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Sample records for adult type alport

  1. Type IV renal tubular acidosis associated with Alport's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tkácová, R.; Roland, R.; Böör, A.; Kovácová, A.; Lazúrová, I.; Tkác, I.; Hildebrand, T.; Sefara, P.

    1993-01-01

    A case of hereditary nephritis with mild reduction of renal function associated with renal tubular acidosis type IV is described. The patient was admitted with life-threatening hyperkalaemia. To our knowledge, type IV renal tubular acidosis has not been reported previously in association with Alport's syndrome in an adult patient.

  2. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A. J.; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  3. Alport familial nephritis. Absence of 28 kilodalton non-collagenous monomers of type IV collagen in glomerular basement membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Kleppel, M M; Kashtan, C. E.; Butkowski, R J; Fish, A. J.; Michael, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    Alport-type familial nephritis (FN), a genetic disorder, results in progressive renal insufficiency and sensorineural hearing loss. Immunochemical and biochemical analyses of the non-collagenous (NC1) domain of type IV collagen isolated from the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of three males with this disease demonstrate absence of the normally occurring 28-kilodalton (kD) NC1 monomers, but persistence of the 26- and 24-kD monomeric subunits derived from alpha 1 and 2 (both type IV) colla...

  4. X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jais, J P; Knebelmann, B; Giatras, I;

    2000-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by the association of progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and, frequently, ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease. Consid...

  5. X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jais, Jean Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Giatras, Iannis;

    2003-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease characterized by much less severe disea...

  6. Alport Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Donate Fundraising & Events Matching Gifts Planned Gifts Organ Donation Annual Campaign Healthy Kidneys Annual Campaign Donors Blog ... Donate Now Fundraising & Events Matching Gifts Planned Gifts Organ Donation Past Events Upcoming Events Resources Stay Connected Alport ...

  7. Alport Syndrome Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with X-linked Alport Syndrome will show abnormal staining for COL4A5 in the skin biopsy. This approach ... and enzyme tests are performed on cultured tissue cells and/or white blood cells. During amniocentesis, a ...

  8. Skin Biopsy for the diagnosis of Alport Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lagona, E; Tsartsali, L; Kostaridou, S; Skiathitou, A; Georgaki, E; Sotsiou, F

    2008-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is the most common hereditary nephritis often associated with extrarenal manifestations. It was first described by Alport on 1927. There is a primary disorder in collagen type IV which is the main component of the basement membranes. Alport syndrome is more frequently inherited as an X-linked and less commonly as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait. We describe the case of a 3-year-old boy with the X-linked variant of AS. The diagnosis was at first speculat...

  9. Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis in a child with alport syndrome: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Hong Seok; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-01

    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is an exceedingly rare, benign, neoplastic condition occurring predominantly in children and young adults. This condition may occur as an isolated finding, or it may be associated with Alport syndrome. We report a case of diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis with Alport syndrome in a 5-year-old girl who had presented with recurrent pneumonia, and present a review of the literature. We suspected Alport syndrome in the patient because she had a clinical history of congenital cataracts and hematuria, as well as imaging findings of diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis. Alport syndrome was subsequently confirmed by electron microscopy of the kidney.

  10. Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis in a child with alport syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is an exceedingly rare, benign, neoplastic condition occurring predominantly in children and young adults. This condition may occur as an isolated finding, or it may be associated with Alport syndrome. We report a case of diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis with Alport syndrome in a 5-year-old girl who had presented with recurrent pneumonia, and present a review of the literature. We suspected Alport syndrome in the patient because she had a clinical history of congenital cataracts and hematuria, as well as imaging findings of diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis. Alport syndrome was subsequently confirmed by electron microscopy of the kidney

  11. [Alport's syndrome (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huismans, H

    1978-05-01

    A case report is given of a 22-years old student (whose brother had Alport's syndrome) with recurrent central corneal swelling and paracentral erosions of the cornea of both eyes. Further signs of beginning Alport's syndrome in this case are disturbance of re-adaptation after dazzling (Mesoptometer) and paracentral scotomata in the visual fields. Remarkable was the small diameter of the disc in both eyes (1.37 mm). Local therapy was Scopolamin-eye-drops, Actihaemyl- and especially Cystein-Gel (2.4%). PMID:672101

  12. Ocular, Ear and Renal Manifestations of Alport Syndrome in Three Iranian Families

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    Mohammad Hossein Davari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alport syndrome is a genetic disorder of basement membranes caused by mutations in type IV collagen network. It was first identified by Dr. Alport in 1927. Its major clinical manifestations are included: glomerulopathy, sensory hearing loss, anterior lenticonus, and the prevalence of Alports’ gene in general population is about 1 in 5000 and the disease prevalence is 1 in 10000 [1-3]. Here we report ocular, ear and renal manifestations of Alport syndrome in 3 families that living in the east city of Iran, Birjand, and we have followed all of this family for 6 years so far.

  13. Albumin contributes to kidney disease progression in Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, George; Knutsen, Russell H; Mecham, Robert P; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-01

    Alport syndrome is a familial kidney disease caused by defects in the collagen type IV network of the glomerular basement membrane. Lack of collagen-α3α4α5(IV) changes the glomerular basement membrane morphologically and functionally, rendering it leaky to albumin and other plasma proteins. Filtered albumin has been suggested to be a cause of the glomerular and tubular injuries observed at advanced stages of Alport syndrome. To directly investigate the role that albumin plays in the progression of disease in Alport syndrome, we generated albumin knockout (Alb(-/-)) mice to use as a tool for removing albuminuria as a component of kidney disease. Mice lacking albumin were healthy and indistinguishable from control littermates, although they developed hypertriglyceridemia. Dyslipidemia was observed in Alb(+/-) mice, which displayed half the normal plasma albumin concentration. Alb mutant mice were bred to collagen-α3(IV) knockout (Col4a3(-/-)) mice, which are a model for human Alport syndrome. Lack of circulating and filtered albumin in Col4a3(-/-);Alb(-/-) mice resulted in dramatically improved kidney disease outcomes, as these mice lived 64% longer than did Col4a3(-/-);Alb(+/+) and Col4a3(-/-);Alb(+/-) mice, despite similar blood pressures and serum triglyceride levels. Further investigations showed that the absence of albumin correlated with reduced transforming growth factor-β1 signaling as well as reduced tubulointerstitial, glomerular, and podocyte pathology. We conclude that filtered albumin is injurious to kidney cells in Alport syndrome and perhaps in other proteinuric kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27147675

  14. The inner ear of dogs with X-linked nephritis provides clues to the pathogenesis of hearing loss in X-linked Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S J; Mount, R; Sado, Y; Naito, I; Ninomiya, Y; Harrison, R; Jefferson, B; Jacobs, R; Thorner, P S

    2001-09-01

    Alport syndrome is an inherited disorder of type IV collagen with progressive nephropathy, ocular abnormalities, and high-tone sensorineural deafness. In X-linked Alport syndrome, mutations in the COL4A5 gene encoding the alpha5 chain of type IV collagen lead to loss of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network and increased susceptibility of the glomerular basement membrane to long-term damage. The molecular defects that underlie the otopathology in this disease remain poorly understood. We used a canine model of X-linked Alport syndrome to determine the expression of type IV collagen alpha-chains in the inner ear. By 1 month in normal adult dogs, the alpha3, alpha4, and alpha5 chains were co-expressed in a thin continuous line extending along the basilar membrane and the internal and external sulci, with the strongest expression along the lateral aspect of the spiral ligament in the basal turn of the cochlea. Affected dogs showed complete absence of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network. The lateral aspect of the spiral ligament is populated by tension fibroblasts that express alpha-smooth muscle actin and nonmuscle myosin and are postulated to generate radial tension on the basilar membrane via the extracellular matrix for reception of high frequency sound. We propose that in Alport syndrome, the loss of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network eventually weakens the interaction of these cells with their extracellular matrix, resulting in reduced tension on the basilar membrane and the inability to respond to high frequency sounds. PMID:11549602

  15. Association of Alport's syndrome with HLA-DR2 antigen in a group of unrelated patients

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    E.A. Donadi

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A few family studies have evaluated HLA antigens in Alport's syndrome; however, there are no large population studies. In the present report, we studied 40 unrelated white patients with Alport's syndrome seen at the Unit of Renal Transplantation, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were typed using a complement-dependent microlymphocytotoxicity assay. A control white population (N = 403 from the same geographical area was also typed for HLA antigens. Although the frequencies of HLA-A and -B antigens of patients were not statistically different from controls, the frequency of HLA-DR2 antigen observed in patients (65% was significantly increased in relation to controls (26%; P<0.001. The relative risk and etiologic fraction for HLA-DR2 antigen were 5.2 and 0.525, respectively. Although few immunological abnormalities have been shown in Alport's syndrome, in this report we emphasize the association of HLA molecules and Alport's syndrome. Besides the well-known inherited molecular defects encoded by type IV collagen genes in Alport's syndrome, the major histocompatibility alleles may be in linkage disequilibrium with these defective collagen genes

  16. Kidney Transplantation in Patients With Alport Syndrome

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    Hassan Ahmadnia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of kidney transplantation in patients with Alport syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 patients with Alport syndrome underwent kidney transplantation and the result of their transplantation was compared with the results in patients without Alport Syndrome. Rejection episodes and the presence of antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM nephritis were assessed in these patients. Results: Fifteen patients with Alport syndrome were compared with a control group including 212 kidney allograft recipients. One patient with Alport syndrome (6.7% and 30 controls (14.2% experienced delayed graft function. Renal artery thrombosis was reported in 1 patient (6.7% with Alport syndrome and 10 (4.7% in the control group, which led to nephrectomy in all cases. Acute rejection was confirmed in 2 patients (13.3% by kidney biopsy and classic treatment yielded relative response. However, they lost their grafts 35 and 44 months after the transplantation. On pathologic examination, no specific finding of anti-GBM nephritis was found. In the control group, 43 cases of acute rejection (20.3% were reported and 12 patients (5.7% returned to dialysis. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year

  17. Mutation in the alpha 5(IV) collagen chain in juvenile-onset Alport syndrome without hearing loss or ocular lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, J; Hertz, Jens Michael; Tryggvason, K

    1992-01-01

    A single base mutation was identified in the type IV collagen alpha 5 chain gene (COL4A5) of a Danish kindred with Alport syndrome. The 27-year-old male proband developed hematuria in childhood and terminal renal failure at the age of 25 years. He has no hearing loss or ocular lesions. Electron...

  18. Podocyturia: A Clue for the Rational Use of Amiloride in Alport Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    H. Trimarchi; R. Canzonieri; Muryan, A.; Schiel, A.; Araoz, A.; Paulero, M.; Andrews, J; Rengel, T.; Forrester, M.; F. Lombi; V. Pomeranz; Iriarte, R.; Zotta, E.

    2016-01-01

    No specific or efficient treatment exists for Alport syndrome, an X-linked hereditary disease caused by mutations in collagen type IV, a crucial component of the glomerular basement membrane. Kidney failure is usually a major complication of the disease, and patients require renal replacement therapy early in life. Microhematuria and subsequently proteinuria are hallmarks of kidney involvement, which are due to primary basement membrane alterations that mainly cause endothelial thrombosis and...

  19. Podocyturia: A Clue for the Rational Use of Amiloride in Alport Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, H; Canzonieri, R; Muryan, A; Schiel, A; Araoz, A; Paulero, M; Andrews, J; Rengel, T; Forrester, M; Lombi, F; Pomeranz, V; Iriarte, R; Zotta, E

    2016-01-01

    No specific or efficient treatment exists for Alport syndrome, an X-linked hereditary disease caused by mutations in collagen type IV, a crucial component of the glomerular basement membrane. Kidney failure is usually a major complication of the disease, and patients require renal replacement therapy early in life. Microhematuria and subsequently proteinuria are hallmarks of kidney involvement, which are due to primary basement membrane alterations that mainly cause endothelial thrombosis and podocyte contraction and ulterior irreversible detachment. Commonly drug-based approaches include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, which are employed to reduce proteinuria and thus retard kidney disease progression and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, as any hereditary disease, it is expressed as early as in the intrauterine life, and usually an index case is helpful to detect family-related cases. As no specific treatment exists, pathophysiologically based approaches are useful. The present case illustrates the reduction rate of urinary podocyte loss and proteinuria after amiloride administration and suggests the molecular pathways involved in Alport renal disease. Finally, podocyturia rather than proteinuria should be considered as an earlier biomarker of kidney involvement and disease progression in Alport disease. PMID:26942026

  20. Podocyturia: A Clue for the Rational Use of Amiloride in Alport Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Trimarchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No specific or efficient treatment exists for Alport syndrome, an X-linked hereditary disease caused by mutations in collagen type IV, a crucial component of the glomerular basement membrane. Kidney failure is usually a major complication of the disease, and patients require renal replacement therapy early in life. Microhematuria and subsequently proteinuria are hallmarks of kidney involvement, which are due to primary basement membrane alterations that mainly cause endothelial thrombosis and podocyte contraction and ulterior irreversible detachment. Commonly drug-based approaches include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, which are employed to reduce proteinuria and thus retard kidney disease progression and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, as any hereditary disease, it is expressed as early as in the intrauterine life, and usually an index case is helpful to detect family-related cases. As no specific treatment exists, pathophysiologically based approaches are useful. The present case illustrates the reduction rate of urinary podocyte loss and proteinuria after amiloride administration and suggests the molecular pathways involved in Alport renal disease. Finally, podocyturia rather than proteinuria should be considered as an earlier biomarker of kidney involvement and disease progression in Alport disease.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Alport syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for making one component of a protein called type IV collagen. This protein plays an important role in the ... in these genes result in abnormalities of the type IV collagen in glomeruli, which prevents the kidneys from properly ...

  2. Multipoint linkage analysis in X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Kruse, T A; Thomsen, A; Spencer, E S

    1991-01-01

    In order to localize the gene for the X-linked form of Alport syndrome (ATS) more precisely, we performed restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with nine different X-chromosomal DNA markers in 107 members of twelve Danish families segregating for classic ATS or progressive hereditary ...

  3. Clear lens phacoemulsification in the anterior lenticonus due to Alport Syndrome: two case reports

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    Aslanzadeh Ghassem

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Alport Syndrome has a prevalence of 1 case per 5,000 people and 85% of patients have the X-linked form, where affected males develop renal failure and usually have high-tone sensorineural deafness by age 20. The main abnormality is deficient synthesis of type IV collagen, the main component of basement membranes. Common ocular abnormalities of this syndrome consist of dot-and-fleck retinopathy, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, and anterior lenticonus, but other ocular defects such as cataracts, posterior lenticonus, and retinal detachments have also been reported. Case presentation We report two cases of anterior lenticonus due to Alport Syndrome and describe clear lens phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens implantation as an effective and safe refractive procedure in the four eyes of these two patients. Conclusion All four eyes of the two patients were in good condition after surgery and achieved satisfactory optical and visual results and had no remarkable complications at six-months follow-up. Clear lens phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation can be used as an efficient and safe procedure for vision disorders in these patients.

  4. Ocular features in Alport syndrome: pathogenesis and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savige, Judy; Sheth, Shivanand; Leys, Anita; Nicholson, Anjali; Mack, Heather G; Colville, Deb

    2015-04-01

    Alport syndrome is an inherited disease characterized by progressive renal failure, hearing loss, and ocular abnormalities. Mutations in the COL4A5 (X-linked), or COL4A3 and COL4A4 (autosomal recessive) genes result in absence of the collagen IV α3α4α5 network from the basement membranes of the cornea, lens capsule, and retina and are associated with corneal opacities, anterior lenticonus, fleck retinopathy, and temporal retinal thinning. Typically, these features do not affect vision or, in the case of lenticonus, are correctable. In contrast, the rarer ophthalmic complications of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, giant macular hole, and maculopathy all produce visual loss. Many of the ocular features of Alport syndrome are common, easily recognizable, and thus, helpful diagnostically, and in identifying the likelihood of early-onset renal failure. Lenticonus and central fleck retinopathy strongly suggest the diagnosis of Alport syndrome and are associated with renal failure before the age of 30 years, in males with X-linked disease. Sometimes, ophthalmic features suggest the mode of inheritance. A peripheral retinopathy in the mother of a male with hematuria suggests X-linked inheritance, and central retinopathy or lenticonus in a female means that recessive disease is likely. Ocular examination, retinal photography, and optical coherence tomography are widely available, safe, fast, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. Ocular examination is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of Alport syndrome when genetic testing is not readily available or the results are inconclusive. It also detects complications, such as macular hole, for which new treatments are emerging. PMID:25649157

  5. Quaternary epitopes of α345(IV) collagen initiate Alport post-transplant anti-GBM nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping; Ge, Linna; Hertz, Jens Michael; Kashtan, Clifford E; Sado, Yoshikazu; Segal, Yoav; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Alport post-transplant nephritis (APTN) is an aggressive form of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease that targets the allograft in transplanted patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. Alloantibodies develop against the NC1 domain of α5(IV) collagen, which occurs in normal kidneys, including...

  6. Histopathological types in adult nephrotic syndrome

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    Md. Ghulam Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, there are very few studies about biopsy proven adult Nephrotic syndrome (NS with histological types and their clinical findings. To determine the histological types of glomerulonephritis (GN in adult NS and correlate them with the clinical presentations and biochemical parameters, we studied 100 biopsies in 87 patients who underwent ultrasonography- guided renal biopsy in Rangpur Medical College and Hospital from July 2010 to June 2012. The mean age of the patients was 32.8 ± 13.2 years; male was preponderance (72.4% and most of the patients (67.8% came from rural areas. Membranoproliferative GN (MPGN was the most common underlying cause that was found in 32 (36.8% patients followed by mesangial prolife- rative GN in 27 (31% patients, membranous GN in 16 (18.4% cases, minimal change disease in four (4.6% patients, diffuse proliferative GN in four (4.6% patients, focal segmental GN, and focal proliferative GN in two (2.4% patients each. High proteinuria level was found in minimal change disease, which was 7.59 ± 0.24 g/24 h (mean ± standard deviation. The most common symptoms were oliguria (92% and edema (86.2% followed by hematuria (dark urine (72.4% and hypertension (35.6%. MPGN was the most common histological type of adult NS in Rangpur.

  7. Surgical Management of Anterior Lenticonus in a Patient with Alport´s Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Çiğdem Ülkü; İlhan, Bayazıt; Sibel POLAT

    2008-01-01

    Background: To discuss ophthalmic features and management of a patient with Alport´s syndrome and anterior lenticonus. Materials and Methods: A 22-year-old female patient with Alport´s syndrome who, in another center, had undergone laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) because of high myopia was determined to have bilateral anterior lenticonus. We treated the other eye by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Results: Lens extraction and IOL implantation gave satisfact...

  8. Alport syndrome: significance of gingival biopsy in the initial diagnosis and periodontal evaluation after renal transplantation

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    Hilal Uslu Toygar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alport Syndrome (AS is an important hereditary disorder affecting the glomerular basement membrane. Diagnosis of AS is based on the presence of hematuric nephropathy, renal failure, hearing loss, ocular abnormalities and changes in the glomerular basement membrane of the lamina densa. The aims of this case report were to show the changes in the gingival tissues in a patient with AS under therapy with cyclosporin-A after renal transplantation and to discuss the possible role of type IV collagen in gingival basal lamina as an alternative approach for the diagnosis of AS. A 20-year-old male patient with AS underwent periodontal therapy including a series of gingivectomy surgeries. Gingival samples obtained during the second surgery were examined histopathologically and by transmission electron microscopy for further pathological examination. Gingivectomy procedures have been performed every 6 months over the last 4 years. The excessive and fibrous gingival enlargements resulted in migration of the anterior teeth, but no alveolar bone loss occurred. This is the first report to demonstrate the possible changes in the gingival tissues caused by AS. It is suggested that gingival biopsy can be an initial diagnostic tool instead of renal or skin biopsies. Proper dental and periodontal care and regular visits to the dentist could provide limited gingival hyperplasia to patients with AS.

  9. Choosing a mouse model to study the molecular pathobiology of Alport glomerulonephritis.

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    Cosgrove, D; Kalluri, R; Miner, J H; Segal, Y; Borza, D-B

    2007-04-01

    Alport syndrome, caused by mutations that interfere with the normal assembly of the alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) collagen network in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), is the most common inherited glomerular disease leading to renal failure. A detailed knowledge of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms is necessary for developing new, more specific, and effective therapeutic strategies aimed at delaying the onset and slowing disease progression. Studies of several dog and mouse models of Alport syndrome have significantly enhanced our understanding of the disease mechanisms and provided systems for testing potential therapies. In the most widely used Col4a3-/- mouse models of autosomal-recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS), the genetic background strongly affects renal survival. One contributing factor may be the strong ectopic deposition of alpha5alpha6(IV) collagen in the GBM of Col4a3-/- mice on the C57BL/6J background, which is almost undetectable on the 129/Sv background. This isoform 'switch' has not been observed in human ARAS, although it had been reported in the dog model of ARAS. In human patients as well as dog and mouse models of X-linked Alport syndrome, the alpha3-alpha6(IV) collagen chains are absent from the GBM. These biochemical differences among Alport animal models provide an opportunity to determine how the molecular makeup of the GBM affects the glomerular function. At the same time, potentially confounding influences of characteristics unique to a particular strain or model should be carefully considered in the design of studies aiming to define key events underlying the pathobiology of Alport glomerular disease. PMID:17290292

  10. Cholesterol and Alzheimer Type Dementia among Adults with Down Syndrome

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    Buckley, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a summary of research by Warren Zigman and colleagues investigating the link between cholesterol levels and Alzheimer type dementia among adults with Down syndrome. Warren Zigman and colleagues followed 123 adults with Down syndrome between May 1998 and April 2006. The participants were aged between 41 and 78 years at the…

  11. Laminin α2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

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    Duane Delimont

    Full Text Available It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages.

  12. Psychological Type and Asynchronous Written Dialogue in Adult Learning

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    Lin, Lin; Cranton, Patricia; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how adults learn from asynchronous written dialogue through the lens of psychological type preferences. We asked participants to discover their dominant and auxiliary psychological preferences using the Personal Empowerment through Type inventory. Participants then completed an open-ended survey in which they described their…

  13. An Overlapping Case of Alport Syndrome and Thin Basement Membrane Disease

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    Alganabi, Mashriq; Eter, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 48-year-old male who presented with hematuria of at least 10 years, and has a daughter with hematuria as well. The patient has a history of degenerative hearing loss, decreased vision and cataract formation, but no diabetes, hypertension or proteinuria. A full serology and urology workup was negative for any abnormality. A kidney biopsy for the patient revealed a diagnosis of Alport syndrome but was unable to rule out thin basement membrane disease. The biopsy was inconclusive in making the diagnosis but the patient’s clinical presentation led to the diagnosis of Alport syndrome. The patient’s 10-year-old daughter also has hematuria with no clear etiology but now can subsequently be anticipatorily managed for Alport syndrome progression. Due to the rarity of the disease, diagnosis is often missed or delayed by primary care providers especially when no associated proteinuria has yet developed. This can lead to confusion and misdiagnosis with thin basement membrane disease, a generally benign hematuria without kidney failure progression. Additionally, biopsy can be inconclusive in these patients, relying on the physician’s history and physical examination findings to diagnose. It is important to appropriately diagnose Alport syndrome not only to manage the patient’s rate of kidney failure progression but also allow for a higher degree of suspicion, screening and intervention in the patient’s family members. Both the inconclusive nature of kidney biopsies and the usefulness of diagnosis for family member screening are often overlooked in medical literature but are explored in this case.

  14. Treating young adults with type 2 diabetes or monogenic diabetes.

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    Owen, Katharine R

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly recognised that diabetes in young adults has a wide differential diagnosis. There are many monogenic causes, including monogenic beta-cell dysfunction, mitochondrial diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes in the young is becoming more prevalent, particularly after adolescence. It's important to understand the clinical features and diagnostic tools available to classify the different forms of young adult diabetes. Classic type 1 diabetes is characterised by positive β-cell antibodies and absence of endogenous insulin secretion. Young type 2 diabetes is accompanied by metabolic syndrome with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Monogenic β-cell dysfunction is characterised by non-autoimmune, C-peptide positive diabetes with a strong family history, while mitochondrial diabetes features deafness and other neurological involvement. Severe insulin resistance involves a young-onset metabolic syndrome often with a disproportionately low BMI. A suspected diagnosis of monogenic diabetes is confirmed with genetic testing, which is widely available in specialist centres across the world. Treatment of young adult diabetes is similarly diverse. Mutations in the transcription factors HNF1A and HNF4A and in the β-cell potassium ATP channel components cause diabetes which responds to low dose and high dose sulfonylurea agents, respectively, while glucokinase mutations require no treatment. Monogenic insulin resistance and young-onset type 2 diabetes are both challenging to treat, but first line management involves insulin sensitisers and aggressive management of cardiovascular risk. Outcomes are poor in young-onset type 2 diabetes compared to both older onset type 2 and type 1 diabetes diagnosed at a similar age. The evidence base for treatments in monogenic and young-onset type 2 diabetes relies on studies of moderate quality at best and largely on extrapolation from work conducted in older type 2 diabetes subjects. Better quality

  15. Anti-microRNA-21 oligonucleotides prevent Alport nephropathy progression by stimulating metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ivan G; MacKenna, Deidre A; Johnson, Bryce G; Kaimal, Vivek; Roach, Allie M; Ren, Shuyu; Nakagawa, Naoki; Xin, Cuiyan; Newitt, Rick; Pandya, Shweta; Xia, Tai-He; Liu, Xueqing; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Grafals, Monica; Shankland, Stuart J; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Portilla, Didier; Liu, Shiguang; Chau, B Nelson; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) contributes to the pathogenesis of fibrogenic diseases in multiple organs, including the kidneys, potentially by silencing metabolic pathways that are critical for cellular ATP generation, ROS production, and inflammatory signaling. Here, we developed highly specific oligonucleotides that distribute to the kidney and inhibit miR-21 function when administered subcutaneously and evaluated the therapeutic potential of these anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides in chronic kidney disease. In a murine model of Alport nephropathy, miR-21 silencing did not produce any adverse effects and resulted in substantially milder kidney disease, with minimal albuminuria and dysfunction, compared with vehicle-treated mice. miR-21 silencing dramatically improved survival of Alport mice and reduced histological end points, including glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular injury, and inflammation. Anti-miR-21 enhanced PPARα/retinoid X receptor (PPARα/RXR) activity and downstream signaling pathways in glomerular, tubular, and interstitial cells. Moreover, miR-21 silencing enhanced mitochondrial function, which reduced mitochondrial ROS production and thus preserved tubular functions. Inhibition of miR-21 was protective against TGF-β-induced fibrogenesis and inflammation in glomerular and interstitial cells, likely as the result of enhanced PPARα/RXR activity and improved mitochondrial function. Together, these results demonstrate that inhibition of miR-21 represents a potential therapeutic strategy for chronic kidney diseases including Alport nephropathy. PMID:25415439

  16. Anti–microRNA-21 oligonucleotides prevent Alport nephropathy progression by stimulating metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ivan G.; MacKenna, Deidre A.; Johnson, Bryce G.; Kaimal, Vivek; Roach, Allie M.; Ren, Shuyu; Nakagawa, Naoki; Xin, Cuiyan; Newitt, Rick; Pandya, Shweta; Xia, Tai-He; Liu, Xueqing; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Grafals, Monica; Shankland, Stuart J.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Portilla, Didier; Liu, Shiguang; Chau, B. Nelson; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) contributes to the pathogenesis of fibrogenic diseases in multiple organs, including the kidneys, potentially by silencing metabolic pathways that are critical for cellular ATP generation, ROS production, and inflammatory signaling. Here, we developed highly specific oligonucleotides that distribute to the kidney and inhibit miR-21 function when administered subcutaneously and evaluated the therapeutic potential of these anti–miR-21 oligonucleotides in chronic kidney disease. In a murine model of Alport nephropathy, miR-21 silencing did not produce any adverse effects and resulted in substantially milder kidney disease, with minimal albuminuria and dysfunction, compared with vehicle-treated mice. miR-21 silencing dramatically improved survival of Alport mice and reduced histological end points, including glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular injury, and inflammation. Anti–miR-21 enhanced PPARα/retinoid X receptor (PPARα/RXR) activity and downstream signaling pathways in glomerular, tubular, and interstitial cells. Moreover, miR-21 silencing enhanced mitochondrial function, which reduced mitochondrial ROS production and thus preserved tubular functions. Inhibition of miR-21 was protective against TGF-β–induced fibrogenesis and inflammation in glomerular and interstitial cells, likely as the result of enhanced PPARα/RXR activity and improved mitochondrial function. Together, these results demonstrate that inhibition of miR-21 represents a potential therapeutic strategy for chronic kidney diseases including Alport nephropathy. PMID:25415439

  17. Adult-type hypolactasia and regulation of lactase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    , the main carbohydrate in milk. Individuals with adult-type hypolactasia lose their lactase expression before adulthood and consequently often become lactose intolerant with associated digestive problems (e.g. diarrhoea). In contrast, lactase persistent individuals have a lifelong lactase expression...

  18. Determinants of quality of life in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imayama Ikuyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence exists on the determinants of quality of life (QoL specific to adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Further, it appears no study has compared the determinants of QoL between T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D groups. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 determinants of QoL in adults with T1D; and, (2 differences in QoL determinants between T1D and T2D groups. Methods The Alberta Longitudinal Exercise and Diabetes Research Advancement (ALEXANDRA study, a longitudinal study of adults with diabetes in Alberta, Canada. Adults (18 years and older with T1D (N = 490 and T2D (N = 1,147 provided information on demographics (gender, marital status, education, and annual income, personality (activity trait, medical factors (diabetes duration, insulin use, number of comorbidities, and body mass index, lifestyle behaviors (smoking habits, physical activity, and diet, health-related quality of life (HRQL and life satisfaction. Multiple regression models identified determinants of HRQL and life satisfaction in adults with T1D. These determinants were compared with determinants for T2D adults reported in a previous study from this population data set. Factors significantly associated with HRQL and life satisfaction in either T1D or T2D groups were further tested for interaction with diabetes type. Results In adults with T1D, higher activity trait (personality score (β = 0.28, p -0.27, p -0.12, p -0.14, p Conclusions Health services should target medical and lifestyle factors and provide support for T1D adults to increase their QoL. Additional social support for socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals living with this disease may be warranted. Health practitioners should also be aware that age has different effects on QoL between T1D and T2D adults.

  19. Correlates of sitting time in adults with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Hajna, Samantha; Joseph, Lawrence; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a relationship between sitting time and cardiovascular disease mortality. Our aim was to identify socio-demographic, contextual, and clinical (e.g., body composition, diabetes duration) correlates of self-reported sitting time among adults with type 2 diabetes, a clinical population at high risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine if there was an inverse relationship between sitting and step counts in a diabetes cohort in whom we had previously identi...

  20. FTO, Type 2 Diabetes, and Weight Gain Throughout Adult Life

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, J. K.; Johansson, S; Sonestedt, E; Jonsson, A; Lie, R. T.; Platou, C. G. P.; Nilsson, P. M.; Rukh, G.; Midthjell, K.; Hveem, K; Melander, O; Groop, L.; Lyssenko, V.; Molven, A.; Orho-Melander, M

    2011-01-01

    This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/db10-1340/-/DC1. OBJECTIVE—FTO is the most important polygene identified for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether a variant in FTO affects type 2 diabetes risk entirely through its effect on BMI and how FTO influences BMI across adult life span.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Through regression models, we assessed the relationship between the FTO single nucleotide...

  1. Quaternary epitopes of α345(IV) collagen initiate Alport post-transplant anti-GBM nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping; Ge, Linna; Hertz, Jens Michael; Kashtan, Clifford E; Sado, Yoshikazu; Segal, Yoav; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2013-05-01

    Alport post-transplant nephritis (APTN) is an aggressive form of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease that targets the allograft in transplanted patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. Alloantibodies develop against the NC1 domain of α5(IV) collagen, which occurs in normal kidneys, including renal allografts, forming distinct α345(IV) and α1256(IV) networks. Here, we studied the roles of these networks as antigens inciting alloimmunity and as targets of nephritogenic alloantibodies in APTN. We found that patients with APTN, but not those without nephritis, produce two kinds of alloantibodies against allogeneic collagen IV. Some alloantibodies targeted alloepitopes within α5NC1 monomers, shared by α345NC1 and α1256NC1 hexamers. Other alloantibodies specifically targeted alloepitopes that depended on the quaternary structure of α345NC1 hexamers. In Col4a5-null mice, immunization with native forms of allogeneic collagen IV exclusively elicited antibodies to quaternary α345NC1 alloepitopes, whereas alloimmunogens lacking native quaternary structure elicited antibodies to shared α5NC1 alloepitopes. These results imply that quaternary epitopes within α345NC1 hexamers may initiate alloimmune responses after transplant in X-linked Alport patients. Thus, α345NC1 hexamers are the culprit alloantigen and primary target of all alloantibodies mediating APTN, whereas α1256NC1 hexamers become secondary targets of anti-α5NC1 alloantibodies. Reliable detection of alloantibodies by immunoassays using α345NC1 hexamers may improve outcomes by facilitating early, accurate diagnosis. PMID:23620401

  2. Adult type granulosa cell tumor in adult testis: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Song

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors can be classified into juvenile and adult types and more commonly occur in ovaries. Adult testicular granulosa cell tumors are extremely rare and only 29 cases of adult type have previously been reported. We report here a 28-year-old Caucasian man with a left testicular adult type granulosa cell tumor. The tumor measured 2.6 x 2.6 x 2.5 cm and was mitotically active (10/10 HPF. Immunohistochemical stains showed the tumor diffusely positive for inhibin and vimentin, and negative for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins, synaptophysin, HMB-45, OCT-4, placental-like alkaline phosphatase and lymphoid markers . The reported granulosa cell tumors in adult testis were briefly reviewed.

  3. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria. PMID:21327755

  4. A Galeazzi-variant type fracture-dislocation in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Vaishya; Sundar Kumar Shrestha; Abhishek Vaish

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Fracture of either radius or ulna with a dislocation either at the proximal or distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is not a common injury and is inherently unstable.Here we report a case series,with both-bone forearm fractures associated with dislocation of DRUJ,as a Galeazzi-variant type fracture-dislocation,and try to analyze this injury pattern.Methods:The study was based on 6 patients having Galeazzi-variant type fracture-dislocation of different age (20 to 45 years).All fractures were closed type.Two fractures involved the same level and three fractures were at different levels of radius and ulna shaft.After thorough examination and investigations they were treated with limited contact dynamic compression plate without additional fixation for DRUJ.Results:All cases were followed up for 24 weeks.The maximum incidence occurred in age group between 31 and 40 years.All the fractures of both radius and ulna were united in average time of 12 weeks.Range of motion of wrist and elbow,supination and pronation at final follow-up were normal.There was no subsequent re-subluxation or dislocation of the DRUJ in any of the cases.Conclusion:Galeazzi variant in adult is a new undescribed pattern of forearm with wrist injury.Stable open reduction and internal fixation of both-bone forearm fractures is mandatory,followed by 3 to 4 weeks of immobilization in a cast for the healing of disrupted DRUJ.

  5. Contact lens fitting in a patient with Alport syndrome and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria da Silva Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alport Syndrome is a hereditary disease that is caused by a gene mutation and affects the production of collagen in basement membranes; this condition causes hemorrhagic nephritis associated with deafness and ocular changes. The X-linked form of this disease is the most common and mainly affects males. Typical ocular findings are dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy. Some cases involving polymorphous corneal dystrophy and corneal ectasia have been previously described. Here we present a case report of a 33-year-old female with Alport syndrome, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, and irregular astigmatism, whose visual acuity improved with a rigid gas permeable contact lens.

  6. Contact lens fitting in a patient with Alport syndrome and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Juliana Maria da Silva; Andrade Sobrinho, Marcelo Vicente de; Lipener, César

    2016-02-01

    Alport Syndrome is a hereditary disease that is caused by a gene mutation and affects the production of collagen in basement membranes; this condition causes hemorrhagic nephritis associated with deafness and ocular changes. The X-linked form of this disease is the most common and mainly affects males. Typical ocular findings are dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy. Some cases involving polymorphous corneal dystrophy and corneal ectasia have been previously described. Here we present a case report of a 33-year-old female with Alport syndrome, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, and irregular astigmatism, whose visual acuity improved with a rigid gas permeable contact lens. PMID:26840166

  7. Contact lens fitting in a patient with Alport syndrome and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Maria da Silva Rosa; Marcelo Vicente de Andrade Sobrinho; César Lipener

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alport Syndrome is a hereditary disease that is caused by a gene mutation and affects the production of collagen in basement membranes; this condition causes hemorrhagic nephritis associated with deafness and ocular changes. The X-linked form of this disease is the most common and mainly affects males. Typical ocular findings are dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy. Some cases involving polymorphous corneal dystrophy and cornea...

  8. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Soo Kim; Soo Kyung Kim; Kyung Mi Sung; Yong Wook Cho; Seok Won Park

    2012-01-01

    In the near future, the majority of patients with diabetes will be adults aged 65 or older. Unlike young adults with diabetes, elderly diabetic people may be affected by a variety of comorbid conditions such as depression, cognitive impairment, muscle weakness (sarcopenia), falls and fractures, and physical frailty. These geriatric syndromes should be considered in the establishment of treatment goals in older adults with diabetes. Although there are several guidelines for the management of d...

  9. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the majority of patients with diabetes will be adults aged 65 or older. Unlike young adults with diabetes, elderly diabetic people may be affected by a variety of comorbid conditions such as depression, cognitive impairment, muscle weakness (sarcopenia, falls and fractures, and physical frailty. These geriatric syndromes should be considered in the establishment of treatment goals in older adults with diabetes. Although there are several guidelines for the management of diabetes, only a few are specifically designed for the elderly with diabetes. In this review, we present specific conditions of elderly diabetes which should be taken into account in the management of diabetes in older adults. We also present advantages and disadvantages of various glucose-lowering agents that should be considered when choosing a proper regimen for older adults with diabetes.

  10. Progression of Alport Kidney Disease in Col4a3 Knock Out Mice Is Independent of Sex or Macrophage Depletion by Clodronate Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munkyung Kim

    Full Text Available Alport syndrome is a genetic disease of collagen IV (α3, 4, 5 resulting in renal failure. This study was designed to investigate sex-phenotype correlations and evaluate the contribution of macrophage infiltration to disease progression using Col4a3 knock out (Col4a3KO mice, an established genetic model of autosomal recessive Alport syndrome. No sex differences in the evolution of body mass loss, renal pathology, biomarkers of tubular damage KIM-1 and NGAL, or deterioration of kidney function were observed during the life span of Col4a3KO mice. These findings confirm that, similar to human autosomal recessive Alport syndrome, female and male Col4a3KO mice develop renal failure at the same age and with similar severity. The specific contribution of macrophage infiltration to Alport disease, one of the prominent features of the disease in human and Col4a3KO mice, remains unknown. This study shows that depletion of kidney macrophages in Col4a3KO male mice by administration of clodronate liposomes, prior to clinical onset of disease and throughout the study period, does not protect the mice from renal failure and interstitial fibrosis, nor delay disease progression. These results suggest that therapy targeting macrophage recruitment to kidney is unlikely to be effective as treatment of Alport syndrome.

  11. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study included 36 male adults with a broad range of age and body-mass indices (BMIs, among which 18 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes type 2. The fecal bacterial composition was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and in a subgroup of subjects (N = 20 by tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The proportions of phylum Firmicutes and class Clostridia were significantly reduced in the diabetic group compared to the control group (P = 0.03. Furthermore, the ratios of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes as well as the ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella group to C. coccoides-E. rectale group correlated positively and significantly with plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.04 but not with BMIs. Similarly, class Betaproteobacteria was highly enriched in diabetic compared to non-diabetic persons (P = 0.02 and positively correlated with plasma glucose (P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota.

  12. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight December 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young ...

  13. Clinical features of adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome associated with different types of congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈果

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical features and hemodynamics of adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome in different types of congenital heart diseases (CHD) .Methods Patients with Eisenmenger syndrome with different types of CHD diagnosed by right heart

  14. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L;

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  15. Falls and Balance Impairments in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Thinking Beyond Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewston, Patricia; Deshpande, Nandini

    2016-02-01

    Older adults with type 2 diabetes have significantly higher incidence of falls than those without type 2 diabetes. The devastating consequences of falls include declines in mobility, activity avoidance, institutionalization and mortality. One of the most commonly identified risk factors associated with falls is impaired balance. Balance impairments and subsequent increased fall risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes are most commonly associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Consequently, DPN has been the central focus of falls prevention research and interventions for older adults with type 2 diabetes. However, isolated studies have identified adults with type 2 diabetes without overt complications of DPN to also be at increased fall risk. It is known that the ability to maintain balance is a complex skill that requires the integration of multiple sensorimotor and cognitive processes. Emerging evidence suggests that diabetes-related subtle declines in sensory functions (somatosensory, visual and vestibular), metabolic muscle function and executive functions may also contribute to increased fall risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of these type 2 diabetes-related sensorimotor and cognitive deficits may help to broaden approaches to falls prevention in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this mini review is to describe the impact of type 2 diabetes on sensorimotor and cognitive systems that may contribute to increased fall risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26778679

  16. Alport Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome diagnosed? Your healthcare provider will have to watch your signs, symptoms, and look at your family ... 05/2016 - 10:00am Philadelphia, PA Kidney Camp Sun, 07/17/2016 - 6:00pm Ingleside, IL Register ...

  17. A nonsense mutation in the COL4A5 collagen gene in a family with X-linked juvenile Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Heiskari, N; Zhou, J; Jensen, U B; Tryggvason, K

    1995-01-01

    47 of the COL4A5 gene in a patient with a juvenile form of X-linked Alport syndrome with deafness. This two base deletion caused a shift in the reading frame and introduced a premature stop codon which resulted in an alpha 5(IV)-chain shortened by 202 residues and lacking almost the entire NC1 domain....... Prenatal diagnosis on chorionic villi tissue, obtained from one of the female carriers in the family, revealed a male fetus hemizygous for the mutated allele. A subsequent prenatal test in her next pregnancy revealed a normal male fetus. Prenatal diagnosis of Alport syndrome has not previously been...

  18. Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Comparison to Peers Without Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Palladino, Dianne K.; Helgeson, Vicki S; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Siminerio, Linda M; Escobar, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study compared emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes on life path decisions, health behaviors, and psychological well-being during the transition out of high school. Methods Administered questionnaires during the senior year of high school and 1 year later to 117 emerging adults with diabetes and 122 emerging adults without diabetes. Comparisons were conducted with respect to health status, sex, and school status. Results Those with and without diabetes ...

  19. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Alarcón Patricia; Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo; Doubova (Dubova) Svetlana; Flores-Hernández Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the ...

  20. Type 1 diabetes: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaghan M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maureen Monaghan,1,2 Katherine Baumann2 1Center for Translational Science, Children's National Health System, 2George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for poor health outcomes, including poor glycemic control, acute and chronic complications, and emergency department admissions. During this developmental period, adolescent and young adult patients also experience significant changes in living situation, education, and/or health care delivery, including transferring from pediatric to adult health care. In recent years, professional and advocacy organizations have proposed expert guidelines to improve the process of preparation for and transition to adult-oriented health care. However, challenges remain and evidence-based practices for preparing youth for adult health care are still emerging. Qualitative research suggests that adolescent and young adult patients rely on health care providers to guide them through the transition process and appreciate a gradual approach to preparing for adult-oriented health care, keeping parents in supportive roles into young adulthood. Patients also benefit from specific referrals and contact information for adult care providers. Promising models of transition care include provision of transition navigators, attendance at a young adult bridge clinic, or joint visits with pediatric and adult care providers. However, much of this research is in its early stages, and more rigorous trials need to be conducted to evaluate health outcomes during transition into adult health care. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the transition process, patient and health care provider perceptions of transition care, and emerging evidence of successful models of care for engagement in adult-oriented health care. Recommendations and resources for health care providers are also presented. Keywords: type 1 diabetes

  1. Síndrome de Alport: reporte de caso y revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Urrego-Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 4 años de edad, con hermano gemelo dicigoto asintomático, hija de padres no consanguíneos y sin antecedentes familiares de enfermedad renal. Inicia su cuadro clínico con edemas y proteinuria severa como manifestación de un síndrome nefrótico primario de cambios mínimos; este se diagnosticó por biopsia renal y, en un principio, se manejó con esteroides. Su evolución no fue adecuada debido a múltiples recaídas que la clasificaron como síndrome nefrótico corticorresistente. Por ello, se requirió un cambio en su tratamiento y una segunda biopsia renal, cuyo resultado histológico sorprendió al grupo médico tratante porque los cambios en la membrana basal glomerular confirmaban que se trataba de un Síndrome de Alport.

  2. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  3. Assessment of Macular Function Using the SKILL Card in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamdhere, Kavita P.; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Bearse, Marcus A.; Lam, Wendy; Barez, Shirin; Adams, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    We assess vision function at reduced contrast and luminance in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using the SKILL Card. The SKILL Card discriminated patients having diabetes with or without retinopathy from the controls with high overall accuracy.

  4. Incidence of Remission in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The Diabetes & Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Karter, Andrew J.; Nundy, Shantanu; Parker, Melissa M.; Moffet, Howard H; Huang, Elbert S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence of remission in adults with type 2 diabetes not treated with bariatric surgery and to identify variables associated with remission. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We quantified the incidence of diabetes remission and examined its correlates among 122,781 adults with type 2 diabetes in an integrated healthcare delivery system. Remission required the absence of ongoing drug therapy and was defined as follows: 1) partial: at least 1 year of subdiabetic hyperglyce...

  5. Cognitive Performance Associated With Self-care Activities in Mexican Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Compeán Ortiz, Lidia Guadalupe; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Jose G; GÓMEZ MEZA, MARCO VINICIO; Therrien, Barbara; Salazar Gonzalez, Bertha C

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of memory-learning on self-care activities in adults with type 2 diabetes moderated by previous education/understanding in diabetes and to explore the explicative capacity of age, gender, schooling, diabetes duration, and glycemic control in memory-learning. METHODS: A descriptive correlational study was conducted in a randomized sample of 105 Mexican adult patients with type 2 diabetes at a community-based outpatient clinic. Eval...

  6. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative…

  7. Transition experiences and health care utilization among young adults with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvey KC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharine C Garvey,1 Jonathan A Finkelstein,2,3 Lori M Laffel,1,4 Victoria Ochoa,1 Joseph I Wolfsdorf,1 Erinn T Rhodes1 1Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, 3Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, 4Pediatric, Adolescent and Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the current status of adult diabetes care in young adults with type 1 diabetes and examine associations between health care transition experiences and care utilization. Methods: We developed a survey to assess transition characteristics and current care in young adults with type 1 diabetes. We mailed the survey to the last known address of young adults who had previously received diabetes care at a tertiary pediatric center. Results: Of 291 surveys sent, 83 (29% were undeliverable and three (1% were ineligible. Of 205 surveys delivered, 65 were returned (response rate 32%. Respondents (mean age 26.6 ± 3.0 years, 54% male, 91% Caucasian transitioned to adult diabetes care at a mean age of 19.2 ± 2.8 years. Although 71% felt mostly/completely prepared for transition, only half received recommendations for a specific adult provider. Twenty-six percent reported gaps exceeding six months between pediatric and adult diabetes care. Respondents who made fewer than three diabetes visits in the year prior to transition (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–16.5 or cited moving/relocation as the most important reason for transition (OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.3–31.5 were more likely to report gaps in care exceeding six months. Patients receiving current care from an adult endocrinologist (79% were more likely to report at least two diabetes visits in the past year (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.5–24.0 compared with those receiving diabetes care from a general internist/adult primary care doctor (17%. Two

  8. Living arrangements, intergenerational support types and older adult loneliness in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gierveld

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previous research has shown that living arrangements (independent households of those living alone or as a couple, versus coresident households encompassing adult children are important determinants of older adults' loneliness. However, little is known about intergenerational support exchanges in these living arrangements and their associations with loneliness. OBJECTIVE Our aim is to contribute to the knowledge on associations between living arrangements and loneliness, by taking into account and differentiating intergenerational support types. METHODS Using data from the Generations and Gender Surveys of three countries in Eastern Europe and two countries in Western Europe, Latent Class Analyses was applied to develop intergenerational support types for (a co-residing respondents in Eastern Europe, (b respondents in independent households in Eastern Europe, and (c respondents in independent households in Western Europe, respectively. Six types resulted, distinguishing patterns of upward support, downward support and get-togethers. Subsequently, we used linear regression analyses to examine differences in loneliness by region, living arrangements and intergenerational support type. RESULTS Findings show higher levels of loneliness in Eastern than in Western Europe. Older adults living alone are most lonely, older adults living with a partner are least lonely. Coresidence provides protection, but not to the same degree as a partner. In both co-resident and independent households there is a greater likelihood of being involved in support given to adult children than in support received from adult children. In both East and West European countries, older adults who are primarily on the receiving side are most lonely. CONCLUSIONS A better explanation of older adult loneliness is obtained if the direction of supportive exchanges with adult children is considered than if only living arrangements are considered.

  9. Clinical characteristics analysis of adult human adenovirus type 7 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients infected with human adenovirus type 7 and to provide guidance for early diagnosis and timely control of the outbreak.Methods A total of 301 patients infected with the human adenoviruses who were quarantined in hospital from December 2012 to February 2013 were observed.Epidemiological questionnaires were used to collect data of clinical features of the disease including

  10. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Kim E.; Terry Kit Selfe

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, in...

  11. Type 1 diabetes: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan M; Baumann K

    2016-01-01

    Maureen Monaghan,1,2 Katherine Baumann2 1Center for Translational Science, Children's National Health System, 2George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for poor health outcomes, including poor glycemic control, acute and chronic complications, and emergency department admissions. During this developmental period, adolescent and young adult patients also experience significant changes in li...

  12. Isolation of alveolar epithelial type II progenitor cells from adult human lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Naoya; Kubo, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takaya; Ota, Chiharu; Hegab, Ahmed E.; He, Mei; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Takashi; Kato, Hidemasa; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2010-01-01

    Resident stem/progenitor cells in the lung are important for tissue homeostasis and repair. However, a progenitor population for alveolar type II (ATII) cells in adult human lungs has not been identified. The aim of this study is to isolate progenitor cells from adult human lungs with the ability to differentiate into ATII cells. We isolated colony-forming cells that had the capability for self-renewal and the potential to generate ATII cells in vitro. These undifferentiated progenitor cells ...

  13. Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jeong Lee; Hye Mi Kang; Na Kyung Kim; Ju Yeon Yang; Jung Hyun Noh; Kyung Soo Ko; Byoung Doo Rhee; Dong-Jun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 226 older (age ≥65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score

  14. Clinical next generation sequencing of pediatric-type malignancies in adult patients identifies novel somatic aberrations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jorge Galvez; Corrales-Medina, Fernando F.; Maher, Ossama M.; Tannir, Nizar; Huh, Winston W; Rytting, Michael E.; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric malignancies in adults, in contrast to the same diseases in children are clinically more aggressive, resistant to chemotherapeutics, and carry a higher risk of relapse. Molecular profiling of tumor sample using next generation sequencing (NGS) has recently become clinically available. We report the results of targeted exome sequencing of six adult patients with pediatric-type malignancies : Wilms tumor(n=2), medulloblastoma(n=2), Ewing's sarcoma( n=1) and desmoplastic small round ce...

  15. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im; Ahn, Hong Seok

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. Th...

  16. Experiences of health care transition voiced by young adults with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvey KC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Katharine C Garvey,1,5 Margaret G Beste,2 Donna Luff,3,5 Astrid Atakov-Castillo,2 Howard A Wolpert,2,5 Marilyn D Ritholz4–61Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; 3Institute for Professionalism and Ethical Practice, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Behavioral and Mental Health Unit, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; 5Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care reported by posttransition emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D, with a focus on preparation for the actual transfer in care.Methods: Twenty-six T1D emerging adults (mean age 26.2±2.5 years receiving adult diabetes care at a single center participated in five focus groups stratified by two levels of current glycemic control. A multidisciplinary team coded transcripts and conducted thematic analysis.Results: Four key themes on the process of transfer to adult care emerged from a thematic analysis: 1 nonpurposeful transition (patients reported a lack of transition preparation by pediatric providers for the transfer to adult diabetes care; 2 vulnerability in the college years (patients conveyed periods of loss to follow-up during college and described health risks and diabetes management challenges specific to the college years that were inadequately addressed by pediatric or adult providers; 3 unexpected differences between pediatric and adult health care systems (patients were surprised by the different feel of adult diabetes care, especially with regards to an increased focus on diabetes complications; and 4 patients’ wish list for improving the transition process (patients recommended enhanced pediatric transition counseling, implementation of adult clinic orientation programs, and peer

  17. CASE REPORT: Adult Type – Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Childhood: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj B. Nikumbh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In pediatric patients, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML accounts for 2 to 5% of all the leukemia’s but has an incidence ofless than 1 case per 1,00,000 population younger than 20 years of age per year. CML is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder. Asper WHO classification, CML is included in Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative disorder. Adult type - CML is extremely rare in childhood. Case history: We report one such a case of Adult type of CML in an 11 year old male patient with chief complaints of abdominal distension since 1 month and cough with feversince 4-5 days. The clinical differential diagnosis was malaria, storage disorder or tropical splenomegaly. Though biologicalbehaviour and prognosis are identical to that of adult type, we are reporting this case because of its extremely uncommon incidence.

  18. Factors Predicting Glycemic Control in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ju Chiu, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFew studies have prospectively assessed the explanatory effects of demographics, clinical conditions, treatment modality, and general lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control in large heterogeneous samples of middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. We hierarchically examined these factors, focused especially on the effects of modifiable factors (ie, general lifestyle behaviors, and compared predictive patterns between middle-aged and older adults.MethodsWe used nationally representative data from the 1998 and 2000 Health and Retirement Study (HRS and the HRS 2003 Diabetes Study. We analyzed data from 379 middle-aged adults (aged 51-64 y and 430 older adults (aged ≥65 y who self-reported having type 2 diabetes at baseline.ResultsAmong middle-aged adults, demographic factors and clinical conditions were the strongest predictors of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels. However, among older adults, treatment modality (diet only, oral medication, or insulin only or in combination with other regimens significantly affected HbA1c levels. Lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, drinking, and body weight control, independent of the effects of demographics, clinical conditions, and treatment modality, significantly affected HbA1c levels. An increase of 1 healthy behavior was associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels of more than 1 percentage point.ConclusionOur findings provide support for current diabetes guidelines that recommend a lifestyle regimen across the entire span of diabetes care and highlight the need to help both sociodemographically and clinically disadvantaged middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes as well as older adults who exhibit poor adherence to medication recommendations to achieve better glycemic control.

  19. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J;

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control...... control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota....... = 0.04). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies to...

  20. Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher J; Dhillon, Preet K.; Subramanian, SV; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among adult men and women in India consuming different types of vegetarian diets compared with those consuming non-vegetarian diets. Methods: We used cross-sectional data of 156,317 adults aged 20–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey (2005–06). Association between types of vegetarian diet (vegan, lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian) and...

  1. Writing in a Digital World: Self-Correction While Typing in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Yoram M; Kavé, Gitit; Umanski, Daniil

    2015-10-01

    This study examined how younger and older adults approach simple and complex computerized writing tasks. Nineteen younger adults (age range 21-31, mean age 26.1) and 19 older adults (age range 65-83, mean age 72.1) participated in the study. Typing speed, quantitative measures of outcome and process, and self-corrections were recorded. Younger adults spent a lower share of their time on actual typing, and demonstrated more prevalent use of delete keys than did older adults. Within the older group, there was no correlation between the total time spent on the entire task and the number of corrections, but increased typing speed was related to more errors. The results suggest that the approach to the task was different across age groups, either because of age or because of cohort effects. We discuss the interplay of speed and accuracy with regard to digital writing, and its implications for the design of human-computer interactions. PMID:26473904

  2. Adult onset glycogen storage disease type II (adult onset Pompe disease): report and magnetic resonance images of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology Resident, Atlanta, GA (United States); Banerjee, Sima [Emory University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Atlanta, GA (United States); Terk, Michael [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII), also referred to as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency, is a rare inherited condition caused by a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity. The condition is often classified by age of presentation, with infantile and late onset variants (Laforet et al. J Neurology 55:1122-8, 2000). Late onset tends to present with progressive proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency (Winkel et al. J Neurology 252:875-84, 2005). We report two cases of biopsy confirmed adult onset GSDII, along with key Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. (orig.)

  3. Clinical next generation sequencing of pediatric-type malignancies in adult patients identifies novel somatic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge Galvez; Corrales-Medina, Fernando F; Maher, Ossama M; Tannir, Nizar; Huh, Winston W; Rytting, Michael E; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric malignancies in adults, in contrast to the same diseases in children are clinically more aggressive, resistant to chemotherapeutics, and carry a higher risk of relapse. Molecular profiling of tumor sample using next generation sequencing (NGS) has recently become clinically available. We report the results of targeted exome sequencing of six adult patients with pediatric-type malignancies : Wilms tumor(n=2), medulloblastoma(n=2), Ewing's sarcoma( n=1) and desmoplastic small round cell tumor (n=1) with a median age of 28.8 years. Detection of druggable somatic aberrations in tumors is feasible. However, identification of actionable target therapies in these rare adult patients with pediatric-type malignancies is challenging. Continuous efforts to establish a rare disease registry are warranted. PMID:25859559

  4. Adult-onset Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Type f Caused by Acute Lower Leg Cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yuko; Kakuta, Risako; Araki, Makoto; Sato, Taigo; Gu, Yoshiaki; Yano, Hisakazu; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, routine Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination began in 2013. Thus, similar to other countries, a strain shift is expected in the near future. We experienced a case of H. influenzae type f (Hif) bacteremia in a 66-year-old man. The primary focus of the infection was the soft tissue of the left lower leg, which is an extremely rare origin in adults. Subsequently, we conducted multilocus sequence typing and identified the strain as sequence type 124, which is the most common invasive strain of Hif worldwide. This case may mark the beginning of an Hif strain shift in Japan. PMID:27374690

  5. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  6. Change and stability in depressive symptoms in young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oris, Leen; Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Goethals, Eveline; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goubert, Liesbet; Moons, Philip; Weets, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    This study examined inter-individual differences in depressive symptom development in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Individuals with persistent depressive symptoms were at risk for suboptimal development in terms of illness perceptions, illness functioning, and self-esteem. Individuals reporting no/minimal depressive symptoms over time were characterized by the most optimal development. PMID:26546395

  7. Risk factors associated with albuminuria in Kuwaiti adults with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Afaf Al-Adsani

    2012-01-01

    There are no available data about the factors associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Kuwaiti individuals with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted on 154 consecutive Kuwaiti adults with type 2 diabetes who attended the diabetic out-patient clinic at Al-Sabah Hospital to determine the factors associated with albuminuria among them. Albuminuria was considered to be present if the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio test or 24-h collection was positive on two occasions. There were 102 (6...

  8. Multi-type Childhood Abuse, Strategies of Coping, and Psychological Adaptations in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša; Barišić, Marijana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using t...

  9. Spiritual Well-Being and Quality of Life of Iranian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetes is a major public health problem. Little is known about the spiritual well-being and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) in Iranian Muslim patients with diabetes. This study investigated the spiritual well-being and QOL of Iranian adults with type 2 diabetes and the association between spiritual well-being, QOL, and depression. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done among 203 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Isfahan, Iran. Quality of life and spiritu...

  10. Adult-Onset Type 1 Diabetes and Pregnancy: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bonsembiante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From 5% to 10% of diabetic patients have type 1 diabetes. Here we describe three cases of adult-onset type 1 diabetes in pregnancy treated at our clinic between 2009 and 2012. Two patients came for specialist examination during pregnancy, the third after pregnancy. These women had no prior overt diabetes and shared certain characteristics, that is, no family diabetes history, age over 35, normal prepregnancy BMI, need for insulin therapy as of the early weeks of pregnancy, and high-titer anti-GAD antibody positivity. The patients had persistent diabetes after delivery, suggesting that they developed adult-onset type 1 diabetes during pregnancy. About 10% of GDM patients become pancreatic autoantibody positive and the risk of developing overt diabetes is higher when two or more autoantibodies are present (particularly GAD and ICA. GAD-Ab shows the highest sensitivity for type 1 diabetes prediction. We need to bear in mind that older patients might conceivably develop an adult-onset type 1 diabetes during or after pregnancy. So we suggest that women with GDM showing the described clinical features shall be preferably tested for autoimmunity. Pregnant patients at risk of type 1 diabetes should be identified to avoid the maternal and fetal complications and the acute onset of diabetes afterwards.

  11. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong; Song, YoonJu

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary dat...

  12. Complementary Therapies Used Among Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Aceh, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Niswah Niswah; Chinnawong T; Manasurakarn J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to reveal Complementary Therapies (CT) use among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Aceh, Indonesia, and to determine the reasons of using the CT.Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-reported questionnaire. One hundred and fifty four adult patients with T2DM has been completed the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data.Results: Herbs as a part of biological based therapies were the m...

  13. Evaluation of type 2 diabetes genetic risk variants in Chinese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Wei; Walters, Robin G; Holmes, Michael V;

    2016-01-01

    , demonstrated significant interactions with several measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference [WC], WHR and percentage body fat [PBF]; all p interaction < 1 × 10(-4)), with a greater effect being observed in leaner adults. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study provides further evidence of shared genetic......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered many risk variants for type 2 diabetes. However, estimates of the contributions of risk variants to type 2 diabetes predisposition are often based on highly selected case-control samples, and reliable estimates of population......-level effect sizes are missing, especially in non-European populations. METHODS: The individual and cumulative effects of 59 established type 2 diabetes risk loci were measured in a population-based China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study of 93,000 Chinese adults, including >7,100 diabetes cases. RESULTS...

  14. Sudden death syndrome in adult cows associated with Clostridium perfringens type E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, L M; Farber, M; Venzano, A; Jost, B H; Parma, Y R; Fernandez-Miyakawa, M E

    2013-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens type E is considered a rare toxinotype and an infrequent cause of enterotoxemia of lambs, calves, and rabbits. Until now, only cases of young animal of C. perfringens type E bovine enterotoxemia, characterized by hemorrhagic enteritis and sudden death, have been reported. The present report details the genotypic characterization of C. perfringens type E isolates obtained from intestinal samples of adult cattle during an outbreak of enterotoxemia in Argentina. The sequences of several housekeeping genes of these isolates were analyzed and compared with those obtained from calves in North America showing a clonal unique lineage. PMID:23354004

  15. Screening for coeliac disease in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: myths, facts and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Sjoerd F; Tushuizen, Maarten E; von Blomberg, Boudewina M E; Bontkes, Hetty J; Mulder, Chris J; Simsek, Suat

    2016-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing the present knowledge on the clinical consequences of concomitant coeliac disease (CD) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The cause of the increased prevalence of CD in T1DM patients is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Current screening guidelines for CD in adult T1DM patients are not uniform. Based on the current evidence of effects of CD on bone mineral density, diabetic complications, quality of life, morbidity and mortality in patients with T1DM, we advise periodic screening for CD in adult T1DM patients to prevent delay in CD diagnosis and subsequent CD and/or T1DM related complications. PMID:27478507

  16. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCH Janssen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three adult sibs (one female, two males with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A>G, c.1154C>T. These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members.

  17. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCH, Janssen; LAJ, Kluijtmans; S.B., Wortmann

    2014-01-01

    We report three adult sibs (one female, two males) with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A > G, c.1154C > T). These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members. PMID:26674492

  18. Brief Report: The Effects of Typed and Spoken Modality Combinations on the Language Performance of Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Janice; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of five adult males with autism investigated which combination of input/output modalities (typed or spoken) enhanced the syntactic, semantic, and/or pragmatic performance of individuals with autism when engaging in conversations with a normal language adult. Results found that typed communications facilitated the use of longer utterances.…

  19. Functional expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in spinal motoneurons of the adult turtle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Canto-Bustos

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR. In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons.

  20. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized) met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants). Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2. PMID:26788520

  1. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized) met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants). Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2. PMID:26788520

  2. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E. Innes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2. In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants. Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2.

  3. THE MEANING OF INSULIN PUMPE THERAPY TO ADULT PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Heidi; Aagaard, Hanne

    Background: Insulin pump therapy is an increasing field. Studies have documented a clinical relevant decrease in HbA1c, especially among adults type 1 diabetes patients with initial high HbA1c. However, only few studies investigate the lived experience with and the meaning of the insulin pump...... therapy in adulthood. Aim: The study explore the lived experiences and the meaning of insulin pump therapy in adulthood. Method: The study is based on a phenomenological – hermeneutic approach. Four adult type 1 diabetes patients were interviewed about their insulin pump therapy. The interviews were based...... meaningfulness in relation to diabetes self-care and self-management. The bolus guide, as a rather new feature, seem to play an important role. Conclusion: Based on The Shifting Perspectives Model of Chronic Illness, we concluded that a well established insulin pump therapy lead to changing the patients...

  4. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult type 1 patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Burcu; Oner, Can; Bayramicli, Oya Uygur; Yorulmaz, Elif; Feyizoglu, Guneş; Oguz, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Celiac disease, an autoimmune disease, is related to immune mediated intolerance to gluten. Some studies suggest that Celiac Disease was 20 times more frequent in type 1 patients with diabetes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in hospital based type 1 diabetic adults. Methods: Our study was carried out retrospectively in Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Educational Hospital in Istanbul between 2012–2013. The cohort comprised 482 type 1 patients with diabetes attending the diabetes outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.5 package program. Student’s t tests is used for comparative analyses. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The cohort included 482 type 1 patients with diabetes. Fifty seven of them were not evaluated for Endomysium antibody positivity. Fifteen of the remaining 425 patients were positive for anti endomysial antibody (3.5%). The prevalence of biopsy proven celiac disease was 2.3% (10/425). There was no significant difference between Endomysial antibody positive and negative groups in regard of age, sex, or duration of the disease. Conclusion: This study confirms that the celiac disease is common in type 1 diabetic patients. Since a small proportion of celiac patients are symptomatic this disorder should be screened in all adult type 1 patients with diabetes by antiendomysium antibody. PMID:26430419

  5. Risk of asthma in adult twins with type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Duffy, D L; Kyvik, K O; Skytthe, A; Backer, V

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between asthma, type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index (BMI) in adult twins. METHODS: We performed record linkage between questionnaire-defined asthma and BMI, and hospital discharge diagnoses of type 2 diabetes in 34,782 Danish twins, 20-71 years of age....... RESULTS: The risk of asthma was increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes relative to nondiabetic subjects both in men (13.5%vs 7.5%), P = 0.001 and in women (16.6%vs 9.6%), P = 0.001. The result remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, marital status...... between asthma and type 2 diabetes, 0.20 (0.01-0.40), P = 0.047; between asthma and BMI in women, 0.15 (0.07-0.22), P < 0.000; and between BMI and type 2 diabetes, 0.40 (0.29-0.43), P < 0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma, type 2 diabetes and increased BMI are strongly associated in adults, particularly in women...

  6. Socioeconomic status and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a mediation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Houle, Janie; Lauzier-Jobin, François; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; MEUNIER, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Côté, José; Lespérance, François; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Bherer, Louis; Lambert, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of health behaviors (self-management and coping), quality of care, and individual characteristics (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, illness representations) as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control. Methods A sample of 295 adult patients with type 2 diabetes was recruited at the end of a diabetes education course. Glycemic control was evaluated through glycosylated hemoglobin ...

  7. Computer-based diabetes self-management interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pal; Eastwood, S. V.; Michie, S.; Farmer, A. J.; Barnard, M L; Peacock, R.; Wood, B.; Inniss, J. D.; Murray, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the commonest chronic medical conditions, affecting around 347 million adults worldwide. Structured patient education programmes reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications four-fold. Internet-based self-management programmes have been shown to be effective for a number of long-term conditions, but it is unclear what are the essential or effective components of such programmes. If computer-based self-management interventions improve outcomes in type 2 diab...

  8. Personality and self-esteem in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Moons, Philip; Weets, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The present study examined (1) mean-level differences in self-esteem and Big Five personality traits between individuals with and without diabetes; and (2) demographic, clinical, and psychological correlates of patients’ self-esteem and Big Five. Research design and methods. A total of 478 emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) were selected from the Belgian Diabetes Registry and completed questionnaires on personality, self-esteem, and diabetes-related distress...

  9. Impact of different malocclusion types on the vertical mandibular asymmetry in young adult sample

    OpenAIRE

    Al Taki, Amjad; Ahmed, Mohammed H.; Ghani, Hussain A.; Al Kaddah, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the vertical mandibular asymmetry in a group of adult patients with different types of malocclusions, based on Angle's dental classification. Materials and Methods: A sample of 102 patients (age range 19–28) who went for routine orthodontic treatment in the institution were divided into four groups: Class I, 26 patients; Class II/1, 30 patients; Class III, 23 patients; and control group (CG) with normal occlusion, 23 patients. Condylar asymm...

  10. Incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications among Saudi adult patients at primary health care center

    OpenAIRE

    Alsenany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed type 2 diabetes and its role in complications among adult Saudi patients. [Subjects] Patients attending four primary health care centers in Jeddah were enrolled. [Methods] A cross-sectional design study among Saudi patients attending Ministry of Health primary health care centers in Jeddah was selected for use by the Primary Health Care administration. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes and risk factors ...

  11. Prenatal induced chronic dietary hypothyroidism delays but does not block adult-type Leydig cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Teerds, Katja J

    2009-02-01

    Transient hypothyroidism induced by propyl-2-thiouracyl blocks postpartum Leydig cell development. In the present study, the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on the formation of this adult-type Leydig cell population were investigated, using a more physiological approach. Before mating, dams were put on a diet consisting of an iodide-poor feed supplemented with a low dose of perchlorate and, with their offspring, were kept on this diet until death. In the pups at day 12 postpartum, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were increased by 20-fold, whereas thyroxine and free tri-iodothyronine levels were severely depressed, confirming a hypothyroid condition. Adult-type progenitor Leydig cell formation and proliferation were reduced by 40-60% on days 16 and 28 postpartum. This was followed by increased Leydig cell proliferation at later ages, suggesting a possible slower developmental onset of the adult-type Leydig cell population under hypothyroid conditions. Testosterone levels were increased 2- to 10-fold in the hypothyroid animals between days 21 and 42 postpartum compared with the age-matched controls. Combined with the decreased presence of 5alpha-reductase, this implicates a lower production capacity of 5alpha-reduced androgens. In 84-day-old rats, after correction for body weight-to-testis weight ratio, plasma insulin-like factor-3 levels were 35% lower in the hypothyroid animals, suggestive of a reduced Leydig cell population. This is confirmed by a 37% reduction in the Sertoli cell-to-Leydig cell ratio in hypothyroid rats. In conclusion, we show that dietary-induced hypothyroidism delays but, unlike propyl-2-thiouracyl, does not block the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population. PMID:19033542

  12. Foxj3 transcriptionally activates Mef2c and regulates adult skeletal muscle fiber type identity

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Matthew S.; Shi, Xiaozhong; Voelker, Kevin A.; Grange, Robert W.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Robert E Hammer; Garry, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle differentiation, fiber type diversity and muscle regeneration are incompletely defined. Forkhead transcription factors are critical regulators of cellular fate determination, proliferation, and differentiation. We identified a forkhead/winged helix transcription factor, Foxj3, which was expressed in embryonic and adult skeletal muscle. To define the functional role of Foxj3, we examined Foxj3 mutant mice. Foxj3 mutant mice are viable but have signi...

  13. Disability and Physical Exercise in adults with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Kierkegaard, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Myotonic dystrophy type 1(DM1) is an inherited, slowly progressive, multi-system disease. There is no overall picture of its effect in individuals, and there is a lack of scientific evidence to support recommendations on physical exercise. Aim: The aims of the work described in this thesis were to explore aspects of functioning, disability and contextual factors in adults with DM1 with regard to different stages of the disease; to describe the reliability and feasib...

  14. Cellular origins of type IV collagen networks in developing glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dale R; Hudson, Billy G; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; St John, Patricia L

    2009-07-01

    Laminin and type IV collagen composition of the glomerular basement membrane changes during glomerular development and maturation. Although it is known that both glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes produce different laminin isoforms at the appropriate stages of development, the cellular origins for the different type IV collagen heterotrimers that appear during development are unknown. Here, immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and podocytes of immature glomeruli synthesize collagen alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha1(IV). However, intracellular labeling revealed that podocytes, but not endothelial or mesangial cells, contain collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV). To evaluate the origins of collagen IV further, we transplanted embryonic kidneys from Col4a3-null mutants (Alport mice) into kidneys of newborn, wildtype mice. Hybrid glomeruli within grafts containing numerous host-derived, wildtype endothelial cells never expressed collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV). Finally, confocal microscopy of glomeruli from infant Alport mice that had been dually labeled with anti-collagen alpha 5(IV) and the podocyte marker anti-GLEPP1 showed immunolabeling exclusively within podocytes. Together, these results indicate that collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) originates solely from podocytes; therefore, glomerular Alport disease is a genetic defect that manifests specifically within this cell type. PMID:19423686

  15. Sleep and eating behavior in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kilkus, J.M.; Booth, J N; Bromley, L.E.; Darukhanavala, A.P.; Imperial, J.G.; Penev, P. D.

    2011-01-01

    Insufficient quantity and quality of sleep may modulate eating behavior, everyday physical activity, overall energy balance, and individual risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of habitual sleep quantity and quality with the self-reported pattern of eating behavior in 53 healthy urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (30F/23M; mean [SD] age: 27 [4] y; BMI: 23.9 [2.3] kg/m2) while taking into consideration the amount of their everyday physical activit...

  16. Benzonphenone-type UV filters in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, source and exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters are commonly used in our daily life. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-3), 4-hydroxy benzophenone (4-HBP), 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), 2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (BP-2) and 2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-8) were measured in urine samples from Chinese young adults. The results indicated that Chinese young adults were widely exposed to BP-3, BP-1, and 4-HBP, with the median concentrations of 0.55, 0.21, and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was found between males and females, between urban and rural population. The correlations between urinary concentrations provided important indications for sources and metabolic pathways of target compounds. The estimated daily excretion doses of BP-3, 4-HBP, BP-1, BP-2 and BP-8 were 27.2, 2.24, 5.86, 0.76 and 0.30 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The ratio of exposure to excretion must be considered for the exposure assessment with chemicals based on urine measurement. This is the first nationwide study on BP-derivatives with young adults in China. - Highlights: • Five BP-derivatives in urine were analyzed for Chinese young adults over China. • No difference was found between males and females, between urban and rural groups. • Concentration correlation provide indications for sources and metabolic pathways. • Ratio of exposure to excretion must be considered for the exposure assessment. - Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters were frequently detected in urine samples from Chinese young adults, indicating their wide applications in China

  17. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa-Alarcón Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1 To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2 To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3 To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348. The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%, diverse without community participation (44.3%; widowed (32.0%; nonfriends-restricted (7.6%; nonfamily-restricted (4.0%. Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1. Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates.

  18. Factors that influence age of type 1 diabetes onset and beta cell function in children and adults with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Giannopoulou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether type 1 and type 2 diabetes associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence age of type 1 diabetes onset and residual beta cell function in children and adults with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. In the second part, a pilot, non-randomized, controlled intervention trial is performed, in order to examine whether a single autologous cord blood infusion can change the natural course of metabolic and immune function in children type 1 diabetes. Di...

  19. Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsA total of 226 older (age ≥65 years adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K. A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI.ResultsThe prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (≥74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003, educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001, and systolic blood pressure (≥135 mm Hg vs. ≤120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012 were associated with MCI.ConclusionMore concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alissa; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility lim...

  1. Comparison of three trap types for adult catching of whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus in tomato greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Nombela, G.; Chu, CC.; Heneberry, T.; Muñiz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The attractiveness of three trap types to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype (= Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet adult was compared in two choice experiments in a greenhouse at the Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Madrid, Spain.  Yellow sticky cards equipped with light-emitting-diodes (LED-YC) caught more adults per trap per day than yellow sticky card (YC) traps.YC traps caught significantly more B. tabaci and E. mundus adults than plastic cup traps...

  2. Sex Differences in the Association Between Birth Weight and Adult Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2015-12-01

    Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using a cohort of 113,801 men and 109,298 women, born 1936-1983, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, Denmark. During 5.6 million person-years of follow-up, 7,750 men and 4,736 women had a diagnosis of adult type 2 diabetes (30 years of age or older) obtained from national registers. When birth weights between 3.251 and 3.750 kg were used as the reference group for each sex separately, women with birth weights in the categories of 2.000 to 2.750 kg and 4.751 to 5.500 kg had hazard ratios [HRs] of type 2 diabetes of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.34-1.59) and 1.56 (1.20-2.04), respectively, whereas men had HRs of 1.20 (1.12-1.30) and 0.93 (0.76-1.15). Thus, sex modified the association, with stronger risk estimates of type 2 diabetes in women at both low and high birth weights compared with men (P = 0.001). In conclusion, birth weight is more strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in women than in men. Future search for sex-specific causal mechanisms may provide new insights into the early origins of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26253610

  3. A novel type of self-beating cardiomyocytes in adult mouse ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to investigate the presence of resident heart cells that are distinct from terminally-differentiated cardiomyocytes. Adult mouse heart was coronary perfused with collagenase, and ventricles were excised and further digested. After spinning cardiomyocyte-containing fractions down, the supernatant fraction was collected and cultured without adding any chemicals. Two to five days after plating, some of rounded cells adhered to the culture dish, gradually changed their shape and then started self-beating. These self-beating cells did not appreciably proliferate but underwent a further morphological maturation process to form highly branched shapes with many projections. These cells were mostly multinucleated, well sarcomeric-organized and expressed cardiac marker proteins, defined as atypically-shaped cardiomyocytes (ACMs). Patch-clamp experiments revealed that ACMs exhibited spontaneous action potentials arising from the preceding slow diastolic depolarization. We thus found a novel type of resident heart cells in adult cardiac ventricles that spontaneously develop into self-beating cardiomyocytes.

  4. Niemann-Pick type C: focus on the adolescent/adult onset form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Marano, Massimo; Florio, Lucia; De Santis, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an inherited sphingolipidosis characterized by progressive neurological deterioration and early mortality. The symptomatology and disease progression of NP-C are markedly affected by the age at onset of neurological manifestations, and categorization into early-infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adolescent/adult neurological onset forms can aid evaluation of disease course and responses to therapy. Here, we review current information on the detection, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of NP-C, with a focus on the adolescent/adult-onset form. A recent analysis indicated that the combined incidence of NP-C related to NPC1 gene mutations (NPC1) and NP-C related to NPC2 gene mutations (NPC2) is approximately 1 case in every 89 000 live births. In particular, late-onset phenotypes might well provide a greater contribution to the overall incidence than has previously been reported. Some neuropathological features in NP-C are held in common with other advanced age-onset diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Visceral symptoms such as splenomegaly are frequently asymptomatic in patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C, and are only occasionally detected during routine ultrasound assessments. In contrast, most patients with adolescent/adult-onset exhibit some degree of slowly progressive, non-disease-specific movement disorders (e.g. cerebellar ataxia), and/or more pathognomonic neurological signs such as vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. An increasing number of adolescent/adult-onset cases have been reported following initial recognition of cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric signs. The recent development and implementation of new clinical screening tools (e.g. the NP-C suspicion index) and biomarkers (e.g. plasma oxysterols) should help identify patients who warrant further investigation and possible treatment. PMID:26998855

  5. Speech-in-Noise Perception Deficit in Adults with Dyslexia: Effects of Background Type and Listening Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Marjorie; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is associated with impaired speech-in-noise perception. The goal of the present research was to further characterize this deficit in dyslexic adults. In order to specify the mechanisms and processing strategies used by adults with dyslexia during speech-in-noise perception, we explored the influence of background type,…

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Levent; Macabéo, Bérengère; Caliskan, Zafer; Altinel, Serdar; Satman, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is low (9.1% in 2014), despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%. Methods A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza. Results Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY), while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective. Conclusions Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective. PMID:27322384

  7. The Relationship between Type D Personality and Suicidality in Low-Income, Middle-Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak; Ha, Jee Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and e...

  8. Association of Vitamin D Levels with Type 2 Diabetes in Older Working Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mauss, Daniel; Jarczok, Marc N.; Hoffmann, Kristina; Thomas, G Neil; Fischer, Joachim E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a role in the development of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (DM). Aim of the study was to explore the association of vitamin D levels with prevalent DM in a sample of predominantly healthy working adults older than 45 years. METHODS: This cross-sectional study (2009-2011) involved 1821 employees of a German engineering company (83.1% male, mean age 51.9 ±5.6 years). Sociodemographics and medical history were assessed by...

  9. Validation of an information–motivation–behavioral skills model of self-care among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Junling; Wang, Jingli; Zhu, Yaocheng; Yu, Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-care is a crucial component of diabetes management. But comprehensive behavior change frameworks are needed to provide guidance for the design, implementation, and evaluation of diabetes self-care programs in diverse populations. We tested the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in a sample of Chinese adults with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study of 222 Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes was conducted in a primary care center. We collected info...

  10. Patient perspectives on peer support for adults with type 1 diabetes: a need for diabetes-specific social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Filges, Tine; Willaing, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Lene E Joensen,1 Tine Filges,2 Ingrid Willaing1 1Health Promotion Research, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, 2Filges Analysis, Hellerup, Denmark Aim: To explore the function of peer support from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes in Denmark. Methods: The study population consisted of 20 adults with type 1 diabetes. The sample was diverse in relation to educational background, age, sex, and cohabitation status. Inspired by action research, several methods and perspectives on peer...

  11. Regulatory focus and adherence to self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Rinat; Van Dijk, Dina; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to test the association between regulatory focus of adults with type 2 diabetes and their adherence to two types of self-care behaviors - lifestyle change (e.g. physical activity and diet) and medical care regimens (blood-glucose monitoring, foot care and medication usage). Second, to explore whether a fit between the message framing and patients' regulatory focus would improve their intentions to adhere specifically when the type of behavior fits the patients' regulatory focus as well. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 130 adults with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized in an academic medical center. The patients completed a set of questionnaires that included their diabetes self-care activities, regulatory focus, self-esteem and demographic, socioeconomic and clinical data. In addition, participants were exposed to either a gain-framed or a loss-framed message, and were then asked to indicate their intention to improve adherence to self-care behaviors. A multivariable linear regression model revealed that promoters reported higher adherence to lifestyle change behaviors than preventers did (B = .60, p = .028). However, no effect of regulatory focus on adherence to medical care regimens was found (B = .46, p = .114). In addition, preventers reported higher intentions to adhere to medical care behaviors when the message framing was congruent with prevention focus (B = 1.16, p = .023). However, promoters did not report higher intentions to adhere to lifestyle behaviors when the message framing was congruent with promotion focus (B = -.16, p = .765). These findings justify the need to develop tailor-made interventions that are adjusted to both patients' regulatory focus and type of health behavior. PMID:26576471

  12. Strong Associations Between the Pesticide Hexachlorocyclohexane and Type 2 Diabetes in Saudi Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Othman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide exposure has been implicated as an environmental risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the body burden of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH with the risk of T2DM in a sample of adults from Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were obtained from 280 adult subjects. Hexachlorocyclohexane isomer residues were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data on lifestyle, dietary habits, and health status were gathered. Associations between exposure and T2DM were analyzed by logistic regression. Around 49% of adults enrolled in this study were diagnosed with T2DM. Among various HCH isomers, serum concentrations of the pesticides β and γ-HCH were most strongly and consistently linked to T2DM in our studied subjects. Associations of HCH varied across five components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four out of the five components, especially elevated triglycerides, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL-cholesterol. This study in line with earlier ones about diabetes associated with HCH pesticide exposure and proposes possible hormonal pathways worthy of further investigation.

  13. Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula-Maria Rintala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore family members’ experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members’ views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members’ participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members’ point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes.

  14. Adherence decision making in the everyday lives of emerging adults with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatak EA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Pyatak,1 Daniella Florindez,1 Marc J Weigensberg2 1Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Southern California, 2Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore motivations underlying nonadherent treatment decisions made by young adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Eight emerging adults each completed a series of semi-structured interviews concerning their approaches to diabetes care, relationships with clinicians, and everyday activities and routines. A narrative thematic analysis was used to develop initial themes and refine them through continued data collection and review of the research literature. Results: Five themes were identified as motivating nonadherence: (1 efforts to mislead health care providers, (2 adherence to alternative standards, (3 treatment fatigue and burnout, (4 social support problems, and (5 emotional and self-efficacy problems. Conclusion: Instances of nonadherence generally involved a combination of the five identified themes. Participants reporting nonadherence also described difficulties communicating with care providers regarding their treatment. Nonjudgmental communication between providers and emerging adults may be particularly important in promoting positive health outcomes in this population. Keywords: compliance, health behavior, nonadherence, motivations

  15. Correlates of Age Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black and White Adults in a Community

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The risk factors for middle-age onset of type 2 diabetes are well known. However, information is scant regarding the age onset of type 2 diabetes and its correlates in community-based black and white relatively young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 2,459) and type 2 diabetic (n = 144) adults aged 18–50 years who were followed for an average of 16 years. RESULTS The incidence rate of the onset of type 2 diabetes was 1....

  16. Sex Differences in the Association Between Birth Weight and Adult Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using a...... weights between 3.251 and 3.750 kg were used as the reference group for each sex separately, women with birth weights in the categories of 2.000 to 2.750 kg and 4.751 to 5.500 kg had hazard ratios [HRs] of type 2 diabetes of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.34-1.59) and 1.56 (1.20-2.04), respectively, whereas men had HRs...... of 1.20 (1.12-1.30) and 0.93 (0.76-1.15). Thus, sex modified the association, with stronger risk estimates of type 2 diabetes in women at both low and high birth weights compared with men (P = 0.001). In conclusion, birth weight is more strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in women than in men...

  17. Overexpression of SMPX in adult skeletal muscle does not change skeletal muscle fiber type or size.

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    Einar Eftestøl

    Full Text Available Mechanical factors such as stretch are thought to be important in the regulation of muscle phenotype. Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX is upregulated by stretch in skeletal muscle and has been suggested to serve both as a transcription factor and a mechanosensor, possibly giving rise to changes in both fiber size and fiber type. We have used in vivo confocal imaging to study the subcellular localization of SMPX in skeletal muscle fibers of adult rats using a SMPX-EGFP fusion protein. The fusion protein was localized predominantly in repetitive double stripes flanking the Z-disc, and was excluded from all nuclei. This localization would be consistent with SMPX being a mechanoreceptor, but not with SMPX playing a role as a transcription factor. In vivo overexpression of ectopic SMPX in skeletal muscle of adult mice gave no significant changes in fiber type distribution or cross sectional area, thus a role of SMPX in regulating muscle phenotype remains unclear.

  18. Strength training improves muscle quality and insulin sensitivity in Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Brooks, Jennifer E. Layne, Patricia L. Gordon , Ronenn Roubenoff , Miriam E. Nelson , Carmen Castaneda-Sceppa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispanics are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to their high prevalence of diabetes and poor glycemic control. Strength training is the most effective lifestyle intervention to increase muscle mass but limited data is available in older adults with diabetes. We determined the influence of strength training on muscle quality (strength per unit of muscle mass, skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, and metabolic control including insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment –HOMA-IR, C-Reactive Protein (CRP, adiponectin and Free Fatty Acid (FFA levels in Hispanic older adults. Sixty-two community-dwelling Hispanics (>55 y with type 2 diabetes were randomized to 16 weeks of strength training plus standard care (ST group or standard care alone (CON group. Skeletal muscle biopsies and biochemical measures were taken at baseline and 16 weeks. The ST group show improved muscle quality (mean±SE: 28±3 vs CON (-4±2, p2 and type II fiber cross-sectional area (720±285µm2 compared to CON (type I: -164±290µm2, p=0.04; and type II: -130±336µm2, p=0.04. This was accompanied by reduced insulin resistance [ST: median (interquartile range -0.7(3.6 vs CON: 0.8(3.8, p=0.05]; FFA (ST: -84±30µmol/L vs CON: 149±48µmol/L, p=0.02; and CRP [ST: -1.3(2.9mg/L vs CON: 0.4(2.3mg/L, p=0.05]. Serum adiponectin increased with ST [1.0(1.8µg/mL] compared to CON [-1.2(2.2µg/mL, p

  19. Dados clínicos e da audição em indivíduos com Síndrome de Alport Clinical data and hearing of individuals with Alport syndrome

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    Fatima Regina Abreu Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Alport (SA é uma desordem hereditária, caracterizada por nefropatia, muitas vezes, com perda auditiva sensorioneural e com defeitos oculares. OBJETIVO: Analisar os dados clínicos e da audição em indivíduos com SA, com ênfase na correlação entre alteração renal e perda auditiva (PA. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico prospectivo com coorte transversal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: 37 indivíduos realizaram avaliação otorrinolaringológica e testes audiológicos. Foram considerados para a análise estatística da PA os resultados das audiometrias de tons puros. RESULTADOS: Nos 28 indivíduos que apresentavam alterações clínicas foram encontrados 46,4% de DLX e 53,6% de AD. A PA ocorreu em 46,1% dos avaliados. 12 pacientes tinham PA no exame audiométrico 11,5%, leve e 34,6%, moderada. Comparados os familiares normais aos que tinham alteração renal, todos os que apresentavam PA mostravam comprometimento renal. Em 30,8% a configuração era descendente suave em agudos e em 11,5% era plana. CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição dos padrões de herança não coincide com o descrito na literatura. A PA é um achado extra-renal freqüente. Existe associação entre acometimento renal e PA (p= 0,009. As configurações mais freqüentes foram: descendente suave em agudos e plana. Não há associação entre a PA e a idade. Não existe correlação entre PA e sexo neste grupo.Alport Syndrome (AS is a hereditary disease, characterized by nephropathy, often times with sensorineural hearing loss and ocular defects. AIM: to analyze the clinical and hearing information from individuals with AS, more specifically the correlation between renal disorder and hearing loss (HL. STUDY DESIGN: clinical prospective with cross-sectional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 37 individuals underwent otorhinolaryngological evaluation and were submitted to audiologic tests. For HL statistical analysis we considered only the results from the pure tone audiometries

  20. Risk factors associated with albuminuria in Kuwaiti adults with type 2 diabetes

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    Afaf Al-Adsani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no available data about the factors associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN in Kuwaiti individuals with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted on 154 consecutive Kuwaiti adults with type 2 diabetes who attended the diabetic out-patient clinic at Al-Sabah Hospital to determine the factors associated with albuminuria among them. Albuminuria was considered to be present if the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio test or 24-h collection was positive on two occasions. There were 102 (66.2% women and 52 (33.8% men, with a mean age of 49.1 ± 10.1 years and a median duration of diabetes for 6 years. Hypertension was found in 60.8% of the patients and 16.3% had an HbA 1c <7%. Albuminuria was found in 43.5% of the patients. The prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria was 27.3% and 16.2%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, the factors that were significantly associated with albuminuria were hypertension - both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, HbA 1c , retinopathy, duration of diabetes, and modality of treatment. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that hyper-tension was the main independent risk factor associated with albuminuria (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.1- 15.0; P = 0.03. In conclusion, although albuminuria is common among Kuwaiti adults with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence is lower than that reported for other populations in spite of the poor glycemic control and the high prevalence of hypertension. Factors associated with albuminuria appear to be similar to other populations, and hypertension was the most independent factor. Early recognition and treatment of hypertension is an important strategy to prevent or delay DN as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A population-based study is warranted to confirm these findings and to search for genetic linkage for the development of DN.

  1. Analysis of epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the adult population of Moscow

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    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a disease that presents a global medical problem. It is necessary to implement an in-depth analysis of the epidemiological situation of type 2 diabetes mellitus for planning and organizing specialized medical help to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.AimTo rate the basic epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in actual clinical practice using the informational database of national registry of diabetic patients.Materials and methodsEpidemiological analyses were performed in two administrative districts of Moscow. From 1999 to 2011 48978 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were aged 18 years and older were registered. We used methods of clinical, analytical and statistical epidemiology with elements of descriptive research.ResultsThe prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 1590 per hundred thousand, most patients were in the 60–64 and 70–74 age groups, and approximately 80% of patients were older than 55 years. The morbidity rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 138,72 per hundred thousand and was found to be higher in women at 1,89. The mortality rate of adult patients with diabetes mellitus was 0,83, mostly in men of all ages. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most of the registered cases of deaths (34,4%. The average life expectancy appeared to be 75,24±0,45 years, although women lived 6 years longer than men. The average duration of the disease was 10,04±0,34 years. A total of 0,4% of patients underwent hospital treatment and the average length of treatment was 17–18 days. The total number of days of disablement was an average of 307,33±30,13 days (80% of patients were older than 55 years. In the study group, a mean grade of НbА1c <7% was observed in 56,6% of patients. The prevalence rate of detected chronic complications was considerably lower compared to other epidemiological studies.ConclusionsOur epidemiological analyses revealed a number of features and consistent

  2. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes : The intervening role of illness coping and perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassart, J.; Luyckx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Moons, P.; Weets, I.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18–3

  3. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Comparison of two types of adult phantoms in terms of organ doses from diagnostic CT procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapidly increasing number of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) procedures in the recent decades has spurred heightened concern over the potential risk to patients. Although an accurate organ dose assessment tool has now become highly desirable, existing software packages depend on stylized computational phantoms that were originally developed more than 40 years ago, exhibiting very large discrepancies when compared with phantoms that are anatomically realistic. However, past comparative studies did not focus on CT protocols for adult patients. This study was designed to quantitatively compare two types of phantoms, the stylized phantoms and a pair of recently developed RPI-adult male and adult female (RPI-AM and RPI-AF) phantoms, for various CT scanning protocols involving the chest, abdomen-pelvis and chest-abdomen-pelvis. Organ doses were based on Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX code and a detailed CT scanner model for the GE LightSpeed 16. Results are presented as ratios of organ doses from the stylized phantoms to those from the RPI phantoms. It is found that, for most organs contained in the scan volume, the ratios were within the range of 0.75-1.16. However, the stomach doses are significantly different and the ratio is found to be up to 1.86 in male phantoms and 2.29 in the female phantoms due to the anatomical differences between the two types of phantoms. Organs that lie near a scan boundary also exhibit a significant relative difference in organ doses between the two types of phantoms. This study concludes that, due to relatively low x-ray energies, CT doses are very sensitive to organ shape, size and position, and thus anatomically realistic phantoms should be used to avoid the dose uncertainties caused by the lack of anatomical realism. The new phantoms, such as the RPI-AM and AF phantoms that are designed using advanced surface meshes, are deformable and will make it possible to match the anatomy of a specific patient leading to further

  5. Cognitive function and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in young adults

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    Satyajeet Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM has been associated with impairment of cognitive function. Studies show a strong negative correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and cognitive function in adult patients above the mean age of 60 years. In healthy adults, age-related cognitive impairment is mostly reported after the age of 60 years, hence the decline in cognitive function can be a part of normal aging without diabetes. Since the majority of patients with diabetes are between the ages of 40 and 59 years, it is crucial to ascertain whether the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin negatively correlate with the levels of cognitive function scores in adult patients of age 60 years or younger, similar to the way it correlates in patients older than 60 years of age, or not. Aims: We observed the relationship between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and the levels of cognitive function in patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two patients with T2DM underwent cognitive assessment testing by using a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS, and their cognitive function scores were correlated with their glycosylated hemoglobin levels, durations of diabetes, and levels of education. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 19.5% of the studied patients. We found a weakly negative relationship between the glycosylated hemoglobin level and cognitive function score (r = -0.292, a moderately negative relationship between the duration of diabetes and cognitive function score (r = -0.303, and a weakly positive relationship between the level of education and cognitive function score (r = 0.277. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment affects one-fifth of the patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. It is weakly negatively related to the glycosylated hemoglobin level, moderately negatively related to the duration of diabetes, and weakly positively related to the level of education.

  6. Impaired Fasting Glucose in Omani Adults with no Family History of Type 2 Diabetes

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    Sawsan Al-Sinani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG among Omani adults with no family history (FH of diabetes and to investigate the factors behind the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D, while excluding a FH of diabetes. Methods: A total of 1,182 Omani adults, aged ≥40 years, visited the Family Medicine & Community Health Clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, on days other than the Diabetes Clinic days, from July 2010 to July 2011. The subjects were interviewed and asked if they had T2D or a FH of T2D. Results: Only 191 (16% reported no personal history of T2D or FH of the disease. Of these, anthropometric and biochemical data was complete in 159 subjects. Of these a total of 42 (26% had IFG according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Body mass index, fasting insulin, haemoglobin A1C and blood pressure (BP, were significantly higher among individuals with IFG (P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.01 and P <0.01, respectively. In addition, fasting insulin, BP and serum lipid profile were correlated with obesity indices (P <0.05. Obesity indices were strongly associated with the risk of IFG among Omanis, with waist circumference being the strongest predictor. Conclusion: Despite claiming no FH of diabetes, a large number of Omani adults in this study had a high risk of developing diabetes. This is possibly due to environmental factors and endogamy. The high prevalence of obesity combined with genetically susceptible individuals is a warning that diabetes could be a future epidemic in Oman.

  7. In vivo quantification of brain injury in adult Niemann-Pick Disease Type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Crespy, Lydie; Rico, Audrey; Faivre, Anthony; Soulier, Elisabeth; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Kaphan, Elsa; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Development of surrogate markers is necessary to assess the potential efficacy of new therapeutics in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NP-C). In the present study, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, a quantitative MRI imaging technique sensitive to subtle brain microstructural changes, was applied in two patients suffering from adult NP-C. Statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each patient's MTR maps with those of a group of 34 healthy controls to quantify and localize the extent of brain injury of each patient. Using this method, pathological changes were evidenced in the cerebellum, the thalami and the lenticular nuclei in both patients and also in the fronto-temporal cortices in the patient with the worse functional deficit. In addition, white matter changes were located in the midbrain, the cerebellum and the fronto-temporal lobes in the patient with the higher level of disability and in only one limited periventricular white matter region in the other patient. A 6-month follow-up was performed in the patient with the lower functional deficit and evidenced significant extension of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) injuries during the following period (14% of increased injury for GM and 53% for WM). This study demonstrates that significant brain injury related to clinical deficit can be assessed in vivo in adult NP-C using MTR imaging. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that MTR imaging may be a relevant candidate for the development of biomarker in NP-C. PMID:21397539

  8. Pharmacological approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes in fasting adults during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sifri S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Saud Al SifriEndocrinology Department, Alhada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi ArabiaI read with great interest the recent review article by AlMaatouq regarding the pharmacological approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes in fasting adults during Ramadan.1 This article stated that "A recent prospective study of more than 1000 patients with T2DMwho fasted during Ramadan found that the risk of hypoglycemia associated with a vildagliptin-based regimen (vildagliptin 100 mg once daily was lower than that of a sulfonylurea-based regimen (both with and without metformin."1 This statement needs to be corrected.Ramadan is the lunar month observed each year in which Muslim adults will fast. This fast includes abstinence from eating, drinking, and smoking from sunrise to sunset. Hypoglycemia during this period represents the greatest health risk for these patients. Recently introduced modulators of the incretin system are the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors, which include sitagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, saxagliptin, and linagliptin. These agents are not associated with hypoglycemia.View original paper by AlMaatouq

  9. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes: the role of intrauterine hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The role of intrauterine hyperglycemia and future risk of type 2 diabetes in human offspring is debated. We studied glucose tolerance in adult offspring of women with either gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, taking the impact of both intrauterine hyperglycemia and...... intrauterine environment appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes/pre-diabetes in adult offspring of primarily Caucasian women with either diet-treated GDM or type 1 diabetes during pregnancy....... genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes into account. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The glucose tolerance status following a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was evaluated in 597 subjects, primarily Caucasians, aged 18-27 years. They were subdivided into four groups according to maternal...

  10. Identification of noncollagenous sites encoding specific interactions and quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen: implications for Alport gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong Suk; Colon, Selene; Hellmark, Thomas; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2008-12-12

    Defective assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane causes Alport syndrome, a hereditary glomerulonephritis progressing to end-stage kidney failure. Assembly of collagen IV chains into heterotrimeric molecules and networks is driven by their noncollagenous (NC1) domains, but the sites encoding the specificity of these interactions are not known. To identify the sites directing quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen, correctly folded NC1 chimeras were produced, and their interactions with other NC1 monomers were evaluated. All alpha1/alpha 5 chimeras containing alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 replicated the ability of alpha 5 NC1 to bind to alpha3NC1 and co-assemble into NC1 hexamers. Conversely, substitution of alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 by alpha1NC1 abolished these quaternary interactions. The amino-terminal 58 residues of alpha3NC1 encoded binding to alpha 5 NC1, but this interaction was not sufficient for hexamer co-assembly. Because alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 are necessary and sufficient for assembly into alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5 NC1 hexamers, whereas the immunodominant alloantigenic sites of alpha 5 NC1 do not encode specific quaternary interactions, the findings provide a basis for the rational design of less immunogenic alpha 5(IV) collagen constructs for the gene therapy of X-linked Alport patients. PMID:18930919

  11. Patient perspectives on peer support for adults with type 1 diabetes: a need for diabetes-specific social capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Lene E; Filges, Tine; Willaing, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the function of peer support from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes in Denmark. Methods The study population consisted of 20 adults with type 1 diabetes. The sample was diverse in relation to educational background, age, sex, and cohabitation status. Inspired by action research, several methods and perspectives on peer support were explored and tested. Workshops and group and individual interviews were performed. Systematic text condensation was used to analyze data, supplemented with theory-based interpretive analysis. Results Adults with type 1 diabetes found peer support highly relevant to reduce a burdensome feeling of diabetes-specific loneliness. Peer support showed potential to create diabetes-specific social capital not only by creating reciprocal social support between peers but also, more importantly, by creating space for genuine trust and a feeling of communality. There was a widespread feeling of the pervasive impact of diabetes on daily life and thus the relevance of discussing all aspects of life. However, participants perceived peer support as particularly relevant in relation to big changes in life, for example, in family life, at work, or through treatment events such as getting an insulin pump. Conclusion Peer support programs focusing on creating and establishing diabetes-specific social capital using participatory approaches seem highly relevant among adults with type 1 diabetes. Content, methods, and effects of peer support need further exploration in collaboration with adults with type 1 diabetes.

  12. Ibuprofen for acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-type headache (TTH) affects about one person in five worldwide. It is divided into infrequent episodic TTH (fewer than one headache per month), frequent episodic TTH (1 to 14 headaches per month), and chronic TTH (15 headaches a month or more). Ibuprofen is one of a number of...... analgesics suggested for acute treatment of headaches in frequent episodic TTH. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral ibuprofen for treatment of acute episodic TTH in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and our own in-house database to January...... 2015. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers' websites. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised, placebo-controlled studies (parallel-group or cross-over) using oral ibuprofen for symptomatic relief of an acute...

  13. An Adult Case of Bartter Syndrome Type III Presenting with Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Jung; Hwang, Won Min; Yun, Sung-Ro; Park, Moon Hyang

    2016-03-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) I-IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting salt reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. This report highlights clinicopathological findings and genetic studies of classic BS in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with persistent mild proteinuria for 2 years. A renal biopsy demonstrated a mild to moderate increase in the mesangial cells and matrix of most glomeruli, along with marked juxtaglomerular cell hyperplasia. These findings suggested BS associated with mild IgA nephropathy. Focal tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration were also observed. A genetic study of the patient and her parents revealed a mutation of the CLCNKB genes. The patient was diagnosed with BS, type III. This case represents an atypical presentation of classic BS in an adult patient. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy combined with genetic analysis and clinicolaboratory findings are important in making an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26755355

  14. Differences Among Older Adults in the Types of Dental Services Used in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard J; Hyde, Jody Schimmel; Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore differences in the socioeconomic, demographic characteristics of older adults in the United States with respect to their use of different types of dental care services. The 2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) collected information about patterns of dental care use and oral health from individuals aged 55 years and older in the United States. We analyze these data and explore patterns of service use by key characteristics before modeling the relationship between service use type and those characteristics. The most commonly used service category was fillings, inlays, or bonding, reported by 43.6% of those with any utilization. Just over one third of those with any utilization reported a visit for a crown, implant, or prosthesis, and one quarter reported a gum treatment or tooth extraction. The strongest consistent predictors of use type are denture, dentate, and oral health status along with dental insurance coverage and wealth. Our results provide insights into the need for public policies to address inequalities in access to dental services among an older US population. Our findings show that lower income, less wealthy elderly with poor oral health are more likely to not use any dental services rather than using only preventive dental care, and that cost prevents most non-users who say they need dental care from going to the dentist. These results suggest a serious access problem and one that ultimately produces even worse oral health and expensive major procedures for this population in the future. PMID:27284127

  15. Speech-in-noise perception deficit in adults with dyslexia: effects of background type and listening configuration.

    OpenAIRE

    Dole, Marjorie; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is associated with impaired speech-in-noise perception. The goal of the present research was to further characterize this deficit in dyslexic adults. In order to specify the mechanisms and processing strategies used by adults with dyslexia during speech-in-noise perception, we explored the influence of background type, presenting single target-words against backgrounds made of cocktail party sounds, modulated speech-derived noise or stationary noise. We also evaluated t...

  16. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). ...

  17. Understanding the Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Falls in Older Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Roman de Mettelinge; Dirk Cambier; Patrick Calders; Nele Van Den Noortgate; Kim Delbaere

    2013-01-01

    Background: Older adults with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are at increased risk of falling. The current study aims to identify risk factors that mediate the relationship between diabetes and falls. Methods: 199 older adults (104 with diabetes and 95 healthy controls) underwent a medical screening. Gait (GAITRite (R)), balance (AccuGait (R) force plate), grip strength (Jamar (R)), and cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test) were assessed. Falls were prospectivel...

  18. Galectin-1 is expressed in early-type neural progenitor cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaizumi Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs proliferate in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and generate new neurons throughout life. A multimodal protein, Galectin-1, is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs and implicated in the proliferation of the NPCs in the DG. However, little is known about its detailed expression profile in the NPCs and functions in adult neurogenesis in the DG. Results Our immunohistochemical and morphological analysis showed that Galectin-1 was expressed in the type 1 and 2a cells, which are putative NSCs, in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the adult mouse DG. To study Galectin-1's function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we made galectin-1 knock-out mice on the C57BL6 background and characterized the effects on neurogenesis. In the SGZ of the galectin-1 knock-out mice, increased numbers of type 1 cells, DCX-positive immature progenitors, and NeuN-positive newborn neurons were observed. Using triple-labeling immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses, we found that the proliferation of the type-1 cells was increased in the SGZ of the galectin-1 knock-out mice, and we propose that this proliferation is the mechanism for the net increase in the adult neurogenesis in these knock-out mice DG. Conclusions Galectin-1 is expressed in the neural stem cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

  19. Revisão sobre a perda auditiva na Síndrome de Alport, analisando os aspectos clínicos, genéticos e biomoleculares Revision about hearing loss in the Alport's syndrome, analyzing the clinical, genetic and bio-molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima R. A. Alves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Alport é uma desordem hereditária, caracterizada por hematúria, freqüentemente levando à falência renal. Pode ser acompanhada de alterações extra-renais, tais como: perda auditiva (PA sensório-neural e alterações oculares. São descritas formas dominantes ligadas ao X, devidas às mutações no lócus COL4A5 e uma forma autossômica recessiva resultando de mutações no lócus COL4A3 ou COL4A4. Ainda foi sugerido um tipo autossômico dominante de SA. A doença decorre de alterações nas cadeias de colágeno tipo IV e os sintomas refletem o comprometimento da membrana basal de vários órgãos. As redes alfa3.alfa4.alfa5(IV ocorrem no rim, na cóclea e no olho. O objetivo foi caracterizar a PA neste grupo de pacientes. Quando o quadro progride para o estágio final de falência renal, o melhor método de tratamento é o transplante, que tem contribuído para o aumento da sobrevida. Nesta revisão bibliográfica, observamos que: 1. A SA caracteriza-se por hematúria, que evolui para falência renal e pode ser acompanhada de manifestações extra-renais. A PA é um achado extra-renal freqüente e um dos primeiros sintomas na SA, sendo um fator relevante para o prognóstico da evolução da doença renal; 2. A SA é genética e decorre da alteração das cadeias do colágeno tipo IV nas membranas basais; 3. A perda auditiva na SA é sensório-neural, de intensidade variável, progressiva e simétrica. Acomete as freqüências médias e altas; 4. Na investigação das perdas auditivas, o otorrinolaringologista deve incluir um exame de urina. É fundamental que o otologista atue no acompanhamento deste grupo de pacientes.Alport Syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by hematuria, which often leads to renal failure. It may also be accompanied by extra-renal alterations, such as: sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular abnormalities. Dominant forms related to the X chromosome and caused by mutations in the locus COL4A5

  20. Clinical significance of TOAST typing of ischemic stroke in young adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke in young adults brings extremely hurts for their families and society, and the etiological factors and risk factors are different in the world.OBJECTIVE: To analyze and evaluate clinical significance of ischemic stroke in young adults by using TOAST typing.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 64 young adults with acute ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University from September 2005 to June 2006.There were 44 males and 20 females and their age ranged from 15 to 45 years. All patients met with the diagnostic criteria of the Fourth National Cerebrovarscular Academic Meeting and certainly diagnosed with CT or MRI examination. In addition, all patients provided the confirmed consent.METHODS: ① TOAST typing: Based on X-ray of thoracic part, electrocardiography, blood routine, blood glucose, electrolure, lipid, blood coagulation test, anticardiolipin antibody, antinuclear antibody, anti-double chain DNA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, crook agglutination test, syphilis antibody and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test, patients received TOAST typing, including large-artery atherosclerotic stroke (LA), small-artery occlusion lacunar (SA), cardioembolism (CE), stroke of other demonstrated etiology (SOE), and stroke of other undemonstrated etiology (SUE). ② Risk factors: Stages of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, smoking and drinking of patients were observed. Blood pressure was measured twice after onset of acute stroke, and values of total cholesterol (TC) and/or triacylglycerol (TG) were measured more than twice to finally diagnose hyperlipemia. Diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus: fasting≥7.0 mmol/L; 2 hours after administrating glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. Risk factor of smoking defined as more than 10 smokes every day in the

  1. Characterization of Fiber Types in Different Muscles of the Hindlimb in Female Weanling and Adult Wistar Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed lesser diameter and distribution of fiber types in different skeletal muscles from female Wistar rats using a histoenzymology Myofibrillar Adenosine Tri-phosphatase (mATPase) method. Fragments from muscles were frozen and processed by mATPase in different pH. Adult and weanling rat soleus muscles presented a predominance of type I fibers and larger fiber diameters. In the plantar muscle in adult rats, the type IIB fibers demonstrated greater lesser diameter while in the weanling animals, types I and IIB fibers were larger. The plantar muscle of animals of both ages was composed predominantly of the type IID fibers. The type IID fibers were observed in similar amounts in the lateral gastrocnemius and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. Type IIB fibers showed predominance and presented higher size in comparison with other types in the EDL muscle. The present study shows that data on fiber type distribution and fiber lesser diameter obtained in adult animals cannot always be applied to weanling animals of the same species. Using the mATPase, despite the difficult handling, is an important tool to determine the different characteristics of the specific fibers in the skeletal muscle tissue

  2. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

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    Soledad Bárez-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4 but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2. To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. AIM: This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. RESULTS: Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice. No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction and skeletal muscle (33% reduction, but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1 is expressed. CONCLUSIONS: The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  3. Differences in Amounts and Types of Physical Activity by Obesity Status in US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Colleen K.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the physical activity patterns across levels of obesity among US adults. Methods: The frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activities were compared across obesity status in 7695 adults from NHANES, 1999-2006. Results: Significantly more normal-weight adults engaged in moderate- and vigorous- intensity activities…

  4. Reutilization of surfactant phosphatidylcholine by isolated adult rat type II cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reutilization of surfactant phospholipids by the mammalian lung has been demonstrated in vivo by other laboratories. The authors have reported the uptake of native surfactant labeled with radioisotopes or fluorescent fatty acids previously. This work has been extended to determine if surfactant lipids are utilized intact or metabolized and resynthesized. Adult rat type II cells were prepared by trypsin treatment and purified by albumin gradient centrifugation and differential adherence. After 22 hrs in culture the cells were incubated in serum-free medium containing 3% bovine serum albumin, rat lung surfactant (20 μM phosphatidylcholine), 1,2[1-14C]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and [3H-methyl-choline]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. After a 90 min incubation the cells were scraped from the culture dishes, disrupted by homogenization and lamellar bodies isolated from other cellular fractions. The ratio of the labeled lipids in the medium was compared to that in the lamellar body fractions and in the combined residual fractions. These experiments showed that the ratio of the lamellar body label to the medium label is 0.87 and that for the combined residual fractions the ratio is 1.05 suggesting that the phosphatidylcholine is taken up and reutilized as an intact molecule by the type II cells

  5. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sang-Jin; LEE, YOONNA; Lee, Seokhwa; Choi, Kyungran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National...

  6. Shared decision-making: the perspectives of young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiley J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Janice Wiley,1 Mary Westbrook,1 Jerry R Greenfield,2,3 Richard O Day,4 Jeffrey Braithwaite11Centre for Clinical Governance Research in Health, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, University of New South Wales, 2Diabetes and Obesity Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 3Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Shared decision-making (SDM is at the core of patient-centered care. We examined whether young adults with type 1 diabetes perceived the clinician groups they consulted as practicing SDM.Methods: In a web-based survey, 150 Australians aged 18–35 years and with type 1 diabetes rated seven aspects of SDM in their interactions with endocrinologists, diabetes educators, dieticians, and general practitioners. Additionally, 33 participants in seven focus groups discussed these aspects of SDM.Results: Of the 150 respondents, 90% consulted endocrinologists, 60% diabetes educators, 33% dieticians, and 37% general practitioners. The majority of participants rated all professions as oriented toward all aspects of SDM, but there were professional differences. These ranged from 94.4% to 82.2% for "My clinician enquires about how I manage my diabetes"; 93.4% to 82.2% for "My clinician listens to my opinion about my diabetes management"; 89.9% to 74.1% for "My clinician is supportive of my diabetes management"; 93.2% to 66.1% for "My clinician suggests ways in which I can improve my self-management”; 96.6% to 85.7% for “The advice of my clinician can be understood”; 98.9% to 82.2% for “The advice of my clinician can be trusted”; and 86.5% to 67.9% for “The advice of my clinician is consistent with other members of the diabetes team". Diabetes educators received the highest ratings on all aspects of SDM. The mean weighted average of

  7. Complementary Therapies Used Among Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Aceh, Indonesia

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    Niswah Niswah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to reveal Complementary Therapies (CT use among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Aceh, Indonesia, and to determine the reasons of using the CT.Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-reported questionnaire. One hundred and fifty four adult patients with T2DM has been completed the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data.Results: Herbs as a part of biological based therapies were the most popular of CT use among subjects in this study (100% followed by mind-body intervention (94.2%, manipulation and body based methods (19.5% and alternative medical methods (3.9%. The reasons for using each CT based on the belief in effects of CT on lowering blood sugar (100%, maintaining healthy body (76.6%, and relieving symptoms of DM (35.7%. Relatives and friends (98.7% were main resources to obtain the CT information, and the family members (91.0% were main support of CT use. While, the nature (89.0% was the easiest source to access a CT product, followed by local markets (36.4%.Conclusion: This study found that herbs were believed by all subjects could reducing blood glucose, maintaining healthy body, and relieving symptoms of DM. Family members and easy to access the CT products from nature took the important role in influencing a person to use CT. More experimental studies examining effects of each CT especially herbal medicine and mind-body intervention are needed in the future.

  8. Age-related changes in motor unit number estimates in adult patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van Dijk; C. Verhamme; I.N. van Schaik; H.J. Schelhaas; E. Mans; L.J. Bour; D.F. Stegeman; M.J. Zwarts

    2010-01-01

    Background: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is known as a demyelinating hereditary neuropathy. Secondary axonal dysfunction is the most important determinant of disease severity. In adult patients, clinical progression may be because of further axonal deterioration as was shown with comp

  9. Age-related changes in motor unit number estimates in adult patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.P. van; Verhamme, C.; Schaik, I.N. van; Schelhaas, H.J.; Mans, E.; Bour, L.J.; Stegeman, D.F.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is known as a demyelinating hereditary neuropathy. Secondary axonal dysfunction is the most important determinant of disease severity. In adult patients, clinical progression may be because of further axonal deterioration as was shown with comp

  10. SKELETAL MUSCLE SODIUM GLUCOSE CO-TRANSPORTERS IN OLDER ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES UNDERGOING RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the expression of the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter system (SGLT3) in skeletal muscle of Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. Subjects (65+/-8 yr) were randomized to resistance training (3x/wk, n=13) or standard of care (controls, n=5) for 16 weeks. Skeletal muscle SGL...

  11. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in euthymic Adult Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I: Neuropsychological and Neurofunctional Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Vargas Upegui; Andrés Correa-Palacio; Jenny García; Carlos López-Jaramillo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging during the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder type I have been performed in the last decade. A critical review of the findings is therefore required. Methods: The major databases (Pubmed, EMBASE, Lilacs, and Scielo) were consulted searching studies of fMRI in euthymic adults with Bipolar disorder type I without timeframe limits. Results: The neuroanatomical and neuropsycholo gical findings are presented in two parts: 1)...

  12. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were ...

  13. [A case of adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) triggered by an overseas travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masayoshi; Shimada, Takuya; Hamaoka, Shima; Shibata, Masunari; Naito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old male presented with abnormal behavior and consciousness disturbance on the day after traveling abroad and was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory tests showed hyperammonemia and hypercitrullinemia. The electro-encephalogram showed frontal dominant bilateral slow δ burst. He had a peculiar taste for nuts. But he didn't take nuts during the overseas travel for 3 days. The family history revealed that his younger brother died of a status epilepticus of unknown cause at the age of 29. These findings were compatible with hepatic encephalopathy due to adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). Gene analysis provided a definite diagnosis of CTLN2. Diet and drug therapy have improved his condition. He is due to have liver transplantation which is the only established radical treatment for CTLN2 if his condition becomes worse. The present case shows that cessation of the habitual intake of nuts only for 3 days could lead to onset of CTLN2. PMID:25283831

  14. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  15. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  16. Invasive pneumococcal disease in healthy adults: increase of empyema associated with the clonal-type Sweden(1-ST306.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Grau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD occurs mainly in the elderly and patients with co-morbidities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, serotypes and genotypes causing IPD in healthy adults. METHODS: We studied 745 culture-proven cases of IPD in adult patients aged 18-64 years (1996-2010. Patients were included in two groups: 1. adults with co-morbidities, and 2. healthy adults, who had no prior or coincident diagnosis of a chronic or immunosuppressive underlying disease. Microbiological studies included pneumococcal serotyping and genotyping. RESULTS: Of 745 IPD episodes, 525 (70% occurred in patients with co-morbidities and 220 (30% in healthy adults. The healthy adults with IPD were often smokers (56% or alcohol abusers (18%. As compared to patients with co-morbidities, the healthy adults had (P<0.05: younger age (43.5+/-13.1 vs. 48.7+/-11.3 years; higher proportions of women (45% vs. 24%, pneumonia with empyema (15% vs. 7% and infection with non-PCV7 serotypes including serotypes 1 (25% vs. 5%, 7F (13% vs. 4%, and 5 (7% vs. 2%; and lower mortality (5% vs. 20%. Empyema was more frequently caused by serotype 1. No death occurred among 79 patients with serotype 1 IPD. There was an emergence of virulent clonal-types Sweden(1-ST306 and Netherlands(7F-ST191. The vaccine serotype coverage with the PCV13 was higher in healthy adults than in patients with co-morbidities: 82% and 56%, respectively, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: In this clinical study, one-third of adults with IPD had no underlying chronic or immunosuppressive diseases (healthy adults. They were often smokers and alcohol abusers, and frequently presents with pneumonia and empyema caused by virulent clones of non-PCV7 serotypes such as the Sweden(1-ST306. Thus, implementing tobacco and alcohol abuse-cessation measures and a proper pneumococcal vaccination, such as PCV13 policy, in active smokers and alcohol abusers may diminish the burden of IPD in adults.

  17. Lower vitamin D status is more common among Saudi adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 than in non-diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Yakout, Sobhy M; Aljohani, Naji J; Al Fawaz, Hanan; Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman SM; Sheshah, Eman S; Al-Yousef, Mansour; Alharbi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DMT1), suggesting that vitamin D deficiency might play a role in DMT1. We aimed to determine and compare the vitamin D status of Saudi adults with and without DMT1. Methods A total of 60 Saudi adults with DMT1 from the Diabetes Clinics and 60 non-DM, healthy controls were included in the study. The mean age for those with DMT1 was 25.9 ± 16.1 years versus 36.7 ± 3.6 years among...

  18. Alport alloantibodies but not Goodpasture autoantibodies induce murine glomerulonephritis: protection by quinary crosslinks locking cryptic α3(IV) collagen autoepitopes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping; Kashtan, Clifford E; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2010-09-15

    The noncollagenous (NC1) domains of alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are targets of Goodpasture autoantibodies or Alport posttransplant nephritis alloantibodies mediating rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Because the autoepitopes but not the alloepitopes become cryptic upon assembly of alpha3alpha4alpha5NC1 hexamers, we investigated how the accessibility of B cell epitopes in vivo influences the development of glomerulonephritis in mice passively immunized with human anti-GBM Abs. Alport alloantibodies, which bound to native murine alpha3alpha4alpha5NC1 hexamers in vitro, deposited linearly along the mouse GBM in vivo, eliciting crescentic glomerulonephritis in Fcgr2b(-/-) mice susceptible to Ab-mediated inflammation. Goodpasture autoantibodies, which bound to murine alpha3NC1 monomer and dimer subunits but not to native alpha3alpha4alpha5NC1 hexamers in vitro, neither bound to the mouse GBM in vivo nor induced experimental glomerulonephritis. This was due to quinary NC1 crosslinks, recently identified as sulfilimine bonds, which comprehensively locked the cryptic Goodpasture autoepitopes in the mouse GBM. In contrast, non-crosslinked alpha3NC1 subunits were identified as a native target of Goodpasture autoantibodies in the GBM of squirrel monkeys, a species susceptible to Goodpasture autoantibody-mediated nephritis. Thus, crypticity of B cell autoepitopes in tissues uncouples potentially pathogenic autoantibodies from autoimmune disease. Crosslinking of alpha3alpha4alpha5NC1 hexamers represents a novel mechanism averting autoantibody binding and subsequent tissue injury by posttranslational modifications of an autoantigen. PMID:20709951

  19. Alport alloantibodies but not Goodpasture autoantibodies induce murine glomerulonephritis: Protection by quinary crosslinks locking cryptic α3(IV) collagen autoepitopes in vivo 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping; Kashtan, Clifford E.; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The noncollagenous (NC1) domains of α3α4α5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are targets of Goodpasture autoantibodies or Alport post-transplant nephritis alloantibodies mediating rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Because the autoepitopes but not the alloepitopes become cryptic upon assembly of α3α4α5NC1 hexamers, we investigated how the accessibility of B cell epitopes in vivo influences the development of glomerulonephritis in mice passively immunized with human anti-GBM antibodies. Alport alloantibodies, which bound to native murine α3α4α5NC1 hexamers in vitro, deposited linearly along the mouse GBM in vivo, eliciting crescentic glomerulonephritis in Fcgr2b−/− mice susceptible to antibody-mediated inflammation. Goodpasture autoantibodies, which bound to murine α3NC1 monomer and dimer subunits but not to native α3α4α5NC1 hexamers in vitro, neither bound to the mouse GBM in vivo nor induced experimental glomerulonephritis. This was due to quinary NC1 cross-links, recently identified as sulfilimine bonds, which comprehensively locked the cryptic Goodpasture autoepitopes in the mouse GBM. In contrast, non-crosslinked α3NC1 subunits were identified as a native target of Goodpasture autoantibodies in the GBM of squirrel monkeys—a species susceptible to Goodpasture autoantibody-mediated nephritis. Thus, crypticity of B cell autoepitopes in tissues uncouples potentially pathogenic autoantibodies from autoimmune disease. Crosslinking of α3α4α5NC1 hexamers represents a novel mechanism averting autoantibody binding and subsequent tissue injury by post-translational modifications of an autoantigen. PMID:20709951

  20. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson Sharon V; Winham Donna M; Hutchins Andrea M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14) or diet/exercise (n = 3) aged 35–70 years participated in the ran...

  1. Acute Resveratrol Consumption Improves Neurovascular Coupling Capacity in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rachel H.X.; Raederstorff, Daniel; Howe, Peter R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor cerebral perfusion may contribute to cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that resveratrol can enhance cerebral vasodilator function and thereby alleviate the cognitive deficits in T2DM. We have already reported that acute resveratrol consumption improved cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) to hypercapnia. We now report the effects of resveratrol on neurovascular coupling capacity (CVR to cognitive stimuli), cognitive performance and correlations with plasma resveratrol concentrations. Methods: Thirty-six T2DM adults aged 40–80 years were randomized to consume single doses of resveratrol (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg) at weekly intervals. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to monitor changes in blood flow velocity (BFV) during a cognitive test battery. The battery consisted of dual-tasking (finger tapping with both Trail Making task and Serial Subtraction 3 task) and a computerized multi-tasking test that required attending to four tasks simultaneously. CVR to cognitive tasks was calculated as the per cent increase in BFV from pre-test basal to peak mean blood flow velocity and also as the area under the curve for BFV. Results: Compared to placebo, 75 mg resveratrol significantly improved neurovascular coupling capacity, which correlated with plasma total resveratrol levels. Enhanced performance on the multi-tasking test battery was also evident following 75 mg and 300 mg of resveratrol. Conclusion: a single 75 mg dose of resveratrol was able to improve neurovascular coupling and cognitive performance in T2DM. Evaluation of benefits of chronic resveratrol supplementation is now warranted. PMID:27420093

  2. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα. PMID:25533124

  3. Acute Resveratrol Consumption Improves Neurovascular Coupling Capacity in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H.X. Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor cerebral perfusion may contribute to cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that resveratrol can enhance cerebral vasodilator function and thereby alleviate the cognitive deficits in T2DM. We have already reported that acute resveratrol consumption improved cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR to hypercapnia. We now report the effects of resveratrol on neurovascular coupling capacity (CVR to cognitive stimuli, cognitive performance and correlations with plasma resveratrol concentrations. Methods: Thirty-six T2DM adults aged 40–80 years were randomized to consume single doses of resveratrol (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg at weekly intervals. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to monitor changes in blood flow velocity (BFV during a cognitive test battery. The battery consisted of dual-tasking (finger tapping with both Trail Making task and Serial Subtraction 3 task and a computerized multi-tasking test that required attending to four tasks simultaneously. CVR to cognitive tasks was calculated as the per cent increase in BFV from pre-test basal to peak mean blood flow velocity and also as the area under the curve for BFV. Results: Compared to placebo, 75 mg resveratrol significantly improved neurovascular coupling capacity, which correlated with plasma total resveratrol levels. Enhanced performance on the multi-tasking test battery was also evident following 75 mg and 300 mg of resveratrol. Conclusion: a single 75 mg dose of resveratrol was able to improve neurovascular coupling and cognitive performance in T2DM. Evaluation of benefits of chronic resveratrol supplementation is now warranted.

  4. Comparison Study of the Stuttered Words Type in Stuttering Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mokhlessin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since knowing the mechanisms which evoke non-fluency is the first step in the treatment of stuttering, and there are very few researches in Persian which consider the role of the linguistic factors behind stuttering, this study is an attempt to provide answers to some of numerous questions about stuttering by comparing the stuttered words` type in stuttered children and adults. Materials and Methods: In this study stuttered people were divided into 5 age groups as follows: 3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-16, and older than 17 years old. Each group had ten participants. Forty-two of the 50 participants were male, and the youngest person was 3 years old and the eldest one was 32 years old. The study method involved recording at least 5 minuets of spontaneous speech of every one who was diagnosed of suffering from stuttering by two speech and language pathologists. The percent of non-fluency on every word's type was determined where a content word was followed or preceded by a function word (Function-Function-Content words and Function-Content words contexts. Then these findings were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results of this study show while function words are dominantly more stuttered than content words in children less than 13 years old in Function-Function-Content words context, we consider more disfluency on content words and second function word by getting old. We consider more stuttering on function words in children less that 13 years old in Function-Content words context too and increased non-fluency on content word by growing up. Results also show meaningful differences between the fifth group and others in the amount of stuttering on second function word in the Function-Function-Content words contexts and also between the first group and the others in amount of non-fluency both on function and content words in Function-Content words context. Conclusion: People who stutter from Farsi speakers

  5. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Grant S.; DeBello, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII e...

  6. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  7. Emperipolesis in a Case of Adult T Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma (Mediastinal type-Detected at FNAC and Imprint Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Emperipolesis is a condition in which viable hematopoetic cells are seen intact in the cytoplasm of host cell without damage. This phenomenon is seen in many physiologic and pathologic conditions, its presence in Rosai Dorfman disease (RDD is characteristic of the disease. However emperipolesis is an uncommon finding in malignant lymphoma both Hodgkins and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, wherein it has been described in bone marrow aspirate and tissue culture. In contrast there are only two case reports of emperipolesis phenomenon described in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in tissue sections. We report a case of an adult T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (mediastinal type with features of emperipolesis demonstrated at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and imprint cytology of cervical lymph nodes. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of emperipolesis in a case of adult T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (mediastinal type-detected at FNAC and imprint cytology.

  8. Cancer Risk Associated with Insulin Glargine among Adult Type 2 Diabetes Patients – A Nationwide Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Toh, Sengwee; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ting; Kuo, Chuei-Wen; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2011-01-01

    Background Preclinical and observational studies raise the concern about the safety of insulin glargine in terms of cancer initiation and promotion. This study is designed to examine cancer incidence associated with use of insulin glargine vs. intermediate/long-acting human insulin (HI). Methodology A retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database was conducted to identify adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without a history of cancer who i...

  9. What type, or combination of exercise can improve preferred gait speed in older adults? A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abbema, Renske van; De Greef, Mathieu; Crajé, Celine; Krijnen, Wim; Hobbelen, Hans; Schans, Cees van der

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved preferred gait speed in older adults is associated with increased survival rates. There are inconsistent findings in clinical trials regarding effects of exercise on preferred gait speed, and heterogeneity in interventions in the current reviews and meta-analyses. Objective: to determine the meta-effects of different types or combinations of exercise interventions from randomized controlled trials on improvement in preferred gait speed. Methods Data sources: A literature s...

  10. Emotional and Neutral Declarative Memory Impairments and Associated White Matter Microstructural Abnormalities in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Po Lai; Javier, David; Tsui, Wai; Sweat, Victoria; Bruehl, Hannah; Borod, Joan C.; Convit, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Declarative memory impairment is frequently reported among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who also demonstrate hippocampal volume reduction. Our goals were to ascertain whether emotional memory, which is mediated by neural circuits overlapping those of declarative memory, is also affected. In addition we wanted to characterize cerebral white matter (WM) involvement in T2DM. We studied 24 middle-aged and elderly patients with T2DM who were free of obvious vascular pathology or a ...

  11. Excretion Rate and Composition of Skin Surface Lipids on the Foreheads of Adult Males with Type IV Hyperlipoproteinemia

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLDÜR, Tayfun

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Most of the lipids of the skin surface come from the sebaceous glands, which secrete an oily substance called sebum. Some of the sebum lipids are synthesized by sebaceous cells while some are reported to be derived from the plasma. The role of blood lipoproteins in sebum secretion rate and composition is unclear. To this end, excretion rate and composition of skin surface lipids in normo- and type IV hyperlipoproteinemic adult male subjects were compared. Materials and Methods: Quantit...

  12. Influence of message error type on Korean adults' attitudes toward an individual who uses augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Eun Hye

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of types of message errors on the attitudes of Korean adults toward a person who uses AAC. The attitudes of 72 adults who speak native Korean were examined through attitude questionnaires completed after viewing videotaped conversations between a boy with cerebral palsy and an adult without disabilities. Each interaction video involved a message with one of six error types, including various types of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic errors. The participants provided information on their attitude towards the person who used AAC, and ranked their preferences among the six messages. The results provide evidence that attitudes towards the individual using AAC were most positive (in comparison with other conditions) when a pragmatic error was observed. Messages containing a syntactic error were ranked most favorably. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed some relationship between attitudes rating and preferences ranking. Our results provide evidence that specific language and cultural contexts may play an important role in shaping attitudes toward those who use AAC. PMID:25716683

  13. Prospective clinical trial of hepatitis B vaccination in adults with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Peterson, James T.; Dionne, Marc; Beasley, Richard; Ebeling, Peter R.; Ferguson, Murdo; Nissen, Michael D.; Rheault, Paul; Simpson, Richard W.; De Ridder, Marc; Crasta, Priya D.; Miller, Jacqueline M.; Trofa, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Objective: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its complications. HBV vaccination is recommended for adults with diabetes in the United States and other countries. However, few studies have assessed safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in such patients. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in subjects with and without diabetes mellitus. Methods: Prospective, multi-country controlled study in 21 centers (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01627340). Four hundred and sixteen participants with Type-2 diabetes and 258 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI) (2:1 ratio) received 3-doses of HBV vaccine (Engerix-B™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) according to a 0, 1, 6 months schedule. Antibodies were measured against HBV surface antigen and expressed as seroprotection rates (anti-HBs ≥10mIU/mL) and geometric mean concentration (GMC). Results: The median age and BMI in patients with diabetes and controls (according-to-protocol cohort) were 54 y and 32.1 kg/m2, and 53 y and 30.8 kg/m2, respectively. Seroprotection rates (GMCs) one month post-dose-3 were 75.4% (147.6 mIU/mL) and 82.0% (384.2 mIU/mL) in patients with diabetes and controls, respectively. Age-stratified seroprotection rates for patients with diabetes were 88.5% (20–39 years), 81.2% (40–49 years), 83.2% (50–59 years), and 58.2% (≥60 years). The overall safety profile of hepatitis B vaccine was similar between groups. Conclusions: Hepatitis B vaccine is immunogenic in patients with diabetes and has a similar safety profile to vaccination in healthy controls. Because increasing age was generally associated with a reduction in seroprotection rates, hepatitis B vaccine should be administered as soon as possible after the diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:27123743

  14. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDE (FOS SUPPLEMENTATION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC ADULTS IMPROVES SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE, SERUM LIPID, AND GUT MICROBIOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharide (FOS is a prebiotic, becoming apparent for its therapeutic role for diseased conditions like CHD, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. CHD and hypertension are one of the most prevalent NCD’s encountered in diabetic adults. Present study aims to assess the effect of FOS supplementation in type 2 diabetic adults on their lipemic, biophysical parameters and gut microflora parameters. A cross-sectional study was designed with 65 adult type 2 diabetics enrolled from Health clinic of The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat. All the subjects were randomly divided into two groups control and experimental. The experimental group was given 10 g of fructooligosaccharide and compared with the controls for lipemic parameters, hypertension and fecal counts in terms of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enteric pathogen. Eight week supplementation of FOS resulted in an appreciable reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL levels by 10%, 4.9% and 7.8% respectively. A significant reduction (p<0.05 in systolic blood pressure was also observed as a result of FOS supplementation in the experimental group. A decline was seen in TC/HDL, LDL/HDL and non-HDL by 10.4%, 7.6% and 6.6% respectively (p<0.05, p<0.001. Gut microbiota values exhibited a significant increment in fecal log10 counts of Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria by 9.3% and 10.9% respectively (p<0.001 while a significant reduction by 4.8% (p<0.001 was observed for Enteric pathogen. These outcomes revealed an efficacy of FOS in reducing serum lipid parameters, systolic BP and improving the gut microbiota in type 2 diabetic adults

  15. Adding chemo after radiation treatment improves survival for adults with a type of brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with low-grade gliomas, a form of brain tumor, who received chemotherapy following completion of radiation therapy lived longer than patients who received radiation therapy alone, according to long-term follow-up results from a NIH-supported random

  16. In vivo autoradiographic demonstration of β-adrenergic binding sites in adult rat type II alveolar epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male rats were injected intravenously with the muscarinic binding probe 3H-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the β-adrenergic probe 3H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA). Other rats were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of a 500-fold excess of L-isoproterenol prior to the DHA. Light microscopic autoradiography of 0.5 μm sections of lung from the QNB group demonstrated very little labelling even after 6 months of exposure. In constrast, trachealis smooth muscle from these animals contained substantial labelling. Autoradiographs of lung from rats injected with DHA demonstrated labelling which was well localized over alveolar septa and concentrated over the cytoplasm of type II cells. Quantitative analysis of labelling in the DHA groups indicated a significant reduction of labelling in animals treated with L-isoproterenol prior to DHA, in both the alveolar parenchyma in general and over type II cells. The results of this study provide morphologic evidence for the uptake and specific binding of β-adrenergic antagonists by the adult lung in vivo, while failing to demonstrate similar binding of a muscarinic probe. In addition, the results demonstrate specific β-adrenergic receptors on type II cells in vivo and substantiate the view of a direct effect of β-adrenergic agonists on alveolar type II cells

  17. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function. PMID:23022220

  18. [Alport syndrom (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberg, H; Marenberg, H G

    1977-04-01

    A deaf-and-dumb patient died at the age of ten of failure of the kidneys. An uncle of the boy died at the age of 42, an aunt at the age of 16 years, both of atrophic kidneys. The mother of the proband is suffering from hard hearing on one side and recurrent episodes of pyuria. Repeated examinations in two aunts revealed slight pyuria resp. erythruria. Contrary to most reports affected members of the family showed pyuria rather than haematuria. A special inheritance could not be proved. PMID:323696

  19. Herpes simplex virus type-1 and human lymphocytes: virus expression and the response to infection of adult and foetal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in human lymphocytes of adult and foetal origin was studied. Virus DNA synthesis, antigen and particle production and the yield of infectious progeny were determined in cultured lymphocytes with or without exposure to stimulating concentrations of the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen. Separated subpopulations of cells were examined and the conclusion reached that only the stimulated T-lymphoblast was permissive for full virus expression. Stimulation of cell DNA synthesis in response to infection was observed in cultures of adult and foetal lymphocytes under conditions which were non-permissive for virus growth. Morphological change and prolonged culture survival were a feature of foetal lymphocytes exposed to u.v. irradiated HSV-1. (author)

  20. Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors. PMID:24018068

  1. The Effects of Tai Chi on Peripheral Somatosensation, Balance, and Fitness in Hispanic Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot and Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth I. Cavegn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy and loss of somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes can increase risk of falls and disability. In nondiabetic older adult population Tai Chi has been shown to enhance balance and fitness through improvements in somatosensation and neuromuscular control, and it is unclear if Tai Chi would elicit similar benefits in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week, three-hour-per-week Tai Chi intervention on peripheral somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants were eight Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in the Tai Chi intervention and a convenience sample of Hispanic older adults as a referent group. Baseline and postintervention assessments included ankle proprioception, foot tactile sense, plantar pressure distribution, balance, and fitness. After intervention, older adults with type 2 diabetes showed significant improvements in ankle proprioception and fitness and decreased plantar pressure in the forefoot, with no statistical effect noted in balance or tactile sensation. Study results suggest that Tai Chi may be beneficial for older adults with diabetes as it improves ankle proprioception; however, study findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample size randomized controlled trial.

  2. Efficacy and safety of liraglutide for overweight adult patients with type 1 diabetes and insufficient glycaemic control (Lira-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Frandsen, Christian Seerup; Hansen, Tanja Stenbæk;

    2016-01-01

    hypoglycaemia, near-normoglycaemia, and hyperglycaemia, plasma fasting glucose, mean glucose, and cholesterol. Efficacy analyses were calculated by use of a mixed model, whereby a patient's data are used as long as the patient is in the study. The safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population......Background The combination of insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist therapy improves glycaemic control, induces weight loss, and reduces insulin dose needed in type 2 diabetes. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide as an add-on therapy...... to insulin for overweight adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at Steno Diabetes Center (Gentofte, Denmark). Patients aged 18 years or older with type 1 diabetes, insufficient glycaemic control (HbA1c >8% [64 mmol/mol]), and...

  3. Prospective clinical trial of hepatitis B vaccination in adults with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Peterson, James T JT; Dionne, Marc M; Beasley, Richard R; Ebeling, Peter R; Ferguson, Murdo M; Nissen, Michael MD; Rheault, Paul P; Simpson, Richard RW; de Ridder, Marc; Crasta, Priya Diana; Miller, Jacqueline M JM; Trofa, Andrew AF

    2016-01-01

     Objective: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its complications. HBV vaccination is recommended for adults with diabetes in the United States and other countries. However, few studies have assessed safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in such patients. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in subjects with and without diabetes mellitus.

  4. Types of adolescent exposure to violence as predictors of adult intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Weiss, Andrea J; Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C

    2014-04-01

    Despite evidence that exposure to violence in adolescence may be more predictive of problem behavior outcomes than exposure to violence in earlier childhood, there is limited research on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence on adult intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization. This study examines the relationship of adolescent physical abuse victimization, witnessing parental violence, and adolescent exposure to violence in the community, to perpetration of and victimization by IPV in middle age. Respondents are drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal sample with data collected from 1976-77 to 2002-03, age 11-17 when first interviewed and 37-43 when last interviewed. Univariate descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations are presented, along with Heckman two-step models calculated separately for females and males. The use of the Heckman two-step model allows prediction not only of adult IPV, but also of selection out of intimate partner relationships (i.e., out of the at-risk population). For males, in the multivariate analysis, only physical abuse remains significant as a predictor. For females, adolescent exposure to violence is not predictive of adult IPV perpetration or victimization, but physical abuse is predictive of not being in the at-risk population (married or cohabiting). The combined index of adolescent exposure to violence is significant for both females and males in predicting selection into marriage or cohabitation, and at least marginally significant in predicting IPV. PMID:24594015

  5. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. Results: The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusions: Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race. PMID:25549154

  6. Physical activity and diabetes: an application of the theory of planned behaviour to explain physical activity for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in an adult population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lippke, Sonia; Courneya, Kerry; Birkett, Nicholas; Sigal, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) plays a key role in the management of Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) but there are few theory-based, effective programs to promote PA for individuals with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in understanding PA in an adult population with T1D or T2D. A total of 2311 individuals (691 T1D; 1614 T2D) completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), intention and PA at baseline and 1717 (524 T1D; 1123 T2D) completed the PA measure again at 6-month follow-up. Multi-group Structural Equation Modelling was conducted to: (1) test the fit of the TPB structure (2) determine the TPB structural invariance between the two types of diabetes and (3) to examine the explained variances in PA and compare the strength of associations of the TPB constructs in the two types of diabetes. The TPB constructs explained > or =40% of the variance in intentions for both diabetes groups. In cross-sectional models, the TPB accounted for 23 and 19% of the variance in PA for T1D and T2D, respectively. In prospective models, the TPB explained 13 and 8% of the variance in PA for T1D and T2D, respectively. When adjusting for past PA behaviour, the impact of PBC and intention on behaviour was reduced in both groups. The findings provide evidence for the utility of the TPB for the design of PA promotion interventions for adults with either T1D or T2D. PMID:20391204

  7. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Adults from Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Imbeault

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the prevalence rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults from two First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Methods. Body weight, height, and waist circumference as well as fasting and postprandial glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 31 men and 41 women. Results. The mean age of the sample was 43 ± 13 y. The prevalence of obesity was 65.3% and was comparable between men and women. 90.3% of the individuals presented waist circumference levels greater than the thresholds associated with an increased risk of developing health problems. 26 of the 72 individuals (36.1% were found to be type 2 diabetic. The prevalence of diabetes was not different between men and women. Conclusion. Using objective measurements, this study confirms that First Nations adults from remote communities of Canada continue to experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than nonaboriginal Canadians.

  8. Integrating theory and data to create an online self-management programme for adults with type 2 diabetes: HeLP-Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingshuk Pal

    2015-10-01

    This protocol demonstrates a multi-disciplinary approach to combining evidence from multiple sources to create ’HeLP-Diabetes’: a theory and evidence based online self-management intervention for adults with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Influence of Duration of Diabetes, Glycemic Control, and Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Early Atherosclerotic Vascular Changes in Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Amy S.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Kimball, Thomas R.; Gao, Zhiqian; Khoury, Philip R.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) provides a mechanism for detecting early atherosclerosis. Little information is available concerning carotid IMT and the progression of atherosclerosis in adolescents and young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011-2012 data (n = 7456). Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011-2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day), and adults aged 51-70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day). The population mean (age ≥ four years) was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day), tea (25 mg/day), and soda (21 mg/day). For the 14-19 years and 20-34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9%) and 5 mg/day (4.5%), respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999-2000) to 142 mg/day (2011-2012), largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day). Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes. PMID:26978391

  11. Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011–2012 data (n = 7456. Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011–2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day, and adults aged 51–70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day. The population mean (age ≥ four years was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day, tea (25 mg/day, and soda (21 mg/day. For the 14–19 years and 20–34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9% and 5 mg/day (4.5%, respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999–2000 to 142 mg/day (2011–2012, largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day. Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes.

  12. Skeletal muscle sodium glucose co-transporters in older adults with type 2 diabetes undergoing resistance training

    OpenAIRE

    Castaneda, Francisco; Layne, Jennifer E.; Castaneda, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    We examined the expression of the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter system (hSGLT3) in skeletal muscle of Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. Subjects (65±8 yr) were randomized to resistance training (3x/wk, n=13) or standard of care (controls, n=5) for 16 weeks. Skeletal muscle hSGLT3 and GLUT4 mRNA transcript levels were determined by real time RT-PCR. hSGLT3 transcripts increased by a factor of ten following resistance training compared to control subjects (0.10, P=0.03). The...

  13. Food intake and dietary glycaemic index in free-living adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra M. Johnstone; MacRury, Sandra M.; Megson, Ian L; Prakash Abraham; Donald W M Pearson; Lobley, Gerald E.; Claire Fyfe; Grietje Holtrop; Susan C. McGeoch

    2011-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the energy and macronutrient intake and the dietary GI in a group (n = 19) of individuals with diet controlled T2DM and a group (n = 19) without diabetes, matched for age, BMI and gender. Subjects completed a three-day weighed diet...

  14. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Adults from Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Imbeault; François Haman; Blais, Jules M.; Shinjini Pal; Tim Seabert; Eva M Krümmel; Michael A. Robidoux

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults from two First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Methods. Body weight, height, and waist circumference as well as fasting and postprandial glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 31 men and 41 women. Results. The mean age of the sample was 43 ± 13 y. The prevalence of obesity was 65.3% and was comparable between men and women. 90.3% of the individuals presen...

  15. Longitudinal relationship between diabetes-specific emotional distress and follow-up HbA1c in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine whether diabetes-specific emotional distress was related to follow-up glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods Adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus completed the Diabetes Distress Scale and reported sociodemographic information when attending a clinical consultation at a university endocrinology unit. Blood samples to determine baseline HbA1c were taken during consultations. All respondents’ HbA1c measurements registered from January 2009 to December 2...

  16. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie,Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external varia...

  17. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %). PMID:23695063

  18. Prolonged survival in adult neurofibromatosis type I patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas treated with bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Ellezam, Benjamin; Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Slopis, John M; Loghin, Monica E; de Groot, John F

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytic tumors, especially optic pathway pilocytic astrocytomas, are common in pediatric NF1 patients. High-grade gliomas (HGGs) appear to be rare in adult and pediatric NF1 patients. This is a series of five consecutive, adult NF1 patients with recurrent HGGs treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Four patients met consensus clinical criteria for NF1 and one patient had presumed segmental NF1. Three patients had glioblastomas, one gliosarcoma, and one progressive, enhancing optic pathway glioma which was not biopsied. Two tumors had molecular testing performed; both were IDH wild type and activating oncogene mutations (1 BRAFV600E and 1 PIK3CA mutation) were found in these tumors. All five patients received bevacizumab-containing regimens at tumor recurrence. The median number of 4-week cycles of bevacizumab was 20. All five patients experienced prolonged post-recurrence survival following bevacizumab treatment ranging from ten to 72 months. The median overall survival from HGG diagnosis was 72.6 months with three patients alive and progression free at last follow-up. Three out of five patients developed vascular complications leading to bevacizumab discontinuation. In this case series, adult NF1 patients with recurrent HGGs had prolonged, post-recurrence survival after treatment with bevacizumab-containing regimens. Based on these results, further study of antiangiogenic therapy in NF1 patients with HGGs and bevacizumab-response in sporadic HGG patients with NF1-mutated tumors is warranted. PMID:24859329

  19. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results (unemployment (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.02 to 21.20) had positive association, whereas those under medical care at the Salak health clinics (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63), and those with a blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89) were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics were related to DRD and depression. PMID:27002728

  20. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon-How Chew

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS, and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ. Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results ( 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89 were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics were related to DRD and depression.

  1. Accumulation of Major Life Events in Childhood and Adult Life and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of the accumulation of major life events(MLE) in childhood and adulthood, in both the private and working domains, on risk of type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, we aimed to test the possible interaction betweenchildhood and adult...... regression models adjusted for age, sex, education and familyhistory of diabetes were used to estimate the association between MLE and T2DM. Results: In childhood, experiencing 3 or more MLE was associated with a 69% higher risk of developingT2DM (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.60, 3.......27). The accumulationof MLE in adult private (p-trend = 0.016) and work life (p-trend = 0.049) was associatedwith risk of T2DM in a dose response manner. There was no evidence that experiencingMLE in both childhood and adult life was more strongly associated with T2DM thanexperiencing events at only one...

  2. Severe adult malaria is associated with specific PfEMP1 adhesion types and high parasite biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Maria; Danziger, Samuel A; Avril, Marion; Vaz, Marina; Babar, Prasad H; Brazier, Andrew J; Herricks, Thurston; Maki, Jennifer N; Pereira, Ligia; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Gomes, Edwin; Chery, Laura; Aitchison, John D; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Smith, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between cellular and molecular determinants that lead to severe malaria in adults is unexplored. Here, we analyzed parasite virulence factors in an infected adult population in India and investigated whether severe malaria isolates impair endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), a protein involved in coagulation and endothelial barrier permeability. Severe malaria isolates overexpressed specific members of the Plasmodium falciparum var gene/PfEMP1 (P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) family that bind EPCR, including DC8 var genes that have previously been linked to severe pediatric malaria. Machine learning analysis revealed that DC6- and DC8-encoding var transcripts in combination with high parasite biomass were the strongest indicators of patient hospitalization and disease severity. We found that DC8 CIDRα1 domains from severe malaria isolates had substantial differences in EPCR binding affinity and blockade activity for its ligand activated protein C. Additionally, even a low level of inhibition exhibited by domains from two cerebral malaria isolates was sufficient to interfere with activated protein C-barrier protective activities in human brain endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrate an interplay between parasite biomass and specific PfEMP1 adhesion types in the development of adult severe malaria, and indicate that low impairment of EPCR function may contribute to parasite virulence. PMID:27185931

  3. Glycated Hemoglobin and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Singaporean Chinese Adults: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bancks, Michael P.; Odegaard, Andrew O.; Woon-Puay Koh; Jian-Min Yuan; Gross, Myron D.; Mark A. Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The American Diabetes Association recently included glycated hemoglobin in the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, but research on the utility of this biomarker in Southeast Asians is scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between percent HbA1c and incident diabetes in an Asian population of adult men and women without reported diabetes. Methods Data analysis of 5,770 men and women enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who provided a blood sample at the...

  4. Enduring Links: Parents' Expectations and Their Young Adult Children's Gender-Typed Occupational Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Janis E.; Chhin, Christina S.; Bleeker, Martha M.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine (1) the relation between parents' gender-typed occupational expectations for their children at age 15 and their children's own reports of occupational expectations at age 17; (2) the long-term relations between parents' gender-typed occupational expectations for their children at age 17 and their…

  5. Socioeconomic Gradients in Different Types of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic differences in tobacco use have been reported, but there is a lack of evidence on how they vary according to types of tobacco use. This study explored socioeconomic differences associated with cigarette, bidi, smokeless tobacco (SLT, and dual use (smoking and smokeless tobacco use in India and tested whether these differences vary by gender and residential area. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009-10 (n=69,296 was conducted. The primary outcomes were self-reported cigarette, bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use. The main explanatory variables were wealth, education, and occupation. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regressions. 69,030 adults participated in the study. Positive association was observed between wealth and prevalence of cigarette smoking while inverse associations were observed for bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use after adjustment for potential confounders. Inverse associations with education were observed for all four types after adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were observed for gender and area in the association between cigarette, bidi, and smokeless tobacco use with wealth and education. The probability of cigarette smoking was higher for wealthier individuals while the probability of bidi smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and dual use was higher for those with lesser wealth and education.

  6. The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje; Nyklíček, Ivan; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    2015-04-01

    Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (β = 0.10) and less external (β = -0.11) and emotional (β = -0.20). The mindfulness subscale 'acting with awareness' was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, 'describing' and 'being non-judgemental' were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:25596042

  7. Relationship of food security with Type 2 diabetes and its risk factors in Tehranian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hasan-Ghomi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: There were no significant differences in food security levels of diabetic and non-diabetic groups. However, some risk factors of type 2 diabetes including sex, marital status, educational level, and obesity were associated with food insecurity.

  8. Bone Marrow Derived Adult Stem Cell Implantation: A Possible Permanent Treatment Modality for Type 2 Diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. KAHLON; M.K. Manchanda; P. KANWAL

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic disease that exists in the world. Type 2Diabetes is the predominant type of diabetes. Management is basically limited to exercise, diet and oralhypoglycemic drugs before insulin therapy has to be instituted. But bone marrow derived stem cellimplantation into the islets has shown very encouraging results for diabetics.Methods: Bone marrow derived stem cells when implanted in the pancreas leads to regeneration ofinsulin producing Beta ...

  9. Reliability of Use, Abuse, and Dependence of Four Types of Inhalants in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Bray, Bethany C.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    Inhalants, as a class of drugs, consists of heterogeneous substances that include some of the most dangerous drugs on a per use basis. Research on inhalant abuse has lagged behind other drugs partly because of the need for a diagnostic instrument of different types of inhalants. This study was conducted to obtain reliability estimates for the new Substance Abuse Module DSM-IV inhalants diagnoses for four types of inhalants: aerosols, gases, nitrites, and solvents as well as different diagnost...

  10. Amount and type of alcohol consumption and missing teeth among community-dwelling older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Karen; Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists. Methods: A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65...... highest intake of one beverage type compared with two other types), and the number of remaining teeth (=20 versus >20 remaining teeth). Results: The odds ratio (OR) of having a low number of teeth decreased with the total intake of alcohol in women, with ORs for a low number of teeth of 0.40 [95 percent...... among women. Men who preferred beer showed a decreased risk for a low number of teeth compared with men with other alcohol preferences. Conclusion: In this study, alcohol consumption, wine drinking, and wine and spirits preference among women were associated with a higher number of teeth compared with...

  11. D-type cyclins in adult human testis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E;

    1999-01-01

    D-type cyclins are proto-oncogenic components of the 'RB pathway', a G1/S regulatory mechanism centred around the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor (pRB) implicated in key cellular decisions that control cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, quiescence, and differentiation. This study focused on...

  12. Resistance training alters cytokine gene expression in skeletal muscle of adults with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance training results in muscle hypertrophy and improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether resistance training modulates inflammation in muscles of diabetic patients remains unknown. We examined the expression of genes encoding the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-al...

  13. Effects of ozone on phospholipid synthesis by alveolar type II cells isolated from adult rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated alveolar type II cells were exposed to ozone by gas diffusion through the thin Teflon bottom of culture dishes. After exposure, type II cells were further incubated in the presence of labeled substrates to assess the capacity to synthesize surfactant lipids. The incorporation of [Me-14C]choline into both total and disaturated phosphatidylcholines in inhibited to 50% of the control values under conditions that result in a diffusion of 0.4 microgram O3/18 cm2-dish per 2.5 h. The incorporation rates of [1-14C]palmitate, [1-14C]acetate, D[U-14C]glucose, and [1,3-3H]glycerol into phosphatidylcholines are also lower after ozone exposure. Moreover, the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerols and phosphatidylethanolamines from these substrates is also inhibited by exposure of type II cells to ozone. These incorporation studies indicate that the effect of ozone is early in the biosynthetic pathway, probably at the step catalyzed by the enzyme glycerolphosphate acyltransferase. Determination of the activity of this enzyme after the ozone exposure shows that it is decreased, whereas the activity of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase is increased. The activity of choline phosphotransferase also appears to be decreased after exposure of type II cells to ozone, although this enzyme was less susceptible than glycerolphosphate acyltransferase. Studies with the sulfhydryl reagent 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) indicate a positive correlation between the effect of this compound on enzyme activities in sonicated type II cells and the sensitivity of these enzymes in intact cells to ozone. This suggests that the effect of ozone on the synthesis of surfactant lipids is at least partially exerted via oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase

  14. Yoga Practice for the Management of Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: A systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Aljasir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of practicing yoga for the management of type II Diabetes was assessed in this systematic review through searching related electronic databases and the grey literature to the end of May 2007 using Ovid. All randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs comparing yoga practice with other type of intervention or with regular practice or both, were included regardless of language or type of publication. Each study was assessed for quality by two independent reviewers. Mean difference was used for summarizing the effect of each study outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Pooling of the studies did not take place due to the wide clinical variation between the studies. Publication bias was assessed by statistical methods. Five trials with 363 participants met the inclusion criteria with medium to high risk of bias and different intervention characteristics. The studies’ results show improvement in outcomes among patients with diabetes type II. These improvements were mainly among short term or immediate diabetes outcomes and not all were statistically significant. The results were inconclusive and not significant for the long-term outcomes. No adverse effects were reported in any of the included studies. Short-term benefits for patients with diabetes may be achieved from practicing yoga. Further research is needed in this area. Factors like quality of the trials and other methodological issues should be improved by large randomized control trials with allocation concealment to assess the effectiveness of yoga on diabetes type II. A definitive recommendation for physicians to encourage their patients to practice yoga cannot be reached at present.

  15. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers. PMID:24838781

  16. Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in an adult type 2 diabetes Spanish population between 2003 and 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen de Burgos-Lunar

    Full Text Available In patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of hypertension is higher than in non-diabetic subjects. Despite the high cardiovascular risk involving hypertension in these patients, its prevalence and control are not well known. The aims of this study were: to estimate the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes attended in Primary Care; and to analyse its time trend from 2003 to 2009. A serial cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2009 was performed in 21 Primary Care Centres in Madrid. The study population comprised all patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in their computerised medical history. Overall annual prevalence during the period 2003-2009 was calculated from and according to sex and age groups. Linear trend tests, regression lines and coefficients of determination were used. In 2003 89.78% (CI 87.92-91.64 of patients with type 2 diabetes suffered hypertension and 94.76% (CI: 92.85-96.67 in 2009. This percentage was greater for women and for patients over 65 years old. 30% of patients suffered previously undiagnosed hypertension in 2003 and 23.1% in 2009. 97% of diagnosed patients received pharmacological treatment and 28.79% reached the blood pressure objective in 2009. The average number of antihypertensive drugs taken was 2.72 in 2003 and 3.27 in 2009. Only 5.2% of patients with type 2 diabetes show blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg. Although significant improvements have been achieved in the diagnosis and control of hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes, these continue to remain far from optimum.

  17. Dietary and physical activity of adult patients with type 2 diabetes in Zhejiang province of eastern China: Data from a cross‐sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiaowen; Pan, Jie; Pan, Mingxia; Wang, Jiawei; Dong, Jingfen; Yuan, Hongdi; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Minhua; Chen, Yunfen; Lu, Yiping; Gu, Huiqin; Chen, Yanshu; Wu, Liqin; Chen, Yajuan; Jin, Fubi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Lifestyle management helps improve the clinical outcome of patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to obtain lifestyle data on the dietary and physical activity of adult type 2 diabetes patients in Zhejiang province of eastern China for better patient education and improvement of clinical management. Materials and Methods A cross‐sectional survey of 607 adult type 2 diabetes patients was carried out in 12 hospitals within eight cities of Zhejiang prov...

  18. SDHA loss of function mutations in a subset of young adult wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A subset of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors (WT GIST) have been associated with alteration of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex II function. A recent report identified four non-syndromic, KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST harboring compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SDHA encoding the main subunit of the SDH complex II. Next generation sequencing was applied on five pediatric and one young adult WT GIST, by whole exome capture and SOLiD 3-plus system sequencing. The putative mutations were first confirmed by Sanger sequencing and then screened on a larger panel of 11 pediatric and young adult WT GIST, including 5 in the context of Carney triad. A germline p.Arg31X nonsense SDHA mutation was identified in one of the six cases tested by SOLiD platform. An additional p.D38V missense mutation in SDHA exon 2 was identified by Sanger sequencing in the extended KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST patients cohort. Western blotting showed loss of SDHA expression in the two cases harboring SDHA mutations, while expression being retained in the other WT GIST tumors. Results were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry for both SDHA and SDHB, which showed a concurrent loss of expression of both proteins in SDHA-mutant lesions, while the remaining WT tumors showed only loss of SDHB expression. Germline and/or somatic aberrations of SDHA occur in a small subset of KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs, outside the Carney’s triad and are associated with loss of both SDHA and SDHB protein expression. Mutations of the SDH complex II are more particularly associated with KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST occurring in young adults. Although pediatric GIST consistently display alterations of SDHB protein expression, further molecular studies are needed to identify the crucial genes involved in their tumorigenesis

  19. Word-stem priming and recognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, María Teresa; Beltrán-Brotóns, José Luís; Reales, José Manuel; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated (a) whether the pattern of performance on implicit and explicit memory of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is more similar to those of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or to cognitively normal older adults and (b) whether glycosylated hemoglobin levels (a measure of glucose regulation) are related to performance on the two memory tasks, implicit word-stem completion and "old-new" recognition. The procedures of both memory tasks included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. Three groups of participants (healthy older adults, DM2 patients and AD patients) completed medical and psychological assessments and performed both memory tasks on a computer. The results of the word-stem completion task showed similar implicit memory in the three groups. By contrast, explicit recognition of the three groups differed. Implicit memory was not affected by either normal or pathological aging, but explicit memory deteriorated in the two groups of patients, especially in AD patients, showing a severe impairment compared to the cognitively healthy older adults. Importantly, glycosylated hemoglobin levels were not related to performance on either implicit or explicit memory tasks. These findings revealed a clear dissociation between explicit and implicit memory tasks in normal and pathological aging. Neuropsychologists and clinicians working with TM2 patients should be aware that the decline of voluntary, long-term explicit memory could have a negative impact on their treatment management. By contrast, the intact implicit memory of the two clinical groups could be used in rehabilitation. PMID:26253308

  20. Innovative biomarkers for predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus: relevance to dietary management of frailty in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwuobe, John; Bellary, Srikanth; Griffiths, Helen R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases in prevalence in the elderly. There is evidence for significant muscle loss and accelerated cognitive impairment in older adults with T2DM; these comorbidities are critical features of frailty. In the early stages of T2DM, insulin sensitivity can be improved by a "healthy" diet. Management of insulin resistance by diet in people over 65 years of age should be carefully re-evaluated because of the risk for falling due to hypoglycaemia. To date, an optimal dietary programme for older adults with insulin resistance and T2DM has not been described. The use of biomarkers to identify those at risk for T2DM will enable clinicians to offer early dietary advice that will delay onset of disease and of frailty. Here we have used an in silico literature search for putative novel biomarkers of T2DM risk and frailty. We suggest that plasma bilirubin, plasma, urinary DPP4-positive microparticles and plasma pigment epithelium-derived factor merit further investigation as predictive biomarkers for T2DM and frailty risk in older adults. Bilirubin is screened routinely in clinical practice. Measurement of specific microparticle frequency in urine is less invasive than a blood sample so is a good choice for biomonitoring. Future studies should investigate whether early dietary changes, such as increased intake of whey protein and micronutrients that improve muscle function and insulin sensitivity, affect biomarkers and can reduce the longer term complication of frailty in people at risk for T2DM. PMID:26897532

  1. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to human adenoviruses type-5 and type-26 and chimpanzee adenovirus type-68 in healthy Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Huang, Wenxiang; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qiquan; Wang, Qun; Jia, Bei

    2013-06-01

    Replication-defective adenoviruses have been utilized as candidate vaccine vectors. However, clinical application of the best-studied human adenovirus type-5 (AdHu5) is limited by the high prevalence of preexisting neutralizing antibodies resulting from natural infection. Therefore, rare adenovirus serotypes, such as human adenovirus type-26 (AdHu26) and chimpanzee adenovirus type-68 (AdC68), have been employed as substitutes for AdHu5. However, few studies have described the epidemiology of pre-existing immunity to these adenoviruses in China. Thus, 1,154 participants from six regions in China were examined to assess the presence of neutralizing antibodies against AdHu5, AdHu26, and AdC68. The seroprevalence rates of neutralizing antibodies were as follows: AdHu5, 73.1% (844/1,154) (95% confidence interval: 70.5-75.6%); AdHu26, 35.3% (407/1,154) (95% confidence interval: 32.6-38.1%); and AdC68, 12.7% (147/1,154) (95% confidence interval: 10.9-14.8%), respectively. The most frequently detected and highest titer antibodies were specific for AdHu5. The results indicate that AdHu26 and AdC68 serve as more suitable vaccine vectors than AdHu5. PMID:23588735

  2. Surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation type I in an adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Marko; Berisavac Iva; Bojović Vladimir; Kostić Bojan; Đulejić Vuk

    2008-01-01

    Background. Herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the cervical spinal canal with obliteration of the cerebellomedullary cistern is the primary feature of Arnold-Chiari type I malformation (ACM I). It is considered to be congenital malformation, although there have been reported cases of an acquired form. Case report. We presented a female patient, 45-year old, with ACM I without syringomyelia as a rare and unusual clinical image, as well as the effect of decompr...

  3. Comparison of adherence and persistence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiating saxagliptin or linagliptin

    OpenAIRE

    M. Farr, Amanda; Sheehan, Jack; Davis, Brian M.; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Amanda M Farr,1 John J Sheehan,2 Brian M Davis,1 David M Smith1 1Life Sciences, Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Cambridge, MA, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research – Diabetes, AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, USA Background: Adherence and persistence to antidiabetes medications are important to control blood glucose levels among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare adherence and persistence over a 12-mon...

  4. Motivation for self-management among adults with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Oftedal, Bjørg Frøysland

    2011-01-01

    Background: The demands of daily diabetes self-management behaviours have been described as challenging and many individuals fail to adhere to this regimes. There is, therefore, a growing recognition of the need to focus on the motivation to maintain self-management behaviours among people with type 2 diabetes. However, although many researchers have identified motivation as critical for diabetes self-management, few studies have explicitly focused on this topic. Aims: Th...

  5. Diabetes Education: the Experiences of Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, Janice; Westbrook, Mary; Long, Janet; Greenfield, Jerry R.; Day, Richard O; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinician-led diabetes education is a fundamental component of care to assist people with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) self-manage their disease. Recent initiatives to incorporate a more patient-centered approach to diabetes education have included recommendations to make such education more individualized. Yet there is a dearth of research that identifies patients’ perceptions of clinician-led diabetes education. We aimed to describe the experience of diabetes education from the perspe...

  6. Atlas Assimilation Patterns in Different Types of Adult Craniocervical Junction Malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Edson Dener Zandonadi; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This is a cross-sectional analysis of resonance magnetic images of 111 patients with craniocervical malformations and those of normal subjects. Objective. To test the hypothesis that atlas assimilation is associated with basilar invagination (BI) and atlas's anterior arch assimilation is associated with craniocervical instability and type I BI. Summary of Background Data. Atlas assimilation is the most common malformation in the craniocervical junction. This condition has been a...

  7. Outcome of surgical treatment of type IV capitellum fractures in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal Singh; Ish Kumar Dhammi; Vipul Garg; Arun Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea constitute less than 1% of all elbow fractures and a shear fracture involving the capitellum and extending medially into most of the trochlea is rarely reported.Type IV capitellum fracture is still controversial in regard to its radiographic appearance,surgical approach and osteosynthesis.We report 10 cases of type IV capitellum fracture with a view to elucidating its clinical features and treatment outcome.Methods:We treated 10 patients of type IV capitellum fracture with a mean age of 32 years.A uniform surgical approach and postoperative rehabilitation were followed.Results:Nine patients presented to us after a mean of 4 days of injury and one patient was nonunion after 6 months of injury who had been treated conservatively by a bone setter.Double arc sign was absent in 6 cases.Intraoperatively 6 capitellotrochlear fragments were devoid of soft tissue attachments.By Mayo Elbow Performance Score evaluation,7 patients got excellent,2 good and l fair results.One patient with associated elbow dislocation developed heterotopic ossification.There was no case of avascular necrosis,osteoarthrosis or fixation failures.Conclusions:Type IV capitellum fractures are rare and belong to complex articular injuries.A good functional outcome can only be achieved with open reduction and stable internal fixation followed by early mobilization.Preoperative radiographic assessment and computed tomography help surgeons in choosing the right surgical approach and implants.Good surgical technique and stable internal fixation are the keys to early mobilization and good functional outcome.

  8. Effect of vehicle display information and switch type on usability : Comparison between young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuguang; Murata, Atsuo

    2008-01-01

    Recently, in-vehicle highly intelligent information devices are rapidly widespread. Under such circumstances, the accurate evaluation of the effect of display information and switch type on driving performance is important in order to develop in-vehicle information devices that do not menace the safety. In this article, we present a basic idea to estimate properly the effect of the vehicles display information and the switch system on driving performance. We compared the index such as mean ta...

  9. A Case of Adult Type 1 Gaucher Disease Complicated by Temporal Intestinal Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Junitsu; Saito, Takafumi; Numakura, Chikahiko; Iwaba, Akiko; Sugahara, Shinpei; Ishii, Rika; Sato, Chikako; Haga, Hiroaki; Okumoto, Kazuo; Nishise, Yuko; Watanabe, Hisayoshi; Ida, Hiroyuki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Togashi, Hitoshi; Kawata, Sumio

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old man with a history of sudden rectal hemorrhage was referred to our hospital. Examination disclosed thrombocytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. A liver biopsy specimen demonstrated Gaucher cells in Glisson's capsule. Additional investigations revealed a low level of leukocyte β-glucosidase activity and common mutations of the glucocerebrosidase gene, L444P/D409H. We diagnosed the patient with Gaucher disease type 1. He underwent enzyme replacement therapy. Thrombocytopenia and hepat...

  10. Child and Adult Pedestrian Impact: The Influence of Vehicle Type on Injury Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Henary, Basem Y.; Crandall, Jeff; Bhalla, Kavi; Mock, Charles N.; Roudsari, Bahman S

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the vehicle fleet is shifting from predominantly passenger cars (automobiles) to SUVs, light trucks, and vans (LTV). This study investigates how pedestrian severe injury and mortality are associated with vehicle type and pedestrian age. The Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) database for years 1994–1998 was used for a cross-sectional study design. Outcome measures were Injury Severity Score, Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale, Pedestrian Mortality...

  11. Eliglustat tartrate for the treatment of adults with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett LL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lunawati L Bennett, Kelsey TurcotteSchool of Pharmacy, Union University, Jackson, TN, USA Abstract: The purpose of this article is to review eliglustat tartrate, a substrate reduction therapy, for the treatment of Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1. GD is an rare inborn error of metabolism caused by accumulation of lipid substrates such as glucosylceramide within the monocyte-macrophage system that affects the body by causing enlargement of the spleen and liver, destruction of bone, and abnormalities of the lungs and blood, such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. GD is classified into three types: GD1, a chronic and non-neuronopathic disease accounting for 95% of GD cases; and types 2 and 3 (GD2 GD3 which are more progressive diseases with no approved drugs available at this time. Treatment options for GD1 include enzyme replacement therapy and substrate reduction therapy. Eliglustat works by inhibiting UDP-glucosylceramide synthase, the first enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, thus reducing the load of glucosylceramide influx into the lysosome. Eliglustat was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration after three Phase I, two Phase II, and two Phase III clinical trials. The dose of eliglustat is 84 mg twice a day or once daily depending on the cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype of the patient. Keywords: Gaucher disease, glucocerebrosidase, glucosylceramide synthase, eliglustat tartrate, substrate reduction therapy

  12. The experience of Japanese adolescents and young adults after losing siblings to childhood cancer: three types of narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Hoshi, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Japanese adolescents' and young adults' experiences after losing siblings to childhood cancer. A conceptual framework of the transition and analysis based on narrative method were adopted from qualitative data from 6 Japanese adolescents and young adults who had lost their siblings to childhood cancer. It was revealed that the participants' psychological experience after the sibling's death was directed by their perceptions of their mothers' responses to bereavement. We also found that the psychological distance between participants and their mothers could be an important factor in enabling transition into mourning and in orienting the lost sibling in their mind. The stories obtained from these 6 participants were categorized into the following 3 types of narratives: "Mother in another world and the sibling who became a god," "Return of the loving mother and the sibling as savior," and "The poor mother and the sibling who needs my help to carry on her legacy." This typology will serve as a framework for grief care and future research. PMID:25413258

  13. Heart rate, conduction and ultrasound abnormalities in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Colotto, Marco; Amato, Silvia; Colella, Alessandra; Curione, Mario; Danese, Chiara

    2014-07-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders strongly associating with pain, fatigue and other secondary aspects. Though not considered a diagnostic criterion for most EDS subtypes, cardiovascular involvement is a well-known complication in EDS. A case-control study was carried out on 28 adults with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosed according to current criteria, compared to 29 healthy subjects evaluating resting electrocardiographic (ECG), 24-h ECG and resting heart ultrasound data. Results obtained in the ECG studies showed a moderate excess in duration of the PR interval and P wave, an excess of heart conduction and rate abnormalities and an increased rate of mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency often complicating with "true" mitral valve prolapse in the ecocardiographic study. These variable ECG subclinical anomalies reported in our sample may represent the resting surrogate of such a subnormal cardiovascular response to postural changes that are known to be present in patients with JHS/EDS-HT. Our findings indicate the usefulness of a full cardiologic evaluation of adults with JHS/EDS-HT for the correct management. PMID:24752348

  14. Glycated hemoglobin and incident type 2 diabetes in singaporean chinese adults: the Singapore Chinese health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Bancks

    Full Text Available The American Diabetes Association recently included glycated hemoglobin in the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, but research on the utility of this biomarker in Southeast Asians is scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between percent HbA1c and incident diabetes in an Asian population of adult men and women without reported diabetes.Data analysis of 5,770 men and women enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who provided a blood sample at the follow-up I visit (1999-2004 and had no cancer and no reported history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease events. Diabetes was defined as self-report of physician diagnosis, identified at the follow-up II visit (2006-2010.Hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals for incident diabetes by 5 categories of HbA1c were estimated with Cox regression models and continuous HbA1c with cubic spline analysis. Compared to individuals with an HbA1c ≤ 5.7% (≤39 mmol/mol, individuals with HbA1c 5.8-5.9% (40-41 mmol/mol, 6.0-6.1% (42-43 mmol/mol, 6.2-6.4% (44-47 mmol/mol, and ≥ 6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol had significantly increased risk for incident diabetes during follow-up. In cubic spline analysis, levels below 5.7% HbA1c were not significantly associated with incident diabetes.Our study found a strong and graded association with HbA1c 5.8% and above with incident diabetes in Chinese men and women.

  15. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain MRIs. The Brain Age Gap Estimation (i.e., BrainAGE score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM completed an MRI at 3T, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001, whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034, whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor (TNFα levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe depression. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019 and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025. In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM.

  16. Selection of approach and fixation in the treatment of type C fracture of distal humerus in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xin; LIU Jian-guo; GONG Yu-bao; YANG Chen; LI Shu-qiang; FENG Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the surgical treatment for distal humeral fractures in adults according to the follow-up results.Methods: Twenty-one cases (16 males and 5 females)of distal humeral fracture were included in this study. The average age was 42.5 years (range: 37-52 years). Fractures were classified according to the AO classification system.Nine cases of C1,8 C2 and 4 C3-type fractures were identified.Open reduction and internal fixation were performed in all cases. A tricep-reflecting approach was adopted, and either the AO orthogonal plating or parallel plating technique was chosen,based on the fracture type. The plaster cast was removed 3 weeks after operation. Rehabilitation was encouraged during this period and afterwards. The average follow-up time was 12.2 months (range: 8-28 months). The outcome was scored according to Aitken and Rorabeek system.Results:No nerve injury,nonunion or failure of fixation was encountered during the operation and follow-up.However, ossifying myosifis occurred in one case.Conclusions:A triceps-reflecting approach can provide adequate exposure to the joint. The use of AO orthogohal plating or parallel plating techniques based on the type of fractures can provide rigid fixation for the fracture.

  17. Original article Exploring somatization types among patients in Indonesia: latent class analysis using the Adult Symptom Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widhiarso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to explore somatization types by reducing patient complaints to their most basic and parsimonious characteristics. We hypothesized that there were latent groups representing distinct types of somatization. Participants and procedure Data were collected from patients undergoing both inpatient and outpatient treatment at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (N = 212. Results Results from latent class analysis revealed four classes of somatization: two classes (Classes 1 and 2 referring to levels of somatization and two classes (Classes 3 and 4 referring to unique types of somatization. The first two classes (Classes 1 and 2; low and high levels of somatization, respectively corresponded to the number of different symptoms that patients reported out of the list of physical symptoms in the Adult Symptom Inventory. The second two classes (Classes 3 and 4; non-serious and critical complaints, respectively corresponded to two different sets of symptoms. Patients in Class 3 tended to report temporary mild complaints that are common in daily life, such as dizziness, nausea, and stomach pain. Patients in Class 4 tended to report severe complaints and medical problems that require serious treatment or medication, such as deafness or blindness. Conclusions The present study do confirm somatization as a unidimensional experience reflecting a general tendency to report somatic symptoms, but rather support the understanding of somatization as a multidimensional construct.

  18. Relationships of diabetes-specific emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and overall well-being with HbA1c in adult persons with type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, Ragnhild Bjarkøy; Graue, Marit; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Peyrot, Mark; Rokne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Emotional problems are common in adults with diabetes, and knowledge about how different indicators of emotional problems are related with glycemic control is required. The aim was to examine the relationships of diabetes-specific emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and overall well-being with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c).Methods: Of the 319 adults with type 1 diabetes attending the endocrinology outpatient clinic at a university hospital in Norway, 235 (74%) compl...

  19. Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase (FLT) 3 and FLT3 Internal Tandem Duplication in Different Types of Adult Leukemia: Analysis of 147 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Hong-ling; Zhang, Guang-Sen; Gong, Fan-Jie; Shen, Jian-Kai; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Yun-Xiao; Zheng, Wen-Li; Dai, Chong-Wen; Pei, Min-Fei; YANG, JUN-JIE

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the expression level of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), the incidence of FLT3/internal tandem duplications (ITD) mutation, and prognostic value of FLT3 changes in different types of adult leukemia. Methods Bone marrow mononuclear cells were isolated from 147 adult patients with leukemia. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen FLT3/ITD mutation and quantitative PCR was performed to evaluate the expression of the FLT3 transcri...

  20. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Rollo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM, in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI with total energy expenditure (TEE measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2 participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57, carbohydrate (g/day (r = 0.63, p < 0.05, protein (g/day (r = 0.78, p < 0.01 and alcohol (g/day (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01, with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day (r = 0.24. Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC = 0.77–0.99 was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99. These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required.

  1. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  2. Molecularly defined adult-type hypolactasia in school-aged children with a previous history of cow's milk allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heli Rasinper(a); Kristiina Saarinen; Anna Pelkonen; Irma J(a)rvel(a); Erkki Savilahti; Kaija-Leena Kolho

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of lactase non-persistence/persistence in school-aged children and their milk-related sYmptoms.METHODS: The genotypes for the C/T-13910 variant associated with lactase non-persistence/ persistence were determined using PCR-minisequencing in a group of 172 children with a mean age of 8.6 years (SE = 0.02,93 boys) participating in a follow-up study for cow's milk allergy. The parents were asked to assess their children's milk consumption and abdominal symptoms.RESULTS: The presence of allergy to cow's milk was not associated with the C/G13910 genotype related with a decline of lactase enzyme activity during childhood (lactase non-persistence). The frequency of the C/G13910genotype (16%) was similar to published figures for the prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia in Finland. The majority of the children (90%) in this series consumed milk but 26% of their families suspected that their children had milk-related symptoms. Forty-eight percent of the children with the C/G13910 genotype did not drink milk at all or consumed a low lactose containing diet prior to the genotyping (P<0.004 when compared to the other genotypes).CONCLUSION: Analysis of the C/T-13910 polymorphism is an easy and reliable method for excluding adult-type hypolactasia in children with milk-related symptoms.Genotyping for this variant can be used to advise diets for children with a previous history of cow's milk allergy.

  3. Inter-individual Variability in Psychological Outcomes of Supervised Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Guicciardi; Romina Lecis; Davide Massidda; Lucina Corgiolu; Adelina Porru; Matteo Pusceddu; Francesca Spanu

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a key component in the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), however despite the strong evidence of its protective effects, a majority of the population with this diagnosis remains inactive and those who start an exercise program are not willing to train themselves over the long-term. Self-efficacy and perceived stress are related to barriers to exercise in T2DM, therefore the aim of this longitudinal study is to investigate variations across time and individual differenc...

  4. Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the serum concentration of IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IL-8, resistin, and adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome and to determine the cut-off point of the estimated glucose disposal rate that accurately differentiated these groups. Design. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of all patients in our type 1 diabetes clinic from January 2012 to January 2013. Patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome when they fulfilled the joint statement criteria and were evaluated for clinical, biochemical, and immunological features. Methods. We determined serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF with flow cytometry and adiponectin and resistin concentrations with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with and without metabolic syndrome. We also compared estimated glucose disposal rate between groups. Results. We tested 140 patients. Forty-four percent fulfilled the metabolic syndrome criteria (n=61, 54% had central obesity, 30% had hypertriglyceridemia, 29% had hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and 19% had hypertension. We observed that resistin concentrations were higher in patients with MS. Conclusion. We found a high prevalence of MS in Mexican patients with T1D. The increased level of resistin may be related to the increased fat mass and could be involved in the development of insulin resistance.

  5. Pharmacological approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes in fasting adults during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlMaatouq MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A AlMaatouqEndocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: More than 50 million Muslims throughout the world with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM fast for one lunar month (Ramadan each year. Health care providers within and outside the Muslim world need to be aware of the nature of these partial days of fasting and their risks (and potential benefits to people with T2DM, and need to provide Ramadan-adjusted diabetes care. Hypoglycemia during the fasting days represents the greatest health risk for these patients; hence, diabetes-related pharmacotherapy needs to be tailored and adjusted with this risk in mind. With limited trial data available, this review proposes practical modifications to the usual pre-Ramadan antidiabetic regimens that are based on pathophysiological principles, clinical trial evidence (where available, expert opinion, and extended practical experience. Individualization of care is paramount in this regard to take into consideration the patient and societal, cultural, and economic variables.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, Ramadan, fasting, hypoglycemia, oral antidiabetic agents, insulin

  6. Case Report Serious pulmonary infection in a splenectomized patient with adult type 1 Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Mao, Y F; Du, J M

    2015-01-01

    A 49-year-old man with a history of Gaucher disease type 1, resulting in serious splenomegaly and eating disorder, was referred to our department and underwent a splenectomy under general anesthesia. Gaucher disease is very rare, and its first signs are unexplained splenomegaly and hypersplenism. On preoperative examination, the patient's platelet count was slightly low, and his other test results were normal. Surprisingly, on the first postoperative day, the patient developed a lung infection. This gradually progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome with respiratory failure, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. The patient eventually recovered, and he was discharged after receiving antibiotics and other treatments to enhance immunity. However, his postoperative lung infection led to a significantly prolonged and expensive hospital stay. This case suggests that we must pay close attention to the immune dysfunction of patients with Gaucher disease type 1. Anesthesia and surgery with accompanying post-traumatic stress can weaken patients' immunity and cause susceptibility to severe lung infections. Pulmonary signs and functions should be monitored closely during the perioperative period, and, if necessary, gamma globulin and thymosin should be administered early in the preoperative or postoperative period to enhance immunity. PMID:25966100

  7. Social Disorder in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Building on Race, Place, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve, Shantell L; Tung, Elizabeth L; Schlichtman, John J; Peek, Monica E

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of social and civic disquiet in the USA has contributed to increasing recognition that social conditions are meaningfully connected to disease and death. As a "lifestyle disease," control of diabetes requires modifications to daily activities, including healthy dietary practices, regular physical activity, and adherence to treatment regimens. One's ability to develop the healthy practices necessary to prevent or control type 2 diabetes may be influenced by a context of social disorder, the disruptive social and economic conditions that influence daily activity and, consequently, health status. In this paper, we report on our narrative review of the literature that explores the associations between social disorder and diabetes-related health outcomes within vulnerable communities. We also propose a multilevel ecosocial model for conceptualizing social disorder, specifically focusing on its role in racial disparities and its pathways to mediating diabetes outcomes. PMID:27319322

  8. Phimosis with Preputial Fissures as a Predictor of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Yao-Kuang; Chen, Chih-Shou; Shindel, Alan W; Wu, Ching-Fang; Lin, Jian-Hui; Chiu, Kuo-Hsiung; Yang, Tzu-Hsin; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is usually asymptomatic in its early stage. Early diagnosis may improve outcomes by enabling initiation of treatment before end organ damage has progressed. The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical sign of phimosis with preputial fissures is predictive of type 2 diabetes in patients not previously diagnosed with diabetes. Twenty-eight patients with acquired phimosis and preputial fissures were collected prospectively. Twenty-eight controls with acquired phimosis without preputial fissures were selected. Statistically significant differences were found in body mass index, random plasma glucose, glucosuria and glycosylated haemoglobin levels, but not in age, family history of diabetes, hypertension and classical hyperglycaemic symptoms. Diabetes was confirmed in all 28 patients in the preputial fissures group, but only 2 (7.1%) patients in the non-preputial fissures group (p phimosis with preputial fissures may be a specific sign of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. PMID:26349852

  9. Two Siblings with Adolescent/Adult Onset Niemann-Pick Disease Type C in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yun; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jeong, Young Jin; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung; Cheon, Sang-Myung; Kim, Jae Woo

    2016-07-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NP-C), is caused by NPC1 or NPC2 gene mutations. Progressive neurological, psychiatric, and visceral symptoms are characteristic. Here, we present cases of a brother (Case 1) and sister (Case 2) in their mid-20s with gait disturbance and psychosis. For the Case 1, neurological examination revealed dystonia, ataxia, vertical supranuclear-gaze palsy (VSGP), and global cognitive impairment. Case 2 showed milder, but similar symptoms, with cortical atrophy. Abdominal computed tomography showed hepatosplenomegaly in both cases. NPC1 gene sequencing revealed compound heterozygote for exon 9 (c.1552C>T [R518W]) and exon 18 (c.2780C>T [A927V]). Filipin-staining tests were also positive. When a young patient with ataxia or dystonia shows VSGP, NP-C should be considered. PMID:27366019

  10. Targeted exome sequencing integrated with clinicopathological information reveals novel and rare mutations in atypical, suspected and unknown cases of Alport syndrome or proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshekhar Chatterjee

    Full Text Available We applied customized targeted next-generation exome sequencing (NGS to determine if mutations in genes associated with renal malformations, Alport syndrome (AS or nephrotic syndrome are a potential cause of renal abnormalities in patients with equivocal or atypical presentation. We first sequenced 4,041 exons representing 292 kidney disease genes in a Caucasian woman with a history of congenital vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, recurrent urinary tract infections and hydronephrosis who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria at the age of 45. Her biopsy was remarkable for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, a potential complication of longstanding VUR. She had no family history of renal disease. Her proteinuria improved initially, however, several years later she presented with worsening proteinuria and microhematuria. NGS analysis revealed two deleterious COL4A3 mutations, one novel and the other previously reported in AS, and a novel deleterious SALL2 mutation, a gene linked to renal malformations. Pedigree analysis confirmed that COL4A3 mutations were nonallelic and compound heterozygous. The genomic results in conjunction with subsequent abnormal electron microscopy, Collagen IV minor chain immunohistochemistry and progressive sensorineural hearing loss confirmed AS. We then modified our NGS approach to enable more efficient discovery of variants associated with AS or a subset of FSGS by multiplexing targeted exome sequencing of 19 genes associated with AS or FSGS in 14 patients. Using this approach, we found novel or known COL4A3 or COL4A5 mutations in a subset of patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected AS, APOL1 variants associated with FSGS in African Americans and novel mutations in genes associated with nephrotic syndrome. These studies demonstrate the successful application of targeted capture-based exome sequencing to simultaneously evaluate genetic variations in many genes in patients with complex renal phenotypes and

  11. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes Context: In animal studies exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease through only partly understood epigenetic mechanisms....... Human long-term follow-up studies on the same topic are few. Objective: To study the risk of overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, and additionally to study associations between estimates of maternal...... syndrome increased significantly with increasing maternal fasting blood glucose as well as 2-h blood glucose (during OGTT). Conclusions: Adult offspring of women with diet-treated GDM or type 1 diabetes are risk groups for overweight and the metabolic syndrome. Intrauterine hyperglycemia may in addition to...

  12. Surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation type I in an adult patient

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    Marković Marko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the cervical spinal canal with obliteration of the cerebellomedullary cistern is the primary feature of Arnold-Chiari type I malformation (ACM I. It is considered to be congenital malformation, although there have been reported cases of an acquired form. Case report. We presented a female patient, 45-year old, with ACM I without syringomyelia as a rare and unusual clinical image, as well as the effect of decompressive surgery in the treatment of this malformation. The patient was admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery with clinical signs of truncal ataxia worsening during the last six years. Moderate quadriparesis with predominant lower extremity involvement and the signs of the cranial nerves damages occured during the last seven months before admission, with progressive clinical course up to the date of admission. Neurosurgical treatment that included suboccipital medial craniectomy with resection of posterior arch C1 vertebrae and C2 laminectomy resulted in a significant clinical improvement and a much better quality of life. Conclusion. Posterior craniovertebral decompression with microsurgical reduction of the cerebellar tonsils and placement of an artificial dural graft is a treatment of choice in severe forms of ACM I without syringomyelia. .

  13. Risk behaviors for eating disorder in adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tucunduva Philippi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorder (ED in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and their association with gender, nutritional status, variables related to T1D, and body satisfaction. Method: 189 individuals with T1D (12-56 years old answered the Bulimic Investigation Test (BITE, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT, the Binge Eating Scale (BES, Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale, and questions regarding control of T1D. Association between ED risk behaviors and the selected variables was assessed with the chi-square test and Student's t-test; factors that influenced the risk of ED were identified by means of logistic regression. Results: Of the patients with T1D, 58.7% were at risk of ED (45, 40, and 16% according to the EAT, BITE and BES, respectively. There were significant differences between groups with and without risk for ED related to BMI (p = 0.009, gender (p = 0.001, insulin omission (p = 0.003, use of the carbohydrate counting method (p = 0.019, and body dissatisfaction (p = 0.001. The risk of ED was nine times higher in patients who reduced or omitted insulin (p = 0.036. Conclusions: Patients with T1D demonstrated a high frequency of body dissatisfaction and ED risk behaviors; the omission or reduction of insulin was an important risk factor.

  14. Traumatic rupture of a type IVa choledochal cyst in an adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fei Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Choledochal cyst (CC is a rare, congenital anomaly of the bile ducts. We describe a 26-year-old male patient who was transferred to our hospital with a reported traumatic rupture of cystic liver lesions following a fall. At the time of injury, the patient experienced severe abdominal pain. He was found to have peritonitis and abdominal hemorrhage, which is quite rare. Laparotomy revealed 3000 mL fluid consisting of a mixture of blood, bile and inflammatory effusion in the peritoneal cavity. The liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and colon appeared normal. A large cystic mass was discovered near the porta hepatis. This mass, which connected to the hepatic bifurcation and gallbladder had a 5 cm rupture in the right wall with active arterial bleeding. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and emergency laparotomy revealed rupture of a huge type IVa CC. The patient was successfully managed by primary cyst excision, cholecystectomy, and Roux-en-Y end-to-side hepaticojejunostomy reconstruction. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 12th day of hospitalization. Four weeks after surgery, abdominal CT scan showed pneumatosis in the intrahepatic bile duct, and intrahepatic dilatation which decreased following adequate biliary drainage. The patient has remained well in the close follow-up period for 9 mo.

  15. Adherence in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus correlates with treatment satisfaction but not with adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrychova T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tereza Hendrychova,1 Magda Vytrisalova,1 Alena Smahelova,2 Jiri Vlcek,1 Ales Antonin Kubena1 1Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 2Diabetes Center, Department of Gerontology and Metabolism, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Purpose: Diabetes self-care and self-monitoring adherence has a positive effect on the metabolic control of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the adherence to self-care recommendations and to identify its correlates in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods: One hundred and eleven patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in an observational cross-sectional study conducted at the Diabetes Center of the University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Diabetes self-care adherence was measured by the Self Care Inventory-Revised, and treatment satisfaction by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire-status version. Additional data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and medical records. The Mann–Whitney test, Spearman correlations, and multiple linear regressions were used in the statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of patients was 42.4 years; 59.5% of them were females and 53.2% of all patients used an insulin pump. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c was 66.2 ± 15.3 mmol/mol and the mean insulin dosage was 0.6 ± 0.3 IU insulin/kg/day. The number of hypoglycemic episodes (including severe that patients had in the last month before taking the survey was 3.6 ± 3.2. Self-care adherence was associated with treatment satisfaction (0.495; P = 0.004 along with frequency of self-monitoring of before meal blood glucose (0.267; P = 0.003. It was not associated with the incidence of hypoglycemic events or any other insulin therapy-related problems

  16. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Motivational Profiles for Physical Activity Practice in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlan, Mathieu; Trouilloud, David; Boiché, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the motivational profiles toward Physical Activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes and the relationships between motivational profile, perceived competence and PA. Participants were 350 men and women (Mean age 62.77 years) who were interviewed on their motivations toward PA, perceived level of competence to practice, and PA practice. Cluster analyses reveal the existence of three distinct profiles: "High Combined" (ie, high scores on motivations ranging from intrinsic to external regulation, moderate level on amotivation), "Self-Determined" (ie, high scores on intrinsic, integrated, and identified regulations; low scores on other regulations), and "Moderate" (ie, moderate scores on all regulations). Participants with "High Combined" and "Self-Determined" profiles reported higher perceived competence and longer leisure-time PA practice in comparison to those with a "Moderate" profile. This study highlights the necessity of adopting a person-centered approach to better understand motivation toward PA among type 2 diabetics. PMID:25961448

  18. Does type 1 diabetes alter post-exercise thermoregulatory and cardiovascular function in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, R; Carter, M R; Barrera-Ramirez, J; Sigal, R J; Flouris, A D; Kenny, G P

    2015-10-01

    Recent data demonstrated that individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit impaired sweating and increased rectal temperature (i.e., heat storage) during exercise compared with healthy controls. Our purpose in this study was to investigate the consequences of T1DM on post-exercise thermal homeostasis. Sixteen participants (eight controls matched with eight T1DM) performed 90 min of cycling followed by 60 min of seated recovery. Esophageal and rectal temperatures, sweating (forearm, chest, and upper back), skin blood flow [forearm and upper back, presented as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)], and blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP)] were measured at baseline and throughout recovery. Esophageal temperature was similar during baseline and recovery between groups (P = 0.88). However, rectal temperature was elevated in our T1DM group throughout recovery (P = 0.05). Sweating and CVC were similar between groups at all sites from 10-min post-exercise until the end of recovery (P ≥ 0.16). While absolute MAP was similar between groups (P = 0.43), the overall decrease in MAP post-exercise was greater in controls from 20 min (T1DM: - 8 ± 5 vs control: - 13 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.03) until the end of recovery. We conclude that despite increased heat storage during exercise, individuals with T1DM exhibit a suppression in heat loss similar to their healthy counterparts during recovery. PMID:25487370

  19. Spontaneous complete remission of type 1 diabetes mellitus in an adult – review and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Moole

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune condition that results in low plasma insulin levels by destruction of beta cells of the pancreas. As part of the natural progression of this disease, some patients regain beta cell activity transiently. This period is often referred to as the ‘honeymoon period’ or remission of T1DM. During this period, patients manifest improved glycemic control with reduced or no use of insulin or anti-diabetic medications. The incidence rates of remission and duration of remission is extremely variable. Various factors seem to influence the remission rates and duration. These include but are not limited to C-peptide level, serum bicarbonate level at the time of diagnosis, duration of T1DM symptoms, haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C levels at the time of diagnosis, sex, and age of the patient. Mechanism of remission is not clearly understood. Extensive research is ongoing in regard to the possible prevention and reversal of T1DM. However, most of the studies that showed positive results were small and uncontrolled. We present a 32-year-old newly diagnosed T1DM patient who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA and HbA1C of 12.7%. She was on basal bolus insulin regimen for the first 4 months after diagnosis. Later, she stopped taking insulin and other anti-diabetic medications due to compliance and logistical issues. Eleven months after diagnosis, her HbA1C spontaneously improved to 5.6%. Currently (14 months after T1DM diagnosis, she is still in complete remission, not requiring insulin therapy.

  20. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results (DRD, depression and the combination DRD-depression with demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed using generalized linear models. From 752 invited people, 700 participated (mean age 56.9 years, 52.8% female, 52.9% Malay, 79.1% married). Prevalence of DRD and depression were 49.2% and 41.7%, respectively. Distress and depression were correlated, spearman's r = 0.50. Patients with higher DRD were younger (OR 0.995, 95% CI 0.996 to 0.991), Chinese (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29), attending Dengkil health clinic (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.22) and had higher scores on the PHQ (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06). Depression was less likely in the unmarried compared to divorced/separately living and those attending Dengkil health clinic, but more likely in patients with microvascular complications (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.73) and higher DDS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03). For the combination of DRD and depression, unemployment (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.02 to 21.20) had positive association, whereas those under medical care at the Salak health clinics (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63), and those with a blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89) were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics

  1. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  2. Expression of type 2 cystatin genes CST1-CST5 in adult human tissues and the developing submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, D P; Thiesse, M; Hicks, M J

    2002-01-01

    Type 2 cystatins comprise a class of cysteine peptidase inhibitor presumed to mediate protective functions at various locations, including the oral cavity. Seven cystatin genes are clustered within a 300-kb region of human 20p11.2. "Salivary" cystatins, encoded by CST1, 2, 4, and 5, are present in saliva at significant levels but have also been reported in other secretions, such as tears, suggesting that during their evolution, these genes have acquired mechanisms directing differential tissue-specific expression. However, their patterns of expression, which might also provide additional clues to their individual functions, have not been determined. Gene-specific RNase protection assays were used to examine the qualitative and quantitative distribution of expression of these seven genes within a collection of 23 adult human tissues. The CST3 gene, encoding cystatin C, was expressed at modest levels in all tissues examined. The presumptive pseudogenes CSTP1 and CSTP2 were not expressed at detectable levels in any tissue. The CST1, 2, 4, and 5 genes were expressed in differential, tissue-specific patterns. Expression of CST2 and CST5 was restricted to the submandibular and parotid glands, while CST1 and CST4 were expressed in these tissues and in the lacrimal gland. Immunohistochemistry studies localized expression to the serous-type secretory end pieces. Coexpression of CST1 and CST4 was also observed in the epithelial lining of the gallbladder and seminal vesicle. The CST1 product was detected in the tracheal glands and CST4 in the kidney and prostate. Despite their different adult patterns of expression, analysis of CST1, 2, 4, and 5 mRNA levels in infant submandibular glands demonstrated a coordinate upregulation of expression of between 3.5 and 9 months of age. The patterns of cystatin gene expression are consistent with several proposed oral functions of the salivary cystatins but also suggest they are important in other locations and that, despite their close

  3. Different types of additional somatosensory information do not promote immediate benefits on gait in patients with Parkinson's disease and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Lirani-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlantar cutaneous stimulation has been shown to improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD, but the effects of different types of insoles have not been tested. We evaluated the immediate effect of different types of insoles on gait in PD patients and healthy older adults. Nineteen PD patients and nineteen healthy older adults performed and performed a walking task at their self-selected speed in three conditions: conventional insole, insole with a raised ridge around the foot perimeter, and insole with half-spheres. Plantar sensation was evaluated before and after the walking protocol. There were no differences between groups for plantar sensation before and after the walking task. PD patients demonstrated reduced stride length and stride velocity. There were no immediate benefits offered by the insoles on gait of either group. The increased plantar cutaneous stimulation does not promote immediate benefits on gait in PD patients and healthy older adults.

  4. Shoulder function, pain and health related quality of life in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-hypermobility type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Elise Christine; Reiten, Helle Sundnes; Løvaas, Helene;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate shoulder function, pain and Health-Related Quality of life (HRQoL) among adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), compared with the general population (controls). Method In a cross-sectional study using postal survey...

  5. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Bächle; Karin Lange; Anna Stahl-Pehe; Katty Castillo; Nicole Scheuing; Reinhard W Holl; Guido Giani; Joachim Rosenbauer

    2015-01-01

    Background This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. Methods In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Qu...

  6. The Effect of Different Types of Walking on Dual-Task Performance and Task Prioritization among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. The ability to safely conduct different types of walking concurrently with a cognitive task (i.e., dual task) is crucial for daily life. The contribution of different walking types to dual-task performance has not yet been determined, nor is there agreement on the strategies that older adults use to divide their attention between two tasks (task prioritization). Objectives. To compare the effect of walking in three different directions (forward, backward, and sideways) on dual-tas...

  7. Integrating theory and data to create an online self-management programme for adults with type 2 diabetes: HeLP-Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kingshuk Pal; Charlotte Dack; Susan Michie

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing and estimates suggest that by 2030 nearly 1 in 10 adults worldwide will be living with this condition. 10% of the NHS budget is spent on treating diabetes and related complications like heart attacks, strokes and blindness. Improving self-management in people living with type 2 diabetes is crucial in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Uptake of group-based self-management training is low and there i...

  8. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged ...

  9. Association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perveen Shazia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of depression with type 2 diabetes is a public health problem. If diabetes is managed in its initial phase, the morbidity and mortality due to this combination may be prevented at an early stage. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods From July 2006 to September 2007, a matched case control study (n = 592 was conducted in Civil Hospital, Karachi. Incident cases of type 2 diabetes (n = 296 diagnosed within one month were recruited from diabetic Out Patient Department (OPD of Civil Hospital, Karachi. They were matched on age and sex with controls (n = 296, who were attendants sitting in the medical out patient department of the same hospital, recruited on the basis of absence of classical symptoms of polyuria and polydispia along with random blood glucose level of Results The study comprised of 592 subjects with 432(73% males and 160(27% females. Depression was significantly associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes having mild level (mOR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.22,6.71 and moderate to severe level (mOR: 3.41; 95%CI: 2.07,5.61. History of (h/o gestational diabetes (mOR: 2.83; 95%CI: 1.05,7.64, family h/o diabetes (mOR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.04,2.43, nuclear family (mOR: 1.75; 95%CI: 1.14,2.69, BMI (mOR: 1.62; 95%CI: 1.01,2.60 for obese and mOR: 2.12; 95%CI: 1.19,3.79 for overweight vs healthy to underweight were also significantly associated with outcome, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, h/o smoking and h/o high BP. Conclusions Diabetics should be screened simultaneously for depression and concomitant preventive strategies for gestational diabetes, nuclear family and high BMI should also be used to prevent mortality/morbidity among patients between 25 to 60 years of age.

  10. Effects of meal type on the oral bioavailability of the ALK inhibitor ceritinib in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yvonne Y; Gu, Wen; Lin, Tiffany; Song, Dongweon; Yu, Richard; Scott, Jeffrey W

    2016-05-01

    Ceritinib is a potent inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which has shown acceptable safety and substantial antitumor activity in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Two food-effect studies were conducted in healthy adults to investigate the influence of food on the oral bioavailability of ceritinib: a study with low- or high-fat meals at 500 mg and a study with a light snack at 750 mg. Compared with the fasted state, AUC0-∞ (90%CI) of ceritinib was increased by 58% (34%, 86%) after the intake of a low-fat meal, by 73% (46%, 105%) after the intake of a high-fat meal, and by 54% (19%, 99%) after the intake of a light snack. Safety assessments also suggested that food may improve gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability after a single ceritinib dose. Based on the pharmacokinetic results, it is essential to avoid any type of meal during dosing of ceritinib because the intake of food may increase the occurrence of exposure-dependent, non-GI toxicities at the labeled dose of 750 mg daily during fasting. A randomized trial is ongoing to determine an alternative way to give ceritinib (450 mg or 600 mg with food) that may enhance GI tolerability in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. PMID:26272586

  11. Saccadic eye movement characteristics in adult Niemann-Pick Type C disease: relationships with disease severity and brain structural measures.

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    Larry A Abel

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC is a rare genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. A parameter related to horizontal saccadic peak velocity was one of the primary outcome measures in the clinical trial assessing miglustat as a treatment for NPC. Neuropathology is widespread in NPC, however, and could be expected to affect other saccadic parameters. We compared horizontal saccadic velocity, latency, gain, antisaccade error percentage and self-paced saccade generation in 9 adult NPC patients to data from 10 age-matched controls. These saccadic measures were correlated with appropriate MRI-derived brain structural measures (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye fields, supplemental eye fields, parietal eye fields, pons, midbrain and cerebellar vermis and with measures of disease severity and duration. The best discriminators between groups were reflexive saccade gain and the two volitional saccade measures. Gain was also the strongest correlate with disease severity and duration. Most of the saccadic measures showed strongly significant correlations with neurophysiologically appropriate brain regions. While our patient sample is small, the apparent specificity of these relationships suggests that as new diagnostic methods and treatments become available for NPC, a broader range of saccadic measures may be useful tools for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy.

  12. On "impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    The mechanical efficiency of propelling manual wheelchairs is a very important topic. Wheelchair users, clinicians, manufacturers and payers would all benefit from better understanding of mechanical efficiency. However, the measurement of the mechanical efficiency is a nontrivial challenge. Cowan et al deserve a lot of credit for tackling such a difficult problem in their article "Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults." The study demonstrated good internal validity in detecting a 4% difference in peak propulsion forces in wheelchairs that differed in mass by 9.1 kg. However, the instrumentation used to measure forces altered both the mass and inertia of the wheelchair-occupant system--2 factors that directly affect system energy. This approach, therefore, affects external validity, and the results cannot be extended to infer differences across wheelchair codes. That said, this study adds important information to the body of work into mechanical efficiency of wheelchairs. We now have evidence to suggest that addition of 9 kg and an 8 cm posterior displacement of axle position adversely affects propulsion biomechanics in an elderly cohort. Improved methodology can lead to mechanical efficiency measurement of different wheelchair models and different wheelchair options. PMID:19577018

  13. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

  14. Relationship between neuropsychological impairment and grey and white matter changes in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldanzi, Sigrid; Cecchi, Paolo; Fabbri, Serena; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Simoncini, Costanza; Angelini, Corrado; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Cosottini, Mirco; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) has a wide phenotypic spectrum and potentially may affect central nervous system with mild to severe involvement. Our aim was to investigate grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structural alterations in a sample of adult-onset DM1 patients and to evaluate relationship with clinical and cognitive variables. Thirty DM1 patients underwent neuropsychological investigation and 3T-MRI protocol. GM and WM changes were evaluated calculating brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), white matter lesion load (LL% and Fazekas scale) and tract based spatial statistical (TBSS). Patients showed main impairment in tests exploring executive and mnesic domains with visuo-spatial involvement, significantly related to BPF. VBM revealed clusters of widespread GM reduction and TBSS revealed areas of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in patients compared to a group of matched healthy controls. Multiple regression analyses showed areas of significant negative relationship between left temporal atrophy and verbal memory, between RD and mnesic and visuo-spatial cognitive domains, and between AD and verbal memory. TBSS results indicate that the involvement of normal appearance WM, beyond the signal changes detected with conventional MR imaging (Fazekas scale and LL%), was associated with neuropsychological deficit. These data suggest that disrupted complex neuronal networks can underlie cognitive-behavioural dysfunctions in DM1. PMID:27437180

  15. Determinants of uncontrolled hypertension in adult type 2 diabetes mellitus: an analysis of the Malaysian diabetes registry 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Boon How

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP is a significant contributor of morbidity and even mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2D patients. This study was done to determine the significant determinants of uncontrolled blood pressure in T2D patients in Malaysia. Methods Between 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2009, data from 70 889 patients with Type 2 diabetes was obtained from the Adult Diabetes Control and Management Registry for analysis; 303 centers participated in the study. Their demographic characteristics, the nature of their diabetes, their state of hypertension, treatment modalities, risk factors, and complications are described. Based on their most recent BP values, subjects were divided into controlled BP and uncontrolled BP and their clinical determinants compared. Independent determinants were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Results The mean age of patients at diagnosis of diabetes was 52.3 ± 11.1 years old. Most were women (59.0 % and of Malay ethnicity (61.9 %. The mean duration of diabetes was 5.9 ± 5.6 years. A total of 57.4 % were hypertensive. Of the 56 503 blood pressure (BP measured, 13 280 (23.5 % patients had BP two anti-hypertensive agents. Health clinics without doctor, older age (≥ 50 years old, shorter duration of diabetes ( Conclusions Major independent determinants of uncontrolled BP in our group of T2D patients were Malay ethnicity, older age, recent diagnosis of diabetes, overweight and follow-up at health clinics without a doctor and possibly the improper use of anti hypertensive agent. More effort, education and resources, especially in the primary health care centres are needed to improve hypertensive care among our patients with diabetes.

  16. Correlation Between Dietary Fat Intake and Atherogenic Indices in Normal, Overweight and Obese Adults with or Without Type 2 Diabetes

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    Diaf Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ω6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ω6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ω6/ω3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.

  17. WJD 5th Anniversary Special Issues(3): Type 1 diabetes Distinct clinical and laboratory characteristics of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in relation to type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena; Pipi; Marietta; Marketou; Alexandra; Tsirogianni

    2014-01-01

    Ever since its first appearance among the multiple forms of diabetes,latent autoimmune diabetes in adults(LADA),has been the focus of endless discussions concerning mainly its existence as a special type of diabetes.In this mini-review,through browsing important peer-reviewed publications,(original articles and reviews),we will attempt to refresh our knowledge regarding LADA hoping to enhance our understanding of this controversial diabetes entity.A unique combination of immunological,clinical and metabolic characteristics has been identified in this group of patients,namely persistent islet cell antibodies,high frequency of thyroid and gastric autoimmunity,DR3 and DR4 human leukocyte antigen haplotypes,progressive loss of beta cells,adult disease onset,normal weight,defective glycaemic control,and without tendency to ketoacidosis.Although anthropomorphic measurements are useful as a first line screening,the detection of C-peptide levels and the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD)autoantibodies is undoubtedly the sine qua non condi-tion for a confirmatory LADA diagnosis.In point of fact,GAD autoantibodies are far from being solely a biomarker and the specific role of these autoantibodies in disease pathogenesis is still to be thoroughly studied.Nevertheless,the lack of diagnostic criteria and guidelines still puzzle the physicians,who struggle between early diagnosis and correct timing for insulin treatment.

  18. ZnT8-Specific CD4+ T cells display distinct cytokine expression profiles between type 1 diabetes patients and healthy adults.

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    Daisuke Chujo

    Full Text Available Determination of antigen-specific T cell repertoires in human blood has been a challenge. Here, we show a novel integrated approach that permits determination of multiple parameters of antigen-specific T cell repertoires. The approach consists of two assays: the Direct assay and the Cytokine-driven assay. Briefly, human PBMCs are first stimulated with overlapping peptides encoding a given antigen for 48 hours to measure cytokine secretion (Direct assay. Peptide-reactive T cells are further expanded by IL-2 for 5 days; and after overnight starvation, expanded cells are stimulated with the same peptides from the initial culture to analyze cytokine secretion (Cytokine-driven assay. We first applied this integrated approach to determine the type of islet-antigen-specific T cells in healthy adults. Out of ten donors, the Direct assay identified GAD65-specific CD4(+ T cells in three adults and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8-specific CD4(+ T cells in five adults. The intracytoplasmic cytokine staining assay showed that these islet-antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells belonged to the CD45RO(+ memory compartment. The Cytokine-driven assay further revealed that islet-antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells in healthy adults were capable of secreting various types of cytokines including type 1 and type 2 cytokines as well as IL-10. We next applied our integrated assay to determine whether the type of ZnT8-specific CD4(+ T cells is different between Type 1 diabetes patients and age/gender/HLA-matched healthy adults. We found that ZnT8-specific CD4(+ T cells were skewed towards Th1 cells in T1D patients, while Th2 and IL-10-producing cells were prevalent in healthy adults. In conclusion, the Direct assay and the Cytokine-driven assay complement each other, and the combination of the two assays provides information of antigen-specific T cell repertoires on the breadth, type, and avidity. This strategy is applicable to determine the differences in the quality of antigen-specific T

  19. The Role of Type I Insulin Like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF-IR) in Adult and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Type 1 insulin like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is over expressed in many tumors including hematological cancers. It is a critical signaling molecule for tumor cell proliferation and survival. Data suggest that IGF-IR antibodies can effectively and specifically inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Blockage of IGF-IR expression could be a promising therapeutic approach for the management of cancer patients. Aim of Work: To characterize the expression pattern of IGF-IR gene in malignant lymphoblasts of children and adults suffering from ALL in relation to clinical features at diagnosis. Patients and Methods: The expression of IGF-IR was analyzed in 60 patients with ALL, 30 childhood ALL (16 newly diagnosed and 14 in complete remission) and 30 adulthood ALL (15 newly diagnosed and 15 in complete remission) together with 20 normal age and sex matched healthy controls using a Real-Time Quantitative Reverse- Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTQ-PCR) to assess the possible relation, association or correlation between IGF-IR expression and ALL clinical and laboratory features at diagnosis. Results: IGF-IR was expressed in all 60 patients with ALL; the expression levels of IGF-IR were significantly higher in newly diagnosed patients than in patients in complete remission (CR) and controls (p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the expression of IGF-IR between patients with different clinical and laboratory features. Conclusion: IGF-1R seems to play a crucial role in patients with ALL since it is expressed in all ALL cases (adulthood and childhood). Therefore, new therapeutic agents targeting IGF-1R may provide a better chance for those patients

  20. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan induces apoptosis and autophagy in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozako, Tomohiro; Soeda, Shuhei; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Arima, Naomichi; Kuroki, Ayako; Hirata, Shinya; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Imakyure, Osamu; Tone, Nanako; Honda, Shin-Ichiro; Soeda, Shinji

    2016-05-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy that develops after long-term infection with human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1), requires new treatments. Drug repositioning, reuse of a drug previously approved for the treatment of another condition to treat ATL, offers the possibility of reduced time and risk. Among clinically available angiotensin II receptor blockers, telmisartan is well known for its unique ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, which plays various roles in lipid metabolism, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, telmisartan reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptotic cells via caspase activation in ex vivo peripheral blood monocytes from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) or via caspase-independent cell death in acute-type ATL, which has a poor prognosis. Telmisartan also induced significant growth inhibition and apoptosis in leukemia cell lines via caspase activation, whereas other angiotensin II receptor blockers did not induce cell death. Interestingly, telmisartan increased the LC3-II-enriched protein fraction, indicating autophagosome accumulation and autophagy. Thus, telmisartan simultaneously caused caspase activation and autophagy. A hypertension medication with antiproliferation effects on primary and leukemia cells is intriguing. Patients with an early diagnosis of ATL are generally monitored until the disease progresses; thus, suppression of progression from AC and indolent ATL to acute ATL is important. Our results suggest that telmisartan is highly effective against primary cells and leukemia cell lines in caspase-dependent and -independent manners, and its clinical use may suppress acute transformation and improve prognosis of patients with this mortal disease. This is the first report demonstrating a cell growth-inhibitory effect of telmisartan in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leukemia patients. PMID:27419050

  1. Nebulin deficiency in adult muscle causes sarcomere defects and muscle-type-dependent changes in trophicity: novel insights in nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frank; Buck, Danielle; De Winter, Josine; Kolb, Justin; Meng, Hui; Birch, Camille; Slater, Rebecca; Escobar, Yael Natelie; Smith, John E; Yang, Lin; Konhilas, John; Lawlor, Michael W; Ottenheijm, Coen; Granzier, Henk L

    2015-09-15

    Nebulin is a giant filamentous protein that is coextensive with the actin filaments of the skeletal muscle sarcomere. Nebulin mutations are the main cause of nemaline myopathy (NEM), with typical adult patients having low expression of nebulin, yet the roles of nebulin in adult muscle remain poorly understood. To establish nebulin's functional roles in adult muscle, we studied a novel conditional nebulin KO (Neb cKO) mouse model in which nebulin deletion was driven by the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promotor. Neb cKO mice are born with high nebulin levels in their skeletal muscles, but within weeks after birth nebulin expression rapidly falls to barely detectable levels Surprisingly, a large fraction of the mice survive to adulthood with low nebulin levels (NEM (muscle weakness, oxidative fiber-type predominance, variable trophicity effects, nemaline rods) and will be highly useful to test therapeutic approaches to ameliorate muscle weakness. PMID:26123491

  2. Adult Type Granulosa Cell Tumor: A Very Rare Case of Sex-Cord Tumor of the Testis with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimosthenis Miliaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumor (GST is a sex-cord/stromal neoplasm of the gonads, more commonly arising in the ovaries, while approximately 80 cases have been reported in the testes. Out of these, 30 cases were of the adult type, while the remainder 50 cases were of the juvenile type. The latter mostly concerned infants and followed a benign course. However, the adult type testicular GCTs may be potentially malignant as it also happens in female patients with such neoplasms. We present a case of an adult type GCT located at the left testis. The patient was subjected to total orchiectomy and received no further treatment. Histology showed typical GCT histomorphology with Call-Exner bodies in some places. The immunoprofile of the tumor was CD99 (+, calretinin (+, inhibin (+, alpha smooth muscle actin (+, vimentin (+, ER (−, PR (−, keratin AE1/AE3 (−, alpha fetoprotein (−, CD117 (−, and placental alkaline phosphatase (−. Two years after surgery, the patient is alive and well with no signs of recurrence.

  3. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of pop...

  4. Risk of cardiovascular disease and total mortality in adults with type 1 diabetes: Scottish registry linkage study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona J Livingstone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have shown the importance of tight glucose control in type 1 diabetes (T1DM, but few recent studies have evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and all-cause mortality among adults with T1DM. We evaluated these risks in adults with T1DM compared with the non-diabetic population in a nationwide study from Scotland and examined control of CVD risk factors in those with T1DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Scottish Care Information-Diabetes Collaboration database was used to identify all people registered with T1DM and aged ≥20 years in 2005-2007 and to provide risk factor data. Major CVD events and deaths were obtained from the national hospital admissions database and death register. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR for CVD and mortality in T1DM (n = 21,789 versus the non-diabetic population (3.96 million was estimated using Poisson regression. The age-adjusted IRR for first CVD event associated with T1DM versus the non-diabetic population was higher in women (3.0: 95% CI 2.4-3.8, p<0.001 than men (2.3: 2.0-2.7, p<0.001 while the IRR for all-cause mortality associated with T1DM was comparable at 2.6 (2.2-3.0, p<0.001 in men and 2.7 (2.2-3.4, p<0.001 in women. Between 2005-2007, among individuals with T1DM, 34 of 123 deaths among 10,173 who were <40 years and 37 of 907 deaths among 12,739 who were ≥40 years had an underlying cause of death of coma or diabetic ketoacidosis. Among individuals 60-69 years, approximately three extra deaths per 100 per year occurred among men with T1DM (28.51/1,000 person years at risk, and two per 100 per year for women (17.99/1,000 person years at risk. 28% of those with T1DM were current smokers, 13% achieved target HbA(1c of <7% and 37% had very poor (≥9% glycaemic control. Among those aged ≥40, 37% had blood pressures above even conservative targets (≥140/90 mmHg and 39% of those ≥40 years were not on a statin. Although many of these risk

  5. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fox Kathleen M; Gavin James R; Grandy Susan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD...

  6. Self-reported diabetes self-management competence and support from healthcare providers in achieving autonomy are negatively associated with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the associations of self-perceived competence in diabetes management and autonomy support from healthcare providers with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus that is not optimally controlled [HbA1c ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)]. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised blood sampling and three self-report questionnaires, the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale and a measure of autonomy support by healthcare pr...

  7. Gender Specific Associations Between Types of Childhood Maltreatment and the Onset, Escalation and Severity of Substance Use in Cocaine Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Scott M.; Garcia, Miguel; Sinha, Rajita

    2006-01-01

    We examined associations between types of childhood maltreatment and the onset, escalation, and severity of substance use in cocaine dependent adults. In men (n = 55), emotional abuse was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use and a greater severity of substance abuse. In women (n = 32), sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and overall maltreatment was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use, and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and overall maltreatment was associated with...

  8. Retrospective Analysis of Long-Term Adherence to and Persistence with DPP-4 Inhibitors in US Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Amanda M; Sheehan, John J.; Curkendall, Suellen M; Smith, David M.; Johnston, Stephen S.; Kalsekar, Iftekhar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) must remain adherent and persistent on antidiabetic medications to optimize clinical benefits. This analysis compared adherence and persistence among adults initiating dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), sulfonylureas (SUs), and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and between patients initiating saxagliptin or sitagliptin, two DPP-4is. Methods This retrospective cohort study utilized the US MarketScan® (Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arb...

  9. Determinants of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Malaysian public health clinics: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Boon-How; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik

    2015-01-01

    Boon-How Chew,1 Noor-Hasliza Hassan,2 Mohd-Sidik Sherina3 1Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2Klinik Kesihatan Dengkil, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Abstract: Medication adherence (MA) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid pro...

  10. The Effect of Different Types of Walking on Dual-Task Performance and Task Prioritization among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Agmon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability to safely conduct different types of walking concurrently with a cognitive task (i.e., dual task is crucial for daily life. The contribution of different walking types to dual-task performance has not yet been determined, nor is there agreement on the strategies that older adults use to divide their attention between two tasks (task prioritization. Objectives. To compare the effect of walking in three different directions (forward, backward, and sideways on dual-task performance and to explore the strategies of older adults to allocate their attention in response to different motor task demands. Design. A cross-sectional study. Subjects. Thirty-two (22 female community-dwelling older adults (aged 72.7±5.7 years. Methods. Subjects randomly conducted single and dual task: walking to three directions separately, cognitive tasks separately, and combination of the two. Results. Walking forward was the least demanding task, during single (FW < BW, SW (P<.001 and dual tasks (FW < BW < SW (P<.001. The calculation of DTC revealed the same pattern (P<.001. DTC of the cognitive tasks was not significantly different among the three walking types. Conclusions. The decline mainly in the motor performance during dual task indicates that participants prioritized the cognitive task. These findings challenge the “posture first” paradigm for task prioritization.

  11. Metabolic, Anthropometric, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Related Risk Factors in Normal and Pre-Diabetic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohamed H; Nasser, Heba S; Sayegh, Suzan; Haddad, Alexandra; Sadoun, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health problem. The present study examines the relationship between the metabolic, anthropometric and Finnish risk score (FINDRISC) among normal and pre-diabetic adults. Subjects (n = 1319, aged above 18 years) from the Qatari population were classified into two groups based on their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements (non-diabetic A1cdiabetic 5.6% ≤ A1c ≤ 6.4%) were examined for their anthropometric (height, weight and waist circumference), metabolic [fat, fat free mass (FFM), muscle mass (MM), total body water (TBW), bone mass, degree of obesity, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass index (BMI), metabolic age, visceral fat rating, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), fasting / random plasma glucose (FPG / RPG), HbA1c and vitamin D (VitD)] and FINDRISC. Means and frequencies were determined in aggregate and by subgroups for all variables and correlations between categorical variables were tested to estimate the association between the anthropometric and metabolic risk factors with the FINDRISC. A percentage of 74.8% (n = 987) of the study population aged below 45 years old and their overall BMI was 28.8±5.2kg/m2 (overweight). Pre-diabetic subgroup have shown a statistically higher FINDRISC compared to their non-diabetic counterparts (11.2±4.1 vs. 9.8±4, p<0.001). The FINDRISC was significantly and directly correlated with the BMI, HbA1c and FPG. However, HbA1c was correlated directly with BMI, SBP, DBP, FPG / RPG and indirectly with the levels of HDL. This study demonstrates an apparent relationship between the HbA1c and FINDRISC score. Pursuing further research on this association may permit using HbA1c with the FINDRISC in predicting the risk of T2DM to be a better tool rather than using the current FPG/RPG, OGTT methods. PMID:27530580

  12. Needs and preferences for nutrition education of type 2 diabetic adults in a resource-limited setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W. Muchiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes self-management education is crucial in diabetes care. Education that is tailored to the needs of the patient is considered the most effective in improving health outcomes. Diet, a critical element of diabetes treatment, is reported as the most difficult to adhere to by both patients and health professionals. Tailored nutrition education (NE could benefit diabetic individuals with low socio-economic status, who are amongst those noted to have poor health outcomes. This qualitative interpretive phenomenological study aimed to explore and describe the NE needs of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus to guide development of a tailored NE programme for resource-poor settings. Participants were 31 non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients (convenience sample and 10 health professionals. Focus group discussions using semi-structured questions were held with the diabetics, and open-ended self-administered questionnaires were used with the health professionals. Data analysis was done using Krueger’s framework approach. Disease-related knowledge deficits and inappropriate self-reported dietary practices, including intake of unbalanced meals, problems with food portion control and unsatisfactory intake of fruits and vegetables, were observed. Recommendations for the NE programme included topics related to the disease and others related to diet. Group education at the clinic, a competent educator and comprehensive education were indicated by the patients. Participation of family and provision of pamphlets were aspects recommended by patients and health professionals. Barriers that could impact the NE included financial constraints, food insecurity, conflict in family meal arrangements and access to appropriate foods. Support from family and health professionals and empowerment through education were identified as facilitators to following dietary recommendations by both groups of participants. Knowledge deficits, inappropriate dietary

  13. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  14. What type, or combination of exercise can improve preferred gait speed in older adults? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Abbema, Renske; De Greef, Mathieu; Craje, Celine; Krijnen, Wim; Hobbelen, Hans; van der Schans, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improved preferred gait speed in older adults is associated with increased survival rates. There are inconsistent findings in clinical trials regarding effects of exercise on preferred gait speed, and heterogeneity in interventions in the current reviews and meta-analyses. Objective: to

  15. The effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behaviour in middle aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huen Sum Lam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theorybased intervention with respect to patients’ cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior.

  16. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-06-23

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients' cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior. PMID:27403464

  17. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients’ cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior. PMID:27403464

  18. Effectiveness of technology-assisted case management in low income adults with type 2 diabetes (TACM-DM: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strom Joni L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 1 in 3 American adults will have diabetes by the year 2050. Nationally, South Carolina ranks 10th in cases of diagnosed diabetes compared to other states. In adults, type 2 diabetes (T2DM accounts for approximately 90-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinically, provider and health system factors account for Methods We describe a four-year prospective, randomized clinical trial, which will test the effectiveness of technology-assisted case management in low income rural adults with T2DM. Two-hundred (200 male and female participants, 18 years of age or older and with an HbA1c ≥ 8%, will be randomized into one of two groups: (1 an intervention arm employing the innovative FORA system coupled with nurse case management or (2 a usual care group. Participants will be followed for 6-months to ascertain the effect of the interventions on glycemic control. Our primary hypothesis is that among indigent, rural adult patients with T2DM treated in FQHC's, participants randomized to the technology-assisted case management intervention will have significantly greater reduction in HbA1c at 6 months of follow-up compared to usual care. Discussion Results from this study will provide important insight into the effectiveness of technology-assisted case management intervention (TACM for optimizing diabetes care in indigent, rural adult patients with T2DM treated in FQHC's. Trial Registration National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry (http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier# NCT01373489

  19. Shoulder function, pain and health related quality of life in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-hypermobility type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Elise Christine; Reiten, Helle Sundnes; Løvaas, Helene; Maeland, Silje; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To investigate shoulder function, pain and Health-Related Quality of life (HRQoL) among adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), compared with the general population (controls). Method In a cross-sectional study using postal survey, 110 patients diagnosed with JHS/EDS-HT and 140 gender- and age-matched healthy controls from Statistics Norway participated. Shoulder function, pain and HRQol were registered by Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), pain drawings, 36-item Short Form (SF-36). Results Eighty-one individuals responded, with response rate 34% (JHS/EDS-HT: 53%, controls: 21%). JHS/EDS-HT had lower shoulder function (WOSI total: 49.9 versus 83.3; p pain intensity (NRS: 6.4 versus 2.7; p painful areas in both groups, with significantly higher frequency in JHS/EDS-HT (neck: 90% versus 27%; shoulder: 80% versus 37%). Further, JHS/EDS-HT most often reported generalized pain (96%). Conclusions Adults with JHS/EDS-HT have impaired shoulder function, increased pain intensity, as well as reduced physical HRQoL compared with controls. Although neck and shoulder were most frequently rated as painful, significantly more JHS/EDS-HT also reported generalized pain compared to controls. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults with JHS/EDS-HT have impaired shoulder function, and most often painful areas in the neck and shoulder joints, which need to be targeted in the treatment strategy. Compared with the general population adults with JHS/EDS-HT have reduced physical HRQoL, supporting a physical approach for this group. Adults with JHS/EDS-HT may present with both specific painful joints and generalized pain. PMID:26824670

  20. Determinants of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Malaysian public health clinics: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew BH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Boon-How Chew,1 Noor-Hasliza Hassan,2 Mohd-Sidik Sherina3 1Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2Klinik Kesihatan Dengkil, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Abstract: Medication adherence (MA in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid profile, lower rates of death and diabetes-related complications, increased quality of life, and decreased health care resource utilization. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of diabetes-related distress, depression, and health-related quality of life on MA. This study examined factors associated with MA in adults with T2D at the primary care level. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics, where adults with T2D were recruited consecutively in 2013. We used the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 to assess MA as the main dependent variable. In addition to sociodemographic data, we included diabetes-related distress, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life as independent variables. Independent association between the MMAS-8 score and its determinants was done using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and log link function. The participant response rate was 93.1% (700/752. The majority were female (52.8%, Malay (52.9%, and married (79.1%. About 43% of patients were classified as showing low MA (MMAS-8 score <6. Higher income (adjusted odds ratio 0.90 and depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.99 were significant independent determinants of medication non-adherence in young adults with T2D. Low MA in adults with T2D is a prevalent problem. Thus, primary health care providers in public health clinics should focus on MA counselling for adult T2D patients who are

  1. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy we...

  2. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...

  3. Processing of Spontaneous Emotional Responses in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effect of Stimulus Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sarah; Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has shown that adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty interpreting others' emotional responses, in order to work out what actually happened to them. It is unclear what underlies this difficulty; important cues may be missed from fast paced dynamic stimuli, or spontaneous emotional responses may be too complex for those with ASD to successfully recognise. To explore these possibilities, 17 adolescents and adults with ASD and 17 neurotypical controls viewed 21 videos and pictures of peoples' emotional responses to gifts (chocolate, a handmade novelty or Monopoly money), then inferred what gift the person received and the emotion expressed by the person while eye movements were measured. Participants with ASD were significantly more accurate at distinguishing who received a chocolate or homemade gift from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli, but significantly less accurate when inferring who received Monopoly money from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli. Both groups made similar emotion attributions to each gift in both conditions (positive for chocolate, feigned positive for homemade and confused for Monopoly money). Participants with ASD only made marginally significantly fewer fixations to the eyes of the face, and face of the person than typical controls in both conditions. Results suggest adolescents and adults with ASD can distinguish subtle emotion cues for certain emotions (genuine from feigned positive) when given sufficient processing time, however, dynamic cues are informative for recognising emotion blends (e.g., smiling in confusion). This indicates difficulties processing complex emotion responses in ASD. PMID:25735657

  4. Alport syndrome. Molecular genetic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael

    2009-01-01

    of the study methods were set up for detection and characterisation of mutations in the COL4A5 gene in 135 patients suspected of AS. The aims of that part of the study were to develop an efficient and reliable approach for mutation detection, and to implement the results of the mutation analysis in clinical...... in heterozygous form will not be detected by PCR-SSCP or direct sequencing. A method based on the PCR-SSCP technique was set up for screening of the COL4A5 gene exon-by-exon for mutation. All 51 COL4A5 exons with flanking intronic sequences were screened by this technique. The two alternatively transcribed exons...... 41A and 41B were directly sequenced. The PCR-SSCP method was compared to direct sequencing in 15 of the cases. No difference in mutation detection rates were found. Finally, a method based on RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from cultured skin fibroblasts was established. A mutation in a patient...

  5. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] −10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27082543

  6. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27082543

  7. Longitudinal relationship between diabetes-specific emotional distress and follow-up HbA1c in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, R B; Graue, M; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Peyrot, M; Thordarson, H B; Rokne, B

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine whether diabetes-specific emotional distress was related to follow-up glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods Adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus completed the Diabetes Distress Scale and reported sociodemographic information when attending a clinical consultation at a university endocrinology unit. Blood samples to determine baseline HbA1c were taken during consultations. All respondents’ HbA1c measurements registered from January 2009 to December 2011 were collected from medical records. The relationship between baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and HbA1c was examined with linear mixed-effects models in 175 patients with complete data. Results After controlling for confounders, baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and glycaemic control were significantly associated (fixed-effect coefficient 0.40, P diabetes-specific distress had a weaker but still significant association with glycaemic control (fixed-effect coefficient 0.31, P diabetes-specific emotional distress are at risk of prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control; therefore, elevated diabetes-specific emotional distress, especially regimen-related distress, might be an important marker for prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control, and might indicate a need for special attention regarding patient self-management. What’s new? In adults with Type 1 diabetes, elevated baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress is associated with worse glycaemic control over a 1–3-year period and regimen-related distress had the strongest association with subsequent glycaemic control. Baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress is associated with the stable component of glycaemic control and does not account for within-individual change in glycaemic control over 1–3 years. Elevated diabetes-specific emotional distress may be an important marker for risk of prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control. PMID:25865313

  8. Genetic screening for Niemann–Pick disease type C in adults with neurological and psychiatric symptoms: findings from the ZOOM study

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Peter; Balding, David J.; Klünemann, Hans H.; Linden, David E. J.; Ory, Daniel S.; Pineda, Mercè; Priller, Josef; Sedel, Frederic; Muller, Audrey; Chadha-Boreham, Harbajan; Richard W D Welford; Strasser, Daniel S.; Patterson, Marc C.

    2013-01-01

    Niemann–Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal-recessive, progressive neurological disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 gene (in 95% of cases) or the NPC2 gene. This observational, multicentre genetic screening study evaluated the frequency and phenotypes of NP-C in consecutive adult patients with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Diagnostic testing for NP-C involved NPC1 and NPC2 exonic gene sequencing and gene dosage analysis. When available, results of filipin stain...

  9. A case of post-mogamulizumab relapse of acute-type adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma successfully treated with mogamulizumab and etoposide

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Ichikawa, Kunimo; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Kinoshita, Ayako; Suga, Yasushi; Tomita, Shigeki; Izumi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Ohta, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented to us with the chief complaints of a generalized rash and a mass in the right clavicular region that he first noticed in the year 2012. Biopsy of the mass led to the diagnosis of cutaneous nodular mass-type adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in March 2013. Phototherapy was started, and the symptoms improved temporarily. However, in late June 2013, the serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level increased to 358 IU/L, which was 1.6 times higher than the upper limit o...

  10. A cross-sectional study of glycaemic control, complications and psychosocial functioning among 18- to 35-year-old adults with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, V; Vistisen, D; Due-Christensen, M

    2014-01-01

    , HbA1c and complications for 710 younger adults (18-35 years) with type 1 diabetes. A questionnaire with wide-ranging psychometric scales was used to measure various aspects of psychosocial functioning: the burden of diabetes-related problems, well-being, self-esteem, perceived competence in managing...... diabetes, perceived autonomy support from health professionals and self-management motivations. Furthermore, patients reported weekly self-monitored blood glucose measurements and insulin administration. Associations between HbA1c , complication and psychosocial indicators were tested using linear...

  11. Accelerometer-Derived Sedentary and Physical Activity Time in Overweight/Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-Sectional Associations with Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Genevieve N.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Brakenridge, Charlotte L.; Reeves, Marina M.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of sedentary time and physical activity with biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, including the potential collective impact of shifting mean time use from less- to more-active behaviours (cross-sectionally, using isotemporal substitution), in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants with overweight/obese body mass index (BMI; ≥25 kg/m2) (n = 279; 158 men, mean [SD] age = 58.2 [8.6] years) wore Actigraph GT1M accelerometers (waking hours; seven d...

  12. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Density, Microarchitecture, and Estimated Bone Strength Assessed by HR-pQCT in Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess peripheral bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone remodeling in adult type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with and without diabetic microvascular disease (MVD+ and MVD-, respectively) and to compare them with age-, gender......-, and height-matched healthy control subjects (CoMVD+ and CoMVD-, respectively). The secondary goal was to assess differences in MVD- and MVD+ patients. Fifty-five patients with T1DM (MVD+ group: n = 29) were recruited from the Funen Diabetes Database. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high...

  13. Living Well with Diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered intervention for maintenance of weight loss, physical activity and glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Eakin Elizabeth G; Reeves Marina M; Marshall Alison L; Dunstan David W; Graves Nicholas; Healy Genevieve N; Bleier Jonathan; Barnett Adrian G; O'Moore-Sullivan Trisha; Russell Anthony; Wilkie Ken

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background By 2025, it is estimated that approximately 1.8 million Australian adults (approximately 8.4% of the adult population) will have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes. Weight management via improved physical activity and diet is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes management. However, the majority of weight loss trials in diabetes have evaluated short-term, intensive clinic-based interventions that, while producing short-term outcomes, have failed to address is...

  14. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise. PMID:25566159

  15. The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is a transmembrane protein present in all cell types of adult Hydra and upregulated at the boundary between bud and parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischer Susanne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Notch signalling pathway is conserved in pre-bilaterian animals. In the Cnidarian Hydra it is involved in interstitial stem cell differentiation and in boundary formation during budding. Experimental evidence suggests that in Hydra Notch is activated by presenilin through proteolytic cleavage at the S3 site as in all animals. However, the endogenous ligand for HvNotch has not been described yet. Results We have cloned a cDNA from Hydra, which encodes a bona-fide Notch ligand with a conserved domain structure similar to that of Jagged-like Notch ligands from other animals. Hyjagged mRNA is undetectable in adult Hydra by in situ hybridisation but is strongly upregulated and easily visible at the border between bud and parent shortly before bud detachment. In contrast, HyJagged protein is found in all cell types of an adult hydra, where it localises to membranes and endosomes. Co-localisation experiments showed that it is present in the same cells as HvNotch, however not always in the same membrane structures. Conclusions The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is conserved in Cnidarians. Together with HvNotch it may be involved in the formation of the parent-bud boundary in Hydra. Moreover, protein distribution of both, HvNotch receptor and HyJagged indicate a more widespread function for these two transmembrane proteins in the adult hydra, which may be regulated by additional factors, possibly involving endocytic pathways.

  16. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in Adult BTBR T+tf/J Mice During Three Types of Social Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social deficits and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. We previously reported an unusual pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR pups that may represent a behavioral homologue to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, impaired communication. The present study investigated the social and vocal repertoire in adult BTBR mice, to evaluate the role of ultrasonic vocalizations in multiple social situations at the adult stage of development. Three different social contexts were considered: male-female, male-male (resident-intruder) and female-female interactions. Behavioral responses and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for BTBR and for the highly social control strain C57BL/6J (B6). No episodes of overt fighting or mating were observed during the short durations of the three different experimental encounters. BTBR displayed lower levels of vocalizations and social investigation in all three social contexts as compared to B6. In addition, the correlation analyses between social investigation and USVs emission rate revealed that in B6 mice the two variables were positively correlated in all the three different social settings, whereas in BTBR mice the positive correlation was significant only in the male-female interactions. These findings strongly support the value of simultaneously recording two aspects of the mouse social repertoire, social motivation and bioacoustic communication. Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared to B6. PMID:20618443

  17. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults : Results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P. A.; Vergnaud, A. C.; Schulze, M. B.; van Woudenbergh, G. J.; Drogan, D.; Amiano, P.; Molina-Montes, E.; Sanchez, M.J.; Balkau, B.; Barricarte, A.; Beulens, J. W. J.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Crispim, S. P.; Fagherazzi, G.; Franks, P. W.; Grote, V. A.; Huybrechts, I.; Kaaks, R.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Nilsson, P.; Overvad, K.; Palli, D.; Panico, S.; Quiros, J. R.; Rolandsson, O.; Sacerdote, C.; Sieri, S.; Slimani, N.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Tjonneland, A.; Tormo, M. J.; Tumino, R.; van den Berg, S. W.; Wermeling, P. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Langenberg, C.; Sharp, S. J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Riboli, E.; Wareham, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft drinks) with type 2

  18. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  19. Type A behavior and its determinants in children, adolescents and young adults with and without parental coronary heart disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, K; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Pietikäinen, M

    1991-01-01

    Healthy children, adolescents and young adults with parental coronary heart disease (CHD) (N = 78) were compared with their one-to-one matched controls without a parental CHD (N = 78) in terms of their psychological and behavioral characteristics. The variables adopted were Type A behavior, self-esteem, achievement striving, hyperactivity and social maladjustment. The results indicate a tendency for boys with parental CHD to be characterized by higher scores on Type A behavior, lower self-esteem and more intense striving for achievement compared to their matched controls. Girls with parental CHD differed from their matched controls in the predicted direction only in one respect: a higher level of hyperactivity was characteristic for cases. PMID:2046059

  20. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E; Bourne, Jessica E; Voth, Elizabeth; Little, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P glucose (P glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose. PMID:26139217

  1. Population-Based Estimates of Physical Activity for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cautionary Tale of Potential Confounding by Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At a population level, the method used to determine those meeting physical activity guidelines has important implications, as estimating “sufficient” physical activity might be confounded by weight status. The objective of this study was to test the difference between three methods in estimating the prevalence of “sufficient activity” among Canadian adults with type 2 diabetes in a large population sample (N=1614 while considering the role of weight status as a potential confounder. Our results revealed that estimates of physical activity levels vary by BMI categories, depending on the methods examined. Although physical activity levels were lower in the obese, their energy expenditure estimates were not different from those who were overweight or of a healthy weight. The implications of these findings are that biased estimates of physical activity at a population level may result in inappropriate classification of adults with type 2 diabetes as “sufficiently active” and that the inclusion of body weight in estimating physical activity prevalence should be approached with caution.

  2. Assessing fear of hypoglycemia among adults with type 1 diabetes – psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey II questionnaire

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    Marit Graue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes, but the overall frequency of both mild and severe hypoglycemia is difficult to estimate. The Hypoglycemia Fear Survey II (HFS-II is often used to assess the fear of hypoglycemia. Material and methods: The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the HFS-II for adults, including the behavior (HFS-B and worry (HFS-W subscales, among 235 adults in Norway with type 1 diabetes. We assessed associations between HFS-II scores and other rating scales and demographic and clinical variables. Results: The Norwegian version of HFS-II had an acceptable factor structure in relation to HFS-W, whereas the structure within HFS-B was more questionable. The expected relationships between HFS-II subscales and measures of related constructs administered concurrently demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Conclusion: Access to reliable and valid self-report instruments enables the early detection of psychosocial problems. HFS-W performs well, whereas HFS-B needs to be further examined and developed.

  3. Distinct luminal type mammary carcinomas arise from orthotopic Trp53 null mammary transplantation of juvenile versus adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, David H.; Ouyang, Haoxu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hlatky, Lynn; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2014-01-01

    Age and physiological status, like menopause, are risk factors for breast cancer. Less clear is what factors influence the diversity of breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of host age on the distribution of tumor subtypes in mouse mammary chimera consisting of wild-type hosts and Trp53 nullizygous epithelium, which undergoes a high rate of neoplastic transformation. Wild-type mammary glands cleared of endogenous epithelium at 3 weeks of age were subsequently implanted dur...

  4. The vitamin D receptor is a Wnt effector that controls hair follicle differentiation and specifies tumor type in adult epidermis.

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    Héctor G Pálmer

    Full Text Available We have investigated how Wnt and vitamin D receptor signals regulate epidermal differentiation. Many epidermal genes induced by beta-catenin, including the stem cell marker keratin 15, contain vitamin D response elements (VDREs and several are induced independently of TCF/Lef. The VDR is required for beta-catenin induced hair follicle formation in adult epidermis, and the vitamin D analog EB1089 synergizes with beta-catenin to stimulate hair differentiation. Human trichofolliculomas (hair follicle tumours are characterized by high nuclear beta-catenin and VDR, whereas infiltrative basal cell carcinomas (BCCs have high beta-catenin and low VDR levels. In mice, EB1089 prevents beta-catenin induced trichofolliculomas, while in the absence of VDR beta-catenin induces tumours resembling BCCs. We conclude that VDR is a TCF/Lef-independent transcriptional effector of the Wnt pathway and that vitamin D analogues have therapeutic potential in tumors with inappropriate activation of Wnt signalling.

  5. Temporal discrimination thresholds in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia: an analysis by task type and by dystonia phenotype.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradley, D

    2012-01-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance. Sensory abnormalities are present in AOPTD and also in unaffected relatives, possibly indicating non-manifesting gene carriage (acting as an endophenotype). The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous. We aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of three different TDT tasks (visual, tactile and mixed\\/visual-tactile). We also aimed to examine the sensitivity of TDTs in different AOPTD phenotypes. To examine tasks, we tested TDT in 41 patients and 51 controls using visual (2 lights), tactile (non-painful electrical stimulation) and mixed (1 light, 1 electrical) stimuli. To investigate phenotypes, we examined 71 AOPTD patients (37 cervical dystonia, 14 writer\\'s cramp, 9 blepharospasm, 11 spasmodic dysphonia) and 8 musician\\'s dystonia patients. The upper limit of normal was defined as control mean +2.5 SD. In dystonia patients, the visual task detected abnormalities in 35\\/41 (85%), the tactile task in 35\\/41 (85%) and the mixed task in 26\\/41 (63%); the mixed task was less sensitive than the other two (p = 0.04). Specificity was 100% for the visual and tactile tasks. Abnormal TDTs were found in 36 of 37 (97.3%) cervical dystonia, 12 of 14 (85.7%) writer\\'s cramp, 8 of 9 (88.8%) blepharospasm, 10 of 11 (90.1%) spasmodic dysphonia patients and 5 of 8 (62.5%) musicians. The visual and tactile tasks were found to be more sensitive than the mixed task. Temporal discrimination threshold results were comparable across common adult-onset primary torsion dystonia phenotypes, with lower sensitivity in the musicians.

  6. Non-Syndromic Brachydactyly Type D and Type E Mapped to 7p15 in Healthy Children and Adults from the Jirel Ethnic Group in Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberly D.; Blangero, John; Subedi, Janardan; Jha, Bharat; Dyer, Thomas; VandeBerg, John L.; Towne, Bradford; Williams-Blangero, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is phenotypic overlap between Brachydactyly Type D (BDD) and Brachydactyly Type E (BDE) that suggests a possible common underlying etiology. We seek to understand the genetic underpinnings of, and relationship between, these skeletal anomalies. Methods The Jirel ethnic group of eastern Nepal participates in various genetic epidemiologic studies, including those in which hand-wrist radiographs have been taken to examine skeletal development. 2,130 individuals (969 males; 1,161 females) were phenotyped for BDD/BDE. Of these, 1,722 individuals (773 males; 949 females) were genotyped for 371 STR markers spanning the autosomal genome. Variance components-based linkage analysis was used to conduct a genome-wide linkage scan for QTL influencing the BDD/BDE phenotype. Results BDD was present in 3.55%, and BDE was present in 0.39%, of the study sample. Because of the phenotypic overlap between two traits, affecteds of either type were considered as affected by a single combined phenotype (BDD/BDE) having a prevalence of 3.94%. The additive genetic heritability of BDD/BDE was highly significant (h2 ± SE = 0.89 ± 0.13; p = 1.7×10−11). Significant linkage of BDD/BDE was found to markers on chromosome 7p21-7p14 (peak LOD score = 3.74 at 7p15 between markers D7S493 and D7S516). Conclusions Possible positional candidate genes in the one-lod support interval of this QTL include TWIST and the HOXA1-A13 cluster. This is the first study to report significant linkage results for BDD/BDE using a large extended pedigree, and the first to suggest that mutations in TWIST and/or the HOXA1-A13 cluster may contribute to these specific skeletal anomalies. PMID:24022874

  7. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success: methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speight Jane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4% completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%. Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and

  8. Differences in B7 and CD28 family gene expression in the peripheral blood between newly diagnosed young-onset and adult-onset type 1 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruul, K; Kisand, K; Alnek, K; Metsküla, K; Reimand, K; Heilman, K; Peet, A; Varik, K; Peetsalu, M; Einberg, Ü; Tillmann, V; Uibo, R

    2015-09-01

    Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease, and there are pathogenetic differences between young- and adult-onset T1D patients. We hypothesized that the expressions of genes involved in costimulatory immune system pathways in peripheral blood are differently regulated in young- and adult-onset T1D. Study group I consisted of 80 children, adolescents, and young adults (age range 1.4-21.4 y; 31 controls and 49 T1D patients). Study group II consisted of 48 adults (age range 22.0-78.4 y; 30 controls and 18 T1D patients). The mRNA expression levels of CD86, CD28, CD25, CD226, CD40, BTLA, GITR, PDCD1, FoxP3, TGF-β, ICOS, sCTLA4, flCTLA4, and CD80 were measured in peripheral blood. Genetic polymorphisms (HLA haplotypes; rs231806, rs231775, and rs3087243 in CTLA4; rs763361 in CD226; and rs706778 in CD25) and T1D-associated autoantibodies were analyzed. In group I, there was significantly lower expression of CD226 in T1D patients than in the controls. In group II, there were significantly higher expression levels of CD86 and TGF-β in T1D patients than in the controls. In the T1D patients in group I, the upregulated CD80 expression correlated with the expression of both CTLA4 splice variants (sCTLA4 and flCTLA4). In contrast, in group II, upregulated CD86 correlated with TGF-β and CD25. In group I, the inhibitory CD80-CTLA4 pathway was activated, whereas, in group II, the activation CD86-CD28 pathway and TGF-β production were activated. These results emphasize the differences between young-onset and adult-onset T1D in the regulation of costimulatory pathways. These differences should be considered when developing novel treatments for T1D. PMID:25980680

  9. Conditional deletion of Abca3 in alveolar type II cells alters surfactant homeostasis in newborn and adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Besnard, Valérie; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Clark, Jean; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E.; Ikegami, Machiko; Stahlman, Mildred T.; Weaver, Timothy E.; Hunt, Alan N.; Postle, Anthony D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lipid transport protein required for synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. Abca3 was conditionally deleted in respiratory epithelial cells (Abca3Δ/Δ) in vivo. The majority of mice in which Abca3 was deleted in alveolar type II cells died shortly after birth from respiratory distress related to surfactant deficiency. Approximately 30% of the Abca3Δ/Δ mice survived after birth. Surviving Abca3Δ/Δ mice developed emphys...

  10. Readability, Subjective Preference and Mental Workload Studies on Young Indian Adults for Selection of Optimum Font Type and Size during Onscreen Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Banerjee, Deepti Majumdar, Madhu Sudan Pal and Dhurjati Majumdar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Font type and size characteristics play an important role in understanding the complexities of visual information in human-computer interface. India has emerged as the fastest growing personal computer (PC user in the Asia pacific region. Studies and guidelines on the use of font type and size on screen for computer users are limited in the literature. Present work evaluates the influence of font type and size on reading on a computer screen in a group of young adults. Forty subjects volunteered for the study. Two types of fonts were used. Serif fonts included Times New Roman (TNR, Georgia and Courier New. Sans serif fonts included Arial, Verdana and Tahoma. These fonts were presented in 10, 12 and 14 point sizes. Subjects read eighteen passages (same length and reading level. Reading time, ranking and mental workload were measured. Readability was better for Serif compared to Sans serif. Reading time was minimum for Courier New 14 point. Sans serif fonts were preferred more than Serif fonts. Subjects’ ranking was highest and mental workload was least for Verdana 14 point. The present study recommends using 14 point sized fonts for reading on computer screen. Courier New is recommended based on reading time while for making onscreen presentation more attractive, Verdana is recommended based on subjects’ ranking and mental workload scoring.

  11. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control.In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c.A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation was 5.3 (4.4 among women and 3.9 (3.6 among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001. However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006.Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  12. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W.; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. Methods In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. Results A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001). However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Conclusions Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26121155

  13. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

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    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  14. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P.A.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Schulze, M.B.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft dri

  15. Health Disparities by Type of Disability: Health Examination Results of Adults (18-64 Years) with Disabilities in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jun; Yu, Huijiong

    2016-01-01

    Aims There have been few studies on the disparities within the population with disabilities, especially in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in some health conditions among people with different types of disabilities in Shanghai. Methods This study was conducted using data from the Shanghai Disabled Persons’ Rehabilitation Comprehensive Information Platform. The records of 31,082 persons with disabilities who had undergone professional health examination were analyzed, and the prevalence and number of five diseases and five risk factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to explore disparities from two perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors, and 2) differences after adjusting for key demographic covariates. A p-value disability had a high rate of refractive error (60.0%), and averaged 1.75 diseases of interest, which was the highest value among all disability types. The mean number of risk factors we measured was greatest (1.96) in the population with mental disability. There were significant differences (p hearing and speech impairment group and the other groups with respect to most health outcomes, except chronic pharyngitis, hepatic cysts, and high blood pressure. Conclusion Significant differences of selected health outcomes between groups with different types of disabilities remained after controlling for key demographic indicators. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between health conditions and disability types. PMID:27196419

  16. Health Disparities by Type of Disability: Health Examination Results of Adults (18-64 Years with Disabilities in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Kang

    Full Text Available There have been few studies on the disparities within the population with disabilities, especially in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in some health conditions among people with different types of disabilities in Shanghai.This study was conducted using data from the Shanghai Disabled Persons' Rehabilitation Comprehensive Information Platform. The records of 31,082 persons with disabilities who had undergone professional health examination were analyzed, and the prevalence and number of five diseases and five risk factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to explore disparities from two perspectives: 1 basic differences, unadjusted for other factors, and 2 differences after adjusting for key demographic covariates. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant.Individuals with visual disability had a high rate of refractive error (60.0%, and averaged 1.75 diseases of interest, which was the highest value among all disability types. The mean number of risk factors we measured was greatest (1.96 in the population with mental disability. There were significant differences (p < 0.05 between the hearing and speech impairment group and the other groups with respect to most health outcomes, except chronic pharyngitis, hepatic cysts, and high blood pressure.Significant differences of selected health outcomes between groups with different types of disabilities remained after controlling for key demographic indicators. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between health conditions and disability types.

  17. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were factors associated with overall diabetes self-management performance and six aspects of diabetes self-management behaviors. There is some limited evidence to suggest that provider-patient communication, married individuals, higher educational level, and higher household income level may also be linked to better diabetes self-management practice. Having healthcare insurance and utilizing chronic illness resources generally appeared to have a favorable effect on diabetes self-management performance. In addition, there were a number of factors for which the evidence is too limited to be able to ascertain its strength of association with diabetes self-management practice. The findings of this review suggest that diabetes self-management behaviors are affected by a wide range of personal and environmental factors, which allow health care providers to develop theory-based strategies to improve diabetes-self-management behaviors in this population.

  18. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were factors associated with overall diabetes self-management performance and six aspects of diabetes self-management behaviors. There is some limited evidence to suggest that provider-patient communication, married individuals, higher educational level, and higher household income level may also be linked to better diabetes self-management practice. Having healthcare insurance and utilizing chronic illness resources generally appeared to have a favorable effect on diabetes self-management performance. In addition, there were a number of factors for which the evidence is too limited to be able to ascertain its strength of association with diabetes self-management practice. The findings of this review suggest that diabetes self-management behaviors are affected by a wide range of personal and environmental factors, which allow health care providers to develop theory-based strategies to improve diabetes-self-management behaviors in this population. PMID:26378555

  19. Alterations in Natural Killer Cell Receptor Profiles During HIV Type 1 Disease Progression Among Chronically Infected South African Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ambrose H.W.; Williams, Katie; Reddy, Sharon; Wilson, Douglas; Giddy, Janet; Alter, Galit; Ghebremichael, Musie; Carrington, Mary N; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D.; Altfeld, Marcus; Carr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that innate immune responses by natural killer (NK) cells play a significant role in restricting human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. Our aim was to characterize changes in NK cells associated with HIV-1 clade C disease progression. Here we used multiparametric flow cytometry (LSRII) to quantify phenotype and function of NK cells in a cross-sectional analysis of cryopreserved blood samples from a cohort of 41 chronically HIV-1-infected, treatment-na...

  20. Cognitive and brain function in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus : is there evidence of accelerated ageing?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Harriet N.

    2013-01-01

    The physical complications of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have been understood as an accelerated ageing process (Morley, 2008). Do people with T1DM also experience accelerated cognitive and brain ageing? Using findings from research of the normal cognitive and brain ageing process and conceptualized in theories of the functional brain changes in cognitive ageing, a combination of cognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques were used to evaluate evidence o...

  1. The relationship between clinical indicators, coping styles, perceived support and diabetes-related distress among adults with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Bjørg; Oftedal, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This article is a report of a cross-sectional study examining the degree to which clinical indicators, coping styles and perceived support from healthcare professionals and family are related to diabetes-related distress. Background: Many people with type 2 diabetes experience high levels of distress stemming from concerns and worries associated with their disease. Diabetes-related distress has predominantly been studied in relation to diabetes management and metabolic contro...

  2. Risk of cardiovascular disease and total mortality in adults with type 1 diabetes: Scottish registry linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, S. J.; Looker, H. C.; Hothersall, E.J.; Wild, S.H.; Lindsay, R.S.; Chalmers, J; Cleland, S.; Leese, G P; McKnight, J; Morris, A D; Pearson, D W M; Peden, N R; Petrie, J. R.; Philip, S.; Sattar, N

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. People with diabetes are more likely to have cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks and strokes. They also have a higher risk of dying prematurely from any cause. Controlling blood sugar (glucose), blood pressure, and cholesterol can help reduce these risks. Some people with type 1 diabetes can achieve tight blood glucose control through a strict regimen that includes a carefully calculated diet, frequent physical activity, regular blood glucose testing seve...

  3. Quality of Life, Depression, and Healthcare Resource Utilization among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Concomitant Hypertension and Obesity: A Prospective Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study compared quality of life, depression, and healthcare resource utilization among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and comorbid hypertension (HTN and obesity with those of adults reporting T2DM alone. Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD survey self-reported their height, weight, comorbid conditions, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits and completed the Short Form-12 (SF-12 and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Respondents reporting T2DM and HTN and obesity (body mass index, BMI, ≥30 kg/m2 were compared with a T2DM-alone group. Results. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity (n=1292 had significantly lower SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (37.3 and 50.9, resp. than T2DM-alone respondents (n=349 (45.8 and 53.5, resp., P<0.0001. Mean PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher among T2DM respondents with comorbid HTN and obesity (5.0 versus 2.5, P<0.0001, indicating greater depression burden. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity had significantly more resource utilization with respect to physician visits and emergency room visits but not hospitalizations than respondents with T2DM alone (P=0.03. Conclusions. SHIELD respondents with comorbid conditions of T2DM, HTN, and obesity reported greater healthcare resource utilization, more depression symptoms, and lower quality of life than the T2DM-alone group.

  4. The fate of the hip in spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia: clinical and radiological evaluation of adults with SEMD Handigodu type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to document the fate of the hip with reference to its structure and function in patients with spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia tarda Handigodu type (SEMDHG). Radiographs of 271 adult patients with SEMDHG were studied to identify the pattern of long-term sequelae in the hips. Several measurements of the proximal femur and acetabulum were made to quantify morphological alterations in the hip. Fifty-four adult patients were examined and administered a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of disability attributable to the hips. Three patterns of changes in the hips were noted: 35% had acetabular protrusio, 33% had subluxation of the hip, and 32% had no protrusio or subluxation. Distinctly different anthropometric measurements and dimensional alterations around the hip were noted in these three patterns. Patients with protrusio were relatively tall while those with subluxation were the shortest. All the patients had developed degenerative arthritis of the hips by the fourth decade of life irrespective of the pattern of hip involvement. The reduction in the range of hip motion and fixed deformities were most severe in patients with protrusio. All the patients had significant disability and very low functional hip scores. Degenerative arthritis of the hip develops in the majority of patients with SEMDHG; the symptoms are severe enough to warrant reconstructive surgery by the fourth decade of life. Protrusio or subluxation develops in a third of the patients each; both these complications will influence the surgical approach if total hip arthroplasty is planned. (orig.)

  5. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  6. Self-esteem and illness self-concept in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes: Long-term associations with problem areas in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Weets, Ilse

    2016-04-01

    This long-term prospective study examined whether illness self-concept (or the degree to which chronic illness becomes integrated in the self) mediated the pathway from self-esteem to problem areas in diabetes in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Having a central illness self-concept (i.e. feeling overwhelmed by diabetes) was found to relate to lower self-esteem, and more treatment, food, emotional, and social support problems. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that self-esteem was negatively related to both levels and relative changes in these problem areas in diabetes over a period of 5 years. Illness self-concept fully mediated these associations. PMID:24776688

  7. Self-reported diabetes self-management competence and support from healthcare providers in achieving autonomy are negatively associated with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohn, J; Graue, M; Assmus, J;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the associations of self-perceived competence in diabetes management and autonomy support from healthcare providers with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus that is not optimally controlled [HbA(1c) ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)]. METHODS: This cross-sectional study...... comprised blood sampling and three self-report questionnaires, the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale and a measure of autonomy support by healthcare providers, the Health Care Climate Questionnaire. We fitted blockwise linear regression models to assess the...... associations between Problem Areas in Diabetes score and the variables of interest (autonomy support and perceived diabetes competence), controlling for clinical and sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Of the study sample [n = 178; mean age 36.7 (±10.7) years], 31.5% had long-term complications and 43...

  8. Trends in the Levels of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins and the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Adults with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in the Southwest Chinese Han Population during 2003–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Tian; Hewen Chen; Fang Jia; Gangyi Yang; Shengbing Li; Ke Li; Lili Zhang; Jinlin Wu; Dongfang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the trends of serum lipid levels and dyslipidemia in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus during 2003–2012 in Southwest China. Methods. Serum lipid measurements of 994 adults were obtained from 5 independent, cross-sectional studies (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012). The main outcome measures were mean serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; bo...

  9. Effect of a behavioral intervention on dimensions of self-regulation and physical activity among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfee, Valerie; Petosa, Rick; Laurent, Devin; Schaub, Timothy; Focht, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the preliminary effect of a behavioral intervention on the use of self-regulation strategies and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. 23 individuals recruited from ResearchMatc.org and campus advertisements were randomized into an intervention (n = 12) and control (n = 11) group. The intervention group received a behavioral intervention that used goal setting, time management, and self-monitoring to target dimensions of self-regulation and MVPA. The control received information regarding their PA habits. MVPA was measured via BodyMedia Armbands at pre- and post-test. The use of self-regulatory strategies for MVPA was assessed at pretest and posttest using the Self-Regulation for Exercise Scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated to determine the practical impact of the intervention. The intervention had a large effect on all dimensions of self-regulation across time: including total self-regulation (3.15), self-monitoring (4.63), goal setting (3.17), social support (1.29), self-reward (1.98), time management (4.41), and overcoming barriers (2.25). The intervention had no impact on dimensions of MVPA across time. This pilot study demonstrated the ability of a behavioral intervention to improve the use of self-regulation strategies for MVPA in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. These findings can further inform the development of health promotion programs to promote self-regulation. Future research should focus on determining ability of improvements in self-regulation to stimulate behavior change. PMID:26785605

  10. Determining adult type 2 diabetes-related health care needs in an indigenous population from rural Guatemala: a mixed-methods preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chary Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Guatemala, diabetes is an emerging public health concern. Guatemala has one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America, and this population frequently does not access the formal health care system. Therefore, knowledge about the emergence of diabetes in this population is limited. Methods Interview participants (n=23 were recruited from a convenience sample of indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes at one rural diabetes clinic in Guatemala. A structured interview was used to assess knowledge about diabetes and its complications; access to diabetes-related health care and treatment; dietary and lifestyle changes; and family and social supports for individuals living with diabetes. Interviews were supplemented with two group interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Thematic analysis was used to produce insights into diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In addition, a chart review of the clinic’s electronic medical record identified all adult patients (n=80 presenting in one calendar year for a first-time diabetic consultation. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were extracted and summarized from these records. Results Salient demographic factors in both the structured interview and chart review samples included low educational levels and high indigenous language preference. In the interview sample, major gaps in biomedical knowledge about diabetes included understanding the causes, chronicity, and long-term end-organ complications of diabetes. Medication costs, medical pluralism, and limited social supports for dietary and lifestyles changes were major practical barriers to disease management. Quantitative data from medical records review revealed high rates of poor glycemic control, overweight and obesity, and medication prescription. Conclusions This study provides a preliminary sketch of type 2 diabetes in an indigenous Guatemalan population. Combined qualitative and

  11. Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán R Millar

    Full Text Available Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC measured at two sites: (1 immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib and (2 between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway, which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation.This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes.WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared to WC midway (in men and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women. A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003, Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001, Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001, but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127, when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74.WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or

  12. Reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is amplified by aluminum exposure in a model of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Seong, Je Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic aluminum (Al) exposure for 10 weeks on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampus of type 2 diabetic rats. Six-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats were selected and randomly divided into Al- and non-Al-groups. Al was administered via drinking water for 10 weeks, after which the animals were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. ZDF rats in both Al- and non-Al-groups showed increases in body weight and blood glucose levels compared to ZLC rats. Al exposure did not significantly affect body weight, blood glucose levels or pancreatic β-cells and morphology of the pancreas in either ZLC or ZDF rats. However, exposure to Al reduced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in both ZLC and ZDF rats. Exposure to Al resulted in poor development of the dendritic processes of neuroblasts in both ZLC and ZDF rats. Furthermore, onset and continuation of diabetes reduced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, and Al exposure amplified reduction of these parameters. These results suggest that Al exposure via drinking water aggravates the impairment in hippocampal neurogenesis that is typically observed in type 2 diabetic animals. PMID:27051335

  13. The association between indices of obesity and common clinical measures in adults with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda B. Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the differences amongst the anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, blood pressure and body shape in diabetics as well as non-diabetics. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comprised of 309 subjects with 91 males and 218 females. Of this, there were 217 diabetics and 92 non-diabetics. The sample was taken from three hospitals in Trinidad. Lipid profile and blood pressure were taken from each facility's physician's notes while anthropometric measurements were taken from the patients themselves. Results: The diabetic group had elevated body mass index and waist to hip ratios were significant (P <0.05 when compared to non-diabetics. There was no significant association of lipid profile, blood pressure, waist circumference and waist to height ratios between diabetics and non-diabetics. As age increased, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was more common. Out of 217 diabetics, 173 were of East Indian descent. With regards to gender, more males were found to be diabetics resulting from having an android body shape as compared to females (gynoid body shape. Conclusion: It was found that of all the anthropometric measurements used, waist to hip ratio was found to be the most effective indicator of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Trinidadians, while body mass index was found to be the least effective indicator. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 256-259

  14. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and

  15. A Review of Insulin-Dosing Formulas for Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Allen B; Kuroda, Akio; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Hobbs, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Dosing guidelines for patients with type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), which are historically based on clinical experience and retrospective studies of patients consuming an American diet, recommend that basal insulin should represent approximately 50 % of the total daily dose (TDD). Recent prospective studies in the USA and Japan conclude that the more appropriate proportion is closer to 30-40 % of TDD. In addition, currently used formulas for calculating the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) and correction factor (CF) may lead to underdosing of bolus insulin by as much as 12.8-50 % for a hypothetical patient. The discrepancies between traditional formulas and data from newer studies can be accounted for by the more rigorous design of the newer studies (e.g., prospective design, controlled diets, meal omission, and frequent glucose monitoring). International differences in diet composition may also be important to consider when developing dosing recommendations for CSII. PMID:27457238

  16. Disease history and medication use as risk factors for the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults: an explorative case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soulmaz Fazeli Farsani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a highly variable asymptomatic period of beta cell destruction prior to the clinical presentation of type1 diabetes. It is not well known what triggers type 1 diabetes to become a clinically overt disease. This explorative study aimed to identify the association between disease history/medication use and the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An explorative case control study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Cases (n = 1,107 were younger than 25 years and had at least 2 insulin prescriptions between 1999 and 2009. For each case, up to 4 controls (without any prescription for the glucose lowering medications (n = 4,424 were matched by age and sex. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between disease history/medication use in the year prior to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and clinical manifestation of this disease. Type1 diabetes was significantly associated with a history of mental disorder (odds ratio (OR 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-43.7, anemia (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1-22.9, and disease of digestive system (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.5. The following drug exposures were significantly associated with the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes: "systemic hormonal preparations" (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, medications for "blood and blood forming organs" (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, "alimentary tract and metabolism" (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6, and "anti-infectives for systemic use" (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01-1.4. CONCLUSIONS: Our explorative study demonstrated that in the year prior to the presentation of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults, hospitalization for a diverse group of diseases and drug exposures were significantly more prevalent compared with age- and sex-matched diabetes-free controls.

  17. Quality of Care for Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at a University Primary Care Centre in Malaysia

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    Chew Boon How

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D with its concurrent cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia and its complications has now accounted for the majority of national and global morbidity and mortality.Aims & Objective: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of complications appearing in diabetic patients despite therapy, addressing to an urban academic primary care centre.Methods: This was a sub-analysis of a cross-sectional study on 212 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D conducted from June to September 2006. Patients aged ≥ 30 years, non-smokers and under follow-up care of senior doctors were recruited. The average of the three most recent readings of fasting plasma sugar, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profiles was taken as measures of respective disease control. Results: Two thirds of the patients were female. The mean age was 62.7 (SD± 10.8 years and the duration of T2D was 11.74 (SD± 6.7 years. A total of 23.6% achieved HbA1c ≤ 7.0%, 26.2% attained LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/L and 24.5% achieved target blood pressure < 130/ 80 mmHg. The most prevalent co-morbid condition was hypertension (77.3%. A total of 27.2% patients had diabetic complications, out of which 86.5% had one complication. Proteinuria < 1gm/L and coronary artery disease were the two most common complications. There were only 16% on subcutaneous insulin and this was significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose (t = 5.38, df= 204, p < 0.0001 and HbA1c (t = 4.31, df= 206, p < 0.0001.Conclusions: Many T2D patients at this centre did not achieve treatment goals. Insulin and lipid-lowering drugs use should be optimized to improve control rates. More structured care processes are urgently needed in order to achieve good glycaemic control.

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe periodontal disease in an adult population; effect of a new local delivery approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Helmy Belal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify association between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis, and assess the effect of metronidazole and chlorhexidine mixture as a local delivery. Methods: Sixty patients constituted three groups: (I type 2 diabetes with advanced periodontitis; (II diabetes mellitus without periodontitis; and (III periodontitis without diabetes. Clinical attachment loss (CAL and bleeding index (BI were recorded. Periodontitis received first non-surgical therapy, and then metronidazole and chlorhexidine gel. Diabetics undertook blood analysis for diabetic factors. Results: Statistical differences were noticed between groups I and II at all periods (three and six month except few sites, and between groups I and III at all sites of CAL and most sites of BI. Group I had the worst measurements at baseline and 3 month which reversed with less measurements at 6 month (following therapy by demonstrating significant intergroup positive changes, without significance prior to therapy. No significant differences were noticed within groups I and III for CAL prior to therapy except few sites, but were present at 6 month at all sites in group III and except two sites in group I. For BI, no differences were noticed except three sites. Conclusion: The present study suggested evidence on improvement of periodontal parameters following treatment with the local mixture of metronidazole and chlorhexidine gel. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(2.000: 93-99

  19. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Pablo M; Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:27546934

  20. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  1. Development and feasibility of a text messaging and interactive voice response intervention for low-income, diverse adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Mulvaney, Shelagh A

    2013-05-01

    Low-income, racial/ethnic minorities are often nonadherent to diabetes medications, have uncontrolled glycemia, and have high rates of diabetes-related morbidity. Cell phones provide a viable modality to support medication adherence, but few cell phone-based interventions have been designed for low-income persons, a population with more feature phone penetration than smartphone penetration. In an effort to reach the broadest range of patients, we leveraged the voice and text messaging capabilities shared by all cell phones to design the MEssaging for Diabetes intervention. We specifically advanced and adapted an existing tailored text messaging system to include interactive voice response functionality and support the medication adherence barriers of low-income, diverse adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We report on the design process and feasibility testing results (i.e., technical use patterns and subjective user experiences) from patients from the target population who used the intervention in one of three user-centered design iterations. The types of challenges encountered in design were related to providing text message content with valued information and support that engages patients. The design process also highlighted the value of obtaining mixed methods data to provide insight into legitimate versus illegitimate missing data, patterns of use, and subjective user experiences. The iterative testing process and results outlined here provide a potential template for other teams seeking to design technology-based self-care support solutions for comparable patient populations. PMID:23759393

  2. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  3. HLA-B7-restricted islet epitopes are differentially recognized in type 1 diabetic children and adults and form weak peptide-HLA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scotto, Matthieu; Afonso, Georgia; Østerbye, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    The cartography of β-cell epitopes targeted by CD8(+) T cells in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients remains largely confined to the common HLA-A2 restriction. We aimed to identify β-cell epitopes restricted by the HLA-B7 (B*07:02) molecule, which is associated with mild T1D protection. Using DNA...... immunization on HLA-B7-transgenic mice and prediction algorithms, we identified GAD and preproinsulin candidate epitopes. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assays on peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that most candidates were recognized by new-onset T1D patients, but not by type 2 diabetic...... and healthy subjects. Some epitopes were highly immunodominant and specific to either T1D children (GAD(530-538); 44% T cell-positive patients) or adults (GAD(311-320); 38%). All epitopes displayed weak binding affinity and stability for HLA-B7 compared with HLA-A2-restricted ones, a general feature...

  4. The effect of interleukin-13 (IL-13 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ on expression of surfactant proteins in adult human alveolar type II cells in vitro

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    Mason Robert J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant proteins are produced predominantly by alveolar type II (ATII cells, and the expression of these proteins can be altered by cytokines and growth factors. Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance is suggested to be important in the pathogenesis of several adult lung diseases. Recently, we developed a culture system for maintaining differentiated adult human ATII cells. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of IL-13 and IFN-γ on the expression of surfactant proteins in adult human ATII cells in vitro. Additional studies were done with rat ATII cells. Methods Adult human ATII cells were isolated from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation and donated for medical research. The cells were cultured on a mixture of Matrigel and rat-tail collagen for 8 d with differentiation factors and human recombinant IL-13 or IFN-γ. Results IL-13 reduced the mRNA and protein levels of surfactant protein (SP-C, whereas IFN-γ increased the mRNA level of SP-C and proSP-C protein but not mature SP-C. Neither cytokine changed the mRNA level of SP-B but IFN-γ slightly decreased mature SP-B. IFN-γ reduced the level of the active form of cathepsin H. IL-13 also reduced the mRNA and protein levels of SP-D, whereas IFN-γ increased both mRNA and protein levels of SP-D. IL-13 did not alter SP-A, but IFN-γ slightly increased the mRNA levels of SP-A. Conclusions We demonstrated that IL-13 and IFN-γ altered the expression of surfactant proteins in human adult ATII cells in vitro. IL-13 decreased SP-C and SP-D in human ATII cells, whereas IFN-γ had the opposite effect. The protein levels of mature SP-B were decreased by IFN-γ treatment, likely due to the reduction in active form cathpesin H. Similarly, the active form of cathepsin H was relatively insufficient to fully process proSP-C as IFN-γ increased the mRNA levels for SP-C and proSP-C protein, but there was no increase in mature SP-C. These observations

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in the Adults in Haikou City, Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfang Xia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM occurs around the world with high prevalence and causes serious physical harm and economic burden to the afflicted. Haikou City is China’s southernmost tropical island city, which has not been previously studied for its T2DM prevalence. The objective of the study in employing a cross-sectional survey is to discuss the epidemiologic status of T2DM in Haikou City and to analyze the possible determinants.Methods: A total of 12,000 community residents over 18 years old from four districts in Haikou City were stratified-randomly sampled. A questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS17.0 software.Results: The prevalence of T2DM in Haikou City was 5.3% (5.15% for males and 5.46% for females. According to the multivariate analysis, the positive factors mainly associated with T2DM in the city included family history, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, triglycerides, low high-density lipoproteins (HDL, and blood pressure. For both men and women, family history was the highest independent risk factor associated with T2DM (OR= 47.128. The T2DM risk increased with increasing metabolic aggregate.Conclusion: The prevalence of T2DM for the community population of Haikou City was low. The possible risk factors included age, occupation, BMI, waist circumference, WHR, overweight, systemic obesity, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, family history, and HDL.

  6. Genetic screening for Niemann-Pick disease type C in adults with neurological and psychiatric symptoms: findings from the ZOOM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter; Balding, David J; Klünemann, Hans H; Linden, David E J; Ory, Daniel S; Pineda, Mercè; Priller, Josef; Sedel, Frederic; Muller, Audrey; Chadha-Boreham, Harbajan; Welford, Richard W D; Strasser, Daniel S; Patterson, Marc C

    2013-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal-recessive, progressive neurological disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 gene (in 95% of cases) or the NPC2 gene. This observational, multicentre genetic screening study evaluated the frequency and phenotypes of NP-C in consecutive adult patients with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Diagnostic testing for NP-C involved NPC1 and NPC2 exonic gene sequencing and gene dosage analysis. When available, results of filipin staining, plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol assays and measurements of relevant sphingolipids were also collected. NPC1 and NPC2 gene sequencing was completed in 250/256 patients from 30 psychiatric and neurological reference centres across the EU and USA [median (range) age 38 (18-90) years]. Three patients had a confirmed diagnosis of NP-C; two based on gene sequencing alone (two known causal disease alleles) and one based on gene sequencing and positive filipin staining. A further 12 patients displayed either single mutant NP-C alleles (8 with NPC1 mutations and 3 with NPC2 mutations) or a known causal disease mutation and an unclassified NPC1 allele variant (1 patient). Notably, high plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol levels were observed for all NP-C cases (n = 3). Overall, the frequency of NP-C patients in this study [1.2% (95% CI; 0.3%, 3.5%)] suggests that there may be an underdiagnosed pool of NP-C patients among adults who share common neurological and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:23773996

  7. The fate of the hip in spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia: clinical and radiological evaluation of adults with SEMD Handigodu type

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    Siddesh, N.D.; Shah, Hitesh; Joseph, Benjamin [Kasturba Medical College, Paediatric Orthopaedic Service, Manipal, Karnataka State (India)

    2012-08-15

    This study was undertaken to document the fate of the hip with reference to its structure and function in patients with spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia tarda Handigodu type (SEMD{sub HG}). Radiographs of 271 adult patients with SEMD{sub HG} were studied to identify the pattern of long-term sequelae in the hips. Several measurements of the proximal femur and acetabulum were made to quantify morphological alterations in the hip. Fifty-four adult patients were examined and administered a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of disability attributable to the hips. Three patterns of changes in the hips were noted: 35% had acetabular protrusio, 33% had subluxation of the hip, and 32% had no protrusio or subluxation. Distinctly different anthropometric measurements and dimensional alterations around the hip were noted in these three patterns. Patients with protrusio were relatively tall while those with subluxation were the shortest. All the patients had developed degenerative arthritis of the hips by the fourth decade of life irrespective of the pattern of hip involvement. The reduction in the range of hip motion and fixed deformities were most severe in patients with protrusio. All the patients had significant disability and very low functional hip scores. Degenerative arthritis of the hip develops in the majority of patients with SEMD{sub HG}; the symptoms are severe enough to warrant reconstructive surgery by the fourth decade of life. Protrusio or subluxation develops in a third of the patients each; both these complications will influence the surgical approach if total hip arthroplasty is planned. (orig.)

  8. Transient in utero disruption of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator causes phenotypic changes in Alveolar Type II cells in adult rats

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    Larson Janet E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanicosensory mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during lung organogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR was integral to stretch-induced growth and development and that transient expression of antisense-CFTR (ASCFTR had negative effects on lung structure and function. In this study, we examined adult alveolar type II (ATII cell phenotype after transient knock down of CFTR by adenovirus-directed in utero expression of ASCFTR in the fetal lung. Results In comparison to (reporter gene-treated Controls, ASCFTR-treated adult rat lungs showed elevated phosphatidylcholine (PC levels in the large but not in the small aggregates of alveolar surfactant. The lung mRNA levels for SP-A and SP-B were lower in the ASCFTR rats. The basal PC secretion in ATII cells was similar in the two groups. However, compared to Control ATII cells, the cells in ASCFTR group showed higher PC secretion with ATP or phorbol myristate acetate. The cell PC pool was also larger in the ASCFTR group. Thus, the increased surfactant secretion in ATII cells could cause higher PC levels in large aggregates of surfactant. In freshly isolated ATII cells, the expression of surfactant proteins was unchanged, suggesting that the lungs of ASCFTR rats contained fewer ATII cells. Gene array analysis of RNA of freshly isolated ATII cells from these lungs showed altered expression of several genes including elevated expression of two calcium-related genes, Ca2+-ATPase and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase1 (CaMkk1, which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of calmodulin kinase I, which is activated following phosphorylation by CaMkk1. Although increased expression of calcium regulating genes would argue in favor of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms increasing surfactant secretion, we cannot exclude contribution of alternate mechanisms because of other phenotypic

  9. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Reduce Sedentary Time in Young Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Edwardson, Charlotte L.; Wilmot, Emma G.; Yates, Thomas; Gorely, Trish; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Ashra, Nuzhat; Khunti, Kamlesh; Nimmo, Myra A.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a serious and prevalent chronic disease, is traditionally associated with older age. However, due to the rising rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyles, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the younger population. Sedentary (sitting) behaviour has been shown to be associated with greater risk of cardio-metabolic health outcomes, including T2DM. Little is known about effective interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at risk of T2DM. We aimed to investigate, through a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design, whether a group-based structured education workshop focused on sitting reduction, with self-monitoring, reduced sitting time. Methods Adults aged 18–40 years who were either overweight (with an additional risk factor for T2DM) or obese were recruited for the Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes (STAND) RCT. The intervention programme comprised of a 3-hour group-based structured education workshop, use of a self-monitoring tool, and follow-up motivational phone call. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 3 and 12 months after baseline. The primary outcome measure was accelerometer-assessed sedentary behaviour after 12 months. Secondary outcomes included other objective (activPAL) and self-reported measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity, and biochemical, anthropometric, and psycho-social variables. Results 187 individuals (69% female; mean age 33 years; mean BMI 35 kg/m2) were randomised to intervention and control groups. 12 month data, when analysed using intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) and per-protocol analyses, showed no significant difference in the primary outcome variable, nor in the majority of the secondary outcome measures. Conclusions A structured education intervention designed to reduce sitting in young adults at risk of T2DM was not successful in changing behaviour at 12 months. Lack of change may be due to the brief nature of such an intervention and lack of focus

  10. The alloantigenic sites of alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) collagen: pathogenic X-linked alport alloantibodies target two accessible conformational epitopes in the alpha5NC1 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong Suk; Kashtan, Clifford E; Turner, A Neil; Heidet, Laurence; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2007-04-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody nephritis is caused by an autoimmune or alloimmune reaction to the NC1 domains of alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) collagen. Some patients with X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) develop post-transplant nephritis mediated by pathogenic anti-GBM alloantibodies to collagen IV chains present in the renal allograft but absent from the tissues of the patient. In this work, the epitopes targeted by alloantibodies from these patients were identified and characterized. All XLAS alloantibodies recognized conformational epitopes in the NC1 domain of alpha5(IV) collagen, which were mapped using chimeric alpha1/alpha5 NC1 domains expressed in mammalian cells. Allograft-eluted alloantibodies mainly targeted two conformational alloepitopes mapping to alpha5NC1 residues 1-45 and 114-168. These regions also encompassed the major epitopes of circulating XLAS alloantibodies, which in some patients additionally targeted alpha5NC1 residues 169-229. Both kidney-eluted and circulating alloantibodies to alpha5NC1 distinctively targeted epitopes accessible in the alpha3alpha4alpha5NC1 hexamers of human GBM, unlike anti-GBM autoantibodies, which targeted sequestered alpha3NC1 epitopes. The results identify two immunodominant alpha5NC1 epitopes as major alloantigenic sites of alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) collagen specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of post-transplant nephritis in XLAS patients. The contrast between the accessibility of these alloepitopes and the crypticity of autoepitopes indicates that distinct molecular forms of antigen may initiate the immunopathogenic processes in the two forms of anti-GBM disease. PMID:17293596

  11. General fluid-type intelligence is related to indices of white matter structure in middle-aged and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haász, Judit; Westlye, Erling T; Fjær, Sveinung; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Arvid; Lundervold, Astri J

    2013-12-01

    General fluid-type intelligence (gF) reflects abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities, and is an important predictor for lifetime trajectories of cognition, and physical and mental health. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the role of parieto-frontal gray matter, but the white matter (WM) underpinnings of gF and the contribution of individual gF components to gF-WM relationship still need to be explored. The aim of this study was to characterize, in a sample of 100 healthy middle-aged and old subjects (mean=63.8 years), the relationship between gF and indices of WM structure obtained from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) (fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD)). gF was estimated by principal component analysis including measures of episodic memory, reasoning, and processing speed. Tract-based spatial statistics and permutation-based inference statistics were used to test the association between gF and WM indices, while controlling for the effect of age and sex. We hypothesized a positive relationship between gF and WM structure. Based on previous studies, we further hypothesized that this relationship was heavily influenced by the processing speed component of gF. We found a robust relationship between gF and DT-MRI measures of FA, RD and MD in all major WM tracts. Higher gF score was related to higher degree of WM integrity, in middle-aged as well as old individuals. Thus, the distributed relationship between gF and indices of WM microstructure is consistent with the notion that gF reflects efficient signaling between cortical areas. Furthermore, analysis of relationships between WM measures and gF components revealed an association with information processing speed and reasoning ability, but not with episodic memory. Thus, although all subcomponents loaded high on gF factor, the speed-related components were most strongly associated with DT

  12. Accelerometer-derived sedentary and physical activity time in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes: cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve N Healy

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of sedentary time and physical activity with biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, including the potential collective impact of shifting mean time use from less- to more-active behaviours (cross-sectionally, using isotemporal substitution, in adults with type 2 diabetes.Participants with overweight/obese body mass index (BMI; ≥25 kg/m2 (n = 279; 158 men, mean [SD] age = 58.2 [8.6] years wore Actigraph GT1M accelerometers (waking hours; seven days to assess moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, light-intensity activity, and sedentary time (segregated into non-prolonged [accumulated in bouts <30min] and prolonged [accumulated in bouts ≥30 min]. Cross-sectional associations with waist circumference, BMI, fasting blood (HbA1c, glucose, triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure of these activity variables (30 min/day increments were examined adjusted for confounders and wear then, if significant, examined using isotemporal substitution modelling.Waist circumference and BMI were significantly (p<0.05 associated with more prolonged sedentary time and less light-intensity activity. Light intensity activity was also significantly associated with lower fasting plasma glucose (relative rate: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.00; p<0.05. No biomarker was significantly associated with non-prolonged sedentary time or MVPA. Lower mean prolonged sedentary time (-30 min/day with higher mean light intensity time (+30 min/day was significantly associated with lower waist circumference (β = -0.77, 95% CI: -1.33, -0.22 cm. Lower mean prolonged sedentary time (-30 min/day with either 30 min/day higher mean non-prolonged sedentary time (β = -0.35, 95%CI: -0.70, -0.01 kg/m2 or light-intensity time (β = -0.36, -0.61, -0.11 kg/m2 was associated with significantly lower average BMI.Significantly improved mean levels of waist circumference and BMI were observed when shifting time from prolonged

  13. Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Remote Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Chubak, Jessica; O'Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation-dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes…

  14. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Types of Cancers ... Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living with Cancer ...

  15. Early signs of atherosclerosis are associated with insulin resistance in non-obese adolescent and young adults with type 1 diabetes

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    Rathsman Björn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 1 diabetes have a substantial risk of developing cardiovascular complications early in life. We aimed to explore the role of insulin sensitivity (Si as an early factor of atherosclerosis in young type 1 diabetes vs. non-diabetic subjects. Methods Forty adolescent and young adult individuals (20 type 1 diabetics and 20 non-diabetics, age 14–20 years, without characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, participated in this cross-sectional study. After an overnight fast, Si was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m2 and calculated by glucose infusion rate (GIR. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT was measured in the common carotid artery with high-resolution ultrasonography. Risk factors of atherosclerosis (Body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, systolic blood pressure [sBP], triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol and HbA1c were also investigated. Results cIMT was increased (0.52 ± 0.1 vs. 0.47 ± 0.1 mm, P vs. 7.1 ± 2.2 mg/kg/min, P vs. non-diabetics. The differences in cIMT were negatively associated with Si (r = −0.4, P r = 0.34, P = 0.03, with no such associations between BMI (r = 0.15, P = 0.32, sBP (r = 0.09, P = 0.58, triglycerides (r = 0.07, P = 0.66, HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.10, P = 0.55 and HbA1c (r = 0.24, P = 0.13. In a multivariate regression model, between cIMT (dependent and group (explanatory, only adjustment for Si affected the significance (ß = 0.08, P = 0.11 vs. (ß = 0.07, P i was observed. Conclusions cIMT is increased and associated with insulin resistance in adolescent, non-obese type 1 diabetic subjects. Although, no conclusions toward a causal relationship can be drawn from current findings, insulin resistance emerges as an important factor reflecting early signs of atherosclerosis in this small cohort.

  16. Validation of Indian diabetic risk score in diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus against high fasting blood sugar levels among adult population of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Kasar, Pradeep Kumar; Toppo, Neelam Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Globally the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is major public health concern. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) was developed by Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (MDRF) as a simple tool to help detect undiagnosed type 2 DM (T2DM) in the community. We conducted a study among 911 adults of Jabalpur District to validate the IDRS score against increased fasting blood sugar levels in diagnosing T2DM. T2DM was confirmed either by history of previously known disease or fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl on two occasions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index (sensitivity + specificity -1), likelihood ratio for positive test, and likelihood ratio for negative test were calculated for IDRS cut-offs of ≥20, ≥40, ≥60, and ≥80 against the presence of T2DM (either known diabetic or fasting plasma glucose >126 mg/dl on two occasions). The overall prevalence of T2DM was 9.99% (95% confidence interval, 8.04-11.94%). In the Receiver operating characteristic analysis, IDRS had an area under the curve of 0.736 (P indicate that IDRS has excellent predictive value for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the community and IDRS is also a much stronger risk indicator than examining individual risk factors like age, family history, obesity, or physical activity. PMID:25355391

  17. Dementia of Alzheimer-type in adult patients with Down's syndrome. Its frequency, neuroradiological findings, and biochemical study of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the frequency, neuroradiological features, and risk factors of Alzheimer-type dementia (DAT) in 123 Japanese adult patients with Down's syndrome. Among these patients 16 were diagnosed as having DAT. The prevalence of DAT was 0% in the 18- to 39-year-old group, 16% in those aged 40 to 49 years old, and 38% in those over 50 years old. On CT examination, the earliest finding of DAT was atrophy of the temporal lobe. Patients at an advanced stage revealed extensive atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, frequently associated with calcification of the basal ganglia. 123I-IMP-SPECT studies showed abnormally decreased isotope uptake in the posterior parietal regions in Down's syndrome patients with DAT, and a similar finding was also seen in Down's syndrome patients who showed severe mental retardation. The frequency of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) E4 in Down's syndrome patients with DAT was 18.8%, which was higher than that of non-demented Down's syndrome patients (4.5%) and Japanese non-demented controls (6.7%). In particular, the frequency of the ApoE E4 in patients who developed DAT before 50 years of age was significantly high (28.6%). It is very likely that the ApoE E4 is a risk factor for DAT even in Down's syndrome patients with a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer's disease. (author)

  18. Magnitude of cognitive dysfunction in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of six cognitive domains and the most frequently reported neuropsychological tests within domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Schneider, Andrea L C; Biessels, Geert Jan; Touradji, Pegah; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to conduct a meta-analysis in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards to determine effect sizes (Cohen's d) for cognitive dysfunction in adults with type 2 diabetes, relative to nondiabetic controls, and to obtain effect sizes for the most commonly reported neuropsychological tests within domains. Twenty-four studies, totaling 26,137 patients (n = 3351 with diabetes), met study inclusion criteria. Small to moderate effect sizes were obtained for five of six domains: motor function (3 studies, n = 2374; d = -0.36), executive function (12 studies, n = 1784; d = -0.33), processing speed (16 studies, n = 3076; d = -0.33), verbal memory (15 studies, n = 4,608; d = -0.28), and visual memory (6 studies, n = 1754; d = -0.26). Effect size was smallest for attention/concentration (14 studies, n = 23,143; d = -0.19). The following tests demonstrated the most notable performance decrements in diabetes samples: Grooved Pegboard (dominant hand) (d = -0.60), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (immediate) (d = -0.40), Trails B (d = -0.39), Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure (delayed) (d = -0.38), Trails A (d = -0.34), and Stroop Part I (d = -0.28). This study provides effect sizes to power future epidemiological and clinical diabetes research studies examining cognitive function and to help inform the selection of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24555960

  19. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes. PMID:24934070

  20. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD US survey ascertained self-reported health intentions and behaviors for regular exercise, diet, and weight management among Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 2526, Non-Hispanic African-American (n = 706, and Hispanic (n = 179 respondents with type 2 diabetes. Results A similar proportion of respondents from each race-gender group (43%-56% reported receiving healthcare advice to increase their exercise (P = 0.32. Significantly more minorities reported an intention to follow the exercise recommendation compared with Non-Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.03. More Non-Hispanic African-American (29% and Hispanic (27% men reported exercising regularly compared with other race-gender groups (P = 0.02. Significantly more Non-Hispanic Caucasian women (74% and Hispanic women (79% reported trying to lose weight compared with other groups (P Conclusions Differences in health intentions and healthy behaviors were noted across race-gender groups. More Non-Hispanic African-American men reported an intention to follow advice on exercising and self-report of exercising regularly was also higher compared with other race-gender groups. More Hispanic men reported high physical activity levels than other groups. Despite an increased willingness to follow healthcare recommendations for diet, >50% of respondents were obese among all race-gender groups.

  1. Usefulness of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in Evaluating a Brainstem Glioma in an Adult Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a case of a brainstem glioma (BSG) occurred in an adult patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and evaluated by Flourine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT). A 32-year-old male patient with NF1 underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the onset of diplopia, facial paresis and cerebellar signs and symptoms. MRI showed a brainstem lesion compatible with BSG. Biopsy was not performed. 18F-FDG-PET/CT demonstrated intense 18F-FDG uptake in the brainstem lesion, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm. The patient was referred to radiotherapy but he developed rapid disease progression. In this case, 18F-FDG-PET/CT provided useful information about this rare NF1-associated tumor. Subsequently, the patient was referred to radiotherapy, but he developed rapid disease progression and died 3 months later. NF-1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple cafe-au-lait spots, axillary and inguinal freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and iris Lisch nodules. NF-1 is also characterized by low-grade tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system. There is also an increased risk of developing malignant tumors such as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors or central nervous system high-grade gliomas. NF1-associated BSGs are less common than NF1-associated optic gliomas (OGs) and seem to represent a particular entity which tend, as a whole, to have a more favorable prognosis and a more indolent course than BSGs in patients without NF1; nevertheless, some NF1-associted BSG may rapidly progress. 18F-FDG-PET/CT has demonstrated to provide useful information to the surveillance of OGs in children with NF1, particularly to identify progressive, symptomatic tumors. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data about the usefulness of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in adult patients with NF1-associated BSG. In our case, 18F-FDG-PET/CT has been useful in evaluating this rare NF1-associated tumor

  2. Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in Evaluating a Brainstem Glioma in an Adult Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglia, Giorgio [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Muoio, Barbara; Del Ciello, Annemilia [Univ. of the Sacred, Rome (Italy); Bertagna, Francesco [Univ. of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    We describe a case of a brainstem glioma (BSG) occurred in an adult patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and evaluated by Flourine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT). A 32-year-old male patient with NF1 underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the onset of diplopia, facial paresis and cerebellar signs and symptoms. MRI showed a brainstem lesion compatible with BSG. Biopsy was not performed. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT demonstrated intense {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the brainstem lesion, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm. The patient was referred to radiotherapy but he developed rapid disease progression. In this case, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT provided useful information about this rare NF1-associated tumor. Subsequently, the patient was referred to radiotherapy, but he developed rapid disease progression and died 3 months later. NF-1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple cafe-au-lait spots, axillary and inguinal freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and iris Lisch nodules. NF-1 is also characterized by low-grade tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system. There is also an increased risk of developing malignant tumors such as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors or central nervous system high-grade gliomas. NF1-associated BSGs are less common than NF1-associated optic gliomas (OGs) and seem to represent a particular entity which tend, as a whole, to have a more favorable prognosis and a more indolent course than BSGs in patients without NF1; nevertheless, some NF1-associted BSG may rapidly progress. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT has demonstrated to provide useful information to the surveillance of OGs in children with NF1, particularly to identify progressive, symptomatic tumors. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data about the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in adult patients with NF1-associated BSG. In our case, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT has been useful in

  3. Adults with pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    MacLean, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Eighty adults were diagnosed in one general practice as having infection due to Bordetella pertussis, type 1.3, during a period of 30 months. Their clinical presentation and progress is recorded. A plea is made for attention to be paid to this infection in adults.

  4. Adults Living with OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents Adults Youth Medical Professionals Media About OI Information & Support Research & Studies Donate How to Help The Foundation Events Shop Facts About OI Types of OI Myths About OI OI Stories ...

  5. Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT: A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkett Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

  6. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  7. 成人型外阴孤立性肥大细胞瘤临床病理观察%Adult-type solitary mastocytoma of vulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁涛; 罗玉凤; 王德田; 钟定荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of adult-type solitary mastocytoma of vulva. Methods Retrospective study was performed to analyse the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of adult-type solitary mastocytoma of vulva. Immunohistochemical and special staining were used to further confirm the diagnosis. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis about solitary mastocytoma were discussed. Results The patient was a 23 year-old woman. The patient primarily presented with a vulva tumor as long as 18 years. CT scan showed the abnormal increased clitoris cavernous; MRI showed the vulva tumor with a clear boundary had analogous signal compared to surrounding muscle. The nuclear MIBG imaging showed a vulva radioactive enhanced image, which suggested a ectopic pheochromocytoma; octreotide imaging showed no abnormal somatostatin receptor image; the blood pool imaging showed the tumor had no abnormal uptake of tracer (99mTcRBC). Macroscopically, single gray nodule without capsule were presented. Microscopically, the tumor cells grew in the thin fibrous septa and partly around the blood vessels and nerves in the dermal layer, with red or granular abundant cytoplasm and round or dense chromatin nuclei. Rare mitotic figures were found in tumor cells, but some small lymphocytes were easily detectable. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells were diffusely strong postive for CD117, CD68, CD43 and LCA; focally positve for α-AT and calretinin; positve for Ki-67 < 1%. Toluidine blue staining showed purple-red cytoplasm of the tumor cells. The patient without tumor recurrence and metastasis survived after following-up for 98 months. Conclusion This adult-type vulva solitary mastocytoma is a rare benign tumor. Histopathologic diagnosis depends on being familiar with morphology of the mast cell, and combined with immunohistochemistry and toluidine blue staining it can be diagnosed.%目的 探讨成人型外阴孤立性肥大细胞

  8. A four year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 in adult cattle in 107 unvaccinated herds in south west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez-Villaescusa Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 is an important pathogen of cattle that presents with a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR. A seroepidemiological study of BHV-1 antibodies was conducted in England from 2002 – 2004: 29,782 blood samples were taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds which were visited on up to three occasions. Antibody concentration was measured using a commercial ELISA. Farm management information was collected using an interview questionnaire, and herd size and cattle movements were obtained from the cattle tuberculosis testing database and the British Cattle Movement Service. Hierarchical statistical models were used to investigate associations between cattle and herd variables and the continuous outcome percentage positive (PP values from the ELISA test in unvaccinated herds. Results There were 7 vaccinated herds, all with at least one seropositive bovine. In unvaccinated herds 83.2% had at least one BHV-1 seropositive bovine, and the mean cattle and herd BHV-1 seroprevalence were 42.5% and 43.1% respectively. There were positive associations between PP value, age, herd size, presence of dairy cattle. Adult cattle in herds with grower cattle had lower PP values than those in herds without grower cattle. Purchased cattle had significantly lower PP values than homebred cattle, whereas cattle in herds that were totally restocked after the foot-and-mouth epidemic in 2001 had significantly higher PP values than those in continuously stocked herds. Samples taken in spring and summer had significantly lower PP values than those taken in winter, whereas those taken in autumn had significantly higher PP values than those taken in winter. The risks estimated from a logistic regression model with a binary outcome (seropositive yes/no were similar. Conclusion The prevalence of BHV-1 seropositivity in cattle and herds has increased since

  9. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25, and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health (d = .23 and more control (d = .32 over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50 in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21 and affective benefits (d = .29 than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but

  10. Political participation of older adults in Scandinavia - the civic voluntarism model revisited? A multi-level analysis of three types of political participatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political participation among older adults in Österbotten, Finland, and Västerbotten, Sweden. Two specific hypotheses are tested. First, we anticipate that older adults are loyal voters but less avid in engaging in politics between elections. Second, we expect individuallevel resources to explain why older people participate in politics. The article offers two contributions to the literature on political participation of older adults. First, it corroborates earlier findings by showing that older adults indeed have a higher inclination to vote than to engage in political activities between elections, but it also shows that the latter engagement is more diversified than one could expect. Second, although the findings largely support the resource model, they suggest that we need to consider also other factors such as the overall attitude towards older people.

  11. The Contribution of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptors to Adult Motor Neuron Survival In Vivo Is Specific to Insult Type and Distinct From That for Embryonic Motor Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nancy; Rydyznski, Carolyn E.; Spearry, Rachel P.; Robitz, Rachel; MacLennan, A. John

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes motor neuron (MN) survival following trauma and in genetic models of MN disease. Unconditional disruption of the mouse CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα) gene leads to MN loss, demonstrating a developmental role for endogenous CNTF receptor signaling. These data also suggest that CNTF receptors may promote adult MN survival and that appropriately manipulating the receptors could effectively treat adult MN disorders. This effort would greatly benefit...

  12. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  13. The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups

    OpenAIRE

    Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C.; England, Clare Y.; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is crucial for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear which dietary intervention is best for optimising glycaemic control, or whether weight loss itself is the main reason behind observed improvements. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of various dietary interventions on glycaemic control in overweight and obese adults with T2DM when controlling for weight loss between dietary interventions. A systematic review of randomised controlled tri...

  14. Control and Treatment Profiles of 70,889 Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Malaysia - A Cross Sectional Survey in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mastura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the current diabetes care in Malaysia is the first step towards successful control. Many local studies have contributed toward knowledge of diabetes control and treatment profile but none had reported from such a large cohort of patients as in this registry.Aim & Objectives: To describe glycaemic control, risk factors, and treatment profile for quality assessment of diabetes care in Malaysia.Methods: This is a descriptive study based on secondary data from the online Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM looking into the control and treatment profiles of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged 18 years old and above from 1st January until 31st December 2009. Clinical characteristics included were age, sex, diabetes duration and treatment, glycaemic control, blood pressure, body mass index, and treatment for co-morbidity. Results: A total of 303 centres contributed a total of 70889 patients. Fifty-nine percent was female. The study population included 61.9% Malay, 19% Chinese and 18% Indian. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.3 years old (SD 11.10 and the mean duration of diabetes was 5.9 years (SD 5.56. The mean of HbA1c was 8.3% (SD 2.10; only 18.1% attained HbA1c < 6.5%. There were 61.8% diabetic hypertensive patients based on blood pressure measurements and about one third were treated to target BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg. The mean of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was 3.2 mmol/L (SD 1.10; one-third achieved the target of ≤ 2.6 mmol/L. Eighteen percent was on more than two anti-hypertensive agents and 41.6% were on anti-lipid agents. Metformin (83.2%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (63.9% and statin (89.8% were the mostly prescribed anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-lipid agents respectively.Conclusion: Diabetes and its co-morbidities (hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were less satisfactorily controlled. The choice of drugs was appropriate but probably inadequate. More effort and resources are

  15. Five-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among cardiovascular disease-free Greek adults: Findings from the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos1, Christos Pitsavos2, Yannis Skoumas2, Yannis Lentzas2, Christodoulos Stefanadis21Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece; 2First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceObjective: We evaluated the 5-year incidence of diabetes in an adult population from Greece.Research design and methods: 3042 individuals (>18 years, free of cardiovascular disease, participated in the baseline examination (during 2001–2002. Of this sample, 1012 men and 1035 women were found alive at the time of follow-up, while 32 (2.1% men and 22 (1.4% women died during this period. The rest were lost to follow-up. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 1806 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline.Results: The age-adjusted 5-year incidence of diabetes was 5.5% (men, 5.8%; women, 5.2%. A linear trend was observed between diabetes incidence and age (5.6% increases in incidence per 1-year difference in age, p < 0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR per 1 yr = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06, waist (OR per 1 cm = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.003, physical activity (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.35–1.02 and family history of diabetes (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.58–4.53, as well as fasting glucose levels (OR per 1 mg/dl = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.07, were the most significant baseline predictors for diabetes, after adjusting for various potential confounders. Additionally, presence of metabolic syndrome at baseline evaluation 2.95-fold the risk of diabetes (95% CI 1.89–4.61, and showed better classification ability than the model that contained the components of the syndrome (ie, correct classification rate: 94.5% vs. 92.3%.Conclusion: Our findings show that a 5.5% incidence rate of diabetes within a 5-year period, which suggests that the prevalence of this disorder in Greece is rising. Aging, heredity, and metabolic syndrome were the most significant

  16. Pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma: an indolent clonal proliferation in children and adults with high proliferation index and no BCL2 rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Abner; Ackerman, Adam M; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Ferry, Judith A; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Huang, Mary S; Iafrate, A John; Lara, Daniel O; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Salaverria, Itziar; Siddiquee, Zakir; Siebert, Reiner; Weinstein, Howard J; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Harris, Nancy Lee; Hasserjian, Robert P

    2012-09-20

    Pediatric follicular lymphoma (PFL) is a variant of follicular lymphoma (FL) presenting as localized lymphadenopathy in children. Unlike conventional adult FL, PFL typically does not recur or progress. Clear diagnostic criteria for PFL are lacking, and it is uncertain whether this indolent lymphoma is defined by age or may occur in adults. We analyzed 27 FL in patients 30% Ki67 fraction (high proliferation index, HPI; P = .0007) were stage I and did not progress or recur; in comparison, all 6 cases with BCL2 rearrangement and/or PI < 30% were stage III/IV, and 5 of 6 recurred or progressed. In a separate cohort of 58 adult FL (≥ 18 years of age), all 13 BCL2-N/HPI cases were stage I, and none progressed or relapsed, whereas 11 of 15 stage I cases with BCL2 gene abnormality and/or LPI relapsed or progressed (P = .0001). The adult and pediatric BCL2-N/HPI FL cases had similar morphologic features. Our results confirm the highly indolent behavior of PFL and suggest that these are characterized by HPI and absence of BCL2 gene abnormality. PFL-like cases also occur in adults and are associated with indolent behavior in this patient population. PMID:22855608

  17. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  18. The Effects of Semantic Context and the Type and Amount of Acoustic Distortion on Lexical Decision by Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Huiwen; Pelletier, Marianne; Coletta, Marco; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated how acoustic distortion affected younger and older adults' use of context in a lexical decision task. Method: The authors measured lexical decision reaction times (RTs) when intact target words followed acoustically distorted sentence contexts. Contexts were semantically congruent, neutral, or…

  19. Five-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among cardiovascular disease-free Greek adults: Findings from the ATTICA study

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Christos Pitsavos; Yannis Skoumas; Yannis Lentzas; Christodoulos Stefanadis

    2008-01-01

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos1, Christos Pitsavos2, Yannis Skoumas2, Yannis Lentzas2, Christodoulos Stefanadis21Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece; 2First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceObjective: We evaluated the 5-year incidence of diabetes in an adult population from Greece.Research design and methods: 3042 individuals (>18 years), free of cardiovascular disease, participated in the baseline examin...

  20. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir (1592U89) following Oral Administration of Escalating Single Doses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Princy N.; Sweet, Donna E.; McDowell, James A.; Symonds, William; Lou, Yu; Hetherington, Seth; LaFon, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Abacavir (1592U89) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have selective activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro and favorable safety profiles in mice and monkeys. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir following oral administration of single escalating doses (100, 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 mg) to HIV-infected adults. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects with ba...

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O; Vermund, Sten H.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data fr...

  2. Fatherhood reduces the survival of adult-generated cells and affects various types of behaviors in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Yue; Jia, Xixi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood has profound effects on physiology, neuronal plasticity, and behavior. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, affects brain plasticity (such as cell proliferation and survival) and various behaviors in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult males were housed with their same-sex cage mate (control), single-housed (isolation), or housed with a receptive female to mate and produce off...

  3. Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) Polymorphism and Context-Specific Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in African American and Caucasian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yu; North, Kari E.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Chambless, Lloyd E; Franceschini, Nora; Heiss, Gerardo; Kottgen, Anna; Pankow, James S.; Selvin, Elizabeth; West, Suzanne L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on type 2 diabetes in the context of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We investigated the association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in 2,727 African American and 9,302 Cau...

  4. Trends in the Levels of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins and the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Adults with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in the Southwest Chinese Han Population during 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the trends of serum lipid levels and dyslipidemia in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus during 2003–2012 in Southwest China. Methods. Serum lipid measurements of 994 adults were obtained from 5 independent, cross-sectional studies (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012. The main outcome measures were mean serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; body mass index; hemoglobin A1C level; and the percentages of patients with dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Results. The mean total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased from 4.92 ± 1.15 to 5.30 ± 1.17 mmol/L (P = 0.039 and 2.72 ± 0.83 to 3.11 ± 1.09 mmol/L (P = 0.004, respectively, and the mean HDL cholesterol level declined from 1.22 ± 0.30 to 1.06 ± 0.24 mmol/L (P < 0.001. The percentages of patients with dyslipidemia increased gradually. The incidence of coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases increased from 8.2% to 19.1% and 6.6% to 15.3%, respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Unfavorable upward trends were observed in serum lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southwest China during 2003–2012.

  5. Bone structure in two adult subjects with impaired minor spliceosome function resulting from RNU4ATAC mutations causing microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Frost, Morten; Larsen, Martin Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1), or Taybi-Linder syndrome is characterized by distinctive skeletal dysplasia, severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and neurological malformations. It is an autosomal recessive...

  6. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS 30 YEARS ABOVE IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF KATIHAR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES : 1) To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type - 2 in an urban population of age 30 year and above 2) To determine the prevalence of impaired an urban population of age 30 years and above 3) To study the association of various risk factors with diabe tes mellitus Type - 2 and Implored Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY : A community based cross section study will be carried out in population 30 years above at Sharifganj with Dist...

  7. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adult from different socio-economic levels. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico

  8. Combined effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension associated with cortical thinning and impaired cerebrovascular reactivity relative to hypertension alone in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Tchistiakova; Nicole D Anderson; Greenwood, Carol E.; MacIntosh, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by metabolic dysregulation in the form of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and can have a profound impact on brain structure and vasculature. The primary aim of this study was to identify brain regions where the combined effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension on brain health exceed those of hypertension alone. A secondary objective was to test whether vascular impairment and structural brain measures in this population are associat...

  9. Weight Loss Strategies Associated With BMI in Overweight Adults With Type 2 Diabetes at Entry Into the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Ruggiero, Andrea M.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Delahanty, Linda M.; ,

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Intentional weight loss is recommended for those with type 2 diabetes, but the strategies patients attempt and their effectiveness for weight management are unknown. In this investigation we describe intentional weight loss strategies used and those related to BMI in a diverse sample of overweight participants with type 2 diabetes at enrollment in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of baseline w...

  10. Effectiveness of Computer Tailoring Versus Peer Support Web-Based Interventions in Promoting Physical Activity Among Insufficiently Active Canadian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, José

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for Canadian public health authorities, and regular physical activity is a key factor in the management of this disease. Given that less than half of people with type 2 diabetes in Canada are sufficiently active to meet the Canadian Diabetes Association's guidelines, effective programs targeting the adoption of regular physical activity are in demand for this population. Many researchers have argued that Web-based interventions targeting physical activity are a promising avenue for insufficiently active populations; however, it remains unclear if this type of intervention is effective among people with type 2 diabetes. Objective This research project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two Web-based interventions targeting the adoption of regular aerobic physical activity among insufficiently active adult Canadian Francophones with type 2 diabetes. Methods A 3-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial with 2 experimental groups and 1 control group was conducted in the province of Quebec, Canada. A total of 234 participants were randomized at a 1:1:1 ratio to receive an 8-week, fully automated, computer-tailored, Web-based intervention (experimental group 1); an 8-week peer support (ie, Facebook group) Web-based intervention (experimental group 2); or no intervention (control group) during the study period. Results The primary outcome of this study is self-reported physical activity level (total min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity). Secondary outcomes are attitude, social influence, self-efficacy, type of motivation, and intention. All outcomes are assessed at baseline and 3 and 9 months after baseline with a self-reported questionnaire filled directly on the study websites. Conclusions By evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of 2 Web-based interventions characterized by different behavior change perspectives, findings of this study will contribute to advances in the field of physical

  11. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  12. Living Well with Diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered intervention for maintenance of weight loss, physical activity and glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eakin Elizabeth G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By 2025, it is estimated that approximately 1.8 million Australian adults (approximately 8.4% of the adult population will have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes. Weight management via improved physical activity and diet is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes management. However, the majority of weight loss trials in diabetes have evaluated short-term, intensive clinic-based interventions that, while producing short-term outcomes, have failed to address issues of maintenance and broad population reach. Telephone-delivered interventions have the potential to address these gaps. Methods/Design Using a two-arm randomised controlled design, this study will evaluate an 18-month, telephone-delivered, behavioural weight loss intervention focussing on physical activity, diet and behavioural therapy, versus usual care, with follow-up at 24 months. Three-hundred adult participants, aged 20-75 years, with type 2 diabetes, will be recruited from 10 general practices via electronic medical records search. The Social-Cognitive Theory driven intervention involves a six-month intensive phase (4 weekly calls and 11 fortnightly calls and a 12-month maintenance phase (one call per month. Primary outcomes, assessed at 6, 18 and 24 months, are: weight loss, physical activity, and glycaemic control (HbA1c, with weight loss and physical activity also measured at 12 months. Incremental cost-effectiveness will also be examined. Study recruitment began in February 2009, with final data collection expected by February 2013. Discussion This is the first study to evaluate the telephone as the primary method of delivering a behavioural weight loss intervention in type 2 diabetes. The evaluation of maintenance outcomes (6 months following the end of intervention, the use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity, and the inclusion of a cost-effectiveness analysis will advance the science of broad reach approaches to weight

  13. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wu, Qian [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Zhang, Yanfeng [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Jing [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  14. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  15. Adult medulloblastoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pobereskin, L; Treip, C

    1986-01-01

    Twelve cases of adult onset medulloblastoma are presented. Clinical features, treatment and outcome are discussed. It was found that the survival rates for adults are no better than for children. There were no clinical or histological features that distinguished these tumours from those occurring in childhood, except for a higher incidence of hemisphere lesions.

  16. Individual, age and sex differences in fiber type composition of slow and fast muscles of adult Lewis rats: comparison with other rat strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Zachařová, Gisela; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2010), s. 783-801. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR GA305/09/1228 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSH-CT-2001-511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mATPase and muscle fiber types * fiber type composition * inter-strain, individual, age and sex differences Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  17. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the onset of seizures before the age of 3. However, it is not uncommon for adults with ... many different types of focal seizures with 1-3 minute episodes of altered thinking, consciousness, or behaviors. ...

  18. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Page Content How can I tell if I ... type 2 diabetes. [ Top ] How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  19. Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...

  20. Development and psychometric evaluation of a new team effectiveness scale for all types of community adult mental health teams: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Middleton, Hugh; Dawson, Jeremy F; Naylor, Paul B; West, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Defining 'effectiveness' in the context of community mental health teams (CMHTs) has become increasingly difficult under the current pattern of provision required in National Health Service mental health services in England. The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of multi-professional team working effectiveness in adult CMHTs to develop a new measure of CMHT effectiveness. The study was conducted between May and November 2010 and comprised two stages. Stage 1 used a formative evaluative approach based on the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System to develop the scale with multiple stakeholder groups over a series of qualitative workshops held in various locations across England. Stage 2 analysed responses from a cross-sectional survey of 1500 members in 135 CMHTs from 11 Mental Health Trusts in England to determine the scale's psychometric properties. Based on an analysis of its structural validity and reliability, the resultant 20-item scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and captured one overall latent factor of CMHT effectiveness comprising seven dimensions: improved service user well-being, creative problem-solving, continuous care, inter-team working, respect between professionals, engagement with carers and therapeutic relationships with service users. The scale will be of significant value to CMHTs and healthcare commissioners both nationally and internationally for monitoring, evaluating and improving team functioning in practice. PMID:25711121

  1. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262 were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04, and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02 was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  2. Fatherhood reduces the survival of adult-generated cells and affects various types of behavior in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Yue; Jia, Xixi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2013-11-01

    Motherhood has profound effects on physiology, neuronal plasticity, and behavior. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, affects brain plasticity (such as cell proliferation and survival) and various behaviors in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult males were housed with their same-sex cage mate (control), single-housed (isolation), or housed with a receptive female to mate and produce offspring (father) for 6 weeks. Fatherhood significantly reduced cell survival (assessed by bromodeoxyuridine labeling), but not cell proliferation (assessed by Ki67-labeling), in the amygdala, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and ventromedial hypothalamus, suggesting that fatherhood affects brain plasticity. In Experiment 2, neither acute (20 min) nor chronic (20 min daily for 10 consecutive days) pup exposure altered cell proliferation or survival in the brain, but chronic pup exposure increased circulating corticosterone levels. These data suggest that reduced cell survival in the brain of prairie vole fathers was unlikely to be due to the level of pup exposure and display of paternal behavior, and may not be mediated by circulating corticosterone. The effects of fatherhood on various behaviors (including anxiety-like, depression-like, and social behaviors) were examined in Experiment 3. The data indicated that fatherhood increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as well as altered aggression and social recognition memory in male prairie voles. These results warrant further investigation of a possible link between brain plasticity and behavioral changes observed due to fatherhood. PMID:23899240

  3. Biodistribution of adult derived human liver stem cells following intraportal infusion in a 17-year-old patient with glycogenosis type 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Current treatment of inherited liver inborn errors of metabolism in children consists in appropriate diet and drugs and, for unstable patients, final orthotopic liver transplantation. Unfortunately, liver transplantation remains not easily available because of organ shortage and imposes inherent risks and lifelong immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore alternative treatments are required. Hepatocytes transplantation and its limitations led to consider innovative alternative such as transplantation of adult derived human liver stem cells (ADLHSC). These cells present high proliferative capacity, good resistance to cryopreservation and ability to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells displaying mature hepatocyte functions. Aim: Biodistribution of ADHLSC had never been assessed after infusion through the portal vein in patients. This information is required to determine the safety of the method. Methods: ADHLSC were efficiently labelled with 111-Indium DTPA radiotracer and SPECT imaging was used for the acquisition of whole body imaging to document short term biodistribution of ADHLSC. Results: Following infusion through the portal vein, ADHLSC diffused homogenously throughout the liver and remained strictly within the targeted organ. Images were acquired until 5 days after infusion. At that time, no signal was observed in any other organs except the liver. Urinary excretion of 111-Indium DTPA was also monitored. Conclusion: For the first time, we documented the short term biodistribution of ADHLSC within the liver after infusion through the portal vein

  4. HLA Class II Alleles Susceptibility Markers of Type 1 Diabetes Fail to Specify Phenotypes of Ketosis-Prone Diabetes in Adult Tunisian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Laadhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to characterize the different subgroups of ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD in a sample of Tunisian patients using the Aβ scheme based on the presence or absence of β-cell autoantibodies (A+ or A− and β-cell functional reserve (β+ or β− and we investigated whether HLA class II alleles could contribute to distinct KPD phenotypes. We enrolled 43 adult patients with a first episode of ketosis. For all patients we evaluated clinical parameters, β-cell autoimmunity, β-cell function and HLA class II alleles. Frequency distribution of the 4 subgroups was 23.3% A+β−, 23.3% A−β−, 11.6% A+β+ and 41.9% A−β+. Patients from the group A+β− were significantly younger than those from the group A−β− (P=.002. HLA susceptibility markers were significantly more frequent in patients with autoantibodies (P=.003. These patients also had resistance alleles but they were more frequent in A+β+ than A+β− patients (P=.04. Insulin requirement was not associated to the presence or the absence of HLA susceptibility markers. HLA class II alleles associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes have not allowed us to further define Tunisian KPD groups. However, high prevalence of HLA resistance alleles in our patients may reflect a particular genetic background of Tunisian KPD population.

  5. Birth Weight and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Black Women’s Health Study: Does Adult BMI Play a Mediating Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Gerlovin, Hanna; Wise, Lauren A.; Vimalananda, Varsha G.; Rosenzweig, James L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of birth weight with incident type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of obesity, in a large cohort of U.S. black women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Black Women’s Health Study is an ongoing prospective study. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CI for categories of birth weight (very low birth weight [

  6. Differences in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and inflammation between young adult Pakistani and Norwegian patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Immigrants from South Asia to Western countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We explored pathogenic factors that might contribute to the high risk of T2DM in Pakistani immigrants to Norway. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 18 Pakistani and 21 Norwegian men and women with T2DM (age 29 – 45 years), recruited from two hospital out-patient clinics. ...

  7. Impact of Regular Exercise and Attempted Weight Loss on Quality of Life among Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Andrew J; Fox, Kathleen M.; Susan Grandy

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between exercising regularly and trying to lose weight, and quality of life among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD baseline survey reported whether they had tried to lose weight during the previous 12 months and whether they exercised regularly for >6 months. Respondents completed the SF-12 quality-of-life survey one year later. Differences between T2DM respondents (n = 2419) and responden...

  8. Impact of “Conversation Maps” on diabetes distress and self-efficacy of Chinese adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fan; Ping YAO; Hsue, Cunyi; Xu, Jin; Lou, Qingqing

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to compare Diabetes Conversation Maps-based education and traditional education in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 53 outpatients were randomized to the intervention group (Diabetes Conversation Maps-based education) and control group (traditional education). In the intervention group, six 1-hour sessions covering diabetes overview, living with diabetes, risk factors and complications of diabetes, starting insulin treatment, foot care, and healthy eating an...

  9. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher as...... a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming...

  10. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  11. National trends over one decade in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction among Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes: cumulative incidence, outcomes and use of percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lopez-de-Andres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe trends in the rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI and use of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI in patients with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain, 2001-2010. METHODS: We selected all patients with a discharge of AMI using national hospital discharge data. Discharges were grouped by diabetes status: type 2 diabetes and no diabetes. In both groups PCIs were identified. The cumulative incidence of discharges attributed to AMI were calculated overall and stratified by diabetes status and year. We calculated length of stay and in-hospital mortality (IHM. Use of PCI was calculated stratified by diabetes status. Multivariate analysis was adjusted by age, sex, year and comorbidity. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2010, 513,517 discharges with AMI were identified (30.3% with type 2 diabetes. The cumulative incidence of discharges due to AMI in diabetics patients increased (56.3 in 2001 to 71 cases per 100,000 in 2004, then decreased to 61.9 in 2010. Diabetic patients had significantly higher IHM (OR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.05-1.17. The proportion of diabetic patients that underwent PCI increased from 11.9% in 2001 to 41.6% in 2010. Adjusted incidence of discharge in patients with diabetes who underwent PCI increased significantly (IRR, 3.49; 95%CI, 3.30-3.69. The IHM among diabetics patients who underwent a PCI did not change significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: AMI hospitalization rates increased initially but declining slowly. From 2001 to 2010 the proportion of diabetic patients who undergo a PCI increased almost four-fold. Older age and more comorbidity may explain why IHM did not improve after a PCI.

  12. Bone geometry, density and microarchitecture in the distal radius and tibia in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta type-1 assessed by HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Hansen, Stinus;

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disorder characterized by decreased biosynthesis or impaired morphology of collagen type-1 that leads to decreased bone mass and increased bone fragility. We hypothesized that patients with OI have altered bone microstructure and bone geometry. In this...... treated with bisphosphonates. HR-pQCT at the distal radius and distal tibia and dual-energy X-ray absorptiomentry of total hip, femoral neck, trochanteric region and the lumbar spine (L1-L4) were performed. The patients were shorter than the controls (159¿±¿10¿cm vs. 170¿±¿9¿cm, p¿...

  13. Restoration of Cocaine Stimulation and Reward by Reintroducing Wild Type Dopamine Transporter in Adult Knock-in Mice with a Cocaine-Insensitive Dopamine Transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Haiyin; O’Neill, Brian; Han, Dawn D; Thirtamara-Rajamani, Keerthi; Wang, Yanlin; Gu, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we generated knock-in mice with a cocaine-insensitive dopamine transporter (DAT-CI mice) and found cocaine does not stimulate locomotion or produce reward in these mice, indicating DAT inhibition is necessary for cocaine stimulation and reward. However, DAT uptake is reduced in DAT-CI mice and thus the lack of cocaine responses could be due to adaptive changes. To test this, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV) to reintroduce the cocaine-sensitive wild type DAT (AAV-DATwt...

  14. Four adult hemoglobin types in one mulatto family Quatro tipos de hemoglobina em uma família adulta de mulatos

    OpenAIRE

    João Targino de Araújo; Liliam Bodemeier; Benjamin Schmidt; Rita de Cassia Affonso

    1996-01-01

    The studied family showed the presence of four different types of hemoglobin. The family member who gave rise to this study (=propositus) presented Hb C and the hybrid Hb CG-phila. The propositus has three children, all of which have Hb AC; none of the family members showed any clinical symptoms. The investigation of the hemoglobin arose from the finding of target red cells in a blood test done during the pre-operatory examination for lower limb varicose vein stripping. The hybrid Hb CG-phila...

  15. HLA-B7–Restricted Islet Epitopes Are Differentially Recognized in Type 1 Diabetic Children and Adults and Form Weak Peptide-HLA Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Scotto, Matthieu; Afonso, Georgia; Østerbye, Thomas; Larger, Etienne; Luce, Sandrine; Raverdy, Cécile; Novelli, Giulia; Bruno, Graziella; Gonfroy-Leymarie, Céline; Launay, Odile; Lemonnier, François A.; Buus, Søren; Carel, Jean-Claude; Boitard, Christian; Mallone, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The cartography of β-cell epitopes targeted by CD8+ T cells in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients remains largely confined to the common HLA-A2 restriction. We aimed to identify β-cell epitopes restricted by the HLA-B7 (B*07:02) molecule, which is associated with mild T1D protection. Using DNA immunization on HLA-B7–transgenic mice and prediction algorithms, we identified GAD and preproinsulin candidate epitopes. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assays on peripheral blood mononuclear...

  16. Pre-existing type 2 diabetes and risk of lung cancer: a report from two prospective cohort studies of 133 024 Chinese adults in urban Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wan-Shui; Yang, Yang; YANG, Gong; Chow, Wong-Ho; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nat; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Observational studies of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lung cancer risk are limited and controversial. We thus examined the association between T2D and risk of incident lung cancer using a cohort design. Setting Data from two ongoing population-based cohorts (the Shanghai Men's Health Study, SMHS, 2002–2006 and the Shanghai Women's Health Study, SWHS, 1996–2000) were used. Cox proportional-hazards regression models with T2D as a time-varying exposure were modelled to estimate HRs and 9...

  17. Applying Novel Genome-Wide Linkage Strategies to Search for Loci Influencing Type 2 Diabetes and Adult Height in American Samoa

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Karolina; Sun, Guangyun; Smelser, Diane; Indugula, Subba Rao; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Steele, Matthew S.; TUITELE, JOHN; Deka, Ranjan; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complex phenotype that by the year 2010 is predicted to affect 221 million people globally. In the present study we performed a genome-wide linkage scan using the allele-sharing statistic Sall implemented in Allegro and a novel two-dimensional genome-wide strategy implemented in Merloc that searches for pairwise interaction between genetic markers located on different chromosomes linked to T2DM. In addition, we used a robust score statistic from the...

  18. Comparison of in-house and commercial sample preparation and PCR amplification systems for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in blood samples from Tanzanian adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamuya, E; Bredberg-Rådén, U; Albert, J.; Grankvist, O; Msangi, V; Kagoma, C.; Mhalu, F; Biberfeld, G

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the performance of several in-house nested PCR systems and the Amplicor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PCR kit in the detection of HIV-1 DNA in Tanzanian samples prepared by two different methods. All six of the in-house primer sets evaluated had a higher sensitivity for HIV DNA detection in samples prepared by the Amplicor PCR sample preparation method than in those prepared by the Ficoll-Isopaque (FIP) density gradient centrifugation method. A sensitivity of...

  19. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS 30 YEARS ABOVE IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF KATIHAR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : 1 To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type - 2 in an urban population of age 30 year and above 2 To determine the prevalence of impaired an urban population of age 30 years and above 3 To study the association of various risk factors with diabe tes mellitus Type - 2 and Implored Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY : A community based cross section study will be carried out in population 30 years above at Sharifganj with District Katihar Bihar during January 2013 - June 2013. Population approximately 5000 i s an urban field practice area of Katihar Medical College Katihar , during the six months study period. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS was estimated to identify the diabetes and the Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT. Information from the study population was collected through pre tested questionnaire using several anthropometric measurements. RESULT : All of the 910 subjects examined far fasting blood glucose after overnight fast. FBS was detected by using standardized Glucometer (Accu - Check 32 cases were detected as Diabetic or having Impaired Glucose Tolerance (ITG prevalence of diabetes and IGT was higher among urban and is increasing with increase in age. Several long and short team steps should be taken for promotion of healthy life style modifications to present diabetes and emergence of its complications.

  20. An acute bout of whole body passive hyperthermia increases plasma leptin, but does not alter glucose or insulin responses in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; Newmire, Dan E; Crandall, Craig G; Hooper, Philip L; Ben-Ezra, Vic

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic hyperthermic treatments in diabetic animal models repeatedly improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an acute 1h bout of hyperthermic treatment improves glucose, insulin, and leptin responses to an oral glucose challenge (OGTT) in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy humans. Nine obese (45±7.1% fat mass) type 2 diabetics (T2DM: 50.1±12y, 7.5±1.8% HbA1c) absent of insulin therapy and nine similar aged (41.1±13.7y) healthy non-obese controls (HC: 33.4±7.8% fat mass, Pleptin concentrations. Hyperthermia itself did not alter area under the curve for plasma glucose, insulin, or C-peptide during the OGTT in either group. Fasting absolute and normalized (kg·fat mass) plasma leptin was significantly increased (P<0.01) only after the hyperthermic exposure by 17% in T2DM and 24% in HC groups (P<0.001) when compared to the control condition. These data indicate that an acute hyperthermic treatment does not improve glucose tolerance 24h post treatment in moderate metabolic controlled obese T2DM or HC individuals. PMID:27264884

  1. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew BH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Boon-How Chew,1 Mohd-Sidik Sherina,2 Noor-Hasliza Hassan3 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang; 3Klinik Kesihatan Dengkil, Jalan Dengkil, Malaysia Abstract: This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD, depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP, and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012–2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752. The majority were females (52.8%, Malay (52.4%, and married (78.7%. DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16; depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12 and total cholesterol (r=0.13; medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11; and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13, and total cholesterol (r= -0.08. Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024; DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066; depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061, and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082 and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086. There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with

  2. Superficial peripheral vein type classification of adolescents, adults and elderly according to the Delphi technique Clasificación de las venas periféricas superficiales en adolescentes, adultos y ancianos mediante la técnica Delphi Classificação de veias superficiais periféricas de adolescentes, adultos e idosos pela técnica Delphi

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Arreguy-Sena; Emilia Campos de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive research attempts to cooperate with the standardization of communication about vein types in Nursing. Authors utilized the "Delphi" technique and aimed at elaborating and validating a peripheral vein type classification of adolescents/adults/elderly according to their vein characteristics. Initially, authors identified different vein types in literature. This was a preliminary classification that contained the titles and definitions, which were complemented during the expert ...

  3. Effect of a Long-Term Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention on Nephropathy in Overweight or Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: the Look AHEAD Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, William C.; Bahnson, Judy L.; Bantle, John P.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Bray, George A.; Chen, Haiying; Cheskin, Lawrence; Clark, Jeanne M.; Egan, Caitlin; Evans, Mary; Foreyt, John P.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Greenway, Frank L.; Gregg, Edward W.; Hazuda, Helen P.; Hill, James O.; Horton, Edward S.; Hubbard, Van S.; Jakicic, John M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kahn, Steven E.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Korytkowski, Mary; Krakoff, Jonathan; Kure, Anne; Lewis, Cora E.; Maschak-Carey, Barbara J.; Michaels, Sara; Montez, Maria G.; Nathan, David M.; Nyenwe, Ebenezer; Patricio, Jennifer; Peters, Anne; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Pownall, Henry; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Williamson, David F.; Wing, Rena R.; Wyatt, Holly; Yanovski, Susan Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term effects of behavioral weight loss interventions on diabetes complications are unknown. We assessed whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) affects the development of nephropathy in Look AHEAD, a multicenter randomized clinical trial in type 2 diabetes. Methods 5145 overweight or obese persons aged 45–76 years with type 2 diabetes were randomized to ILI designed to achieve and maintain weight loss through reduced caloric consumption and increased physical activity or to a diabetes support and education (DSE) group. Randomization to ILI or DSE, in a 1:1 ratio, was implemented in a central web-based data management system, stratified by clinical center, and blocked with random block sizes. Outcomes assessors and laboratory staff were masked to treatment. The interventions ended early because of lack of effect on the primary outcome of cardiovascular disease events. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate were prespecified “other” outcomes and were assessed from baseline through 9.6 years (median) of follow-up until the interventions ended. They were combined post-hoc to define the main outcome for this report: very-high-risk chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on the 2013 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes classification. Data were analyzed by intention to treat. The trial is registered as Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00017953. Findings The incidence rate of very-high-risk CKD was 31% lower in ILI than DSE with hazard rates of 0.90 cases/100 person-years in DSE and 0.63 in ILI (difference=0.27 cases/100 person-years, hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: HR=0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). This effect was partly attributable to reductions in weight, HbA1c, and blood pressure. Interpretation Weight loss should be considered as an adjunct to medical therapies to prevent or delay progression of CKD in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes. Primary Funding National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  4. The issue of memory in adult education

    OpenAIRE

    CHALUPA, Karel

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis concerns itself with the issue of memory on the field of education of adults. It studies individual types of human memory, its processes, and factors that influence its activity. It describes the processes of adult education, the motivation of adults to seek education, and it lists the way of helping a better functioning of memory. In its practical part, the work offers memory tests which have been gathered from chosen groups of adult education partakers. The results are ...

  5. Adult siblings with homozygous G6PC3 mutations expand our understanding of the severe congenital neutropenia type 4 (SCN4 phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Bridget A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe congenital neutropenia type 4 (SCN4 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the third subunit of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC3. Its core features are congenital neutropenia and a prominent venous skin pattern, and affected individuals have variable birth defects. Oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4 is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in SLC45A2. Methods We report a sister and brother from Newfoundland, Canada with complex phenotypes. The sister was previously reported by Cullinane et al., 2011. We performed homozygosity mapping, next generation sequencing and conventional Sanger sequencing to identify mutations that cause the phenotype in this family. We have also summarized clinical data from 49 previously reported SCN4 cases with overlapping phenotypes and interpret the medical histories of these siblings in the context of the literature. Results The siblings’ phenotype is due in part to a homozygous mutation in G6PC3, [c.829C > T, p.Gln277X]. Their ages are 38 and 37 years respectively and they are the oldest SCN4 patients published to date. Both presented with congenital neutropenia and later developed Crohn disease. We suggest that the latter is a previously unrecognized SCN4 manifestation and that not all affected individuals have an intellectual disability. The sister also has a homozygous mutation in SLC45A2, which explains her severe oculocutaneous hypopigmentation. Her brother carried one SLC45A2 mutation and was diagnosed with “partial OCA” in childhood. Conclusions This family highlights that apparently novel syndromes can in fact be caused by two known autosomal recessive disorders.

  6. Four adult hemoglobin types in one mulatto family Quatro tipos de hemoglobina em uma família adulta de mulatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Targino de Araújo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The studied family showed the presence of four different types of hemoglobin. The family member who gave rise to this study (=propositus presented Hb C and the hybrid Hb CG-phila. The propositus has three children, all of which have Hb AC; none of the family members showed any clinical symptoms. The investigation of the hemoglobin arose from the finding of target red cells in a blood test done during the pre-operatory examination for lower limb varicose vein stripping. The hybrid Hb CG-phila is due to two gene pairs, each of which with individual expression, determining the synthesis and the particular type subunits. The hybrid Hb CG-phila is formed by the combination velocity of the subunits alpha2G-philabeta2; therefore the proportion of the hybrid Hb CG-phila is lower than Hb G-phila and Hb C. The identification and molecular characterization of Hb G-phila showed the position alpha268 Asn->Lys beta2 and Hb C showed alpha2beta26 Glu->Lys.A família em estudo mostrou a presença de quatro diferentes tipos de hemoglobinas. O membro da família que deu origem ao estudo (propositus foi identificado como Hb C e o híbrido com Hb CG-phila. O propositus tem três filhos todos portadores de Hb AC; nenhum membro da família apresentou sintomas clínicos. A pesquisa da hemoglobina resultou da existência de hemácias em alvo, no pré-operatório de varizes de membros inferiores. O híbrido Hb CG-phila é constituído por dois pares de genes, mas cada um com expressão inidividual, determinando a síntese e o tipo particular das subunidades. O híbrido Hb CG-phila é formado pela velocidade de combinação das subunidades alfa2G-philabeta2C assim sendo a proporção do híbrido Hb CG-phila é menor do que a Hb G-phila e Hb C. A identificação e caracterização molecular da Hb G-phila mostrou a posição alfa268 Asn->Lys beta2 a Hb C alfa2beta26 Glu->Lys.

  7. Pomegranate Polyphenols Lower Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes but Have No Effects in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study

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    Arpita Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate polyphenols in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM (n=8 and in healthy nondiabetic controls (n=9. Methods. Participants received 2 capsules of pomegranate polyphenols (POMx, 1 capsule = 753 mg polyphenols daily for 4 weeks. Blood draws and anthropometrics were performed at baseline and at 4 weeks of the study. Results. Pomegranate polyphenols in healthy controls and in T2DM patients did not significantly affect body weight and blood pressure, glucose and lipids. Among clinical safety profiles, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and hematological profiles were not significantly affected by POMx supplementation. However, aspartate aminotransferase (AST showed a significant increase in healthy controls, while alanine aminotransferase (ALT was significantly decreased in T2DM patients at 4 weeks (P<0.05, though values remained within the normal ranges. Among the biomarkers of lipid oxidation and inflammation, oxidized LDL and serum C-reactive protein (CRP did not differ at 4 weeks in either group, while pomegranate polyphenols significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and hydroxynonenal (HNE only in the diabetic group versus baseline (P<0.05. Conclusions. POMx reduces lipid peroxidation in patients with T2DM, but with no effects in healthy controls, and specifically modulates liver enzymes in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Larger clinical trials are merited.

  8. Can physical activity interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes be translated into practice settings? A systematic review using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynsay; Kirk, Alison; Macmillan, Freya; Mutrie, Nanette

    2014-03-01

    Despite the strong evidence base for the efficacy of physical activity in the management of type 2 diabetes, a limited number of physical activity interventions have been translated and evaluated in everyday practice. This systematic review aimed to report the findings of studies in which an intervention, containing physical activity promotion as a component, has been delivered within routine diabetes care. A comprehensive search was conducted for articles reporting process data relating to components of the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and/or Maintenance) framework. Twelve studies met the selection criteria. Of the nine studies which measured physical activity as an outcome, eight reported an increase in physical activity levels, five of which were significant. Tailoring recruitment, resources and intervention delivery to the target population played a positive role, in addition to the use of external organisations and staff training. Many interventions were of short duration and lacked long-term follow-up data. Findings revealed limited and inconsistent reporting of useful process data. PMID:24653777

  9. Conserved POU-binding site linked to SP1-binding site within FZD5 promoter: Transcriptional mechanisms of FZD5 in undifferentiated human ES cells, fetal liver/spleen, adult colon, pancreatic islet, and diffuse-type gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-03-01

    Canonical WNT signals are transduced through Frizzled (FZD) family receptor and LRP5/LRP6 co-receptor to upregulate FGF20, JAG1, DKK1, WISP1, CCND1 and MYC genes for cell-fate determination, while non-canonical WNT signals are transduced through FZD family receptor and ROR2/PTK7/RYK co-receptor to activate RHOA/RHOU/RAC/CDC42, JNK, PKC, NLK and NFAT signaling cascades for the regulation of tissue polarity, cell movement, and adhesion. We previously reported molecular cloning and characterization of human FZD5, which showed six amino-acid substitutions with human Hfz5. FZD5, functioning as WNT5A receptor, is the key molecule in the fields of oncology, regenerative medicine, cardiology, rheumatology, diabetology, and gastroenterology. Here, comparative integromics analyses on FZD5 orthologs were performed by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Chimpanzee FZD5 and cow Fzd5 genes were identified within NW_104292.1 and AC166656.2 genome sequences, respectively. FZD5 orthologs were seven-transmembrane proteins with extracellular Frizzled domain, leucine zipper motif around the 5th transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic DVL- and PDZ-binding motifs. Ser523 and Ser529 around the DVL-binding motif of FZD5 orthologs were putative aPKC phosphorylation sites. POU5F1 (OCT4)-binding site linked to SP1-binding site within the 5'-promoter region of human FZD5 gene was evolutionarily conserved among mammalian FZD5 orthologs. POU5F1 was more related to POU2F and POU3F subfamily members. POU5F1 was preferentially expressed in undifferentiated human embryonic stem (ES) cells, pancreatic islet, and diffuse-type gastric cancer. POU2F1 (OCT1) was expressed in ES cells, fetal liver/spleen, adult colon, POU2F2 in ES cells, fetal liver/spleen, and POU2F3 in diffuse-type gastric cancer. Multiple SP1/KLF family members, other than KLF2 or KLF4, were expressed in undifferentiated human ES cells. Together, these facts indicate that POU5F1 and POU2F subfamily members

  10. The effect of expressive and instrumental touch on the behavior states of older adults with late-stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type and on music therapist's perceived rapport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Melita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy interventions utilizing two types of touch, expressive touch and instrumental touch, on the behavior states of older adults who have late-stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of the music therapist when expressive and instrumental touch was employed during music therapy sessions. A within-subject design was used with 9 participants receiving 3 sessions in each of the experimental conditions: no touch, expressive touch, and instrumental touch. Results of a one-way ANOVA revealed that expressive touch was significantly more effective during the initial session in eliciting and maintaining alert behavior states than the instrumental and control conditions; however, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions during the first and second session repetitions. Rapport ratings revealed that the therapist's client rapport was perceived to be significantly higher during both the expressive touch and instrumental touch conditions than during the control condition. These findings have important implications for music therapy practice and the effective use of nonverbal communication. PMID:19463031

  11. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Diabetes Statistics Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes, ... for some, taking aspirin daily. Can type 2 diabetes be delayed or prevented? Yes. The results of ...

  12. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yakun; Li Xiang; Paul Segars, W.; Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Departments of Physics, Biomedical Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated

  13. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated

  14. Evaluating HIV Prevention Programs: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibodies as Biomarker for Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adults in Resource-Poor Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Behling

    Full Text Available Measuring effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions is challenged by bias when using self-reported knowledge, attitude or behavior change. HIV incidence is an objective marker to measure effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions, however, because new infection rates are relatively low, prevention studies require large sample sizes. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is similarly transmitted and more prevalent and could thus serve as a proxy marker for sexual risk behavior and therefore HIV infection.HSV-2 antibodies were assessed in a sub-study of 70,000 students participating in an education intervention in Western Province, Kenya. Feasibility of testing for HSV-2 antibodies was assessed comparing two methods using Fisher's exact test. Three hundred and ninety four students (aged 18 to 22 years were randomly chosen from the cohort and tested for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of these, 139 students were tested for HSV-2 with ELISA and surveyed for sexual risk behavior and 89 students were additionally tested for HSV-2 with a point-of-contact (POC test.Prevalence rates were 0.5%, 1.8%, 0.3% and 2.3% for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 3.4 % as measured by POC test (n=89 and 14.4 % by ELISA (n=139. Specificity of the POC test compared with ELISA was 100%, and the sensitivity only 23.1%. Associations between self-reported sexual behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown.Associations between self-reported sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown, probably due to social bias in interviews since its transmission is clearly linked. HSV-2 antibody testing is feasible in resource-poor settings and shows higher prevalence rates than other sexually transmitted diseases thus representing a potential biomarker for evaluation of HIV prevention interventions.

  15. Toxicities of Five Types of Insecticide to Adults of Invasive Thrips Echinothrips americanus Morgan in China%5种杀虫剂对入侵我国美洲棘蓟马成虫室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亮; 宫亚军; 石宝才; 王泽华; 康总江; 魏书军

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] The invasive thrips Echinothrips americanus Morgan was recently reported in China, which causes damage to many greenhouse crops. The toxicities of five types of insecticide to adults of E. Americanus were determined using residue-on-glass exposure technique. [Results] The results showed that the order of toxicity to Echinothrips americanus Morgan adults from low to high is: chlorpyrifos, acetamiprid, abamectin, beta cypermethrin and spinosad. [Conclusions] In the controlling of this pest, chlorpyrifos should be avoided, the biogenic pesticides spinosad are recommended and alternate use of pyrethroid and nicotine pesticides should be adopted.%[目的]美洲棘蓟马Echinothrips americanus Morgan是国内新报道的外来种类,可对多种温室作物造成危害.采用玻璃残留处理法测定了5种杀虫剂对美洲棘蓟马成虫的毒力.[结果]5种杀虫剂对美洲棘蓟马成虫的毒力排序为毒死蜱<啶虫脒<阿维菌素<高效氯氰菊酯<多杀霉素.[结论]在防治中应避免使用毒死蜱等对该虫毒性较低的杀虫剂进行防治,尽量选用毒性较高的生物源类杀虫剂多杀霉素,交替使用菊酯类和烟碱类农药.

  16. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012-2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13), and total cholesterol (r= -0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level. PMID:25995640

  17. Characterization of spinal findings in children and adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 enrolled in a natural history study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Rosa; Dombi, Eva; Akshintala, Srivandana; Baldwin, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2015-01-01

    To characterize spinal abnormalities in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NF1 patients with at least one spine MRI were selected from participants prospectively enrolled in the National Cancer Institute NF1 Natural History Study. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Ninety-seven patients (38 females, median age 14.2 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.6) had baseline imaging of the spine, and 26 patients (27 %) had one follow-up spine MRI (follow up time 2.5 years, SD 1.1, range 0.7-4.7). Seventy-eight patients (80 %) had spinal neurofibromas, with rising frequency from 70 % in patients younger than 10 years to 80 % in patients aged 10-18 years to 89 % in individuals older than 18 years of age. At baseline, 33/97 patients (34 %) had MRI changes consistent with spinal cord compression that was most prevalent at the cervical (43 %) and lumbar spine region (40 %). Seven of nine patients with progression of their spinal neurofibromas developed cord compression. Paraspinal plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) were present in 77/97 patients (79 %), of which 68 patients (88 %) had concomitant spinal neurofibromas. Spinal curvature abnormality was present in 50/97 patients (51 %, 20 females, median age 14.6 years, SD 7.6). Patients with paraspinal PNs had six-fold higher odds of developing spinal curvature abnormalities compared to patients without PN (OR = 5.9, 95 % CI 1.81 to 19.44, p = 0.0033). A total of 58/97 patients (60 %, median age 16.1 years, SD 7.8, range 4.8-48.2 years) presented with neurologic abnormalities that progressed in 12/26 patients (46 %). Substantial spinal neurofibroma and paraspinal PN burden was observed in our study population, which represents a selective group of patients with specifically more severe tumor involvement than the general NF1 population. Occurrence and progression of spinal neurofibromas on repeat evaluations highlight the need for longitudinal clinical monitoring in patients with known

  18. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  19. Adult education for democratic citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report presents, in brief, the findings from the study of research literature on Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship, which was carried out in the nine EU member states represented by the project: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and United Kingdom....... The research literature review was designed as the foundation for the investigation of what is know about how adults can achieve competencies relevant for democratic citizenship in various European countries, what type of educational interventions have proven effective in this regards and how...... educational policy intervene in the field of Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship....

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in euthymic Adult Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I: Neuropsychological and Neurofunctional Aspects Resonancia magnética funcional en pacientes adultos eutímicos con trastorno bipolar tipo I: una visión neuropsicológica y neurofuncional

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Vargas Upegui; Andrés Correa-Palacio; Jenny García; Carlos López-Jaramillo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging during the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder type I have been performed in the last decade. A critical review of the findings is therefore required. Methods: The major databases (Pubmed, EMBASE, Lilacs, and Scielo) were consulted searching studies of fMRI in euthymic adults with Bipolar disorder type I without timeframe limits. Results: The neuroanatomical and neuropsycholo gical findings are presented in two parts: 1)...

  1. [Adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  2. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  3. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  4. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  6. Healthy eating and active living for diabetes in primary care networks (HEALD-PCN: rationale, design, and evaluation of a pragmatic controlled trial for adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Steven T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While strong and consistent evidence supports the role of lifestyle modification in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM, the best strategies for program implementation to support lifestyle modification within primary care remain to be determined. The objective of the study is to evaluate the implementation of an evidence-based self- management program for patients with T2DM within a newly established primary care network (PCN environment. Method Using a non-randomized design, participants (total N = 110 per group will be consecutively allocated in bi-monthly blocks to either a 6-month self-management program lead by an Exercise Specialist or to usual care. Our primary outcome is self-reported physical activity and pedometer steps. Discussion The present study will assess whether a diabetes self-management program lead by an Exercise Specialist provided within a newly emerging model of primary care and linked to available community-based resources, can lead to positive changes in self-management behaviours for adults with T2DM. Ultimately, our work will serve as a platform upon which an emerging model of primary care can incorporate effective and efficient chronic disease management practices that are sustainable through partnerships with local community partners. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00991380

  7. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  8. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  9. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  10. Adult Leukemias

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Lyall K.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past several years, advances have been made in the classification, diagnosis and therapy of the adult leukemias. The overall prognosis and quality of life have improved greatly, especially for patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemias. Some of the advances are described in this article. The importance of the clinical, laboratory and diagnostic tests for acute, chronic granulocytic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are stressed. The therapy and prognosis for patients with the vari...

  11. Diabetes Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  12. Ejercicio de resistencia muscular en adultos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Exercício de resistência muscular em adultos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Endurance training in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Asunción Muñoz Canché

    2005-02-01

    exercise on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels, muscle strength and perceived muscle strength. Explore the influence of diet, exercise, medication and manifestations of hypo or hyperglycemia in the blood glucose control of adults with diabetes mellitus type 2, who attended endocrinology clinics at two public hospitals in Monterrey, Mexico. Basic Procedures. A 12-week non equivalent control group design was used. At baseline, the experimental group consisted of 14 participants and the control group 11. The exercise sessions were held twice a week for one hour. All participants had received a verbal recommendation from their physician. Results. The experimental group displayed a significant decrease in HbA1c levels and increases in muscle strength and perceived muscle strength (p < .001. Eight participants out of eleven achieved normal HbA1c values after the intervention. No effect of the co-variables was found. Conclusions. This type of intervention can be of help to control blood glucose levels in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  13. Adult hepatoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Javier A. Cienfuegos; Tania Labiano; Nicolás Pedano; Gabriel N. Zozaya; Pablo Martí-Cruchaga; Ángel Panizo; Fernando Rotellar

    2013-01-01

    Adult hepatoblastoma (AHB) is a very rare tumor, having been described 45 cases up to June 2012. In contrast to HB in infancy (IHB), it has poor prognosis. We present the case of a 37-year-old asymptomatic woman who consulted for a large -12 cm diameter- mass involving segments 5 and 6 of the liver, and alfa-fetoprotein of 1,556,30 UI/mL. A bisegmentectomy was carried out. The microscopic study confirmed the AHB diagnosis, revealing the presence of epithelial cells forming clusters, trabecula...

  14. Analysis of pathological types and features of glomerular diseases in adults in Mianyang area%绵阳地区成人肾小球疾病127例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简讯; 李斌; 张华; 马懿; 曾蜀春; 陈福琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathological types and features of glomerular diseases in adults in Mianyang are-a. Methods The data on 127 patients with glomerular diseases confirmed by renal biopsies with definite pathologic diagnosis in our hospital between Jan. 2008 and Aug. 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Distribution of age and sex, glomerular pathological types and relationship with clinical features were analyzed. Results 127 cases of adult glomerular diseases, 95 case was primary glomerular diseases, accounting for 74. 80%. The ratio of male to female was 1/1. 88. 32 cases was secondary glomerular diseases, accounting for 25. 20% . The ratio of male to female was 1/1.13. IgA nephropathy(IgAN)was the most common primary glomerular diseases, followed by minimal change disease, membrane nephropathy, and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, ea al. Lupus nephritis (LN)was the most common secondary glomerular diseases, followed by Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis, nephritis associated with hepatitis B, systemic vasculins and renal amyloidosis, ea al. Clinical features included proteinuria and/ or hematuria 30.71% , nephrotic syndrome 50. 39% , acute nephritic syndrome 7.87% and acute renal failure 7. 87%. Conclusion The most common renal disease occurred in adults in Mianyang area is primary glomerular disease. IgAN is predominant and the adolescent are in high risk for primary glomerular disease. LN is the most common in secondary glomerular diseases. Each pathological type of glomerular disease may present a variety of clinical manifestations, and each manifestation has different pathological types .%目的 了解绵阳地区成人肾小球疾病的病理类型及其特点.方法 回顾我院2008年1月~2011年8月经肾活检确诊的127例成人肾小球疾病患者的临床资料,分析其年龄性别分布、肾病理类型及其与临床表现的关系.结果 127例成人肾小球疾病患者,原发性肾小球疾病95例(74.80%),男∶女=1

  15. The clinical utility of serum anti-Müllerian hormone in the follow-up of ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumors--A comparative study with inhibin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Anniina; Koskela, Sanna; Bryk, Saara; Alfthan, Henrik; Bützow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Puistola, Ulla; Tapanainen, Juha S; Heikinheimo, Markku; Anttonen, Mikko; Unkila-Kallio, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) require prolonged follow-up, but evidence regarding the optimal follow-up marker is lacking. The objective of our study was to validate the clinical usefulness of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and the current marker inhibin B as single and combined markers of AGCTs. We conducted a longitudinal, partially prospective cohort study of 123 premenopausal and postmenopausal AGCT patients with a median follow-up time of 10.5 years (range 0.3-50.0 years). Serum AMH and inhibin B levels were measured from 560 pretreatment and follow-up serum samples by using immunoenzymometric assays. We found that serum AMH and inhibin B levels were significantly elevated in patients with primary or recurrent AGCTs. The levels of both markers positively correlated to tumor size (p < 0.05). AMH and inhibin B performed similarly in receiving operator characteristic analyses; area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-0.95] for AMH, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.96) for inhibin B. AMH was highly sensitive (92%) and specific (81%) in detecting a macroscopic AGCT. However, in AUC comparison analyses, the combination of the markers was superior to inhibin B alone. In conclusion, serum AMH is a sensitive and specific marker of AGCT, and either AMH or inhibin B can be monitored during follow-up. However, combining AMH and inhibin B in AGCT patient follow-up improves the detection of recurrent disease. PMID:25808251

  16. Correlation between lactose absorption and the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT gene in adult-type hypolactasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Bulhões

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The C/T-13910 mutation is the major factor responsible for the persistence of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT gene expression. Mutation G/A-22018 appears to be only in co-segregation with C/T-13910. The objective of the present study was to assess the presence of these two mutations in Brazilian individuals with and without lactose malabsorption diagnosed by the hydrogen breath test (HBT. Ten milk-tolerant and 10 milk-intolerant individuals underwent the HBT after oral ingestion of 50 g lactose (equivalent to 1 L of milk. Analyses for C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations were performed using a PCR-based method. Primers were designed for this study based on the GenBank sequence. The CT/GA, CT/AA, and TT/AA genotypes (lactase persistence were found in 10 individuals with negative HBT. The CC/GG genotype (lactase non-persistence was found in 10 individuals, 9 of them with positive HBT results. There was a significant agreement between the presence of mutations in the LCT gene promoter and HBT results (kappa = -0.9, P < 0.001. The CT/AA genotype has not been described previously and seems to be related to lactase persistence. The present study showed a significant agreement between the occurrence of mutations G/A-22018 and C/T-13910 and lactose absorption in Brazilian subjects, suggesting that the molecular test used here could be proposed for the laboratory diagnosis of adult-type primary hypolactasia.

  17. The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C; England, Clare Y; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-11-28

    Weight loss is crucial for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear which dietary intervention is best for optimising glycaemic control, or whether weight loss itself is the main reason behind observed improvements. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of various dietary interventions on glycaemic control in overweight and obese adults with T2DM when controlling for weight loss between dietary interventions. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) was conducted. Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science databases were conducted. Inclusion criteria included RCT with minimum 6 months duration, with participants having BMI≥25·0 kg/m2, a diagnosis of T2DM using HbA1c, and no statistically significant difference in mean weight loss at the end point of intervention between dietary arms. Results showed that eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Only four RCT indicated the benefit of a particular dietary intervention over another in improving HbA1c levels, including the Mediterranean, vegan and low glycaemic index (GI) diets. However the findings from one of the four studies showing a significant benefit are questionable because of failure to control for diabetes medications and poor adherence to the prescribed diets. In conclusion there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest that any particular diet is superior in treating overweight and obese patients with T2DM. Although the Mediterranean, vegan and low-GI diets appear to be promising, further research that controls for weight loss and the effects of diabetes medications in larger samples is needed. PMID:26411958

  18. Power and Authority in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsobaie, Mohammed Fahad

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers power and authority in adult education, focusing on the modern definitions of power and authority in the educational context, then moving into past precedents of the use of power and authority of classrooms. Finally, the optimal types of power and authority to apply to adult education are examined. Power defines a relationship…

  19. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166

  20. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166