOMA-IR would be associated with reduced flow in macrovessels and lower cortical perfusion. One hundred and twenty cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults (57 ± 5 yrs) underwent fasting blood draw, phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (PC VIPR) MRI, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower arterial blood flow, particularly within the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), and lower cerebral perfusion in several brain regions including frontal and temporal lobe regions. Higher blood flow in bilateral ICAs predicted greater cortical perfusion in individuals with lower HOMA-IR, a relationship not observed among those with higher HOMA-IR. Findings provide novel evidence for an uncoupling of macrovascular blood flow and microvascular perfusion among individuals with higher IR in midlife. PMID:27488909

  3. Apolipoprotein E in umbilical cord blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, T.M.; Davis, P.A.; Blum, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Adolipoprotein E (apo E), with a molecular weight of approximately 37,000 daltons, is a minor apolipoprotein constituent in adult plasma lipoproteins. This apolipoprotein, like apolipoprotein B, is a ligand recognized by specific lipoprotein receptor sites (B-E receptors) on cell surfaces. We have recently shown that a pronounced apo E band appears in umbilical cord blood low-density (LDL) lipoproteins and also in high density (HDL) lipoproteins. Densitometric scans of Coomassie blue G-250 stained polyacrylamide gels suggested that apo E was probably elevated in cord blood lipoproteins. To pursue this suggestion, apo E in cord blood was quantitated by radioimmunoassay and correlated with cord blood lipid levels. In addition, apo E levels in 20 normal adult volunteers were also examined

  4. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  5. Association Between Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Blood Pressure Among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Terry, Ana L; Wang, Chia-Yih; Wright, Jacqueline; Coleman King, Sallyann M; Bowman, Barbara; Chen, Te-Ching; Merritt, Robert; Loria, Catherine M

    2018-01-16

    Higher levels of sodium and lower levels of potassium intake are associated with higher blood pressure. However, the shape and magnitude of these associations can vary by study participant characteristics or intake assessment method. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium are unaffected by recall errors and represent all sources of intake, and were collected for the first time in a nationally representative US survey. Our objective was to assess the associations of blood pressure and hypertension with 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium among US adults. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 766 participants age 20 to 69 years with complete blood pressure and 24-hour urine collections in the 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey of the US noninstitutionalized population. Usual 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion (sodium, potassium, and their ratio) was estimated from ≤2 collections on nonconsecutive days, adjusting for day-to-day variability in excretion. Outcomes included systolic and diastolic blood pressure from the average of 3 measures and hypertension status, based on average blood pressure ≥140/90 and antihypertensive medication use. After multivariable adjustment, each 1000-mg difference in usual 24-hour sodium excretion was directly associated with systolic (4.58 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64-6.51) and diastolic (2.25 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.83-3.67) blood pressures. Each 1000-mg difference in potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-3.72 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.01 to -1.42). Each 0.5 U difference in sodium-to-potassium ratio was directly associated with systolic blood pressure (1.72 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.76-2.68). Hypertension was linearly associated with progressively higher sodium and lower potassium excretion; in comparison with the lowest quartile of excretion, the adjusted odds of hypertension for the highest quartile was

  6. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7-5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality experienced students. Targeted interventions that integrate mental

  7. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Larsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. Objective: To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. Design: In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Results: Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7–5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.0, respectively. Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1–4.8, exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7–3.9, frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9–5.8, and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.3. The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1–8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8 and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6–7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4 persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions: These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of

  8. Effects of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on aortic blood pressure and aortic augmentation index in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Treichler, David P; Casey, Darren P

    2016-09-30

    Aging is associated with elevated blood pressure (peripheral and aortic; BP) and aortic augmentation index (AIx) which may contribute to aortic BP. Although inorganic nitrate consumption reduces peripheral BP in both young and older adults, the effects of nitrate consumption on aortic BP and wave reflection in young and older adults is unknown. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of nitrate consumption on aortic BP and AIx in young and older adults. Noninvasive aortic pressure waveforms were synthesized from high-fidelity radial pressure waveforms via applanation tonometry before and following (60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min) consumption of a nitrate-rich beetroot juice in 26 healthy adults (young: 25 ± 4 years, n = 14; older: 64 ± 5 years, n = 12). Aortic BP and indices of aortic wave reflection (AIx and AIx normalized for heart rate; AIx@75bpm) were calculated from the generated aortic pressure waveform. Nitrate consumption increased plasma nitrite in both groups 60-180 min following beetroot consumption (P young and older adults (P age groups. Conversely, indices of aortic wave reflection were reduced only in young adults following nitrate consumption (range of change from baseline over time: AIx@75bpm, -4.3 to -8.8%, P adults. Taken together, our results suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation reduces peripheral and aortic BP similarly in young and older adults despite differential effects on aortic AIx between age groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection predicts antimalarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In areas with intense malaria transmission, individuals are often simultaneously infected with multiple parasite strains. This study assessed the effect of multiple infections on treatment response in Ugandan children with uncomplicated malaria. Methods: Four hundred and seventy six blood specimens were ...

  10. Diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure in relation to BMI among adult non-pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Seydou, Ide

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the association between overweight and obesity (in terms of BMI) and diabetes, HBP and diabetes-HBP comorbidity among adult women non-pregnant in Bangladesh. Information about demographics, socioeconomic, blood pressure and blood glucose levels were collected for 2022 women ageing above 35 years were collected from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011). The primary outcome variables were diabetes and high blood pressure. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose value ≥7.0mmol/L and HBP as systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg. Blood pressure and plasma glucose measurement were performed by standard clinical procedures. Data were analysed using cross-tabulation, chi-square tests and logistic regression methods. Mean age of the participants was 41.42 (SD=4.37). 38.7% of the women had BMI values ≥25. The prevalence of HBP, diabetes, and diabetes-HBP comorbidity was respectively 18% and 5.1%, and 2%. The adjusted odds of having diabetes, HBP and Diabetes-HBP comorbidity were respectively 2.14 (p=0.002; 95%CI=1.31-3.48), 2.3 (p=<0.0001; 95%CI=1.70-2.98), and 3.4 (p=0.004; 95%CI=1.47-7.81) times higher among overweight/obese women compared to those with normal weight. Overweight and obesity account for a major proportion of diabetes, HBP and the comorbidity of these two among non-pregnant women. There remains a considerable risk for future expansion of diabetes and HBP as the prevalence of overweight/obesity is rising constantly. Maintaining a healthy BMI needs to be regarded as among the most important diabetes and HBP preventive strategies among Bangladeshi women. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  12. Quantitation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in dried blood spots by 2D LC-MS/MS without derivatization and correlation with serum in adult and pediatric studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Berit P; Saraf, Rajneeta; Ma, Jing; Berry, Sarah; Grant, Cameron C; Camargo, Carlos A; Sies, Christiaan W

    2018-06-01

    Demand for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is growing and dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is attractive as samples are easier to collect, transport and store. A 2D LC-MS/MS assay without derivatization was developed. DBS punches (3.2 mm) were ultrasonicated with d 6 -25OHD 3 in 70% methanol followed by hexane extraction, dry-down and reconstitution. The assay was validated and applied to two studies comparing whole blood adult DBS with serum samples (n = 40) and neonatal whole blood DBS with cord serum samples (n = 80). The assay was validated in whole blood DBS over the range 13-106 nmol/L 25OHD 3 and 11-91 nmol/L 25OHD 2 with a limit of detection of 3 nmol/L. Intra- and inter-day imprecision was <13% CV and bias <12%. The assay had high recovery and minimal matrix effects. Triplicate DBS study samples had a mean CV of ≤13% for 25OHD 3. No 25OHD 2 was detected. DBS calculated serum 25OHD 3 concentrations correlated strongly with serum concentrations in the adult DBS/serum study (r = 0.94) and moderately in the neonatal DBS/cord serum study (r = 0.69). Direct quantitation of 25OHD in DBS by 2D LC-MS/MS without derivatization was found to be an alternative to serum quantitation applicable to clinical research studies on adult DBS samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative study of the effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Kafeshani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a set of metabolic disorders affecting heart and blood vessels. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have attracted significant attention recently due to their high popularity, nutrient profile and therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 54 healthy adult men. The participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups receiving 450 mg green tea or sour tea and one placebo group which consumed 450 mg placebo (maltodextrin for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, lipid profile, dietary intake and physical activity were measured pre- and post-intervention and compared. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of intervention, sour tea supplementation led to a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP compared with the placebo group. However, we faild to find any significant difference in SBP between green tea and control groups. Also, no significant changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure (DBP and lipid profile between the three groups. In comparison with baseline, there was a significant increase in the mean level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in green tea and sour tea groups. Also, the interventions resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and DBP in the sour tea group compared with the pre-intervention value. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our findings, sour tea supplementation led to decreased SBP in healthy men compared with the placebo, but there was no significant difference between their effects on DBP and lipid profile. 

  14. Comparative effectiveness of a portion-controlled meal replacement program for weight loss in adults with and without diabetes/high blood sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C D; Kiel, J R; Mitola, A H; Arterburn, L M

    2017-07-10

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2) may be less successful at achieving therapeutic weight loss than their counterparts without diabetes. This study compares weight loss in a cohort of adults with DM2 or high blood sugar (D/HBS) to a cohort of adults without D/HBS. All were overweight/obese and following a reduced or low-calorie commercial weight-loss program incorporating meal replacements (MRs) and one-on-one behavioral support. Demographic, weight, body composition, anthropometric, pulse and blood pressure data were collected as part of systematic retrospective chart review studies. Differences between cohorts by D/HBS status were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-tests and mixed model regression. A total of 816 charts were included (125 with self-reported D/HBS). The cohort with D/HBS had more males (40.8 vs 25.6%), higher BMI (39.0 vs 36.3 kg m - 2 ) and was older (56 vs 48 years). Among clients continuing on program, the cohorts with and without D/HBS lost, on average, 5.6 vs 5.8 kg (NS) (5.0 vs 5.6%; P=0.005) of baseline weight at 4 weeks, 11.0 vs 11.6 kg (NS) (9.9 vs 11.1%; P=0.027) at 12 weeks and 16.3 vs 17.1 kg (13.9 vs 15.7%; NS) at 24 weeks, respectively. In a mixed model regression controlling for baseline weight, gender and meal plan, and an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in weight loss between the cohorts at any time point. Over 70% in both cohorts lost ⩾5% of their baseline weight by the final visit on their originally assigned meal plan. Both cohorts had significant reductions from baseline in body fat, blood pressure, pulse and abdominal circumference. Adults who were overweight/obese and with D/HBS following a commercial weight-loss program incorporating MRs and one-on-one behavioral support achieved therapeutic weight loss. The program was equally effective for weight loss and reductions in cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with and without D/HBS.

  15. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  16. 3-Methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency in Amish/Mennonite adults identified by detection of increased acylcarnitines in blood spots of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, K M; Bennett, M J; Naylor, E W; Morton, D H

    1998-03-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase (MCC) deficiency was documented in four adult women from the Amish/Mennonite population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Metabolic and enzymatic investigations in these individuals were instituted after the detection of abnormal acylcarnitine profiles in blood spots obtained from their newborn children, in whom MCC activity was normal.

  17. Age-specific association between blood pressure and vascular and non-vascular chronic diseases in 0·5 million adults in China: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lacey, FFPH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The age-specific association between blood pressure and vascular disease has been studied mostly in high-income countries, and before the widespread use of brain imaging for diagnosis of the main stroke types (ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate this relationship among adults in China. Methods: 512 891 adults (59% women aged 30–79 years were recruited into a prospective study from ten areas of China between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008. Participants attended assessment centres where they were interviewed about demographic and lifestyle characteristics, and their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured. Incident disease was identified through linkage to local mortality records, chronic disease registries, and claims to the national health insurance system. We used Cox regression analysis to produce adjusted hazard ratios (HRs relating systolic blood pressure to disease incidence. HRs were corrected for regression dilution to estimate associations with long-term average (usual systolic blood pressure. Findings: During a median follow-up of 9 years (IQR 8–10, there were 88 105 incident vascular and non-vascular chronic disease events (about 90% of strokes events were diagnosed using brain imaging. At ages 40–79 years (mean age at event 64 years [SD 9], usual systolic blood pressure was continuously and positively associated with incident major vascular disease throughout the range 120–180 mm Hg: each 10 mm Hg higher usual systolic blood pressure was associated with an approximately 30% higher risk of ischaemic heart disease (HR 1·31 [95% CI 1·28–1·34] and ischaemic stroke (1·30 [1·29–1·31], but the association with intracerebral haemorrhage was about twice as steep (1·68 [1·65–1·71]. HRs for vascular disease were twice as steep at ages 40–49 years than at ages 70–79 years. Usual systolic blood pressure was also positively associated with incident

  18. In vitro cytokine production and phenotype expression by blood mononuclear cells from umbilical cords, children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Zak, M; Nielsen, S

    1996-01-01

    Age related differences in immunological reactions include variations in the in vitro functions of blood mononuclear cells (MNC). In an attempt to understand the mechanism behind these differences we examined age related differences in the phenotype profiles of MNC in parallel with the in vitro......, and unmeasurable levels in cord blood MNC. Flow cytometry analysis of the phenotypic distribution of MNC revealed age related differences in the expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, CD45RA, CD45R0, CD2, LFA-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Correlation studies did not indicate that the observed differences in cytokine....... In conclusion, the study provides evidence of age related differences in the production of TNF alpha, IL-6 and IFNg among neonates, children and adults. These differences may to some extent be caused by differences in the expression of cell surface molecules involved in cellular interactions and signalling....

  19. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospective evaluation of the diagnostic value of sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood in adults with suspected systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, H; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood has been proposed to guide bone marrow (BM) investigation in suspected systemic mastocytosis (SM). The aim of this prospective study was for the first time to compare the D816V status of the "screening blood sample" used to guide BM biopsy...... in suspected SM to the outcome of the subsequent BM investigation. METHODS: Fifty-eight adult patients with suspected SM were included. The outcome of sensitive KIT D816V analysis of blood was compared to the result of the BM investigation. RESULTS: Screening blood samples from 44 of 58 patients tested D816V...... patients did not fulfill any diagnostic SM criteria (excluding tryptase criterion). Of the 48 SM patients, 90% tested D816V-positive. Thirteen SM patients presented with Hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis, no skin lesions, and baseline serum tryptase ≤20 ng/mL. Of these, 92% tested D816V...

  1. Chronic adult T-cell Leukemia in a young male after blood transfusion as a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Colucci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HTM/TSP. Areas of extremely high HTLV-1 prevalence are surrounded by areas of middle or very low prevalence. ATLL is an aggressive lymphoproliferative malignancy of peripheral T cells, with an incidence of less than 5% in HTLV-1-infected individuals. ATLL developed in the majority of cases in individuals who were infected with HTLV-1 by their mothers due to prolonged breastfeeding. In non-endemic areas, ATLL is usually limited to immigrants, their sexual partners and descendants from endemic regions. Very few cases of ATLL have been diagnosed in recipient patients few years after an organ transplantation or blood transfusion worldwide. Achieving an accurate and fast diagnosis of ATLL can be challenging due to the lack of professional experience, delayed consultation and difficulty in its sub-classification. We present a case of a delayed onset of a chronic ATLL in an 18-years-old male who was transfused with blood components as a premature newborn in Buenos Aires, a non-endemic city of South America.

  2. Multiple blood meals in Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Paolucci Pimenta, Paulo Filemon; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of human malaria in the Amazon. Adult females of this mosquito species require a blood meal to develop eggs, preferring humans to other blood sources. Although gonotrophic concordance has been described as the norm for An. darlingi, here we report An. darlingi female mosquitoes taking two or more blood meals within their first gonotrophic cycle. Only half of field-captured adult females fed one blood meal developed follicles to Christophers' stage V. This outcome is dependent on larval nutrition, as 88% of laboratory-raised well-nourished females completed the first gonotrophic cycle with only one blood meal, while less nourished females needed additional blood meals. Half of the field-captured blood-seeking An. darlingi females had follicles in intermediate (IIIa and IIIb) and final (V) stages of the gonotrophic cycle, supporting the conclusion that An. darlingi blood feed more than once during a gonotrophic cycle. Additionally, we observed females attempting to blood feed a second time during the same day. Additional studies of An. darlingi biting behavior are necessary to accurately estimate Plasmodium sp. entomologic inoculation rates throughout the An. darlingi vast geographical distribution. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of endothelial progenitor cells derived from umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood: Implications for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiugong Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs offer the potential to generate tissues with ethnic diversity enabling toxicity testing on selected populations. Recently, it has been reported that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from umbilical cord blood (CB or adult peripheral blood (PB afford a practical and efficient cellular substrate for iPSC generation. However, differences between EPCs from different blood sources have rarely been studied. In the current study, we derived EPCs from blood mononuclear cells (MNCs and reprogrammed EPCs into iPSCs. We also explored differences between CB-EPCs and PB-EPCs at the molecular and cellular levels through a combination of transcriptomic analysis and cell biology techniques. EPC colonies in CB-MNCs emerged 5–7 days earlier, were 3-fold higher in number, and consistently larger in size than in PB-MNCs. Similarly, iPSC colonies generated from CB-EPCs was 2.5-fold higher in number than from PB-EPCs, indicating CB-EPCs have a higher reprogramming efficiency than PB-EPCs. Transcriptomic analysis using microarrays found a total of 1133 genes differentially expressed in CB-EPCs compared with PB-EPCs, with 675 genes upregulated and 458 downregulated. Several canonical pathways were impacted, among which the human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway was of particular interest. The differences in the gene expression pattern between CB-EPCs and PB-EPCs provide a molecular basis for the discrepancies seen in their derivation and reprogramming efficiencies, and highlight the advantages of using CB as the cellular source for the generation of iPSCs and their derivative tissues for ethnic-related toxicological applications.

  4. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of endothelial progenitor cells derived from umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood: Implications for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiugong; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2017-12-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer the potential to generate tissues with ethnic diversity enabling toxicity testing on selected populations. Recently, it has been reported that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from umbilical cord blood (CB) or adult peripheral blood (PB) afford a practical and efficient cellular substrate for iPSC generation. However, differences between EPCs from different blood sources have rarely been studied. In the current study, we derived EPCs from blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and reprogrammed EPCs into iPSCs. We also explored differences between CB-EPCs and PB-EPCs at the molecular and cellular levels through a combination of transcriptomic analysis and cell biology techniques. EPC colonies in CB-MNCs emerged 5-7days earlier, were 3-fold higher in number, and consistently larger in size than in PB-MNCs. Similarly, iPSC colonies generated from CB-EPCs was 2.5-fold higher in number than from PB-EPCs, indicating CB-EPCs have a higher reprogramming efficiency than PB-EPCs. Transcriptomic analysis using microarrays found a total of 1133 genes differentially expressed in CB-EPCs compared with PB-EPCs, with 675 genes upregulated and 458 downregulated. Several canonical pathways were impacted, among which the human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway was of particular interest. The differences in the gene expression pattern between CB-EPCs and PB-EPCs provide a molecular basis for the discrepancies seen in their derivation and reprogramming efficiencies, and highlight the advantages of using CB as the cellular source for the generation of iPSCs and their derivative tissues for ethnic-related toxicological applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  6. Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults and Cognition in Midlife: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Ning, Hongyan; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Launer, Lenore J; Bryan, R Nick; Yaffe, Kristine; Sidney, Stephen; Albanese, Emiliano; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Liu, Kiang

    2016-01-13

    The classic view of blood pressure (BP) reactivity to psychological stress in relation to cardiovascular risks assumes that excess reactivity is worse and lower reactivity is better. Evidence addressing how stress-induced BP reactivity in young adults is associated with midlife cognitive function is sparse. We assessed BP reactivity during a star tracing task and a video game in adults aged 20 to 32 years. Twenty-three years later, cognitive function was assessed with use of the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (a psychomotor speed test), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (a verbal memory test), and the modified Stroop test (an executive function test). At the time of follow-up, participants (n=3021) had a mean age of 50.2 years; 56% were women, and 44% were black. In linear regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics including baseline and follow-up resting BP, lower systolic BP (SBP) reactivity during the star tracing and video game was associated with worse Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores (β [SE]: 0.11 [0.02] and 0.05 [0.02], respectively) and worse performance on the Stroop test (β [SE]: -0.06 [0.02] and -0.05 [0.02]; all Pstress-induced SBP reactivity in younger adults was associated with lower cognitive function in midlife. BP reactivity to psychological stressors may have different associations with target organs in hypertension. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: Evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda’s cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples...... were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK® FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45...... Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. Consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2, was the isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently...

  8. Haematopoietic transplants combining a single unrelated cord blood unit and mobilized haematopoietic stem cells from an adult HLA-mismatched third party donor. Comparable results to transplants from HLA-identical related donors in adults with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrango, Ana; Vicuña, Isabel; de Laiglesia, Almudena; Millán, Isabel; Bautista, Guiomar; Martín-Donaire, Trinidad; Regidor, Carmen; Cabrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Manuel N

    2010-06-01

    We describe results of the strategy, developed by our group, of co-infusion of mobilized haematopoietic stem cells as a support for single-unit unrelated cord blood transplant (dual CB/TPD-MHSC transplants) for treatment of haematological malignancies in adults, and a comparative analysis of results obtained using this strategy and transplants performed with mobilized haematopoietic stem cells from related HLA-identical donors (RTD) for treatment of adults with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Our data show that the dual CB/TPD-MHSC transplant strategy results in periods of post-transplant neutropenia, final rates of full donor chimerism and transplant-related mortality rates comparable to those of the RTD. Final survival outcomes are comparable in adults transplanted because of acute leukaemia, with different incidences of the complications that most influence these: a higher incidence of infections related to late recovery of protective immunity dependent on T cell functions, and a lower incidence of serious acute graft-versus-host disease and relapses. Recent advances in cord blood transplant techniques allow allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to be a viable option for almost every patient who may benefit from this therapeutic approach. Development of innovative strategies to improve the post-transplant recovery of T cells function is currently the main challenge to further improving the possibilities of unrelated cord blood transplantation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Data describing the flow-mediated vasodilation responses and blood pressure in young adult humans after a single dose of oral edible emu oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Miyashita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data provided herein include flow-mediated vasodilation responses, represented by changes in arterial diameter, and blood pressure in young adults after a single oral dose of edible emu oil or placebo (cross-over design. Ten healthy men and 10 healthy women participated. Increased blood flow in the antebrachial region was induced by inflating a pressure cuff and subsequently releasing the pressure by deflating the cuff. After the release, the arterial diameter was continuously monitored for 110 sec using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. The changes in the arterial diameter from 20 to 110 sec post-cuff deflation are described in line graphs and tables. In addition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure data are provided in a table.

  10. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Blood Transfusion (Indications and Problems in Tranfusion of Blood Components as of 1986)

    OpenAIRE

    金沢, 宏; 大関, 一; 矢沢, 正知; 江口, 昭治; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Oozeki, Hajime; Yazawa, Masatomo; Eguchi, Shoji

    1987-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), functioning as the pumping system and the gas exchange functions, is one of the important instruments in cardiovascular operations. But it has many unfavourable problems such as massive blood transfusion, hemodilution, abnormality of coagulation, etc. In fact, 5 or 6 units of blood are necessary to prime CPB in infant, child, and adult. After CPB, massive blood transfusion is necessary to keep good circulation, and to recover from hemodilution and abnormal coagul...

  11. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: → We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. → This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. → Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  12. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...

  13. Endothelial β-Catenin Signaling Is Required for Maintaining Adult Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Central Nervous System Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Khiem A; Zhang, Xianming; Predescu, Dan; Huang, Xiaojia; Machado, Roberto F; Göthert, Joachim R; Malik, Asrar B; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Zhao, You-Yang

    2016-01-12

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain endothelial cells interconnected by tight junctions is essential for the homeostasis of the central nervous system. Although studies have shown the importance of various signaling molecules in BBB formation during development, little is known about the molecular basis regulating the integrity of the adult BBB. Using a mouse model with tamoxifen-inducible endothelial cell-restricted disruption of ctnnb1 (iCKO), we show here that endothelial β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining BBB integrity and central nervous system homeostasis in adult mice. The iCKO mice developed severe seizures accompanied by neuronal injury, multiple brain petechial hemorrhages, and central nervous system inflammation, and all had postictal death. Disruption of endothelial β-catenin induced BBB breakdown and downregulation of the specific tight junction proteins claudin-1 and -3 in adult brain endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of the data is indicated by the observation of decreased expression of claudin-1 and nuclear β-catenin in brain endothelial cells of hemorrhagic lesions of hemorrhagic stroke patients. These results demonstrate the prerequisite role of endothelial β-catenin in maintaining the integrity of adult BBB. The results suggest that BBB dysfunction secondary to defective β-catenin transcription activity is a key pathogenic factor in hemorrhagic stroke, seizure activity, and central nervous system inflammation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Postaerobic Exercise Blood Pressure Reduction in Very Old Persons With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joana; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Argel de Melo, Cristina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A single bout of aerobic exercise acutely decreases blood pressure, even in older adults with hypertension. Nonetheless, blood pressure responses to aerobic exercise in very old adults with hypertension have not yet been documented. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effect of a single session of aerobic exercise on postexercise blood pressure in very old adults with hypertension. Eighteen older adults with essential hypertension were randomized into exercise (N = 9, age: 83.4 ± 3.2 years old) or control (N = 9, age: 82.7 ± 2.5 years old) groups. The exercise group performed a session of aerobic exercise constituting 2 periods of 10 minutes of walking at an intensity of 40% to 60% of the heart rate reserve. The control group rested for the same period of time. Anthropometric variables and medication status were evaluated at baseline. Heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured at baseline, after exercise, and at 20 and 40 minutes postexercise. Systolic blood pressure showed a significant interaction for group × time (F3,24 = 6.698; P = .002; ηp(2) = 0.153). In the exercise group, the systolic blood pressure at 20 (127.3 ± 20.9 mm Hg) and 40 minutes (123.7 ± 21.0 mm Hg) postexercise was significantly lower in comparison with baseline (135.6 ± 20.6 mm Hg). Diastolic blood pressure did not change. Heart rate was significantly higher after the exercise session. In the control group, no significant differences were observed. A single session of aerobic exercise acutely reduces blood pressure in very old adults with hypertension and may be considered an important nonpharmacological strategy to control hypertension in this age group.

  15. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Conservative or Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment Guidelines in Adults Aged 35-74 Years: The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Nathalie; Huang, Chen; Rodgers, Anthony; Kohli-Lynch, Ciaran N; Tzong, Keane Y; Coxson, Pamela G; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2016-07-01

    The population health effect and cost-effectiveness of implementing intensive blood pressure goals in high-cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk adults have not been described. Using the CVD Policy Model, CVD events, treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years, and drug and monitoring costs were simulated over 2016 to 2026 for hypertensive patients aged 35 to 74 years. We projected the effectiveness and costs of hypertension treatment according to the 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC)-7 or 2014 JNC8 guidelines, and then for adults aged ≥50 years, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding an intensive goal of systolic blood pressure cost-effectiveness ratios cost-effective. JNC7 strategies treat more patients and are more costly to implement compared with JNC8 strategies. Adding intensive systolic blood pressure goals for high-risk patients prevents an estimated 43 000 and 35 000 annual CVD events incremental to JNC8 and JNC7, respectively. Intensive strategies save costs in men and are cost-effective in women compared with JNC8 alone. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained, JNC8+intensive had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in women (82%) and JNC7+intensive the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in men (100%). Assuming higher drug and monitoring costs, adding intensive goals for high-risk patients remained consistently cost-effective in men, but not always in women. Among patients aged 35 to 74 years, adding intensive blood pressure goals for high-risk groups to current national hypertension treatment guidelines prevents additional CVD deaths while saving costs provided that medication costs are controlled. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Association of HIV diversity and survival in HIV-infected Ugandan infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M James

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The level of viral diversity in an HIV-infected individual can change during the course of HIV infection, reflecting mutagenesis during viral replication and selection of viral variants by immune and other selective pressures. Differences in the level of viral diversity in HIV-infected infants may reflect differences in viral dynamics, immune responses, or other factors that may also influence HIV disease progression. We used a novel high resolution melting (HRM assay to measure HIV diversity in Ugandan infants and examined the relationship between diversity and survival through 5 years of age.Plasma samples were obtained from 31 HIV-infected infants (HIVNET 012 trial. The HRM assay was used to measure diversity in two regions in the gag gene (Gag1 and Gag2 and one region in the pol gene (Pol.HRM scores in all three regions increased with age from 6-8 weeks to 12-18 months (for Gag1: P = 0.005; for Gag2: P = 0.006; for Pol: P = 0.016. Higher HRM scores at 6-8 weeks of age (scores above the 75(th percentile were associated with an increased risk of death by 5 years of age (for Pol: P = 0.005; for Gag1/Gag2 (mean of two scores: P = 0.003; for Gag1/Gag2/Pol (mean of three scores: P = 0.002. We did not find an association between HRM scores and other clinical and laboratory variables.Genetic diversity in HIV gag and pol measured using the HRM assay was typically low near birth and increased over time. Higher HIV diversity in these regions at 6-8 weeks of age was associated with a significantly increased risk of death by 5 years of age.

  17. The Association of Four-Limb Blood Pressure with History of Stroke in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Sun, Fengyu; Dong, Lihang; Chang, Huiying; Gu, Xingbo; Zhang, Haiyu; Sheng, Lijiang; Tian, Ye

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association of ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI), interarm blood pressure (BP) difference and interankle BP difference, obtained by simultaneous four-limb BP measurement, with history of stroke in a Chinese adult population. This cross-sectional study included 1485 participants aged ≥35 years in the framework of the China Hypertension Survey. We performed simultaneous four-limb BP measurement using oscillometric devices with the participants in the supine position and calculated ABI and interarm/interankle BP differences between the 4 limbs. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association of these BP parameters and other factors with a history of stroke. In univariate analyses, participants with ABI stroke than those without (p stroke after adjustment for interarm BP difference ≥15 mmHg, interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg, and traditional risk factors for stroke (p = 0.001). An interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg was associated with prior stroke after the two variables of hypertension and ABI were removed from the logistic regression model (p = 0.0142). Net reclassification improvement analysis showed that inclusion of interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg to the independent risk factors (age, family history of stroke, hypertension, and ABI) improved net reclassification by 11.92%. ABI stroke prevalence in Chinese adults and it just detected a small propotion of paticipants. The addition of interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg to the independent risk factors for stroke may improve the prediction of stroke.

  18. Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers in Lagos ... in adults which emphasizes the need to track blood pressure in children. ... are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive parents, 11.0% for ...

  19. Training Status as a Marker of the Relationship between Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and Blood Pressure in Older Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mourão Jacomini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of functional fitness and oxidative capacity on the nitric oxide concentration associated with hemodynamic control in older adult women. The sample consisted of 134 women (65.73 ± 6.14 years old. All subjects underwent a physical examination to assess body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat measurement by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure (BP. Training status (TS was evaluated by indirect determination of maximal oxygen uptake by a treadmill test using Balke protocol modified for older adults. Functional fitness was also evaluated through a “Functional Fitness Battery Test” to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI. All participants were separated according to the functional fitness (TS1, very weak and weak; TS2, regular; TS3, good and very good. Plasma blood samples were used to evaluate prooxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The general results of this study showed that good levels of TS were related to lower levels of lipoperoxidation and protein damage, higher levels of antioxidant, and higher concentration of nitrite and nitrate. This combination may be responsible for the lower levels of BP in subjects with better TS.

  20. Training Status as a Marker of the Relationship between Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and Blood Pressure in Older Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, André Mourão; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; Pinheiro, Lucas Cezar; da Silva, Anderson Bernardino; da Silva, Roberta Fernanda; Trapé, Atila Alexandre; De Angelis, Kátia; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Zago, Anderson Saranz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of functional fitness and oxidative capacity on the nitric oxide concentration associated with hemodynamic control in older adult women. The sample consisted of 134 women (65.73 ± 6.14 years old). All subjects underwent a physical examination to assess body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat measurement by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure (BP). Training status (TS) was evaluated by indirect determination of maximal oxygen uptake by a treadmill test using Balke protocol modified for older adults. Functional fitness was also evaluated through a "Functional Fitness Battery Test" to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI). All participants were separated according to the functional fitness (TS1, very weak and weak; TS2, regular; TS3, good and very good). Plasma blood samples were used to evaluate prooxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The general results of this study showed that good levels of TS were related to lower levels of lipoperoxidation and protein damage, higher levels of antioxidant, and higher concentration of nitrite and nitrate. This combination may be responsible for the lower levels of BP in subjects with better TS.

  1. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  2. Comparative study on the effect of radiation on whole blood and isolate red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of the dielectric properties of red blood cells requires several steps for preparation and isolation from whole blood. These steps may results in changes in the cells properties, and they are time consuming . The present study aims to compare the properties of both whole blood and isolated red blood cells and the effect of gamma radiation on these properties. Adult male rats were exposed to 1, 3.5 and 7 Gy as single dose, from Cs-137 source.The studies dielectric properties, in the frequency range 40 k Hz to 5 MHz, and light scattering studies for suspensions of whole blood and isolated red blood cells from the same groups were measured. The obtained results showed that whole blood and red blood cells suspensions followed the same trend in their response to radiation, which suggests the possibility of using whole blood suspension for the evaluation of the red blood cells properties

  3. Evaluation of a point-of-care blood analyzer and determination of reference ranges for blood parameters in rockfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Tornquist, Susan J; Miller-Morgan, Timothy J; Fodness, Brian G; Clifford, Kevin E

    2005-01-15

    To compare values of blood parameters in rockfish obtained by use of a point-of-care portable blood analyzer with values determined by a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, calculate reference ranges for various blood parameters in black rockfish, and compare values of blood parameters in clinically normal fish with those of fish with clinical abnormalities. Prospective study. 41 captive adult black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and 4 captive adult blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus). Rockfish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate for collection of blood samples. Heparinized blood samples were immediately analyzed with a point-of-care analyzer. Blood sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, and glucose concentrations; Hct; pH; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; total carbon dioxide concentration; bicarbonate concentration; base excess; and hemoglobin concentration were determined. A microhematocrit technique was used to determine PCV, and a refractometer was used to estimate total plasma protein concentration. Paired heparinized blood samples were transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for analyses. Data obtained with the point-of-care analyzer were reproducible; however, values for most blood parameters were significantly different from those obtained by the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Fish with poor body condition had several blood parameter values that were lower than corresponding values in clinically normal fish. Point-of-care blood analyses may prove useful in rockfish. Point-of-care data for a large number of clinically normal fish must be obtained for reference ranges to be calculated, and further assessments of clinically abnormal fish are necessary to determine the relevance of the data.

  4. Data on a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia pericarp extract on flow-mediated vasodilation and blood pressure in young adult humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Miyashita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD responses, represented by changes in arterial diameter, and blood pressure changes in young adults after a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia pericarp extract or placebo (cross-over design. Ten healthy men and 10 healthy women participated in this study. Ultrasonic diagnostic equipment was used to monitor arterial diameter changes, indicative of FMD, for 110 s after the administration of the camu camu extract or placebo. In addition, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded.

  5. Data on a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) pericarp extract on flow-mediated vasodilation and blood pressure in young adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tadayoshi; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Myoda, Takao; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Minami, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-01

    This data article describes the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses, represented by changes in arterial diameter, and blood pressure changes in young adults after a single oral dose of camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia ) pericarp extract or placebo (cross-over design). Ten healthy men and 10 healthy women participated in this study. Ultrasonic diagnostic equipment was used to monitor arterial diameter changes, indicative of FMD, for 110 s after the administration of the camu camu extract or placebo. In addition, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded.

  6. Distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups and their association with hepatitis B virus infection in 3.8 million Chinese adults: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Zhang, S; Liu, M; Wang, Q; Shen, H; Zhang, Y

    2018-04-01

    ABO and Rh blood groups play a vital role in blood transfusion safety and clinical practice and are thought to be linked with disease susceptibility. The results from previous studies that focused on the association between blood groups and HBV infection remain controversial. China has the world's largest burden of HBV infection. We assessed the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups in Chinese adults and examined the association between these groups and HBV infection. We did a nationwide cross-sectional study using data from a physical check-up programme from 31 provinces examined between 2010 and 2012. ELISA was used to test for HBsAg in serologic samples. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate aOR of the association between ABO and Rh blood groups and HBV infection. Among 3 827 125 participants, the proportion of participants with blood group A was highest (30.54%), followed by O (30.37%), B (29.42%) and AB (9.66%). A total of 38 907 (1.02%) were Rh-D negative. The prevalence of HBsAg in blood groups O, A, B and AB were 6.34%, 5.55%, 5.18% and 5.06%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was 5.65% in Rh-D-positive and 3.96% in Rh-D-negative participants. After controlling for other potential risk factors, multivariate models showed that participants with blood group O (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.20-1.25) were at higher risk of HBV infection compared with group AB. Rh-D-positive participants (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.37-1.52) were at higher risk of HBV infection than Rh-D-negative participants. The associations between ABO/Rh blood groups and HBV infection were similar in subgroup analysis. The proportions of O, A, B and AB blood groups were approximately 3:3:3:1, and nearly 1 in 100 people was Rh-D negative among Chinese adults. Blood group O and Rh-D positivity were both associated with increased HBV infection. The risk of HBV infection and blood safety should be taken into consideration in clinical practice, especially when transfusing

  7. Antibodies to biotinylated red blood cells in adults and infants: improved detection, partial characterization, and dependence on red blood cell-biotin dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert L; Mock, Donald M; Franco, Robert S; Cohen, Robert M; North, Anne K; Cancelas, José A; Geisen, Christof; Strauss, Ronald G; Vlaar, Alexander P; Nalbant, Demet; Widness, John A

    2017-06-01

    Biotin-labeled red blood cells (BioRBCs) are used for in vivo kinetic studies. Because BioRBC dosing occasionally induces antibodies, a sensitive and specific anti-BioRBC detection assay is needed. Aims were to 1) develop a gel card assay to evaluate existing, naturally occurring and BioRBC-induced plasma antibodies, 2) compare gel card and tube agglutination detection results, and 3) test for a relationship of antibody induction and BioRBC dose. Reagent BioRBCs were prepared using sulfo-NHS biotin ranging from densities 18 (BioRBC-18) to 1458 (BioRBC-1458) µg/mL RBCs. Among BioRBC-exposed subjects, gel card and tube agglutination results were concordant in 21 of 22 adults and all 19 infant plasma samples. Gel card antibody detection sensitivity was more than 10-fold greater than tube agglutination. Twelve to 16 weeks after BioRBC exposure, induced anti-antibodies were detected by gel card in three of 26 adults (12%) at reagent densities BioRBC-256 or less, but in none of 41 infants. Importantly, induced anti-BioRBC antibodies were associated with higher BioRBC dose (p = 0.008); no antibodies were detected in 18 subjects who received BioRBC doses less than or equal to BioRBC-18. For noninduced BioRBC antibodies, six of 1125 naïve adults (0.3%) and none of 46 naïve infants demonstrated existing anti-BioRBC antibodies using reagent BioRBC-140 or -162. Existing anti-BioRBCs were all neutralized by biotin compounds, while induced antibodies were not. The gel card assay is more sensitive than the tube agglutination assay. We recommend reagent BioRBC-256 for identifying anti-BioRBCs. Use of a low total RBC biotin label dose (≤ BioRBC-18) may minimize antibody induction. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Racial differences in the impact of social support on nocturnal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Denise C; Ziegler, Michael G; Nelesen, Richard A; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2009-06-01

    To investigate whether black and white adults benefit similarly from perceived social support in relation to blood pressure (BP) dipping during sleep. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, 12-item version), which measures the perceived availability of several types of functional social support, was examined for interactive effects with race on dipping of mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The sample consisted of 156 young to middle-aged adults (61 blacks, 95 whites; mean age = 35.7 years). Mean ISEL scores did not differ between racial groups. Controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), resting BP, and socioeconomic status (SES), the interaction of social support by race yielded associations with nighttime dipping in MAP and DBP (p social support increased, white adults received cardiovascular benefits as suggested by enhanced nocturnal dipping of BP, but black adults accrued risks as evidenced by blunted declines in BP during sleep.

  9. Acute Effects of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice on Blood Pressure, Hemostasis and Vascular Inflammation Markers in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Raubenheimer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits are evident in older adults. We investigated the effects of 140 mL of nitrate-rich (HI-NI; containing 12.9 mmol nitrate versus nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (LO-NI; containing ≤0.04 mmol nitrate on blood pressure, blood coagulation, vascular inflammation markers, plasma nitrate and nitrite before, and 3 h and 6 h after ingestion in healthy older adults (five males, seven females, mean age: 64 years, age range: 57–71 years in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Plasma nitrate and nitrite increased 3 and 6 h after HI-NI ingestion (p < 0.05. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure decreased 3 h relative to baseline after HI-NI ingestion only (p < 0.05. The number of blood monocyte-platelet aggregates decreased 3 h after HI-NI intake (p < 0.05, indicating reduced platelet activation. The number of blood CD11b-expressing granulocytes decreased 3 h following HI-NI beetroot juice intake (p < 0.05, suggesting a shift toward an anti-adhesive granulocyte phenotype. Numbers of blood CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocyte subtypes slightly increased 6 h after HI-NI beetroot juice ingestion (p < 0.05, but the clinical implications of this response are currently unclear. These findings provide new evidence for the acute effects of nitrate-rich beetroot juice on circulating immune cells and platelets. Further long-term research is warranted to determine if these effects reduce the risk of developing hypertension and vascular inflammation with aging.

  10. Validation of a smartphone auscultatory blood pressure kit Accutension XYZ-110 in adults according to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2: 2013 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guang; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Mengdan; Huang, Daini; Dai, Qiuyan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of the Accutension XYZ-110 blood pressure (BP) kit according to the American National Standards Institute/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization (ANSI/AAMI/ISO) 81060-2:2013 standard. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured simultaneously on the same arm in 85 Chinese adults (female : male=48 : 37) with a mean age of 43.2 years using the mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the Accutension XYZ-110 device (one supervisor). The ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard for the validation of BP-measuring devices in adults was followed precisely. A total of 255 comparison pairs were obtained for analysis. The mean device-observer difference in the 255 separate BP data pairs was 2.45±2.24 mmHg for SBP and 0.69±2.09 mmHg for DBP. The data were in accordance with the criterion 1 of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard requirements (≤5±8 mmHg). In addition, the mean device-observer difference of the 85 participants was 2.45±1.47 mmHg for SBP and 0.69±1.36 mmHg for DBP. The device accuracy also fulfilled the criterion 2 with the SD of less than or equal to 6.47 for SBP and less than or equal to 6.90 mmHg for DBP. The Accutension XYZ-110 BP kit fulfilled the requirements of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard, and hence could be recommended for both clinical and self/home BP measurement in adults.

  11. Characterization of humoral responses to soluble trimeric HIV gp140 from a clade A Ugandan field isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visciano, Maria Luisa; Tagliamonte, Maria; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Heyndrickx, Leo; Vanham, Guido; Jansson, Marianne; Fomsgaard, Anders; Grevstad, Berit; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2013-07-08

    Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies with neutralizing activity against homologous and heterologous viruses. In the present study, we generated a recombinant trimeric soluble gp140, derived from a previously identified Ugandan A-clade HIV field isolate (gp14094UG018). Antibodies elicited in immunized rabbits show a broad binding pattern to HIV envelopes of different clades. An epitope mapping analysis reveals that, on average, the binding is mostly focused on the C1, C2, V3, V5 and C5 regions. Immune sera show neutralization activity to Tier 1 isolates of different clades, demonstrating cross clade neutralizing activity which needs to be further broadened by possible structural modifications of the clade A gp14094UG018. Our results provide a rationale for the design and evaluation of immunogens and the clade A gp14094UG018 shows promising characteristics for potential involvement in an effective HIV vaccine with broad activity.

  12. Retinopathy of Prematurity Is Associated with Increased Systolic Blood Pressure in Adults Who Were Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Anna; Jacobson, Lena; Östergren, Jan; Hellström, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Adults born preterm are at risk of developing cardiovascular morbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol levels during adulthood. Sixty-nine subjects (mean age 22.6 years) were included. Subjects were adults who were: (a) ex-preterm infants with severe ROP (n = 22), born at gestational age (GA) <30 weeks with a birth weight (BW) <1,000 g, (b) ex-preterm infants with no/mild ROP (n = 21), born at GA <28 weeks with a BW <1,000 g, or (c) full-term controls (n = 26). Anthropometric data, office BP, ambulatory BP, and morning and evening salivary cortisol were analyzed. As adults, ex-preterm infants with severe ROP had on average 7.4 mm Hg higher systolic office BP than those with no/mild ROP (p = 0.019) and controls (p = 0.007). A high cortisol level, tall height, and severe ROP were independent predictors of higher ambulatory systolic BP during adulthood in forward stepwise regression analysis, independent of GA. Our results indicate that preterm infants with severe abnormal retinal vascular development during the neonatal period may be at an increased risk for increased BP during adulthood. We found no differences between those with no/mild ROP as infants and controls with regard to BP data. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Prevalence of Eligibility Criteria for the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial in US Adults Among Excluded Groups: Age Diabetes Mellitus, or a History of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bress, Adam P; Tanner, Rikki M; Hess, Rachel; Gidding, Samuel S; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-07-12

    Adults diabetes mellitus, or a history of stroke were not enrolled in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Estimating the size and characteristics of these excluded groups who meet the other SPRINT eligibility criteria may provide information on the potential impact of providers extending the SPRINT findings to these populations. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012 (n=25 076) to estimate the percentage and characteristics of US adults ≥20 years in 3 populations (age diabetes mellitus, or history of stroke) excluded from SPRINT who otherwise meet the trial eligibility criteria: age ≥50 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130-180 mm Hg, high cardiovascular disease risk, and not having trial exclusion criteria. Overall, 1.0% (95% CI 0.8-1.3) of US adults age diabetes mellitus, and 19.0% (95% CI 16.0-22.4) with history of stroke met the other SPRINT eligibility criteria. Among US adults with SBP ≥130 mm Hg, other SPRINT eligibility criteria were met by 7.5% (95% CI 6.1-9.2) of those age diabetes mellitus, and 23.0% (95% CI 19.4-27.0) with history of stroke. Among US adults meeting the other SPRINT eligibility criteria, antihypertensive medication was being taken by 31.0% (95% CI 23.9-41.3) of those diabetes mellitus, and 68.9% (95% CI 59.4-77.1) with a history of stroke. A substantial percentage of US adults with diabetes mellitus or history of stroke and a small percentage <50 years old meet the other SPRINT eligibility criteria. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Trends in population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in a rural area of Northwest China from 1982 to 2010.

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    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in average blood pressure levels and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in a rural area of Northwest China, and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: Four cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted between 1982 and 2010 among randomly selected adults in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Data on blood pressure, body mass index, family history of hypertension, and socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected in similar way by trained investigators in four surveys. Data of 8575 participants aged 35-64 years was analyzed. Averages and proportions were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Average blood pressure in the population has increased since 1982 from 76.9 mm Hg to 79.6 mm Hg in 2010 (diastolic and from 120.9 to 129.7 mm Hg (systolic. Prevalence of hypertension increased from 18.4% in 1982 to 30.5% in 2010, and awareness of hypertension increased from 16.8% to 38.4% in 2010. Treatment of hypertension increased from 1.0% in 1982 to 17.4% in 2010, and control of hypertension increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 3.5% in 2010. All these gradients were statistically significant (P<0.01 for trend. Population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension were positively associated with increasing age, body mass index and having family history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Average blood pressure levels and the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in rural areas of Hanzhong have increased since 1982. However, awareness, treatment and control rates remain low. Public health programs and practical strategies are required to improve prevention and control of hypertension in rural Northwest China. In particular, attention should be given to the elderly and obese, and to those with a family history of hypertension, while raising awareness and treatment among younger adults.

  15. Multiple Measures Reveal Antiretroviral Adherence Successes and Challenges in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Kiwanuka, Julius; Nansera, Denis; Ragland, Kathleen; Mellins, Claude; Bangsberg, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children in developing settings is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2–10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS). Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = −0.25, p = 0.04). Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0–2.0; p = 0.04), and caregiver’s alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8–5.2; passets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6–0.9; p = 0.0007) were protective against these interruptions. Conclusions/Significance Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for the child to adhere. Further research is needed to better understand and build on these key influential factors for adherence intervention development. PMID:22590600

  16. Heel blood flow during loading and off-loading in bedridden older adults with low and normal ankle-brachial pressure index: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nami; Sugama, Junko; Okuwa, Mayumi; Inagaki, Misako; Matsuo, Junko; Nakatani, Tosio; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in heel blood flow during loading and off-loading in bedridden adults older than 65 years. The patients were divided into three groups based on ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO₂): (1) patients with an ABI ≥ 0.8 (Group A); (2) patients with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ ≥ 10 mmHg (Group B); and (3) patients with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ < 10 mmHg (Group C). Heel blood flow was monitored using tcPO₂ sensors. Data were collected with the heel (1) suspended above the bed surface (preload), (2) on the bed surface for 30 min (loading), and (3) again suspended above the bed surface for 60 min (off-loading). Heel blood flow during off-loading was assessed using three parameters: oxygen recovery index (ORI), total tcPO₂ for the first 10 min, and change in tcPO₂ after 60 min of off-loading. ORI in Group C (n = 8) was significantly shorter than in Groups A (n = 22) and B (n = 15). Total tcPO₂ for the first 10 min of off-loading in Group C was significantly less than that in Groups A and B. Change in tcPO₂ after 60 min of off-loading in Group C was less than in Group A. Based on these findings, additional preventive care against heel blood flow decrease in older adults with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ < 10 mmHg might be necessary after loading.

  17. Virus and host-specific differences in oral human herpesvirus shedding kinetics among Ugandan women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrajt, Laura; Gantt, Soren; Mayer, Bryan T; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Orem, Jackson; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Schiffer, Joshua T; Casper, Corey

    2017-10-12

    Human herpesviruses (HHV) establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted primarily via shedding at mucosal surfaces. Each HHV causes a unique spectrum of disease depending on the infected individual's age and immunity. We collected weekly oral swabs from young children and mothers in 32 Ugandan households for a median of one year. We characterized kinetics of oral shedding during primary and chronic infection for each virus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 were shed at high rates following primary infection. The rate of oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding was lower overall, and children and mothers with chronic HSV infection had lower shedding rates than children with primary infection. CMV shedding rate and viral load were higher in children with primary infection compared to children with chronic infection, and even lower in mothers with chronic infection. HHV-6 shedding rate and viral load were similar between children with primary or chronic infection, but lower in mothers. EBV shedding rate and quantity decreased less dramatically in mothers versus children, with HIV-positive mothers shedding at a higher rate than HIV-negative mothers. Each HHV has a distinct pattern of oral shedding which depends partially on the age and immune status of the host.

  18. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

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    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  19. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  20. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Wen, Jiqiu; Lu, Hanzhang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Liu, Ya; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-06-01

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1), P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O2 min(-1) 100 g(-1), P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO2. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO2. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO2. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. • Anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF. • Anaemic young adults with ESRD maintain a normal CMRO 2 . • Cognitive function was still impaired in young ESRD adults. • The severity of cognitive dysfunction correlated with CBF and OEF changes.

  1. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts,

  2. Voices from Uganda. African Voices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Rachel, Ed.

    This multi-language collection of autobiographical writing from Ugandan children and young adults who are living in Britain as refugees is illustrated with photographs and children's drawings and includes comprehensive country introductions. In the collection, young people give their accounts of migration and explore how their identities are…

  3. Satisfaction, motivation, and intent to stay among Ugandan physicians: a survey from 18 national hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luboga, Sam; Hagopian, Amy; Ndiku, John; Bancroft, Emily; McQuide, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Uganda faces a colossal shortages of human resources for health. Previous literature has largely focused on those who leave. This paper reports on a study of physicians working in 18 public and private facilities in Uganda as part of a larger study of more than 641 hospital-based health workers in Uganda. We report what could entice physicians to stay longer, satisfaction with current positions, and future career intentions. This study took place in 18 Ugandan hospitals. We describe the 49 physicians who participated in 11 focus groups and the 63 physicians who completed questionnaires, out of a larger sample of 641 health workers overall. Only 37% of physicians said they were satisfied with their jobs, and 46% reported they were at risk of leaving the health sector or the country. After compensation, the largest contributors to dissatisfaction among physicians were quality of management, availability of equipment and supplies (including drugs), quality of facility infrastructure, staffing and workload, political influence, community location, and professional development. Physicians in our study were highly dissatisfied, with almost half the sample reporting a risk to leave the sector or the country. The established link in literature between physician dissatisfaction and departure from the health system suggests national and regional policy makers should consider interventions that address the contributors to dissatisfaction identified in our study. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

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    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  5. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2011-05-26

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818) using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding), host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed) levels. Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection

  6. Blood spot-based measures of glucose homeostasis and diabetes prevalence in a nationally representative population of young US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Whitsel, Eric A; Tabor, Joyce W; Cuthbertson, Carmen C; Wener, Mark H; Potter, Alan J; Halpern, Carolyn T; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Hussey, Jon M; Suchindran, Chirayath; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2014-12-01

    We investigated understudied biomarker-based diabetes among young US adults, traditionally characterized by low cardiovascular disease risk. We examined 15,701 participants aged 24 to 32 years at Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, 2008). The study used innovative and relatively noninvasive methods to collect capillary whole blood via finger prick at in-home examinations in all 50 states. Assays of dried blood spots produced reliable and accurate values of HbA1c. Reliability was lower for fasting glucose and lowest for random glucose. Mean (SD) HbA1c was 5.6% (0.8%). More than a quarter (27.4%) had HbA1c-defined prediabetes. HbA1c was highest in the black, non-Hispanic race/ethnic group, inversely associated with education, and more common among the overweight/obese and physically inactive. The prevalence of diabetes defined by previous diagnosis or use of antidiabetic medication was 2.9%. Further incorporating HbA1c and glucose values, the prevalence increased to 6.8%, and among these participants, 38.9% had a previous diagnosis of diabetes (i.e., aware). Among those aware, 37.6% were treated and 64.0% were controlled (i.e., HbA1c young adults faces a historically high risk of diabetes but there is ample opportunity for early detection and intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blueberries improve endothelial function, but not blood pressure, in adults with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Champagne, Catherine M; Gupta, Alok K; Boston, Raymond; Beyl, Robbie A; Johnson, William D; Cefalu, William T

    2015-05-27

    Blueberry consumption has been shown to have various health benefits in humans. However, little is known about the effect of blueberry consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in humans. The present study investigated the role of blueberry consumption on modifying blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In addition, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (secondary measurements) were also assessed. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 adults (blueberry, n = 23; and placebo, n = 21). They were randomized to receive a blueberry or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The blood pressure and insulin sensitivity did not differ between the blueberry and placebo groups. However, the mean change in resting endothelial function, expressed as reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was improved significantly more in the group consuming the blueberries versus the placebo group (p = 0.024). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., the percent body fat and gender, the blueberry group still had a greater improvement in endothelial function when compared to their counterpart (RHI; 0.32 ± 0.13 versus -0.33 ± 0.14; p = 0.0023). In conclusion, daily dietary consumption of blueberries did not improve blood pressure, but improved (i.e., increased) endothelial function over six weeks in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  8. The Integrity of the Corpus Callosum Mitigates the Impact of Blood Pressure on the Ventral Attention Network and Information Processing Speed in Healthy Adults

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    Tatia M. C. Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment in older age. However, evidence of the neural basis of the relationship between the deterioration of cognitive function and elevated blood pressure is sparse. Based on previous research, we speculate that variations in brain connectivity are closely related to elevated blood pressure even before the onset of clinical conditions and apparent cognitive decline in individuals over 60 years of age. Forty cognitively healthy adults were recruited. Each received a blood pressure test before and after the cognitive assessment in various domains. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data were collected. Our findings confirm that elevated blood pressure is associated with brain connectivity variations in cognitively healthy individuals. The integrity of the splenium of the corpus callosum is closely related to individual differences in systolic blood pressure. In particular, elevated systolic blood pressure is related to resting-state ventral attention network (VAN and information processing speed. Serial mediation analyses have further revealed that lower integrity of the splenium statistically predicts elevated systolic blood pressure, which in turn predicts weakened functional connectivity (FC within the VAN and eventually poorer processing speed. The current study sheds light on how neural correlates are involved in the impact of elevated blood pressure on cognitive functioning.

  9. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  10. Periodontal disease, hypertension, and blood pressure among older adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Campos, Maribel; Zevallos, Juan C; Joshipura, Kaumudi J

    2013-02-01

    Current scientific evidence addressing the relationship between periodontitis and hypertension is limited to studies producing inconsistent results. All participants of an ongoing representative cohort of Puerto Rican elderly who were ≥70 years old and residing in the San Juan metropolitan area were invited to this cross-sectional study. Periodontal probing depth (PD) and attachment loss (AL) were summarized using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology definition for severe periodontitis (≥2 teeth with AL ≥6 mm and ≥1 tooth with PD ≥5 mm). Three repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements taken were averaged using a standardized auscultatory method. Information on hypertension history, use of antihypertensive medications, and potential confounders (age, sex, smoking, heavy and binge drinking, diabetes, use of preventive dental services, flossing, body mass index, consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole wheat bread, and high-fiber cereal) was collected during in-person interviews. High BP was defined as average systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between severe periodontitis, hypertension history, and high BP. The study population comprised 182 adults. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between severe periodontitis and hypertension history (odds ratio [OR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40 to 2.48). Severe periodontitis was associated with high BP, with OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 1.25 to 6.84), after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and binge drinking. This association was stronger when restricted to those with hypertension or taking antihypertensive medications: OR = 4.20 (95% CI: 1.28 to 13.80). The results of this study suggest that periodontitis may contribute to poor BP control among older adults.

  11. The appropriateness of preoperative blood testing: A retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Inappropriate preoperative blood testing can negatively contribute to healthcare costs. Objective. To determine the extent and cost implications of inappropriate preoperative blood testing in adult patients booked for orthopaedic, general or trauma surgical procedures at a regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal ...

  12. Screening for abnormal vaginal microflora by self-assessed vaginal pH does not enable detection of sexually transmitted infections in Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Donders, Francesca; Bellen, Gert; Depuydt, Christophe; Eggermont, Natalie; Michiels, Thirsa; Lule, John; Byamughisa, Jacobat

    2016-06-01

    Is self-assessed vaginal pH measurement to detect abnormal vaginal bacterial microflora (AVF) an adequate prescreening method for detection of genital sexually transmitted infections (STIs)? A total of 360 Ugandan women tested themselves with a gloved finger and a pH color strip. PCR for bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated bacteria was tested by PCR for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and/or Atopobium vaginae, while the STIs were diagnosed by positive PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. A strong correlation was found between self-assessed pH values and BV-associated bacteria (Pvaginal pH correlated well with markers of high-risk microflora types such as BV or aerobic vaginitis, but not with STIs. Hence, in a screening program addressing AVF in low-resource countries, extra specific tests are required to exclude STIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of oxidative/antioxidative status of penile corpus cavernosum blood and peripheral venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni, E; Gulum, M; Selek, S; Erel, O; Unal, D; Verit, A; Savas, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine and to compare the oxidative and antioxidative status of penile corpus cavernosum and peripheral venous blood. A total of 28 adult healthy males were included in the study. Whole blood was simultaneously withdrawn from penile corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein and their plasma separated. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C, total protein, albumin, uric acid, bilirubin and total peroxide (TP) levels of both plasma samples were measured and compared. While TAC, total protein, albumin, bilirubin and uric acid levels were higher, vitamin C levels were lower in cavernosal blood than that of peripheral blood. On the other hand, TP level was found to be higher in penile blood samples than that of peripheral blood. We thought that the normal erectile process of the penile cavernosal body leads to increased production of oxidants as in the mechanism of ischaemia-reperfusion; however, the increase of TAC can prevent development of oxidative injury.

  14. Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss, D-Dimer, and Fibrinogen Kinetics in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Ryan P; Leveque, Jean-Christophe A; Edwards, Alicia; Yanamadala, Vijay; Wright, Anna K; Herodes, Megan; Sethi, Rajiv K

    2018-05-02

    Antifibrinolytics such as tranexamic acid reduce operative blood loss and blood product transfusion requirements in patients undergoing surgical correction of scoliosis. The factors involved in the unrelenting coagulopathy seen in scoliosis surgery are not well understood. One potential contributor is activation of the fibrinolytic system during a surgical procedure, likely related to clot dissolution and consumption of fibrinogen. The addition of tranexamic acid during a surgical procedure may mitigate the coagulopathy by impeding the derangement in D-dimer and fibrinogen kinetics. We retrospectively studied consecutive patients who had undergone surgical correction of adult spinal deformity between January 2010 and July 2016 at our institution. Intraoperative hemostatic data, surgical time, estimated blood loss, and transfusion records were analyzed for patients before and after the addition of tranexamic acid to our protocol. Each patient who received tranexamic acid and met inclusion criteria was cohort-matched with a patient who underwent a surgical procedure without tranexamic acid administration. There were 17 patients in the tranexamic acid cohort, with a mean age of 60.7 years, and 17 patients in the control cohort, with a mean age of 60.9 years. Estimated blood loss (932 ± 539 mL compared with 1,800 ± 1,029 mL; p = 0.005) and packed red blood-cell transfusions (1.5 ± 1.6 units compared with 4.0 ± 2.1 units; p = 0.001) were significantly lower in the tranexamic acid cohort. In all single-stage surgical procedures that met inclusion criteria, the rise of D-dimer was attenuated from 8.3 ± 5.0 μg/mL in the control cohort to 3.3 ± 3.2 μg/mL for the tranexamic acid cohort (p tranexamic acid cohort to 60.6 ± 35.1 mg/dL (p = 0.004). In patients undergoing spinal surgery, intravenous administration of tranexamic acid is effective at reducing intraoperative blood loss. Monitoring of D-dimer and fibrinogen during spinal surgery suggests that tranexamic acid

  15. A single CD4 test with 250 cells/mm3 threshold predicts viral suppression in HIV-infected adults failing first-line therapy by clinical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilks, Charles F; Walker, A Sarah; Munderi, Paula; Kityo, Cissy; Reid, Andrew; Katabira, Elly; Goodall, Ruth L; Grosskurth, Heiner; Mugyenyi, Peter; Hakim, James; Gibb, Diana M

    2013-01-01

    In low-income countries, viral load (VL) monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is rarely available in the public sector for HIV-infected adults or children. Using clinical failure alone to identify first-line ART failure and trigger regimen switch may result in unnecessary use of costly second-line therapy. Our objective was to identify CD4 threshold values to confirm clinically-determined ART failure when VL is unavailable. 3316 HIV-infected Ugandan/Zimbabwean adults were randomised to first-line ART with Clinically-Driven (CDM, CD4s measured but blinded) or routine Laboratory and Clinical Monitoring (LCM, 12-weekly CD4s) in the DART trial. CD4 at switch and ART failure criteria (new/recurrent WHO 4, single/multiple WHO 3 event; LCM: CD4tiebreaker' of ≥250 cells/mm(3) for clinically-monitored patients failing first-line could identify ∼80% with VL<400 copies/ml, who are unlikely to benefit from second-line. Targeting CD4s to single WHO stage 3 'clinical failures' would particularly avoid premature, costly switch to second-line ART.

  16. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  17. Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) Collected from Hydrilla Verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata was conducted in selected Kenyan and Ugandan lakes, and emerging chironomid adults were collected from samples of Hydrilla and seven other aquatic macrophytes. Hydrilla was absent from Lake Victoria, in sites where it previously occurred. Hydrilla was found in four of ...

  18. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Islam, Mohammad Zahirul; Chu, Cordia

    2016-07-01

    More than 35 million people in coastal Bangladesh are vulnerable to increasing freshwater salinization. This will continue to affect more people and to a greater extent as climate change projections are realised in this area in the future. However the evidence for health effects of consuming high salinity water is limited. This research examined the association between drinking water salinity and blood pressure in young adults in coastal Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study during May-June 2014 in a rural coastal sub-district of Bangladesh. Data on blood pressure (BP) and salinity of potable water sources was collected from 253 participants aged 19-25 years. A linear regression method was used to examine the association between water salinity exposure categories and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level. Sixty five percent of the study population were exposed to highly saline drinking water above the Bangladesh standard (600 mg/L and above). Multivariable linear regression analyses identified that compared to the low water salinity exposure category (water salinity category (>600 mg/L), had statistically significantly higher SBP (B 3.46, 95% CI 0.75, 6.17; p = 0.01) and DBP (B 2.77, 95% CI 0.31, 5.24; p = 0.03). Our research shows that elevated salinity in drinking water is associated with higher BP in young coastal populations. Blood pressure is an important risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the extent of salinization of freshwater in many low-lying countries including in Bangladesh, and the likely exacerbation related to climate change-induced sea level rise, implementation of preventative strategies through dietary interventions along with promotion of low saline drinking water must be a priority in these settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Letter to editor: Blood pressure, hypertension and lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-02-19

    A significant association of office diastolic blood pressure with low-level blood lead exposure was reported in a Brazilian adult population. However, caution should be taken to interpret these results. The multivariable-adjusted association with blood pressure was positive for diastolic blood pressure, but inverse for systolic blood pressure. The association sizes were infinitesimal without clinical relevance. The outcome measures, i.e. blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension were analysed across categories of the blood lead distribution - not in relation to blood lead as continuous variable. Blood pressure was the average of two oscillometric office readings, whereas ambulatory monitoring is the state-of-the-art.

  20. Facilitators and hindrances in the experiences of Ugandans with and without disabilities when seeking access to microcredit schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Paauwe, Marthe; Finkenflügel, Harry

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify facilitators and hindrances in the experiences of Ugandans with and without disabilities when seeking access to microcredit schemes. Thirty-five statements were presented to 80 people, 50 of whom were disabled. Q-methodology was used to identify factors influencing access to microcredit schemes. Running a business independently was solely identified by people with disabilities (PWD) as an important facilitator in accessing microcredit schemes, while relying on business skills was largely mentioned by people without disabilities. The disabled identified family-related items to be inhibiting factors. Having a group loan was ranked negatively by the disabled and ambivalently by the non-disabled. PWD experience different facilitators and barriers to access microcredit schemes compared to the non-disabled. PWD prefer individual loans and believe they can more successfully run a business on their own, instead of relying on family or having a group loan. Furthermore, they would benefit from microcredit schemes that take into account disability-specific circumstances. These are important findings to increase access to microcredit schemes and to let PWD benefit to the same extend from these programmes than do their non-disabled peers.

  1. A de novo transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Asian tiger mosquitoes Aedes albopictus: insights into diuresis, detoxification, and blood meal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In adult female mosquitoes, the renal (Malpighian tubules play an important role in the post-prandial diuresis, which removes excess ions and water from the hemolymph of mosquitoes following a blood meal. After the post-prandial diuresis, the roles that Malpighian tubules play in the processing of blood meals are not well described. Methods. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing (paired-end RNA sequencing and physiological/biochemical assays in adult female Asian tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus to generate molecular and functional insights into the Malpighian tubules and how they may contribute to blood meal processing (3–24 h after blood ingestion. Results/Discussion. Using RNA sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the first de novo transcriptome of Malpighian tubules from non-blood-fed (NBF and blood-fed (BF mosquitoes. We identified a total of 8,232 non-redundant transcripts. The Malpighian tubules of NBF mosquitoes were characterized by the expression of transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis (e.g., ion transporters, water channels, V-type H+-ATPase subunits, xenobiotic detoxification (e.g., cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and purine metabolism (e.g., xanthine dehydrogenase. We also detected the expression of transcripts encoding sodium calcium exchangers, G protein coupled-receptors, and septate junctional proteins not previously described in mosquito Malpighian tubules. Within 24 h after a blood meal, transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis exhibited a general downregulation, whereas those associated with xenobiotic detoxification and purine catabolism exhibited a general upregulation, suggesting a reinvestment of the Malpighian tubules’ molecular resources from diuresis to detoxification. Physiological and biochemical assays were conducted in mosquitoes and isolated

  2. Social capital and sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Agardh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uganda has reduced its prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18 to 6.5% within a decade. An important factor behind this might have been the response from faith-based voluntary organizations, which developed social capital for achieving this. Three behaviors have been targeted: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use (the ABC strategy. The aim of this study was to explore the association between social capital and the ABC behaviors, especially with reference to religious factors. Methods: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80%. It assessed sociodemographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. Results: Thirty-seven percent of the male and 49% of the female students had not had sexual intercourse. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more lifetime sexual partners, and 32% of those males and 38% of the females stated they did not always use condoms with a new partner. Low trust in others was associated with a higher risk for not always using condoms with a new partner among male students (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8, and with a lower risk for sexual debut among female students (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9. Non-dominant bridging trust among male students was associated with a higher risk for having had many sexual partners (OR1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9. However, low trust in others was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual debut in men, while the opposite was true in women, and a similar pattern was also seen regarding a high number of lifetime sexual partners in individuals who were raised in families where religion played a major role. Conclusions: In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified

  3. The Relationship Between the Metabolic Syndrome and Systolic Inter-Arm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Choi, Seong Woo; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Oh, Hye Jong; Choi, Cheol Won

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference (sIAD) in Korean adults. This study included 410 adults (235 males, 175 females) who were over 30 years old and had undergone a health check from July to December in 2013. The incidence of high sIAD and metabolic syndrome were 23.4% and 23.2%, respectively. Key study results were as follows: First, the sIAD levels increased significantly with an increase in metabolic syndrome score (p<0.001), shown by sIAD levels after adjusted the variables that affect sIAD levels (age, gender, smoking, drinking, exercising, total cholesterol, and body mass index). These were 4.6±0.7 mmHg for metabolic syndrome score (MSS) 0; 5.8±0.5 mmHg for MSS 1; 6.2±0.6 mmHg for MSS 2, 9.2±0.8 mmHg for MSS 3; and 9.9±1.2 mmHg for MSS ≥4 (p<0.001). Second, the sIAD level of the metabolic syndrome group (9.3±0.7 mmHg) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than for the nonmetabolic syndrome group (5.7±0.3 mmHg). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and an increased number of its components are associated with the sIAD levels in Korean adults.

  4. Relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms scores and blood pressure in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sunil K; Beilin, Lawrence J; Robinson, Monique; Burrows, Sally; Mori, Trevor A

    2017-10-01

    Depression and anxiety are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but their relationship to blood pressure (BP) is less clear. Age-related comorbidity and lifestyle factors may confound these relationships. This study aimed to assess the relationships among BP, depression and anxiety symptom scores and self-reported history of depression in young adults. Data on 1014 participants aged 20 years from the Western Australian Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed for cross-sectional associations between clinic BP and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale questionnaire scores or a reported history of depression, accounting for relevant confounders. Multivariable adjusted analyses showed an inverse relationship between SBP with depression (coefficient = -0.10; P = 0.012) and anxiety (after excluding two outliers with SBP > 156 mmHg, coefficient = -0.13; P = 0.018) scores, independent of sex, BMI, female hormonal contraceptive use, alcohol consumption, birth weight and maternal hypertension in pregnancy. SBP was 1.6 mmHg lower for 2 SD (16 units) increase in depression score. There was an inverse association between self-reported history of depression (15.8% of participants) and SBP (coefficient = -1.91; P = 0.023), with an interaction with increasing BMI (interaction coefficient = -0.43; P = 0.002) enhancing this difference. Our findings show that SBP in young adults is inversely associated with depression and anxiety scores, independent of a range of lifestyle confounders. Despite a positive association between BMI and BP, adiposity enhanced the inverse association between self-reported history of depression and SBP. These findings contrast with the predisposition of depressed participants to cardiovascular disease in later life when decades of unhealthy lifestyle changes may dominate.

  5. [Blood volume for biochemistry determinations--laboratory needs and everyday practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztefko, Krystyna; Mamica, Katarzyna; Bugajska, Jolanta; Maziarz, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    Blood loss due to diagnostic phlebotomy jest a very serious problem, especially for newborn, infants and critically ill patients on intensive care units. Although single blood loss can be easily tolerated in adults, in small babies and in patients who are frequently monitored based on laboratory tests iatrogenic anaemia can occur. To evaluate the blood volume drawn for routine biochemistry tests in relation to patient age and the number of parameters requested. Blood volume drawn for routine biochemistry measurements from patients hospitalized in University Children's Hospital (N = 2980, children age from one day to 18 years) and in University Hospital (N = 859, adults, aged > 1.8 years) in Cracow has been analyzed. Blood volume was calculated based on regular tube diameter and blood heights in the tube. In case of microvettes the blood volume was 0.2 ml. Statistical analysis has been performed by using PRISM 5.0. The statistical significance was set at p nurses and doctors should include the information about current laboratory automation and methods miniaturization; 2) The amount of blood volume needed by laboratory for the requested number of tests should always be taken into account when diagnostic phlebotomy is necessary.

  6. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  7. Pharmacology and safety of glycerol phenylbutyrate in healthy adults and adults with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brendan M; Zupanets, Igor A; Lowe, Mark E; Xiao, Xunjun; Syplyviy, Vasyliy A; Monteleone, Jon; Gargosky, Sharron; Dickinson, Klara; Martinez, Antonia; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Scharschmidt, Bruce F

    2010-06-01

    Phenylbutyric acid (PBA), which is approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) as sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA), mediates waste nitrogen excretion via combination of PBA-derived phenylacetic acid with glutamine to form phenylactylglutamine (PAGN) that is excreted in urine. Glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB), a liquid triglyceride pro-drug of PBA, containing no sodium and having favorable palatability, is being studied for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In vitro and clinical studies have been performed to assess GPB digestion, safety, and pharmacology in healthy adults and individuals with cirrhosis. GPB hydrolysis was measured in vitro by way of pH titration. Twenty-four healthy adults underwent single-dose administration of GPB and NaPBA and eight healthy adults and 24 cirrhotic subjects underwent single-day and multiple-day dosing of GPB, with metabolites measured in blood and urine. Simulations were performed to assess GPB dosing at higher levels. GPB was hydrolyzed by human pancreatic triglyceride lipase, pancreatic lipase-related protein 2, and carboxyl-ester lipase. Clinical safety was satisfactory. Compared with NaPBA, peak metabolite blood levels with GPB occurred later and were lower; urinary PAGN excretion was similar but took longer. Steady state was achieved within 4 days for both NaPBA and GPB; intact GPB was not detected in blood or urine. Cirrhotic subjects converted GPB to PAGN similarly to healthy adults. Simulations suggest that GPB can be administered safely to cirrhotic subjects at levels equivalent to the highest approved NaPBA dose for UCDs. GPB exhibits delayed release characteristics, presumably reflecting gradual PBA release by pancreatic lipases, and is well tolerated in adults with cirrhosis, suggesting that further clinical testing for HE is warranted.

  8. Comparison of arterial blood gas with continuous intra-arterial and transcutaneous PO2 sensors in adult critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G E; Hassell, K T; Mahutte, C K

    1987-05-01

    We compared the partial pressure of oxygen directly via a continuous intra-arterial probe (PiaO2) and indirectly using a transcutaneous device (PtcO2) with simultaneously obtained arterial blood PaO2. The PiaO2 values were measured using a bipolar oxygen sensor placed through an 18-ga arterial catheter. The PtcO2 values were measured using a transcutaneous O2-CO2 sensor placed on the abdomen. Seven critically ill, hemodynamically stable, ventilator-dependent adult patients were studied. Measurements were obtained at varying concentrations (0.25 to 1.0) of inspired oxygen after a 10-min stabilization. A total of 78 simultaneous values were obtained; by linear regression: PiaO2 = 0.91 PaO2 + 1.39 (r = .98, standard errors of the estimate [SEE] = 18.6); PtcO2 = 0.39 PaO2 + 36.2 (r = .89, SEE = 14.1). To assess these instruments as trend monitors, we compared the changes in simultaneous PaO2, PiaO2, and PtcO2 values; by linear regression: delta PiaO2 = 0.90 delta PaO2 + 3.88 (r = .96, SEE = 27.7); delta PtcO2 = 0.43 delta PaO2 + 5.6 (r = .94, SEE = 15.2). We conclude that, although these instruments correlate highly with the PaO2, the SEE was substantial and therefore may limit their clinical reliability in adults. Any acute or clinically significant change in PiaO2 or PtcO2 should be confirmed with a blood gas PaO2.

  9. Investigation of venous blood cells parameters among 1180 healthy people in Tianjin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Liping; Hao Jianxiu; Li Jin; Xing Zhiwei; Zhao Xinran; Jiang Bo; Wang Xiaoguang; Jiang Enhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reference values of 18 parameters of venous blood cells among healthy adults in Tianjin area. Methods: The values of 18 parameters of venous blood from 1180 healthy adults in Tianjin area were measured by Sysmex KX-21 hematology analyzer and the results were analyzed. Results: The statistical analysis of the test reveals that significant differences exist in most parameters of venous blood cells according to the gender and age of people. Except the parameters of mean corpuscular volume, lymphocytes percentage, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width,there were significant differences in the remaining parameters between the males group and the females group. Except the parameters of white blood count,platelet count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, neutrophil percentage,absolute neutrophil count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, there were significant differences in the remaining parameters between the old male group and the adult male group. Except the parameters of white blood count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, there was no significant difference in the remaining parameters between the old female group and the adult female group. Conclusions: There are some differences between the findings and the reference range provided by the National Guide to Clinical laboratory Procedure. Therefore, it is necessary for laboratory to establish the reference values of venous blood cells according to concrete conditions. (authors)

  10. Cardiac autonomic and haemodynamic recovery after a single session of aerobic exercise with and without blood flow restriction in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marina Lívia Venturini; Sardeli, Amanda Veiga; Souza, Giovana Vergínia De; Bonganha, Valéria; Santos, Lucas Do Carmo; Castro, Alex; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the autonomic and haemodynamic responses to different aerobic exercise loads, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a crossover study, 21 older adults (8 males and 13 females) completed different aerobic exercise sessions: low load without BFR (LL) (40% VO 2 max ), low load with BFR (LL-BFR) (40% VO 2 max + 50% BFR) and high load without BFR (HL) (70% VO 2 max ). Heart rate variability and haemodynamic responses were recorded during rest and throughout 30 min of recovery. HL reduced R-R interval, the root mean square of successive difference of R-R intervals and high frequency during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude compared with LL and LL-BFR. Sympathetic-vagal balance increased the values for HL during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude when compared with LL and LL-BFR. Post-exercise haemodynamic showed reduced values of double product at 30 min of recovery compared to rest in LL-BFR, while HL showed higher values compared to rest, LL-BFR and LL. Reduced systolic blood pressure was observed for LL-BFR (30 min) compared to rest. Autonomic and haemodynamic responses indicate lower cardiovascular stress after LL-BFR compared to HL, being this method, besides the functional adaptations, a potential choice to attenuate the cardiovascular stress after exercise in older adults.

  11. EFFECTS OF CREATINE, GINSENG, AND ASTRAGALUS SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRENGTH, BODY COMPOSITION, MOOD, AND BLOOD LIPIDS DURING STRENGTH-TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Rogers

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplemental dietary creatine and a botanical extract consisting of ginseng and astragalus were evaluated in 44 adults aged 55-84 years participating in a 12-week strength-training program. Participants consumed creatine only (Cr, creatine plus botanical extract (CrBE, or placebo (PL, and performed bench press, lat pull down, biceps curl, leg press, knee extension, and knee flexion for 3 sets of 8-12 reps on 3 days per week for 12 weeks. The 1-repetition maximum for each exercise, body composition (full-body DEXA, blood lipids, and mood states were evaluated before and after the intervention. Training improved (p < 0.05 strength and lean mass for all groups, however greater gains were observed with Cr and CrBE compared with placebo (but no difference was found between Cr and CrBE. Only CrBE improved blood lipids and self-reported vigor, and the CrBE group lost significantly more body fat and gained more bench press strength than Cr. These results indicate that strength and lean mass gains achieved by older adults participating in a strength training program can be enhanced with creatine supplementation, and that ginseng and astragalus may provide additional health and psychological benefits. However, these herbs do not appear to have an additive effect on strength and lean mass gains during training

  12. Clinical comparison of two commercial blood culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjaard, L.; Kuijper, E. J.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    A prospective, volume-controlled comparison of the BacT/Alert FAN (Organon Teknika, USA) and Vital (bioMérieux, France) blood culture systems was performed in a university hospital during a period of 11 months. Twenty to 40 ml of blood drawn from an adult patient was distributed equally between a

  13. Temperature effect upon blood consumption in Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Catalá

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Different blood consumption speed was observed in Triatoma infestans - nymphs and adults - exposed to 12 degrees C and 28 degrees C. Exposure to optimal temperature (28 degrees C allows the insects to consume blood at a rate of 9% per day. Significative relationship between blood amount present in the promesenteron and consumed blood was found at 28 degrees. Consumption of blood was drastically reduced at the lowest temperature. Accordingly, lack of ovaric development, oviposition and mating behaviour was observed in insects kept at 12 degrees C. Relationship between laboratory and field observations are discussed.

  14. Making Blood: The Haematopoietic Niche throughout Ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Al-Drees

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one-quarter of all cells in the adult human body are blood cells. The haematopoietic system is therefore massive in scale and requires exquisite regulation to be maintained under homeostatic conditions. It must also be able to respond when needed, such as during infection or following blood loss, to produce more blood cells. Supporting cells serve to maintain haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. This coalition of supportive cell types, organised in specific tissues, is termed the haematopoietic niche. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are generated in a number of distinct locations during mammalian embryogenesis. These stem and progenitor cells migrate to a variety of anatomical locations through the conceptus until finally homing to the bone marrow shortly before birth. Under stress, extramedullary haematopoiesis can take place in regions that are typically lacking in blood-producing activity. Our aim in this review is to examine blood production throughout the embryo and adult, under normal and pathological conditions, to identify commonalities and distinctions between each niche. A clearer understanding of the mechanism underlying each haematopoietic niche can be applied to improving ex vivo cultures of haematopoietic stem cells and potentially lead to new directions for transplantation medicine.

  15. Twenty weeks of isometric handgrip home training to lower blood pressure in hypertensive older adults: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Ryg, Jesper; Danielsen, Mathias Brix; Madeleine, Pascal; Andersen, Stig

    2018-02-09

    Hypertension markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and overall mortality. Lifestyle modifications, such as increased levels of physical activity, are recommended as the first line of anti-hypertensive treatment. A recent systematic review showed that isometric handgrip (IHG) training was superior to traditional endurance and strength training in lowering resting systolic blood pressure (SBP). The average length of previous IHG training studies is approximately 7.5 weeks with the longest being 10 weeks. Therefore, presently it is unknown if it is possible to further lower blood pressure levels beyond the 10-week mark. Recently, we developed a novel method for monitoring handgrip intensity using a standard Nintendo Wii Board (Wii). The primary aim of this study is to explore the effects of a 20-week IHG home training facilitated by a Wii in hypertensive older adults (50 + years of age) on lowering SBP compared to usual care. Secondary aims are to explore if/when a leveling-off effect on SBP will occur during the 20-week intervention period in the training group and to explore adherence and potential harms related to the IHG home training. Based on previous evidence, we calculated that 50 hypertensive (SBP between 140 and 179 mmHg), older adults (50 + years of age) are needed to achieve a power of 80% or more. Participants will be randomly assigned to either an intervention >group (IHG home training + hypertension guidelines on lifestyle changes) or to a control group (hypertension guidelines on lifestyle changes). Participants in the intervention group will perform IHG home training (30% of maximum grip strength for a total of 8 min per day per hand) three times a week for 20 weeks. Resting blood pressure and maximal handgrip strength will be obtained by a blinded outcome assessor in both groups at specific time points (baseline, follow-up at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks) throughout the study. This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled

  16. Look Who's Talking. Explaining Water-Related Information Sharing and Demand for Action Among Ugandan Villagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara; Molenaers, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Many national water policies propagate community-based participatory approaches to overcome weaknesses in supply-driven rural water provision, operation, and maintenance. Citizen involvement is thought to stimulate bottom-up accountability and broaden the information base, which may enrich design and implementation processes and foster improved water accessibility and sustainability. Practices on the ground, however, are embedded in socio-political realities which mediate possible beneficial effects of participatory approaches. This paper builds on full social network data collected in a Ugandan village to study the social and political reality of two distinct levels of participation, i.e. local information sharing among citizens and a more active appeal to fellow citizens to improve water services. We use Logistic Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure to explore what type of actor and network traits influence information sharing and whether the same factors are in play in the demand for action to remedy water-related problems. Whereas social aspects (social support relations) and homophily (using the same water source, the same gender) play an important role in information sharing, it is the educational level, in particular, of the villager who is called upon that is important when villagers demand action. Our findings also demonstrate that those most in need of safe water do not mobilize their information sharing ties to demand for action. This indicates that building local water policies and practice exclusively on locally existing demand for action may fail to capture the needs of the most deprived citizens.

  17. Implications of the Eighth Joint National Committee Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure for Aging Adults: The ARIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Michael D; Lopez, Faye L; Blaha, Michael J; Virani, Salim S; Coresh, Josef; Ballantyne, Christie M; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    The recent 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Eight Joint National Committee Panel may significantly impact the aging US population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of black and white participants in ARIC who participated in the 5th study visit (2011–2013). Sitting blood pressure was calculated from the average of 3 successive readings taken after a 5-minute rest. Currently prescribed antihypertensive medications were recorded by reviewing medication containers brought to the visit. Blood pressure control was defined using both the 7th and 8th Joint National Committee thresholds. Of 6,088 participants (mean age 75.6 years [range 66–90], 58.4% female, 23.2% African American), 54.9% had either diabetes or chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of hypertension according to 7th Joint National Committee thresholds was 81.9%, and 62.8% of the entire sample were at blood pressure goal. Using the 8th Joint National Committee thresholds, 79.4% were at blood pressure goal (16.6% were reclassified as at goal). Reclassification was higher for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease (20.6%) compared to individuals without either condition (11.6%). Use of antihypertensive medications in our cohort was high, with 75.0% prescribed at least one antihypertensive medication and 46.7% on 2 or more antihypertensive agents. In conclusion, in a US cohort of aging white and black individuals, approximately 1 in 6 individuals were reclassified as having blood pressure at goal by 8th Joint National Committee guidelines. Despite these less aggressive goals, over 20% remain uncontrolled by the new criteria. PMID:26150438

  18. Unrelated cord blood transplantation in adults with myelodysplasia or secondary acute myeloblastic leukemia: a survey on behalf of Eurocord and CLWP of EBMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, M; Sanz, G F; Ionescu, I; Rio, B; Sirvent, A; Renaud, M; Carreras, E; Milpied, N; Mohty, M; Beguin, Y; Bordigoni, P; de Witte, T; Picardi, A; Purtill, D; Gluckman, E; Kroger, N; Rocha, V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate, through the Eurocord and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registries, outcomes and risk factors for outcomes in adult patients who underwent single or double unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or secondary acute myeloblastic leukemia (sAML). A total of 180 adults with MDS (n=39) or sAML (n=69) were analyzed. Risk factors for outcomes were analyzed using the Fine and Gray method and the Cox model. Median age was 43 (18-72) years. In all, 77 patients (71%) received a single UCBT. Myeloablative conditioning regimen (MAC) was given to 57 (53%) patients. Median numbers of nucleated and CD34(+) cells at freezing were 3.6 × 10(7) and 1.1 × 10(5) kg. At 60 days, cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was 78±4% and was independently associated with the number of CD34(+) cells per kg (>1.1 × 10(5); P=0.005) and advanced disease status (blasts vs 34%; P=0.009). A 2-year disease-free-survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 30 and 34%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, patients with high-risk disease (blasts >5% and International Prognostic scoring system (IPSS) intermediate-2 or high in MDS) had significant poorer DFS (hazard ratio (HR): 1.76; P=0.047). In spite of high NRM, these data indicate that UCBT is an acceptable alternative option to treat adults with high-risk MDS or sAML, without a suitable human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor.

  19. Blood indicators of seasonal metabolic patterns in captive adult gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Blood samples and physical data were collected weekly from a colony of gray wolves (Canis lupus) maintained under natural weather arid light conditions. Sampling over 33 continuous months indicated that hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and thyroxine exhibited consistent circannual patterns of variation in both males and females. Hemoglobin levels peaked at 15-16 g/dl in January in females and at 16-17 g/dl in February in males, and were lowest in August at 10.5-11.5 g/dl (P patterns of hematocrit, red blood cells, and MCHC were similarly timed. Females also had a cyclic pattern of white blood cell counts and body weight; their weight peaked in early February and was lowest in August (P pattern.

  20. Management of intraoperative fluid balance and blood conservation techniques in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vretzakis, George; Kleitsaki, Athina; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2011-02-01

    Blood transfusions are associated with adverse physiologic effects and increased cost, and therefore reduction of blood product use during surgery is a desirable goal for all patients. Cardiac surgery is a major consumer of donor blood products, especially when cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used, because hematocrit drops precipitously during CPB due to blood loss and blood cell dilution. Advanced age, low preoperative red blood cell volume (preoperative anemia or small body size), preoperative antiplatelet or antithrombotic drugs, complex or re-operative procedures or emergency operations, and patient comorbidities were identified as important transfusion risk indicators in a report recently published by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. This report also identified several pre- and intraoperative interventions that may help reduce blood transfusions, including off-pump procedures, preoperative autologous blood donation, normovolemic hemodilution, and routine cell saver use.A multimodal approach to blood conservation, with high-risk patients receiving all available interventions, may help preserve vital organ perfusion and reduce blood product utilization. In addition, because positive intravenous fluid balance is a significant factor affecting hemodilution during cardiac surgery, especially when CPB is used, strategies aimed at limiting intraoperative fluid balance positiveness may also lead to reduced blood product utilization.This review discusses currently available techniques that can be used intraoperatively in an attempt to avoid or minimize fluid balance positiveness, to preserve the patient's own red blood cells, and to decrease blood product utilization during cardiac surgery.

  1. Autoimmune Demyelinating Polyneuropathy as a Manifestation of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Adult Cord Blood Transplantation in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Hogan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated demyelinating disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a rare entity with unclear etiology. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP has been reported after related and adult unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantation but no such case has been reported after unrelated cord blood transplantation. We hereby present the first case of AIDP after double umbilical cord blood transplantation (DUCBT. A 55-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL received a cord blood transplant for relapsed refractory disease with high risk cytogenetics. On day 221, patient presented with skin rash, tingling in both lower extremites, and ascending paralysis that progressed rapidly over the course of 2 days. The workup resulted in a diagnosis of AIDP and administration of intravenous immunoglobulins plus steroids was initiated. Motor and sensory powers were fully recovered and his chronic GVHD was managed for several months with single agent sirolimus.

  2. Histamine release from cord blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Windelborg; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Herlin, Troels

    1990-01-01

    The histamine release (HR) after challenge with anti-IgE, concanavalin A, N-formyl-met-leu-phe and the calcium ionophore A23187 from 97 cord blood samples was determined by a microfiber-based assay. Maximum HR with anti-IgE showed great inter-individual variation (median: 20.5; range: 1-104 ng...... of less than 0.5 IU/ml, although sensitivity to anti-IgE was universally increased. Preincubation with pharmacologic agents modulating the IgE-mediated HR produced effects generally similar to previous findings in adult blood. However, the effects of inhibiting the cyclooxygenase pathway in cord blood...

  3. Examination of the roles and capacities of duty bearers responsible for protecting the human rights to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing in Ugandan children's homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Monica; Rukooko, Archangel Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Andreassen, Bård A

    2018-04-17

    The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children's homes face this problem. The overall aim of the study was to examine to what extent children's homes' operations are consistent with the right to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing of children. We performed a qualitative role- and capacity analysis of duty bearers with human rights duties towards children living in children's homes. We studied three groups of duty bearers: caretakers working in private children's homes, State actors working in government and its institutions, and non-State actors working in civil society organizations. A human rights based approach guided all aspects of the study. An analysis of the roles, performance and capacities of duty bearers was employed, with individual face-to-face structured qualitative in-depth interviews, self-administered structured questionnaires, and a structured observational study, as well as a desk review of relevant literature. The State of Uganda's efforts to respect and realize its obligations towards children living in children's homes is inadequate. There are numerous capacity gaps among the duty bearers, and the concepts of human rights and the best interest of the child are not well understood among the duty bearers. The efforts of the State of Uganda to realize its human rights obligations towards children in children's homes are lacking in important areas. Hence the State does not fulfill its minimum obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to ensure all children freedom from hunger. There is a need

  4. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination.

  5. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Garrett Morgan

    Full Text Available ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan.To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival.Preliminary cohort study.We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses.We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001 with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94. Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR ≥ 3.40, while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74. SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07.These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer.

  6. The effect of text messaging on hospital visits and blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non-attendance to hospital appointment and non-adherence to blood pressure lowering medication are major factors in sub-optimal control of high blood pressure. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of text messaging on improving hospital visits and blood pressure control in adult hypertensives in ...

  7. The distribution and frequency of blood lipid testing by sociodemographic status among adults in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel J; Moss, Lauren; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kyle, Cam; Riddell, Tania; Jackson, Rod; Wells, Susan

    2015-09-01

    National cardiovascular disease (CVD) guidelines recommend that adults have cholesterol levels monitored regularly. However, little is known about the extent and equity of cholesterol testing in New Zealand. To investigate the distribution and frequency of blood lipid testing by sociodemographic status in Auckland, New Zealand. We anonymously linked five national health datasets (primary care enrolment, laboratory tests, pharmaceuticals, hospitalisations and mortality) to identify adults aged ≥25 years without CVD or diabetes who had their lipids tested in 2006-2010, by age, gender, ethnicity and area of residence and deprivation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of testing associated with these factors. Of the 627 907 eligible adults, 66.3% had at least one test between 2006 and 2010. Annual testing increased from 24.7% in 2006 to 35.1% in 2010. Testing increased with age similarly for men and women. Indian people were 87% more likely than New Zealand European and Others (NZEO) to be tested, Pacific people 8% more likely, but rates for Maori were similar to NZEO. There was marked variation within the region, with residents of the most deprived areas less likely to be tested than residents in least deprived areas. Understanding differences within and between population groups supports the development of targeted strategies for better service utilisation. While lipid testing has increased, sociodemographic variations persist by place of residence, and deprivation. Of the high CVD risk populations, lipid testing for Maori and Pacific is not being conducted according to need.

  8. Transient spontaneous engraftment of CD34 hematopoietic cord blood stem cells as seen in peripheral blood: treatment of leprosy patients with anemia by placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, N

    2006-01-01

    Cord blood, because of its rich mix of fetal and adult hemoglobin, high platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts, and a plasma filled with cytokine and growth factors, as well as its hypoantigenic nature and altered metabolic profile, has all the potential of a real and safe alternative to adult blood transfusion. Our experience of 74 units (50 ml-146 ml mean, 86 ml +/- 7.6 ml SD, median 80 ml, mean packed cell volume 48 +/- 4.1 SD, mean percent hemoglobin concentration 16.2 g/dl +/- 1.8 g/dl of placental umbilical cord whole blood collection (from 1 April 1999) after lower uterine cesarean section (LUCS) from consenting mothers and transfusion of the same to 16 informed, consenting patients with percent plasma hemoglobin 8 g/dl or less, is presented here. After collection the blood was immediately preserved in the refrigerator and transfused within 72 hours of collection. Fifteen males and one female, aged 12-72 yrs (mean 48.4 yrs) participated: five cases were pausibacillary type (PB) and 11 cases were multibacillary type (MB). The clinical spectrum of the cases varied widely from the tuberculoid to the lepromatous type and one patient presented with gangrene of the leg preceding an auto amputation which was infested with maggots. Each case was approved by the institutional ethical committee and received two to eight units of freshly collected placental umbilical cord blood in one transfusion without encountering any clinical, immunological or non-immunological reaction. Seven days after completion of the placental umbilical cord blood transfusion, the peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (CD34) estimation revealed a rise from the pretransfusion base level (.09%), varying from 3.6% to 16.2%, in 75% of the cases, without provoking any clinical graft vs host reaction in any of the leprosy victims. This value returned to normal within three months in most cases.

  9. Cord blood transplantation: can we make it better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland eMetheny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood is an established source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. It enjoys several advantages over bone marrow or peripheral blood, including increased tolerance for Human Leukocyte Antigen mismatches, decreased incidence of graft-versus-host disease, and easy availability. Unrelated cord blood does have limitations, however, especially in the treatment of adults. In the 24 years since the first umbilical cord blood transplant was performed, significant progress has been made, but delayed hematopoietic engraftment and increased treatment related mortality remain obstacles to widespread use. Here we summarize the latest results of unrelated cord blood transplants, and review strategies under investigation to improve clinical outcomes.

  10. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  11. Analysis of the impact of race on blood transfusion in pediatric scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Keila M; Owusu-Akyaw, Kwadwo; Zhou, Jingzhu; Cooter, Mary; Ross, Allison K; Lark, Robert K; Taicher, Brad M

    2018-04-01

    Surgical correction of pediatric scoliosis is associated with significant blood loss. Minimizing estimated blood loss and blood transfusion is beneficial as transfusions have been associated with increased morbidity, including risk of surgical site infections, longer hospitalizations, and increased cost. Although there is evidence that African-American or Black adults are more likely to require intraoperative blood transfusion compared with Caucasian or White adults, the reasons for this difference are unclear. The electronic records for all patients blood loss/transfusion in primary pediatric scoliosis surgery. In a multivariate model, Black race was independently associated with 1.61 times higher estimated blood loss than White race (P blood transfusion was 6.25 times higher (P = .03; 95% CI = 1.56-25.06) and among the patients who received blood transfusion, Black race was independently associated with 2.61 times greater volume of blood transfusion than White race (P blood loss, increased rate of blood transfusion, and increased amount of blood transfused during surgical correction of pediatric scoliosis. Further investigation is needed to better understand the etiology of the disparity and assess opportunities for improving outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  13. Clinical Use and Patentability of Cord Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Turker; Kilic, Kubilay Dogan; Yigitturk, Gurkan; Tomruk, Canberk; Turgut, Mehmet; Uyanikgil, Yigit

    2018-03-14

    The blood in the umbilical cord that provides the connection between mother and fetus during pregnancy is called cord blood. The blood of umbilical cord which is usually got rid of following birth, is a very rich stem cell source. Cord blood collection gives no harm to the mother and baby. Besides, its allogeneic and au-tologous usage, the most important disadvantage is that the number of cells is insufficient in adults. Today, it is predominantly used for therapeutic purposes for many diseases. The aim of this review is giving a detailed information about groups of stem cells in cord blood and determining the point of clinical use. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Validation of Omron HBP-1300 professional blood pressure monitor based on auscultation in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linghui; Zhao, Di; Pan, Yan; Ding, Wenqing; Wei, Qing; Li, Hua; Gao, Pingjin; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-13

    BACKGROUnD: To determine whether the professional Omron HBP-1300 blood pressure (BP) monitor meets American Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) accuracy standards in Chinese children and adults. According to the AAMI protocol, simultaneous auscultatory measurements by two observers using a mercury manometer were obtained in participants using the Omron HBP-1300. Triple measurements were obtained after a minimum 5-min rest with a 1-min interval between adjacent measurements. A total of 85 participants submitted to 255 doctor-measured BP and 255 successful professional monitor readings. The initial auscultation systolic BP was 160 mmHg in seven participants (8.2%). All of the simultaneous measurements agreed to within ± 10 mmHg, while 95% agreed to within ± 4 mmHg for both systolic and diastolic BP, and the consistency between two observers was satisfactory. The difference between the devices was -1.3 ± 3.6 mmHg for systolic BP and 0.7 ± 3.8 mmHg for diastolic BP and by AAMI method 1, which met this guideline. The average difference between two devices by AAMI method 2 was 1.4 ± 3.2 mmHg for systolic BP and 1.0 ± 3.9 mmHg for diastolic BP, which met this guideline. The professional BP monitor Omron HBP-1300 is desirable for measuring the BP for Chinese children and adults.

  15. The association between blood pressure and whole blood methylmercury in a cross-sectional study among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Davidsen, Michael; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    to a high exposure of methylmercury. We examined the relation between whole blood mercury and blood pressure (BP) in Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study among adult Inuit in Greenland was performed in 2005-2009. Information on socio-demography, lifestyle, BP, blood samples...... whole blood mercury concentrations, diastolic BP and the risk of hypertension decreased among men in the study: this may be explained by confounding by exercise or unknown factors.......BACKGROUND: The Inuit in Greenland have a high average consumption of marine species and are highly exposed to methylmercury, which in other studies has been related to hypertension. Data on the relation between methylmercury and hypertension is limited, especially in populations subjected...

  16. Evaluating hair as a predictor of blood mercury: the influence of ontogenetic phase and life history in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Kennedy, Stephanie N.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; O'Hara, Todd M.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring of pinnipeds increasingly utilizes nonlethally collected tissues such as hair and blood. The relationship between total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in these tissues is not well understood for marine mammals, but it can be important for interpretation of tissue concentrations with respect to ecotoxicology and biomonitoring. We examined [THg] in blood and hair in multiple age classes of four pinniped species. For each species, we used paired blood and hair samples to quantify the ability of [THg] in hair to predict [THg] in blood at the time of sampling and examined the influence of varying ontogenetic phases and life history of the sampled animals. Overall, we found that the relationship between [THg] in hair and blood was affected by factors including age class, weaning status, growth, and the time difference between hair growth and sample collection. Hair [THg] was moderately to strongly predictive of current blood [THg] for adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), whereas hair [THg] was poorly predictive or not predictive (different times of year) of blood [THg] for adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Within species, except for very young pups, hair [THg] was a weaker predictor of blood [THg] for prereproductive animals than for adults likely due to growth, variability in foraging behavior, and transitions between ontogenetic phases. Our results indicate that the relationship between hair [THg] and blood [THg] in pinnipeds is variable and that ontogenetic phase and life history should be considered when interpreting [THg] in these tissues.

  17. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pdry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Mechanism of low GVHD incidence in umbilical cord blood transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanying; Zhu Xuezhen; Zhang Lansheng; Zhu Shoupeng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare the immunological function between umbilical cord blood (UCB) and peripheral blood, and to explore the mechanism of low incidence of graft-versus host disease (GVHD) in UCB transplantation. Methods: The proliferation assay, NK cell killing activity assay and immunologic fluorescence double label technique were used to study four sear effect on T cell immunologic function. Results: UCB serum could reduce K 562 cell activity, compared to that of adult serum. Furthermore, adult serum will enhanced the percentage of HLA-DR expression of T cells on PHA-stimulated PBMC, whereas fetal serum has no such effect. Both adult and fetal serum enhanced mitogen-specific T cell proliferation, the peak proliferative response could be reached with adult serum but not with fetal serum. Conclusion: There must be some soluble factors secreted into serum, which play a role in T cell activation and associate with the incidence of GVHD

  19. Does leisure-time physical activity attenuate or eliminate the positive association between obesity and high blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, André O; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Gerage, Aline M; Cyrino, Edilson S; Szwarcwald, Célia L; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Danilo R

    2018-04-25

    We examine the joint association of weight status and leisure-time physical activity on high blood pressure in a nationally representative sample of adults and older adults in Brazil. This was a national cross-sectional survey conducted in Brazil in 2013 (Brazilian Health Survey). The sample consisted of 59 402 participants (56% women, aged 18 to 100 years). Outcome was objectively assessed blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI) was objectively measured, while self-reported information on leisure-time physical activity, TV viewing, chronological age, race, educational status, tobacco smoking, sodium consumption, and hypertension medication was obtained using questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratio was conducted to test the joint association of BMI and leisure-time physical activity categories on high blood pressure. Overall, compared to normal weight (NW) and physically active group, the NW/inactive (OR = 1.28; 1.04 to 1.58), overweight/active (OR = 1.38; 1.08 to 1.78), overweight/inactive (OR = 1.89; 1.53 to 2.33), obese/active (OR = 2.19; 1.59 to 3.01) and obese/inactive (OR = 2.54; 2.05 to 3.15) groups were 28% to 254% more likely to have high blood pressure. The attenuation and high blood pressure was greater for women and adults than for men and older adults. Thus, leisure-time physical inactivity and being overweight and obesity were associated with high blood pressure in Brazilian population. Engaging in sufficient level of physical activity during leisure could attenuate, but not eliminate, the negative influence of obesity on high blood pressure in Brazilian adults and older adults. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Parental body mass index and blood pressure are associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in their adult offspring: a cross-sectional study in a resource-limited setting in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Sal Y Rosas, Víctor G; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María K; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime

    2018-05-01

    High body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) are major contributors to the high burden of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Individual high-risk and population approaches for prevention require newer strategies to target these risk factors and focusing on the family to introduce prevention initiatives appears as a promising scenario. Characterisation of the relationship between BMI and BP among the adult members of a given family merits evaluation. We conducted a secondary analysis of an implementation study in Tumbes, Peru, benefiting from data derived from families with at least one adult offspring. The exposures of interest were the BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of the mother and father. The outcomes were the BMI, SBP and DBP of the offspring. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. The mean age of the offspring, mothers and fathers was 29 (SD: 9.5), 54 (SD: 11.8) and 59 (SD: 11.6) years, respectively. Father's BMI was associated with a quarter-point increase in offspring BMI, regardless of the sex of the offspring. Mother's BMI had a similar effect on the BMI of her sons, but had no significant effect on her daughters'. Mother's SBP was associated with almost one-tenth of mmHg increase in the SBP of the adult offspring. There was no evidence of an association for DBP. In families with adult members, the higher the parents' BMI and SBP, the higher their adult offspring's levels will be. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  2. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. Phthalate exposure and high blood pressure in adults: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Shen, Ya-Xin; Li, Lin; Fan, Tong-Tong; Wang, Yan; Wei, Ning

    2018-03-27

    Widespread phthalate exposure has been recently documented and is hypothesized to increase blood pressure (BP) in humans. However, current studies have provided inconclusive evidence for an association between phthalate exposure and BP. Human epidemiologic studies on the topic remain lacking. Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between serum phthalate concentrations and BP in a Chinese population. We measured several parameters of BP (systolic BP, diastolic BP, total cholesterol, and triglyceride) and the concentrations of 16 phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis (2-methoxyethyl) phthalate, bis (4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate, bis (2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate, diamyl phthalate, dihexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis (2-nbutoxyethyl) phthalate (DBEP), dicyclohexyl phthalate, bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate, diphenyl phthalate, and di-n-octyl phthalate) in the serum of 474 adults recruited from a primary health care clinic. The relationship between serum phthalate concentrations and BP parameters was assessed with multivariate linear regressions. DBP was the most ubiquitous and dominant contaminant in the study population. The systolic BP of subjects in the median-exposure DEHP group significantly increased by 2.96 mmHg (p < 0.05) relative to that of subjects in the low-exposure group. Significant positive dose-related associations of DMP and DBEP with the levels of total cholesterol in serum (p for trend < 0.05) were also found. These associations persisted even when considering exposure to multiple phthalates. Our results suggested that phthalate exposure might increase BP in adults. However, our findings warrant further studies in a larger and more general population.

  4. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Saltzman, Edward; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2010-02-01

    In vitro studies show Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive properties. Our objective in this study was to examine the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa tisane (hibiscus tea) consumption in humans. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 65 pre- and mildly hypertensive adults, age 30-70 y, not taking blood pressure (BP)-lowering medications, with either 3 240-mL servings/d of brewed hibiscus tea or placebo beverage for 6 wk. A standardized method was used to measure BP at baseline and weekly intervals. At 6 wk, hibiscus tea lowered systolic BP (SBP) compared with placebo (-7.2 +/- 11.4 vs. -1.3 +/- 10.0 mm Hg; P = 0.030). Diastolic BP was also lower, although this change did not differ from placebo (-3.1 +/- 7.0 vs. -0.5 +/- 7.5 mm Hg; P = 0.160). The change in mean arterial pressure was of borderline significance compared with placebo (-4.5 +/- 7.7 vs. -0.8 +/- 7.4 mm Hg; P = 0.054). Participants with higher SBP at baseline showed a greater response to hibiscus treatment (r = -0.421 for SBP change; P = 0.010). No effects were observed with regard to age, gender, or dietary supplement use. These results suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers BP in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults and may prove an effective component of the dietary changes recommended for people with these conditions.

  5. Blood glucose response of normoglycemic adults fed breakfast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gift

    Effect of high fibre leguminous products in breakfast porridges, made from Afzelia Africana (AA), ... Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were taken at 30 min interval for 2 .... ml to CSS and each was cooked (stirred continuously) for 10 min to ..... prevalence of diabetes, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in.

  6. Intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins in Japanese young adults consuming a semi-purified diet for 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Nishimuta, Mamoru

    2009-12-01

    We have previously reported the levels of water-soluble vitamins in the blood and urine of Japanese young adults. In the present paper, to assess the variations in these water-soluble vitamin markers during the above experiment, we comprehensively determined the intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins to exactly the same amount of water-soluble vitamin intakes in the same experiment. The blood samples before breakfast and the 24-h urine samples were periodically collected from Japanese college male (n=10) and female (n=10) students consuming a semi-purified diet with water-soluble vitamins based on Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes for 7 d, and the intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins or their metabolites in blood and urine samples after adaptation were calculated. Although urinary excretion of vitamin B(12) and vitamin C showed high intra-individual variations in both males and females, other urinary vitamins and all blood vitamins showed less than 20% of within-subject coefficients of variance in either male or female. Those showing more than 20% of between-subject coefficients of variances in both male and female were blood vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12) and folate levels, and urinary vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(12), nicotinamide metabolites, pantothenic acid, biotin and vitamin C. These results showed that oral administration of constant of water-soluble vitamins generally decreased intra-individual variation, while individual differences in urinary vitamin excretion were observed.

  7. Gene frequencies of ABO and rhesus blood groups and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and gene frequencies of ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups and haemoglobin variants for samples of the Nigerian population at Ogbomoso was determined. Data consisting of records of blood groups and haemoglobin types of different ages ranging from infants to adults for a period of 4 to 6 years (1995 ...

  8. Relationships among Blood Pressure, Triglycerides and Verbal Learning in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition. PMID:18942281

  9. Short-Term Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Mobile Phone Jammers Decreases the Fasting Blood Sugar in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoohi Shooli, F; Mortazavi, S A R; Jarideh, S; Nematollahii, S; Yousefi, F; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Shojaei-Fard, M B

    2016-03-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) above certain levels can affect human health through triggering some biological responses. According to WHO, short-term exposure to EMF at the levels present in the home/environment do not cause any apparent detrimental effects in healthy individuals. However, now, there is a debate on whether long-term exposure to low level EMF can evoke detrimental biological responses. Although based on the Communications Act of 1934, selling, advertising, using, or importing mobile jammers which block cell phone calls and text messages are illegal acts, in some countries these devices are being used for security purpose and for prevention of cheating during examinations. In this study 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The control group received no radiation. The sham exposure group was exposed to a switched-off jammer device. After fasting for 12 hours, the exposure group was exposed to EMFs at a distance of 50 cm from the jammer. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein after 24, 48 and72 hours and fasting blood sugar was measured by using a common blood glucose monitor (BIONIME GM110, Taiwan). The significance level was considered 5% and SPSS Ver. 21 was used for statistical analysis. The data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. A statistically significant difference was observed between blood sugar level in the control and exposure groups after 24, 48 and 72 hours of continuous irradiation (p values were mobile phone jammer can reduce blood sugar level in adult male rats. These findings, in contrast with our previous results, lead us to this conclusion that the use of these signal blocking devices in very specific circumstances may have some therapeutic effects. However, further studies have to be performed to find out the exact mechanism by which Jammer EMFs reduce fasting blood sugar.

  10. Blood pressure and 10-year mortality risk in the Milan Geriatrics 75+ Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Muller, Majon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status. DESIGN: longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort. SETTING: Milan Geriatrics...... 75+ Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven outpatients aged 75 years and over. METHODS: the relations of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination......: the correlations of SBP and DBP with mortality were U-shaped. Higher SBP is related to lower mortality in subjects with impaired ADL and MMSE. ADL and MMSE may identify older subjects who benefit from higher blood pressure....

  11. Multidisciplinary leadership training for undergraduate health science students may improve Ugandan healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Najjuma

    2016-11-01

    healthcare in Uganda. Our study recommends that this leadership programme be considered for use by Ugandan medical training faculties and similar environments elsewhere.

  12. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  13. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  14. Dietary and inhalation intake of lead and estimation of blood lead levels in adults and children in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Maheshwari, Mayank; Morisawa, S

    2005-12-01

    This research was initiated to study lead levels in various food items in the city of Kanpur, India, to assess the dietary intake of lead and to estimate blood lead (PbB) levels, a biomarker of lead toxicity. For this purpose, sampling of food products, laboratory analysis, and computational exercises were undertaken. Specifically, six food groups (leafy vegetables, nonleafy vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, and milk), drinking water, and lead air concentration were considered for estimating lead intake. Results indicated highest lead content in leafy vegetables followed by pulses. Fruits showed low lead content and drinking water lead levels were always within tolerable limits. It was estimated that average daily lead intake through diet was about 114 microg/day for adults and 50 microg/day in children; tolerable limit is 250 microg/day for adults and 90 microg/day for children. The estimated lead intakes were translated into the resultant PbB concentrations for children and adults using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Monte Carlo simulation of PbB level variations for adults showed that probability of exceeding the tolerable limit of PbB (i.e.,10 microg/dL) was 0.062 for the pre-unleaded and 0.000328 for the post-unleaded gasoline period. The probability of exceeding tolerable limits in PbB level was reduced by a factor of 189 in the post-unleaded scenario. The study also suggested that in spite of the introduction of unleaded gasoline, children continue to be at a high risk (probability of exceeding 10 microg/dL = 0.39) because of a high intake of lead per unit body weight.

  15. Blood-informative transcripts define nine common axes of peripheral blood gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Preininger

    Full Text Available We describe a novel approach to capturing the covariance structure of peripheral blood gene expression that relies on the identification of highly conserved Axes of variation. Starting with a comparison of microarray transcriptome profiles for a new dataset of 189 healthy adult participants in the Emory-Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well-Being (CHDWB cohort, with a previously published study of 208 adult Moroccans, we identify nine Axes each with between 99 and 1,028 strongly co-regulated transcripts in common. Each axis is enriched for gene ontology categories related to sub-classes of blood and immune function, including T-cell and B-cell physiology and innate, adaptive, and anti-viral responses. Conservation of the Axes is demonstrated in each of five additional population-based gene expression profiling studies, one of which is robustly associated with Body Mass Index in the CHDWB as well as Finnish and Australian cohorts. Furthermore, ten tightly co-regulated genes can be used to define each Axis as "Blood Informative Transcripts" (BITs, generating scores that define an individual with respect to the represented immune activity and blood physiology. We show that environmental factors, including lifestyle differences in Morocco and infection leading to active or latent tuberculosis, significantly impact specific axes, but that there is also significant heritability for the Axis scores. In the context of personalized medicine, reanalysis of the longitudinal profile of one individual during and after infection with two respiratory viruses demonstrates that specific axes also characterize clinical incidents. This mode of analysis suggests the view that, rather than unique subsets of genes marking each class of disease, differential expression reflects movement along the major normal Axes in response to environmental and genetic stimuli.

  16. Blood-informative transcripts define nine common axes of peripheral blood gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preininger, Marcela; Arafat, Dalia; Kim, Jinhee; Nath, Artika P; Idaghdour, Youssef; Brigham, Kenneth L; Gibson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to capturing the covariance structure of peripheral blood gene expression that relies on the identification of highly conserved Axes of variation. Starting with a comparison of microarray transcriptome profiles for a new dataset of 189 healthy adult participants in the Emory-Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well-Being (CHDWB) cohort, with a previously published study of 208 adult Moroccans, we identify nine Axes each with between 99 and 1,028 strongly co-regulated transcripts in common. Each axis is enriched for gene ontology categories related to sub-classes of blood and immune function, including T-cell and B-cell physiology and innate, adaptive, and anti-viral responses. Conservation of the Axes is demonstrated in each of five additional population-based gene expression profiling studies, one of which is robustly associated with Body Mass Index in the CHDWB as well as Finnish and Australian cohorts. Furthermore, ten tightly co-regulated genes can be used to define each Axis as "Blood Informative Transcripts" (BITs), generating scores that define an individual with respect to the represented immune activity and blood physiology. We show that environmental factors, including lifestyle differences in Morocco and infection leading to active or latent tuberculosis, significantly impact specific axes, but that there is also significant heritability for the Axis scores. In the context of personalized medicine, reanalysis of the longitudinal profile of one individual during and after infection with two respiratory viruses demonstrates that specific axes also characterize clinical incidents. This mode of analysis suggests the view that, rather than unique subsets of genes marking each class of disease, differential expression reflects movement along the major normal Axes in response to environmental and genetic stimuli.

  17. Racial Differences in Abnormal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Measures: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cora E.; Diaz, Keith M.; Carson, April P.; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. METHODS We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. RESULTS Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8±3.8 years and 30.8±3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. PMID:25376639

  18. Effect of whole milk compared with skimmed milk on fasting blood lipids in healthy adults: a 3-week randomized crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Elhauge, Mie; Tholstrup, Tine

    2018-01-01

    overall dairy intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and even point to an inverse association with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to compare the effects of whole milk (3.5% fat) with skimmed milk (0.1% fat) on fasting serum blood lipids, insulin, and plasma glucose in healthy subjects. Subject....../methods A randomized, controlled 2 × 3-week crossover dietary intervention in 18 healthy adults randomly assigned to a sequence of treatments consisting of 0.5 L/d of whole milk and skimmed milk as part of their habitual diet. A total of 17 subjects completed the intervention. Results Whole milk increased HDL...... affect fasting blood lipids, glucose, or insulin compared to skimmed milk. Moreover, intake of whole milk increased HDL cholesterol concentration compared to skimmed milk. These findings suggest that if the higher energy content is taken into account, whole milk might be considered a part of a healthy diet...

  19. Short–Term Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Mobile Phone Jammers Decreases the Fasting Blood Sugar in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoohi Shooli F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF above certain levels can affect human health through triggering some biological responses. According to WHO, short-term exposure to EMF at the levels present in the home/environment do not cause any apparent detrimental effects in healthy individuals. However, now, there is a debate on whether long-term exposure to low level EMF can evoke detrimental biological responses. Although based on the Communications Act of 1934, selling, advertising, using, or importing mobile jammers which block cell phone calls and text messages are illegal acts, in some countries these devices are being used for security purpose and for prevention of cheating during examinations. Methods: In this study 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The control group received no radiation. The sham exposure group was exposed to a switched-off jammer device. After fasting for 12 hours, the exposure group was exposed to EMFs at a distance of 50 cm from the jammer. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein after 24, 48 and72 hours and fasting blood sugar was measured by using a common blood glucose monitor (BIONIME GM110, Taiwan. The significance level was considered 5% and SPSS Ver. 21 was used for statistical analysis. The data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed between blood sugar level in the control and exposure groups after 24, 48 and 72 hours of continuous irradiation (p values were <0.001, <0.001 and 0.002, respectively. No significant difference was found between the level of fasting blood sugar in control and sham groups. Conclusion: Short-term exposure to electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone jammer can reduce blood sugar level in adult male rats. These findings, in contrast with our previous results, lead us to this conclusion that the use of these signal

  20. Rural and urban Ugandan primary school children's alternative ideas about animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaala, Justine

    This study examined rural and urban Ugandan primary children's alternative ideas about animals through the use of qualitative research methods. Thirty-six children were selected from lower, middle, and upper primary grades in two primary schools (rural and urban). Data were collected using interview-about-instance technique. Children were shown 18 color photographs of instances and non-instances of familiar animals and asked to say if the photographed objects were animals or not. They were then asked to give reasons to justify their answers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The results indicate that children tended to apply the label "animal" to large mammals, usually found at home, on the farm, in the zoo, and in the wild. Humans were not categorized as animals, particularly by children in the lower grades. Although the children in upper grades correctly identified humans as animals, they used reasons that were irrelevant to animal attributes and improperly derived from the biological concept of evolution. Many attributes children used to categorize instances of animals were scientifically unacceptable and included superficial features, such as body outline, anatomical features (body parts), external features (visual cues), presence or absence and number of appendages. Movement and eating (nutrition) were the most popular attributes children used to identify instances of animals. The main differences in children's ideas emanated from the reasons used to identify animals. Older rural children drew upon their cultural and traditional practices more often than urban children. Anthropomorphic thinking was predominant among younger children in both settings, but diminished with progression in children's grade levels. Some of the implications of this study are: (1) teachers, teacher educators and curriculum developers should consider learners' ideas in planning and developing teaching materials and interventions. (2) Teachers should relate humans to other

  1. Autologous blood cell therapies from pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerke, Claudia; Daley, George Q.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) raised promises for a universal resource for cell based therapies in regenerative medicine. Recently, fast-paced progress has been made towards the generation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) amenable for clinical applications, culminating in reprogramming of adult somatic cells to autologous PSCs that can be indefinitely expanded in vitro. However, besides the efficient generation of bona fide, clinically safe PSCs (e.g. without the use of oncoproteins and gene transfer based on viruses inserting randomly into the genome), a major challenge in the field remains how to efficiently differentiate PSCs to specific lineages and how to select for cells that will function normally upon transplantation in adults. In this review, we analyse the in vitro differentiation potential of PSCs to the hematopoietic lineage discussing blood cell types that can be currently obtained, limitations in derivation of adult-type HSCs and prospects for clinical application of PSCs-derived blood cells. PMID:19910091

  2. Systolic hypertension in adult nigerians with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opadijo, O.G.; Salami, T.A.T.; Sanya, E.O.; Omotoso, A.B.O.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of both systolic and diastolic hypertensions in relation to age and their impacts on target organ among adult Nigerians with hypertension. Newly diagnosed adult hypertensives, with blood pressure 140/90mm Hg, taken twice with mercury column sphygmomanometer at 3 weeks interval, were studied. The total number of hypertensive patients treated over this period was also taken into consideration. The newly diagnosed hypertensives were classified using JNC VI classification. The frequency of occurrence of target organ damage such as Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH), heart failure, renal impairment etc. was charted according to systolic and or diastolic pressures. The occurrence of systolic or diastolic blood pressure was also related with the age of the patients. Blood metabolic parameters were compared in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures for their possible contributory role. Two thousand seven hundred and ninety-two adult hypertensive patients were managed over the study period. Of them, 218 (7.8%) were newly diagnosed and studied. There were 94 males and 124 females. Seventy-seven (35.3%) were aged 60 years and above with equal frequency in the gender. One hundred and seventy-eight (81.7%) cases had combined systolic and diastolic pressures. Twenty-nine (13.3%) patients had systolic hypertension. Twenty-five (86.2%) of these 29 were aged 50 years and above and 20 (69.0%) were aged 60 years and above. Eleven (5.0%) patients had isolated diastolic hypertension and they were all in the age bracket 40-49 years. Systolic blood pressure was found to be rising with advancing age while diastolic blood pressure peaked at mid 40's and declined. Target organ damage occurred more frequently with systolic hypertension and advancing age than with diastolic hypertension. Systolic hypertension occurred more frequently in this series of adult Nigerians with hypertension. It was higher with advancing age and associated with more target organ

  3. Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-Dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jessica D; Omer, Saad B; Guay, Laura A; Huang, Wei; Lidstrom, Jessica; Musoke, Philippa; Mmiro, Francis; Jackson, J Brooks; Eshleman, Susan H

    2008-10-01

    Single-dose nevirapine (SD NVP) at birth plus NVP prophylaxis for the infant up to 6 weeks of age is superior to SD NVP alone for prevention of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through breastfeeding. We analyzed NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants who received either SD NVP or extended NVP prophylaxis. We tested plasma HIV by using a genotyping assay (ViroSeq; Celera Diagnostics), a phenotypic resistance assay (PhenoSense; Monogram Biosciences), and sensitive point mutation assay (LigAmp, for K103N, Y181C, and G190A). When infants were 6 weeks old, ViroSeq detected NVP resistance in a higher proportion of infants in the extended NVP arm than in the SD NVP arm (21 of 25 [84%] vs. 12 of 24 [50%]; P = .01). Similar results were obtained with LigAmp and PhenoSense. In both study arms, infants who were HIV infected at birth frequently had NVP resistance detected. In contrast, infants in the extended NVP arm who were HIV infected after birth were more likely to have resistance detected at 6 weeks, compared with infants in the SD NVP arm. The use of extended NVP prophylaxis was also associated with detection of NVP resistance by ViroSeq at 6 months (7 of 7 [100%] infants in the extended NVP arm had resistance detected, compared with 1 of 6 [16.7%] infants in the SD NVP arm; P = .005). The use of extended NVP prophylaxis was associated with increased selection for and persistence of NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants.

  4. Blood lipid of preadolescent boys of well-to-do families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzief Munir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease is presently one of the leading causes of death In adults in many countries, including in Indonesia. It is well known that elevated levels of cholesterol in children are closely associated with hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease in adult life. This study was conducted in an attempt to find a preliminary insight of the magnitude of the problem of hypercholesterolemia In children In Indonesia as a developing country. The blood lipid levels of 54 preadolescent boys from well-Io-do families were analyzed. Two-third of those children were shown to have elevated blood cholesterol level, and even one third or 16 out of 54 preadolescents boys investigated suffered from hypercholesterolemia. We conclude that elevated blood cholesterol level is frequently found among large-framed and obese Indonesian children.

  5. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pmercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  6. Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake is Not Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure in US Adults with No Prior History of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailendra; McFann, Kim; Chonchol, Michel; Kendrick, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with elevated blood pressure (BP) levels is unclear. We examined the association between dietary sodium and potassium intake and BP levels in 6985 adults 18 years of age or older with no prior history of hypertension who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2006). After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes and eGFR, there was no association between higher quartiles of sodium or potassium intake with the risk of a BP >140/90 mmHg or >130/80 mmHg. There was also no relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with BP when systolic and diastolic BP were measured as continuous outcomes (p=0.68 and p=0.74, respectively). Furthermore, no association was found between combinations of sodium and potassium intake with elevated BP. In the US adult population without hypertension, increased dietary sodium or low potassium intake was not associated with elevated BP levels. PMID:24720647

  7. Breaching cultural silence: enhancing resilience among Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural silence is frequently the outcome of deep-seated taboos regarding adults talking to children about sex and death. This paper examines the impact of cultural silence on the resilience of children orphaned by AIDS in Uganda. Cultural silence is often linked with denial. This article explores the complexities of cultural ...

  8. Inverse relationship between fat intake and blood lead levels in the Korean adult population in the KNHANES 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-07-15

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) in the Korean adult population are about twofold higher than those in the US adult population, which may be related to nutrient intake. We examined which nutritional factors might be associated with decreased BLL. This study was based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data obtained over 3 years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population of South Korea. A multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates indicated that dietary fat and protein were significant opposite predictors of BLL in five different models; fat and protein intake had negative and positive associations with BLL, respectively. Covariates used in the analysis were sex, age, regional area, education level, smoking and drinking status, hypertension, use of antihypertensive drugs, diabetes, use of antidiabetic drugs, use of cholesterol-lowering drugs, hemoglobin level, and exposure to chemical substances during daily life. Intake levels of other nutrients, such as dietary fiber, carbohydrates, and calcium, did not show any significant effect on BLL. Gender was also an important predictor: BLL was significantly higher in men than women. However, total femur T-score, which represents bone mass, was unaffected by BLL. When calculating adjusted predicted marginal values of blood lead according to dietary fat percentage, BLL was lower by 5.3% and 8.0% in men when fat intake was increased from 10% to 20% and 25%, respectively. This effect of fat intake on BLL was minimal in women. The accumulation of body stores of lead from lead exposure may be reduced by increasing dietary fat consumption to 25% of energy intake, especially in men. However, this must be weighed against possible cardiovascular risks of higher fat diets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood-brain barrier and cerebral blood flow: Age differences in hemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya Oxana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal stroke is similar to the stroke that occurs in adults and produces a significant morbidity and long-term neurologic and cognitive deficits. There are important differences in the factors, clinical events and outcomes associated with the stroke in infants and adults. However, mechanisms underlying age differences in the stroke development remain largely unknown. Therefore, treatment guidelines for neonatal stroke must extrapolate from the adult data that is often not suitable for children. The new information about differences between neonatal and adult stroke is essential for identification of significant areas for future treatment and effective prevention of neonatal stroke. Here, we studied the development of stress-induced hemorrhagic stroke and possible mechanisms underlying these processes in newborn and adult rats. Using histological methods and magnetic resonance imaging, we found age differences in the type of intracranial hemorrhages. Newborn rats demonstrated small superficial bleedings in the cortex while adult rats had more severe deep bleedings in the cerebellum. Using Doppler optical coherent tomography, we found higher stress-reactivity of the sagittal sinus to deleterious effects of stress in newborn vs. adult rats suggesting that the cerebral veins are more vulnerable to negative stress factors in neonatal vs. adult brain in rats. However, adult but not newborn rats demonstrated the stroke-induced breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB permeability. The one of possible mechanisms underlying the higher resistance to stress-related stroke injures of cerebral vessels in newborn rats compared with adult animals is the greater expression of two main tight junction proteins of BBB (occludin and claudin-5 in neonatal vs. mature brain in rats.

  10. Banking on cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood gifted to non-profit public cord blood banks is now routinely used as an alternative source of haematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation for children and adults with cancer, bone marrow failure syndromes, haemoglobinopathies and many genetic metabolic disorders. Because of the success and outcomes of public cord banking, many companies now provide private cord banking services. However, in the absence of any published transplant evidence to support autologous and non-directed family banking, commercial cord banks currently offer a superfluous service.

  11. 'As a man I felt small': a qualitative study of Ugandan men's experiences of living with a wife suffering from obstetric fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barageine, Justus Kafunjo; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The effects of obstetric fistula surpass the individual woman and affect husbands, relatives, peers and the community at large. Few studies have documented the experiences of men who live with wives suffering from fistula. In this study, our objective was to understand how fistula affects these men's lives. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with men in central and western Uganda. We used thematic narrative analysis and discuss our findings based on Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinity. Findings show that the men's experiences conflicted with Ugandan norms of hegemonic masculinity. However, men had to find other ways of explaining their identity, such as portraying themselves as small men but still be responsible, caring husbands and fathers. The few individuals who married a second wife remained married to the wife with the fistula. These men viewed marriage as a lifetime promise before God and a responsibility that should not end because of a fistula. Poverty, love, care for children and social norms in a patriarchal society compelled the men to persevere in their relationship amidst many challenges.

  12. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  13. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  14. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  15. Prescription patterns and adequacy of blood pressure control among adult hypertensive patients in Kenya; findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbui, Jennifer M; Oluka, Margaret N; Guantai, Eric M; Sinei, Kipruto A; Achieng, Loice; Baker, Amanj; Jande, Mary; Massele, Amos; Godman, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with high prevalence rates in Africa including Kenya. Consequently, it is imperative to understand current treatment approaches and their effectiveness in practice. Currently, there is paucity of such data in Kenya, which is a concern. The aim is to describe prescribing patterns and adequacy of blood pressure (BP) control in adult hypertensive patients to guide future practice. Retrospective study of patients attending a sub-county outpatient clinic combined with qualitative interviews. 247 hypertensive patients, predominantly female, mean age 55.8 years on antihypertensive therapy for 1-5 years, were analyzed. ACEIs and thiazide diuretics were the most commonly prescribed drugs, mainly as combination therapy. Treatment typically complied with guidelines, mainly for stage 2 hypertension (75%). BP control was observed in 46% of patients, with a significant reduction in mean systolic (155 to 144 mmHg) and diastolic (91 to 83 mmHg) BP (P < 0.001). Patients on ≥2 antihypertensive drugs were more likely to have uncontrolled BP (OR:1.9, p = 0.021). Encouragingly good adherence to guidelines was helped by training. Poor blood pressure control in the majority needs to be addressed. Additional training of prescribers and follow-up of measures to improve BP control will be introduced and followed up.

  16. Influence of 90Sr, adult thymectomy and antilymphocyteglobulin on haematopoietic tissues and peripheral blood leucocytes in CBA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierke, P.

    1986-01-01

    The role or long-time immune suppression in carcinogenesis induced by the long-lived internal emitter 90 Sr, is investigated in an ongoing study. The experimental design is based on the assumption that impaired immune responsiveness, by other means than 90 Sr, might increase the neoplastic response in exposed individuals, and thus reflect a protective function, if existing. Intercomparison is made of the tumour yield in mice exposed to different single doses of 90 Sr and simultaneously subjected or not to long-term immune suppression by adult thymectomy (ATx) and/or antilymphocyteglobulin (ALG) treatment. Information on the general condition and responsiveness of the immune system, in the respective models, during tumour expectancy time, is essential for a conclusive evaluation of the results. To meet theses demands the present paper reports on histopathologic alternations in immune organs and changes in white blood cell counts, induced by the different combinations of 90 Sr, ATx + ALG treatment. The results confirm the prediction, that ATx + ALG is an efficient and, with respect to the purpose of the study, suitable treatment for additive long-term depression of the immune system in 90 Sr irradiated mice, evidenced in particular by increased depletion of monomorphonuclear cells (MNC) in lymphoid organs and peripheral blood. Subsequent reports will deal with functional immune parameters. (orig.)

  17. Is the blood pressure of people from African origin adults in the UK higher or lower than that in European origin white people? A review of cross-sectional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure (BP) levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher in adult populations of African descent living in the UK as compared to the white population. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  18. Validation of the HONSUN LD-578 blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jie; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 (HONSUN Group, Shanghai, China) for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the LD-578 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was performed using the ESHIP Analyzer. The LD-578 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 32 of 45, 41 of 45, and 45 of 45 measurements (required 25, 35, and 40), respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 67 of 99, 90 of 99, and 98 of 99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and with 69 of 99, 95 of 99, and 98 of 99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 24 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required >or=22) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The HONSUN upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 can be recommended for home use in adults.

  19. Implications of the Eighth Joint National Committee Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure for Aging Adults: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Michael D; Lopez, Faye L; Blaha, Michael J; Virani, Salim S; Coresh, Josef; Ballantyne, Christie M; Folsom, Aaron R

    2015-09-01

    The recent 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Eight Joint National Committee Panel may significantly affect the aging US population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of black and white participants in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities who participated in the fifth study visit (2011-2013). Sitting blood pressure was calculated from the average of 3 successive readings taken after a 5-minute rest. Currently, prescribed antihypertensive medications were recorded by reviewing medication containers brought to the visit. Blood pressure control was defined using both the Seventh and Eighth Joint National Committee thresholds. Of 6088 participants (mean age, 75.6 [range, 66-90] years, 58.4% women; 23.2% black), 54.9% had either diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of hypertension according to Seventh Joint National Committee thresholds was 81.9%, and 62.8% of the entire sample were at blood pressure goal. Using the Eighth Joint National Committee thresholds, 79.4% were at blood pressure goal (16.6% were reclassified as at-goal). Reclassification was higher for individuals with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (20.6%) when compared with individuals without either condition (11.6%). The use of antihypertensive medications in our cohort was high, with 75.0% prescribed at least 1 antihypertensive medication and 46.7% on ≥2 antihypertensive agents. In conclusion, in a US cohort of aging white and black individuals, ≈1 in 6 individuals were reclassified as having blood pressure at goal by Eighth Joint National Committee guidelines. Despite these less aggressive goals, >20% remain uncontrolled by the new criteria. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Childhood obesity affects adult metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.

  1. HEMOGLOBIN A1C, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND LDL-CHOLESTEROL CONTROL AMONG HISPANIC/LATINO ADULTS WITH DIABETES: RESULTS FROM THE HISPANIC COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDY/STUDY OF LATINOS (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Corsino, Leonor; Daviglus, Martha L; Gallo, Linda C; Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca A; Llabre, Maria M; Reina, Samantha A; Savage, Peter J; Schneiderman, Neil; Talavera, Gregory A; Cowie, Catherine C

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes who meet target hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) recommendations, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and statin medication use by heritage and sociodemographic and diabetes-related characteristics. Data were cross-sectional, collected between 2008 and 2011, and included adults age 18 to 74 years who reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (N = 2,148). Chi-square tests compared the prevalence of hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C targets and ACE/ARB and statin use across participant characteristics. Predictive margins regression was used to determine the prevalence adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The overall prevalence of A1c Latinos with diabetes living in the U.S. With 8.4% meeting all three recommendations, substantial opportunity exists to improve diabetes control in this population. A1c = hemoglobin A1c; ABC = hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ADA = American Diabetes Association; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CHD = coronary heart disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HCHS/SOL = Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos; LDL-C = low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; PAD = peripheral artery disease.

  2. Validation of the Rossmax CF175 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Rossmax CF175 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (17 women, mean age 46 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the Rossmax CF175 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The Rossmax CF175 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 78/99, 94/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 81/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-nine participants, for both of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). Only one participant for diastolic blood pressure had all three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The Rossmax automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor CF175 fulfilled the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement in adults.

  3. Pharmacological Modulation of Hemodynamics in Adult Zebrafish In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brönnimann

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic parameters in zebrafish receive increasing attention because of their important role in cardiovascular processes such as atherosclerosis, hematopoiesis, sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. To study underlying mechanisms, the precise modulation of parameters like blood flow velocity or shear stress is centrally important. Questions related to blood flow have been addressed in the past in either embryonic or ex vivo-zebrafish models but little information is available for adult animals. Here we describe a pharmacological approach to modulate cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish in vivo.Adult zebrafish were paralyzed and orally perfused with salt water. The drugs isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside were directly applied with the perfusate, thus closely resembling the preferred method for drug delivery in zebrafish, namely within the water. Drug effects on the heart and on blood flow in the submental vein were studied using electrocardiograms, in vivo-microscopy and mathematical flow simulations.Under control conditions, heart rate, blood flow velocity and shear stress varied less than ± 5%. Maximal chronotropic effects of isoprenaline were achieved at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, where it increased the heart rate by 22.6 ± 1.3% (n = 4; p < 0.0001. Blood flow velocity and shear stress in the submental vein were not significantly increased. Sodium nitroprusside at 1 mmol/L did not alter the heart rate but increased blood flow velocity by 110.46 ± 19.64% (p = 0.01 and shear stress by 117.96 ± 23.65% (n = 9; p = 0.03.In this study, we demonstrate that cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish can be efficiently modulated by isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside. Together with the suitability of the zebrafish for in vivo-microscopy and genetic modifications, the methodology described permits studying biological processes that are dependent on hemodynamic alterations.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow characteristics of the Sturge-Weber syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riela, A.R.; Stump, D.A.; Roach, E.S.; McLean, W.T. Jr.; Garcia, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients with the Sturge-Weber syndrome were studied using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. All four patients had decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the area of their lesion, and in two patients who were subsequently tested with 5% carbon dioxide inhalation, impaired vasomotor reactivity was documented. Diminished regional cerebral blood flow is consistent with previously described nuclide flow studies which demonstrated a delay in the initial perfusion blush in the region of the abnormal vasculature. The focal decrease in blood flow was greatest in the most severely affected patient, but was also prominent in the two younger patients, both of whom have excellent neurologic function. These studies suggest that localized decrease in blood flow and vasomotor dysfunction in Sturge-Weber syndrome can precede the occurrence of severe neurologic impairment and extensive cerebral atrophy and possibly be a major contributing factor in progressive dysfunction. A secondary observation was that the blood flow in the unaffected hemisphere was significantly greater in two children compared to the two adults and was similar to the age-related differences reported for normal children and adults

  5. Validation of the SEJOY BP-1307 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Yi; Chen, Qi; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor SEJOY BP-1307 (also called JOYTECH DBP-1307) for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese individuals (13 women, 45.1 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the SEJOY BP-1307 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The average±SD of the device-observer differences was 0.2±4.1 and -1.7±4.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The SEJOY BP-1307 device achieved the criteria in both part 1 and part 2 of the validation study. The SEJOY upper-arm blood pressure monitor BP-1307 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  6. The impact of arm circumference on noninvasive oscillometric blood pressure referenced with intra-aortic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Qing; Wu, Yanqing; Xu, Jinsong; Su, Hai; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the influence of arm circumference (AC) on the brachial blood pressure (BP) measured with an adult cuff. This study included 208 patients (150 men, 61.0±8.0 years) for coronary angiography. Intra-aortic BP and noninvasive right brachial oscillometric BP (noninvasive BP) were measured simultaneously before coronary angiography. The noninvasive BP was measured using an electronic oscillometric device with an adult cuff (12×22 cm). The mid-ACs were measured. Thus, proper cuff-arm (≤26 cm) and small cuff (>26 cm) groups were created. The difference in intra-aortic and noninvasive BP was calculated as BPi-n. The correlation coefficients (r) between noninvasive and invasive systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean artery pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 0.88, 0.76, and 0.58, respectively. The SBPi-n was higher (7.9±1.6 vs. 5.2±1.1 mmHg), but the DBPi-n (3.9±1.4 vs. 6.1±1.0 mmHg, P26 cm. Among the four subgroups divided by 20-23, 24-26, 27-30, and 31-37 cm of AC, as the AC increased, the SBPi-n increased, but DBP decreased, resulting in noninvasive SBP 4.6 mmHg higher and noninvasive DBP 4.6 mmHg lower in the 31-37 cm group in comparison with the 20-23 cm group. When an adult cuff was used, the noninvasive oscillometric SBP was overestimated, but DBP was underestimated in the individuals with large arms against the intra-aortic BP.

  7. Optimization of sugar and blood feeding regimen in Anopheles gambiae mass production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedofia, B. K

    2013-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is being developed for the control of malaria transmitting mosquitoes. Critical to the success of applying the SIT is the establishment of standardized mass production systems for the target species. As part of efforts to develop standardised mass production systems for malaria vectors, this project sought to optimize adult blood and sugar feeding in a mass production system. Different sugar types (glucose, sucrose and honey) were evaluated at 6% and 10% concentrations in water to determine the best sugar diet and concentration for feeding adult An. gambiae. Different blood feeding methods, restrained Guinea pig, anaesthetised Guinea pig and human arm feeding were evaluated. Adult survival, female insemination and egg production were used as criteria to determine optimum sugar and blood feeding. The effect of anaesthetics on blood feeding response and egg production of female An. gambiae was determined by comparing feeding response and egg production of females fed with anaesthetised Guinea pigs as against physically restrained Guinea pigs (Control). The specific effect of different anaesthetic agents on blood feeding response and egg production of female mosquitoes were was also determined by comparing the feeding response and egg production of females fed with either Ketamine/Xylazine anaesthetised Guinea pigs or Ketamine/Diazepam anaesthetised Guinea pigs. Effects due to sugar types and concentrations on percentage survival of male and female mosquitoes were observed to be significant at (p 0.05). However, human ann feeding (HAP) method and Ketamine/Xylazine (KX) anaesthetics fed for 25 minutes recorded higher percentage feeding (76.0% and 68.0% respectively) and egg production of 19.0% and 20.8% respectively. Anaesthetised Guinea pig feeding (AGF) of adults for 15 minutes followed closely with 60.0% and 15.1% blood feeding and egg production respectively whilst restrained Guinea pig feeding (RGF) method and Ketamine

  8. Blood and urinary levels of metals and metalloids in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE study, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisse, Catherine; Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Howsam, Mike; Richeval, Camille; Labat, Laurence; Leroyer, Ariane

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of human chemical risks related to occupational or environmental exposure to pollutants requires the use of both accurate exposure indicators and reference values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the blood and urinary levels of various metals and metalloids in a sample of adults aged 20-59 years of the general population of Northern France, a formerly heavily industrialised area that retains some industrial activity. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2008 and 2010, enrolling 2000 residents of Northern France. The quota method was used to guarantee the representativeness of the participants on a sex, age, social category and smoking status basis, according to the census done by the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. The levels of 14 metals: aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), total arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were quantified by ICP-MS in urine and blood samples. A total of 982 men and 1018 women participated, allowing the analysis of 1992 blood and 1910 urine samples. Some metal(loid)s were detected in over 99% of the blood (Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb) and urine (As, Co, Pb, Zn) samples and the remaining metals in 84-99% of the samples, with the exception of blood V (19%), blood Be (57%) and urine Be (58%). Mean blood levels of Pb and Zn were significantly higher in men, and Mn, Co and Cr in women. In urine, mean Pb, Tl and Sb concentrations were significantly higher in men, and Al and Co in women. Current smokers had significantly higher mean levels of blood Cd and Pb and lower blood Co, Mn and Hg. In urine (adjusted on urinary creatinine), the smokers had higher mean levels of Cd, Pb, V and Zn and lower mean levels of As, Co, and Hg. Overall, the mean urinary levels of most metal(loid)s found in the general population of Northern France were higher than those found in the

  9. Elevated preoperative blood pressures in adult surgical patients are highly predictive of elevated home blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Zafar, Jill; Chen, Eric; Kigwana, Simon; Monteiro, Miriam M; Charchaflieh, Jean; Sophanphattana, Sophisa; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement during the presurgical assessment has been suggested as a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. The relationship between BP measured during this assessment and home blood pressure (HBP), a better indicator of hypertension, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the positive predictive value of presurgical BP for predicting elevated HBP. We prospectively enrolled 200 patients at a presurgical evaluation clinic with clinic blood pressures (CBPs) ≥130/85 mm Hg, as measured using a previously validated automated upper-arm device (Welch Allyn Vital Sign Monitor 6000 Series), to undergo daily HBP monitoring (Omron Model BP742N) between the index clinic visit and their day of surgery. Elevated HBP was defined, per American Heart Association guidelines, as mean systolic HBP ≥135 mm Hg or mean diastolic HBP ≥85 mm Hg. Of the 200 participants, 188 (94%) returned their home blood pressure monitors with valid data. The median number of HBP recordings was 10 (interquartile range, 7-14). Presurgical CBP thresholds of 140/90, 150/95, and 160/100 mm Hg yielded positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) for elevated HBP of 84.1% (0.78-0.89), 87.5% (0.81-0.92), and 94.6% (0.87-0.99), respectively. In contrast, self-reported BP control, antihypertensive treatment, availability of primary care, and preoperative pain scores demonstrated poor agreement with elevated HBP. Elevated preoperative CBP is highly predictive of longitudinally elevated HBP. BP measurement during presurgical assessment may provide a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and office blood pressure measurements in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2018-04-01

    Obesity in adults has been related to hypertension and abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure, which are associated with poor cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Here, we aimed to resolve the relationship between the degree of obesity, the severity of hypertension and dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children. A total 72 patients with primary obesity aged 7 to 18 years (mean: 13.48 ± 3.25) were selected. Patients were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMİ) Z-score. Diagnosis and staging of ambulatory hypertension based on 24-h blood pressure measurements, obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Based on our ambulatory blood pressure data, 35 patients (48.6%) had hypertension, 7 (20%) had ambulatory prehypertension, 21 (60%) had hypertension, and 7 patients (20%) had severe ambulatory hypertension. There was a significant relationship between severity of hypertension and the degree of obesity (p lood pressure results and loads were similar between groups. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels during the night, diastolic blood pressure loads, and heart rate during the day were significantly higher in Group 3 (p lood pressure at night, mean arterial pressure at night, diastolic blood pressure loads and heart rate at day. Increase in BMI Z-score does not a significant impact on daytime blood pressure and nocturnal dipping status.

  11. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Islam, Mohammad Zahirul; Chu, Cordia

    2016-01-01

    More than 35 million people in coastal Bangladesh are vulnerable to increasing freshwater salinization. This will continue to affect more people and to a greater extent as climate change projections are realised in this area in the future. However the evidence for health effects of consuming high salinity water is limited. This research examined the association between drinking water salinity and blood pressure in young adults in coastal Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study during May-June 2014 in a rural coastal sub-district of Bangladesh. Data on blood pressure (BP) and salinity of potable water sources was collected from 253 participants aged 19–25 years. A linear regression method was used to examine the association between water salinity exposure categories and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level. Sixty five percent of the study population were exposed to highly saline drinking water above the Bangladesh standard (600 mg/L and above). Multivariable linear regression analyses identified that compared to the low water salinity exposure category (<600 mg/L), those in the high water salinity category (>600 mg/L), had statistically significantly higher SBP (B 3.46, 95% CI 0.75, 6.17; p = 0.01) and DBP (B 2.77, 95% CI 0.31, 5.24; p = 0.03). Our research shows that elevated salinity in drinking water is associated with higher BP in young coastal populations. Blood pressure is an important risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the extent of salinization of freshwater in many low-lying countries including in Bangladesh, and the likely exacerbation related to climate change-induced sea level rise, implementation of preventative strategies through dietary interventions along with promotion of low saline drinking water must be a priority in these settings. - Highlights: • Freshwater salinization will affect more people and to a greater extent as climate projections are realised in low-lying regions of the world.

  12. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    -based biomarkers. Linear regression analyses before and after multivariable adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, depressive symptoms, health-related behaviours, and chronic conditions showed that work stress was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, alanine transaminase, white......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the relationship between myocardial function and cerebral blood flow in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expectations and needs of Ugandan women for improved quality of childbirth care in health facilities: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaddondo, David; Mugerwa, Kidza; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Bohren, Meghan A

    2017-12-01

    To describe the experiences, expectations, and needs of urban Ugandan women in relation to good-quality facility childbirth. Women who had given birth in the 12 months prior to the study were purposively sampled and interviewed, or included in focus groups. Thematic analysis was used, and the data were interpreted within the context of an existing quality of care framework. Forty-five in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted. Respect and dignity, timely communication, competent skilled staff, and availability of medical supplies were central to women's accounts of quality care, or a lack of it. The hope for a live baby motivated women to seek facility-based childbirth. They expected to encounter competent, respectful, and caring staff with appropriate skills. In some cases, they could only fulfill these expectations through additional personal financial payments to staff, for clinical supplies, or to guarantee that they would be attended by someone with suitable skills. Long-term improvement in quality of maternity care in Uganda requires enhancement of the interaction between women and health staff in facilities, and investment in staff and resources to ensure that safe, respectful care is not dependent on willingness and/or capacity to pay. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  15. Effects of isoflavone-containing soya protein on ex vivo cholesterol efflux, vascular function and blood markers of CVD risk in adults with moderately elevated blood pressure: a dose-response randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Fleming, Jennifer A; Link, Christina J; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-05-01

    Emerging CVD risk factors (e.g. HDL function and central haemodynamics) may account for residual CVD risk experienced by individuals who meet LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) targets. Recent evidence suggests that these emerging risk factors can be modified by polyphenol-rich interventions such as soya, but additional research is needed. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an isoflavone-containing soya protein isolate (delivering 25 and 50 g/d soya protein) on HDL function (i.e. ex vivo cholesterol efflux), macrovascular function and blood markers of CVD risk. Middle-aged adults (n 20; mean age=51·6 (sem 6·6) years) with moderately elevated brachial BP (mean systolic BP=129 (sem 9) mmHg; mean diastolic BP=82·5 (sem 8·4) mmHg) consumed 0 (control), 25 and 50 g/d soya protein in a randomised cross-over design. Soya and control powders were consumed for 6 weeks each with a 2-week compliance break between treatment periods. Blood samples and vascular function measures were obtained at baseline and following each supplementation period. Supplementation with 50 g/d soya protein significantly reduced brachial diastolic BP (-2·3 mmHg) compared with 25 g/d soya protein (Tukey-adjusted P=0·03) but not the control. Soya supplementation did not improve ex vivo cholesterol efflux, macrovascular function or other blood markers of CVD risk compared with the carbohydrate-matched control. Additional research is needed to clarify whether effects on these CVD risk factors depend on the relative health of participants and/or equol producing capacity.

  16. Cord Blood Angiogenic Profile in Normotensive Pregnancies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... favorable anti- to pro-angiogenic balance in pregnant women. ... tweak,and build upon the work non-commercially,as long as the author is credited and the new ..... utero blood pressure in childhood and adult life and mortality.

  17. Speech characteristics in a Ugandan child with a rare paramedian craniofacial cleft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Bettens, K; Luyten, A; De Ley, S; Tungotyo, M; Balumukad, D; Galiwango, G; Bauters, W; Vermeersch, H; Hodges, A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the speech characteristics in an English-speaking Ugandan boy of 4.5 years who has a rare paramedian craniofacial cleft (unilateral lip, alveolar, palatal, nasal and maxillary cleft, and associated hypertelorism). Closure of the lip together with the closure of the hard and soft palate (one-stage palatal closure) was performed at the age of 5 months. Objective as well as subjective speech assessment techniques were used. The speech samples were perceptually judged for articulation, intelligibility and nasality. The Nasometer was used for the objective measurement of the nasalance values. The most striking communication problems in this child with the rare craniofacial cleft are an incomplete phonetic inventory, a severely impaired speech intelligibility with the presence of very severe hypernasality, mild nasal emission, phonetic disorders (omission of several consonants, decreased intraoral pressure in explosives, insufficient frication of fricatives and the use of a middorsum palatal stop) and phonological disorders (deletion of initial and final consonants and consonant clusters). The increased objective nasalance values are in agreement with the presence of the audible nasality disorders. The results revealed that several phonetic and phonological articulation disorders together with a decreased speech intelligibility and resonance disorders are present in the child with a rare craniofacial cleft. To what extent a secondary surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency, combined with speech therapy, will improve speech intelligibility, articulation and resonance characteristics is a subject for further research. The results of such analyses may ultimately serve as a starting point for specific surgical and logopedic treatment that addresses the specific needs of children with rare facial clefts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of High Dose Cholecalciferol on Arterial Stiffness and Peripheral and Central Blood Pressure in Healthy Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Iain; Brandi, Lisbet; Schou, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and central blood pressure and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. RESULTS: 22 subjects in the cholecalciferol arm and 18 subjects in the placebo arm completed the 16 weeks of follow-up. There was no difference in changes in PWV, AIx corrected for heart rate or central or peripheral blood pressure between...... and blood pressure in healthy normotensive adults. METHODS: 40 healthy adults were randomised in this double-blinded study to either oral cholecalciferol 3000 IU/day or matching placebo and were followed for 16 weeks to examine any effects on pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), peripheral...... the two groups. There was no correlation between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and any of these parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Oral cholecalciferol 3000 IU/day does not affect arterial stiffness or blood pressure after 16 weeks of treatment in healthy normotensive adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT...

  19. Identification of dietary patterns associated with blood pressure in a sample of overweight Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, S; Charlton, K E; Tapsell, L C; Probst, Y; Ndanuko, R; Batterham, M J

    2016-11-01

    The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet provides strong evidence for an optimal dietary pattern for blood pressure (BP) control; however, investigation at the level of key foods in a dietary pattern is sparse. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary patterns driven by key foods with BP in a sample of obese Australian adults. Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data of 118 participants (45.1±8.4 years, mean BP=124.1±15.8/72.6±9.2 mm Hg) recruited in a weight reduction randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12608000425392). Dietary assessment was by a validated diet history interview. The average of three office BP measurements was taken. Factor analysis extracted dietary patterns and their relation to systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) was analysed using multiple linear regression. Eight dietary patterns were identified based on leading foods: meat and alcohol; seafood; fats; fruits and nuts; legumes; confectionery; sweet foods; and yeast extracts and seasonings. A lower SBP was associated with alignment with the fruit and nuts pattern (β=-4.1 (95% confidence interval -7.5 to -0.7) mm Hg) and with seafood for DBP (β=-2.4 (-4.6 to -0.3) mm Hg). SBP and DBP were higher with yeast extract and seasonings (β=4.3 (1.4-7.3); 2.5 (0.9-4.0) mm Hg, respectively). In obese adults attending for weight loss, dietary patterns that included larger amounts of fruits and nuts and/or seafood were associated with lower BP at baseline, whereas patterns that were characterised by yeast extract and seasonings were associated with higher BP.

  20. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  1. Validation of the Kingyield BP210 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension-International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2012-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor BP210 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese participants (21 women, 51 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the BP210 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was conducted using the ESHIP analyzer. The BP210 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 33/45, 44/45, and 44/45 measurements, respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 77/99, 95/99, and 97/99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively for systolic blood pressure, and with 78/99, 97/99, and 99/99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 29 and 25 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required≥22) for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The Kingyield wrist blood pressure monitor BP210 has passed the International Protocol requirements, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  2. Age-dependence of local cerebral blood flow - investigations of 4 to 15 years old children and adults with Tc-99m-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.; Wiener, M.; Dannenberg, C.; Sattler, B.; Martin, W.G.; Knapp, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: This present study deals with the question whether normal distribution of local cerebral blood flow (ICBF) agents in adults can be transferred to the age group of 4 to 15 years old children. Methods: 23 children (age: 4-15 years, mean 11±3 y) (group I) and 10 adults (age: 27-56 years, mean 45±10 y) (group II) without evidence of cerebrovascular disease or other brain diseases underwent Tc-99m-ECD-SPECT imaging. Counts in the cortical ROIs were related to those of cerebellar ROIs (=100%). Results: In group I, relative cortical activity exceeded that of group II, particularly in parietal (107.6±9.8 vs. 84.1±12.4%), frontal (97.7±6.7 vs. 79.4±8.9%), left temporal areas (99.7±7.4 vs. 84.9±10.1%) and in the cingular cortex (112.1±9.1 vs. 95.9±10.1%, p [de

  3. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirenga, Bruce J; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-07-15

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja). PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3) and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3) but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3). In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  4. Electrocardiographic and Blood Pressure Alterations During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Demetrio Ortega

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To study cardiovascular alterations in young patients with no apparent organic disease who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. METHODS - The study comprised 47 healthy patients (22 males and 25 females with a mean age of 30.3 years, who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitor were performed during 24 hours. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed 4 hours prior to electric shock administration, during electric shock administration, and 3 hours after electric shock administration. Arrhythmias and alterations in the ST segment in 24 hours were recorded. RESULTS - On electroconvulsive therapy, a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate was observed and the measurements returned to basal values after 25 minutes. Three females had tracings with depression of the ST segment suggesting myocardial ischemia prior to and after electroconvulsive therapy. Coronary angiography was normal. No severe cardiac arrhythmias were diagnosed. CONCLUSION - 1 Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe therapeutic modality in psychiatry; 2 it causes a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate; 3 it may be associated with myocardial ischemia in the absence of coronary obstructive disease; 4 electroconvulsive therapy was not associated with the occurrence of severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Wang, Chunrong; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Cai, Jenny; Kurilich, Anne

    2012-08-06

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in China and worldwide. Whole grain oats can reduce risk of CVD by reducing total and LDL-cholesterol, major risk factors for CVD. While this association has been established in many populations, data from Asian populations is limited. Thus, this study investigated the impact of oat consumption on cholesterol levels in Chinese adults. Male and female data from this work were previously published separately in mandarin in two Chinese journals. The combined male and female data were reanalyzed and are presented here. A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted at Beijing Hospital, Beijing china. Subjects were adults (men and women) with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. The oat group (n=85) consumed 100 grams of instant oat cereal versus the control group (n=81) who consumed 100 grams of wheat flour-based noodles daily for 6 weeks. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the 6-week intervention. Dietary fiber intake increased significantly in the oat group compared to the control group at the end of the 6-week intervention. Total-, LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference decreased significantly in the oat group compared to the control. HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group versus the oat group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, other anthropometric or laboratory measures between the two groups at the end of the intervention. Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Increased consumption of whole grains, including oats, should continue to be encouraged.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in China and worldwide. Whole grain oats can reduce risk of CVD by reducing total and LDL-cholesterol, major risk factors for CVD. While this association has been established in many populations, data from Asian populations is limited. Thus, this study investigated the impact of oat consumption on cholesterol levels in Chinese adults. Male and female data from this work were previously published separately in mandarin in two Chinese journals. The combined male and female data were reanalyzed and are presented here. Methods A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted at Beijing Hospital, Beijing china. Subjects were adults (men and women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. The oat group (n=85 consumed 100grams of instant oat cereal versus the control group (n=81 who consumed 100grams of wheat flour-based noodles daily for 6weeks. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the 6-week intervention. Results Dietary fiber intake increased significantly in the oat group compared to the control group at the end of the 6-week intervention. Total-, LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference decreased significantly in the oat group compared to the control. HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group versus the oat group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, other anthropometric or laboratory measures between the two groups at the end of the intervention. Conclusions Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Increased consumption of whole grains, including oats, should continue to be encouraged.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age...... and accrued $155 261 in lifetime costs, while intensive management yielded 10.5 QALYs and accrued $176 584 in costs. Intensive blood pressure management cost $23 777 per QALY gained. In a sensitivity analysis, serious adverse events would need to occur at 3 times the rate observed in SPRINT and be 3 times...

  8. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya; Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe; Lu, Hanzhang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui; Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-01-01

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO 2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min -1 100 g -1 , P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO 2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O 2 min -1 100 g -1 , P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO 2 . Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO 2 . There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO 2 . Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  9. Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult blood pressure in 5 low- and middle-income-country cohorts: when does weight gain matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Hallal, Pedro C; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Wills, Andrew K; Norris, Shane A; Dahly, Darren L; Lee, Nanette R; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-05-01

    Promoting catch-up growth in malnourished children has health benefits, but recent evidence suggests that accelerated child weight gain increases adult chronic disease risk. We aimed to determine how birth weight (BW) and weight gain to midchildhood relate to blood pressure (BP) in young adults. We pooled data from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We used conditional weight (CW), a residual of current weight regressed on prior weights, to represent deviations from expected weight gain from 0 to 12, 12 to 24, 24 to 48 mo, and 48 mo to adulthood. Adult BP and risk of prehypertension or hypertension (P/HTN) were modeled before and after adjustment for adult body mass index (BMI) and height. Interactions of CWs with small size-for-gestational age (SGA) at birth were tested. Higher CWs were associated with increased BP and odds of P/HTN, with coefficients proportional to the contribution of each CW to adult BMI. Adjusted for adult height and BMI, no child CW was associated with adult BP, but 1 SD of BW was related to a 0.5-mm Hg lower systolic BP and a 9% lower odds of P/HTN. BW and CW associations with systolic BP and P/HTN were not different between adults born SGA and those with normal BW, but higher CW at 48 mo was associated with higher diastolic BP in those born SGA. Greater weight gain at any age relates to elevated adult BP, but faster weight gains in infancy and young childhood do not pose a higher risk than do gains at other ages.

  10. Validation of the SCIAN LD-735 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor SCIAN LD-735 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured sequentially in 33 adult Chinese participants (10 women, mean age 44.8 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the SCIAN LD-735 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The SCIAN LD-735 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 86/99, 97/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 85/99, 98/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. In total, 30 and 33 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). No participant had all of the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The SCIAN wrist blood pressure monitor LD-735 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  11. Validation of the AVITA BPM17 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Liu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor AVITA BPM17 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (19 men, 45.7 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM17 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The AVITA BPM17 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 94/99, 98/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 92/99, 99/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Overall, 32 participants for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observerss differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). None had all the three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The AVITA wrist blood pressure monitor BPM17 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  12. Modeling Blood Pressure:Comparative Study Of Seemingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimator; Seemingly Unrelated Regression(SUR) over the separate estimator; Ordinary Least ... Approximately 25 percent of the adult population ..... means that they were overweight. ... and diastolic, 85-90), suggested optimal for normal blood .... Risk Stratification in hypertension: new insights from the Framingham Study.

  13. Race and Sex Differences of Long-Term Blood Pressure Profiles From Childhood and Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Zhang, Huijie; Xi, Bo; Shen, Hongbing; Fernandez, Camilo; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood in black-white and sex groups and examine the association between childhood level-independent trajectories of BP and adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2732 adults who had body mass index and BP measured 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years). Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP and body mass index at childhood age points were calculated at 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively. Linear and nonlinear curve parameters differed significantly between race-sex groups; BP levels showed race and sex differences 15 years of age onward. Hypertensives had higher long-term BP levels than normotensives in race-sex groups. Although linear and nonlinear slope parameters of BP were race and sex specific, they differed consistently, significantly between hypertension and normotension groups. BP trajectories during young adulthood (20-35 years) were significantly greater in hypertensives than in normotensives; however, the trajectories during middle-aged adulthood (36-51 years) were significantly smaller in hypertensives than in normotensives. Level-independent linear slopes of systolic BP showed significantly negative associations (odds ratio=0.50≈0.76; P hypertension, adjusting for covariates. These associations were consistent across race-sex groups. These observations indicate that adult hypertension originates in childhood, with different longitudinal BP trajectory profiles during young and middle-aged adulthood in black-white and sex groups. Puberty is a crucial period for the development of hypertension in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Validation of the Andon KD-5965 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhua; Li, Zhijie; Li, Guimei; Liu, Zhaoying

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Andon KD-5965 upper-arm blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adults, with 20 women using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the Andon KD-5965 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 70/99, 91/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 81/99, 99/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-five and 29 participants, for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required≥24). Two and one participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had all three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. According to the validation results, with better performance for diastolic blood pressure than that for systolic blood pressure, the Andon automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor KD-5965 fulfilled the requirements of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement in adults.

  15. Lead poisoning and the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertz, M.H.; Bolwig, T.G.; Grandjean, P.; Westergaard, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lead exposure may produce varying degrees of neuropsychiatric manifestations from discrete phenomena, quite often seen in children and as an occupational disease, to the rare fulminant lead encephalopathy. It was determined whether or not damage of the blood-brain barrier permeability in adult rats, as has been demonstr rated in neonatal animals exposed to lead, could also play a role. Massive lead exposure did not induce any change in the transfer (facilitated diffusion) of phenylalanine and tyrosine measured by means of the indicator dilution technique. Ultrastructural examination, after application of horseradish peroxidase, did not reveal any pahtological changes in the permeability to the tracer. It is concluded that in adult rats, in contrast to neonatal anmials, the observed pathological signs clearly seen in the chronically exposed animals must be ascribed to a noxious influence of lead on the extravascular side of the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  16. Exploring the relationship of peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin with blood pressure during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Tian; Yang, Song; Yang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Hai-Long; Chen, Yan-Chun; Zhao, Xiang-Hai; Wen, Jin-Bo; Tian, Yuan-Rui; Yan, Wei-Li; Shen, Chong

    2017-11-04

    Total bilirubin is beneficial for protecting cardiovascular diseases in adults. The authors aimed to investigate the association of total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin levels with the prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. A total of 3776 students (aged from 6 to 16 years old) were examined using cluster sampling. Pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure were respectively defined as the point of 90th and 95th percentiles based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were standardized into z-scores. Peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell and hemoglobin levels were significantly correlated with age, and also varied with gender. Peripheral total bilirubin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in 6- and 9-year-old boys, whilst positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure in the 12-year-old boys and 13- to 15-year-old girls (p0.05). Total bilirubin could be weakly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as correlations varied with age and gender in children and adolescents; in turn, the increased levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin are proposed to be positively associated with the prevalence of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting....... Strategies to reduce accrual of excess adiposity during early life may reduce mid-childhood blood pressure, which may also impact adult blood pressure and cardiovascular health....

  18. The history of childhood trauma is associated with lipid disturbances and blood pressure in adult first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    It has repeatedly been found that early-life traumatic events may contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the history of childhood trauma and cardiovascular risk factors in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. The history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 83 FES patients. Based on the ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with positive and negative history of childhood trauma: FES(+) and FES(-) patients. Serum levels of fasting glucose lipids, homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate, as well as anthropometric parameters and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. The history of childhood trauma was associated with higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, SBP and DBP after covarying for age, gender, body mass index, education and chlorpromazine equivalent. There were significant correlations between scores of distinct ETISR-SF subscales and LDL, high-density lipoprotein, SBP, DBP and the number of metabolic syndrome criteria. Results of this study indicate that traumatic events during childhood might be related to higher resting blood pressure and higher LDL levels in adult FES patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Neural control of blood flow during exercise in human metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Morgan, Barbara J; Sebranek, Joshua J; Proctor, Lester T; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-01

    α-Adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is greater during simulated exercise in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) when compared with control animals. In an attempt to translate such findings to humans, we hypothesized that adults with MetSyn (n = 14, 35 ± 3 years old) would exhibit greater α-adrenergic responsiveness during exercise when compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 16, 31 ± 3 years old). We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography) and forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) during dynamic forearm exercise (15% of maximal voluntary contraction). α-Adrenergic agonists (phenylephrine and clonidine) and an antagonist (phentolamine) were infused intra-arterially to assess α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness and restraint, respectively. Resting MSNA was ∼35% higher in adults with MetSyn (P exercise. Clonidine-mediated vasoconstriction was greater in adults with MetSyn (P  0.05). Interestingly, exercise-mediated vasodilatation was greater in MetSyn (P exercise blood flow during low-intensity hand-grip exercise when compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. These results suggest that adults with MetSyn exhibit compensatory vascular control mechanisms capable of preserving blood flow responses to exercise in the face of augmented sympathetic adrenergic activity. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  20. [Effects of Self-management Program applying Dongsasub Training on Self-efficacy, Self-esteem, Self-management Behavior and Blood Pressure in Older Adults with Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoungsuk; Song, Misoon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a self-management program applying Dongsasub training based on self-efficacy theory, and to verify the program effectiveness on self-esteem as well as self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, and blood pressure. The study design was a non-equivalent, pre-post controlled quasi-experiment study. Thirty-eight patients aged 65 and older from a senior welfare center in Seoul participated in this study (20 patients in the experimental group and 18 patients in the control group). The self-management program applying Dongsasub training consisted of eight sessions. After development was complete the program was used with the experimental group. Outcome variables included self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-management behaviors measured by questionnaires, and blood pressure measured by electronic manometer. Self-efficacy (t=2.42, p=.021), self-esteem (t=2.57, p=.014) and self-management behaviors (t=2.21, p=.034) were significantly higher and systolic blood pressure (t=-2.14, p=.040) was significantly lower in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, diastolic blood pressure (t=-.85, p=.400) was not significantly different between the two groups. The results indicate that the self-management program applying Dongsasub training can be used as a nursing intervention in community settings for improving self-management behaviors for older adults with hypertension.

  1. Family support and blood pressure pattern in adult patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and family APGAR questionnaire. The diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure (BP) threshold of 140/90 mmHg according to JNC VII guidelines definitions. Data was analyzed using Stata statistical software (Version 10). Results: The mean age and BP of ...

  2. The relationship between orthostatic hypotension and falling in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Brett H; Claydon, Victoria E

    2014-02-01

    Falls are devastating events and are the largest contributor towards injury-related hospitalization of older adults. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) represents an intrinsic risk factor for falls in older adults. OH refers to a significant decrease in blood pressure upon assuming an upright posture. Declines in blood pressure can reduce cerebral perfusion; this can impair consciousness, lead to dizziness, and increase the likelihood of a fall. Although theoretical mechanisms linking OH and falls exist, the magnitude of the association remains poorly characterized, possibly because of methodological differences between previous studies. The use of non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure monitoring has altered the way in which OH is now defined, and represents a substantial improvement for detecting OH that was previously unavailable in many studies. Additionally, there is a lack of consistency and standardization of orthostatic assessments and analysis techniques for interpreting blood pressure data. This review explores the previous literature examining the relationship between OH and falls. We highlight the impact of broadening the timing, degree, and overall duration of blood pressure measurements on the detection of OH. We discuss the types of orthostatic stress assessments currently used to evaluate OH and the various techniques capable of measuring these often transient blood pressure changes. Overall, we identify future solutions that may better clarify the relationship between OH and falling risk in order to gain a more precise understanding of potential mechanisms for falls in older adults.

  3. Unusual spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination phenomenon in blood units stored under blood bank condition: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmukh R Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cold agglutinins (CA are benign naturally occurring low titer autoantibodies present in most individuals. Those with moderate strength are found in infections, malignancies or autoimmune conditions with diagnostic importance. Aim: Present report deals with CA that brought spontaneous hemagglutination in blood units stored at 2-6°C. Study design: Over 32 months period between July 1993 and December 1995, blood units were inspected for spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination (SpCA phenomenon. The plasma from these units was separated and investigated for serological specificity using in house red cell panel and standard serological methods. Results: Among 51,671 blood units, 112 units showed SpCA phenomenon. A rising trend seen in first half of study period significantly fell in remaining half. Specificities of the antibodies detected include anti-I (27, anti-i (53, anti-Pr (21 with remaining few being undetermined specificity. Absorption of serum using enzyme-treated red cells revealed a presence of anti-Pr among the cases, the two of which with new specificities that reacted preferentially with red cells from either new-born or adults and were tentatively named as anti-Pr Fetal and anti-Pr adult , respectively. While 9 cases showed optimum reaction at neutral pH of 7, 68 (62% cases reacted at pH 5.8 through 8.0, 28 (26% cases preferred an acidic pH 5.8 and 4 cases opted an alkaline pH 8. Of 28 cases with antibodies preferentially reacting in acidic medium, 17 (60% cases were anti-i and 7 (25% cases were anti-Pr. Conclusion: Unique SpCA phenomenon observed in blood units stored under blood bank conditions seems to be due to CA developed in response to vector-borne infectious agents. Majority of the cases displayed their specificities, otherwise are rare to be encountered.

  4. Validation of the AVITA BPM15S wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Zhang, Lu; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor AVITA BPM15S for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol revision 2010 of the European Society of Hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 Chinese adults (15 women, mean age 51 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM15S device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The AVITA BPM15S device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg were 85/99, 94/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 82/99, 96/99, and 98/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Thirty-two and 28 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥ 24). No participant had all of the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The AVITA wrist blood pressure monitor BPM15S fulfilled the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010 and hence can be recommended for home use in an adult population.

  5. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. Methods This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of α<0.05. Results One hundred fifty-seven records and 430 blood pressure measurements were analyzed with an average of three measurements per patient. Of these measures, 46.5% were abnormal. The mean time from admission to documentation of the first blood pressure measurement was 2.5 minutes, with 42 minutes between subsequent measures. There is no correlation between the systolic blood pressure values and the mean time interval between blood pressure documentations: 0.173 (p=0.031). Conclusion The present study found no correlation between frequency of blood pressure documentation and blood pressure values. The frequency of blood pressure documentation increased according to the severity of the patient and decreased during the length of stay in the emergency department. PMID:28444085

  6. Positional change in blood pressure and 8-year risk of hypertension: the CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Randal J; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R; Bild, Diane E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Hulley, Stephen B

    2003-08-01

    To assess the relationship between positional blood pressure change and 8-year incidence of hypertension in a biracial cohort of young adults. Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study with complete data from year 2 (1987-1988), year 5 (1990-1991), year 7 (1992-1993), and year 10 (1995-1996) examinations were included (N = 2781). Participants were classified into 3 groups based on their year 2 systolic blood pressure response to standing: drop, a decrease in systolic blood pressure of more than 5 mm Hg; same, a change of between -5 and +5 mm Hg; and rise, more than 5-mm Hg increase. The number of participants in each group was as follows: drop, 741; same, 1590; and rise, 450. The 8-year incidence of hypertension was 8.4% in the drop group, 6.8% in the same group, and 12.4% in the rise group (P women, 2.47 (95% CI, 1.19-5.11), in white men, 2.17 (95% CI, 1.00-4.73), and in white women, 4.74 (95% CI, 1.11-20.30). A greater than 5-mm Hg increase in blood pressure on standing identified a group of young adults at increased risk of developing hypertension within 8 years. These findings support a physiologic link between sympathetic nervous system reactivity and risk of hypertension in young adults.

  7. Validation of the AVITA BPM63S upper arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Liu, Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the AVITA BPM63S upper arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (14 women, mean age of 47 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM63S device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The AVITA BPM63S device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 68/99, 89/99, and 96/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 75/99, 95/99, and 97/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-four and 25 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). One and two participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had all three device-observers differences greater than 5 mmHg. The AVITA BPM63S automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement at home in adults.

  8. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  9. Association between blood pressure and some other cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2009-11-20

    Nov 20, 2009 ... changing lifestyles and nutrition transition in those regions of the world1. ... largely ignored as a public health problem in ..... education and blood pressure in adults in. Jamaica ... factors in rural and urban elderly populations ...

  10. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  11. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, Phypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Conversion of adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into induced neural stem cell by using episomal vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human neural stem cells (NSCs hold great promise for research and therapy in neural diseases. Many studies have shown direct induction of NSCs from human fibroblasts, which require an invasive skin biopsy and a prolonged period of expansion in cell culture prior to use. Peripheral blood (PB is routinely used in medical diagnoses, and represents a noninvasive and easily accessible source of cells. Here we show direct derivation of NSCs from adult human PB mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs by employing episomal vectors for transgene delivery. These induced NSCs (iNSCs can expand more than 60 passages, can exhibit NSC morphology, gene expression, differentiation potential, and self-renewing capability and can give rise to multiple functional neural subtypes and glial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the iNSCs carry a specific regional identity and have electrophysiological activity upon differentiation. Our findings provide an easily accessible approach for generating human iNSCs which will facilitate disease modeling, drug screening, and possibly regenerative medicine.

  13. Adult vector control, mosquito ecology and malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Oliver J; Godfray, H Charles J; Tatem, Andrew J; Gething, Peter W; Cohen, Justin M; McKenzie, F Ellis; Alex Perkins, T; Reiner, Robert C; Tusting, Lucy S; Scott, Thomas W; Lindsay, Steven W; Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L

    2015-03-01

    Standard advice regarding vector control is to prefer interventions that reduce the lifespan of adult mosquitoes. The basis for this advice is a decades-old sensitivity analysis of 'vectorial capacity', a concept relevant for most malaria transmission models and based solely on adult mosquito population dynamics. Recent advances in micro-simulation models offer an opportunity to expand the theory of vectorial capacity to include both adult and juvenile mosquito stages in the model. In this study we revisit arguments about transmission and its sensitivity to mosquito bionomic parameters using an elasticity analysis of developed formulations of vectorial capacity. We show that reducing adult survival has effects on both adult and juvenile population size, which are significant for transmission and not accounted for in traditional formulations of vectorial capacity. The elasticity of these effects is dependent on various mosquito population parameters, which we explore. Overall, control