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Sample records for adult transgenic mouse

  1. Expression of a truncated receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in the brain of an adult transgenic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, P; Canoll, P D; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    that goal, we have used this mouse model to map the distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein in the adult mouse brain using beta-galactosidase as a marker enzyme. Visualization of the beta-galactosidase activity revealed a non-random pattern of expression, and identified cells......-6596]. Nevertheless, since the transgene's expression is driven by the endogenous RPTP-kappa promoter, distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein should reflect the regional and cellular expression of wild-type RPTP-kappa, and thus may identify sites where RPTP-kappa is important. Towards...

  2. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  3. Expression of a truncated receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in the brain of an adult transgenic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, P; Canoll, P D; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    processes such as axonal growth and target recognition, as has been demonstrated for certain Drosophila RPTPs. The brain distribution of RPTP-kappa-expressing cells has not been determined, however. In a gene-trap mouse model with a beta-gal+neo (beta-geo) insertion in the endogenous RPTP-kappa gene......-6596]. Nevertheless, since the transgene's expression is driven by the endogenous RPTP-kappa promoter, distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein should reflect the regional and cellular expression of wild-type RPTP-kappa, and thus may identify sites where RPTP-kappa is important. Towards...... that goal, we have used this mouse model to map the distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein in the adult mouse brain using beta-galactosidase as a marker enzyme. Visualization of the beta-galactosidase activity revealed a non-random pattern of expression, and identified cells...

  4. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  5. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jun; Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Xiaotang; Xu, Haiwei; Bai, Yun

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP swe /PS1 ΔE9 mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP swe /PS1 ΔE9 transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  6. A Transgenic Mouse Model of Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriyo

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice (tg mice) that express the human poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, are susceptible to poliovirus and develop a neurological disease that resembles human poliomyelitis. Assessment of the neurovirulence levels of poliovirus strains, including mutant viruses produced by reverse genetics, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, and vaccine candidates, is useful for basic research of poliovirus pathogenicity, the surveillance of circulating polioviruses, and the quality control of oral live poliovirus vaccines, and does not require the use of monkeys. Furthermore, PVR-tg mice are useful for studying poliovirus tissue tropism and host immune responses. PVR-tg mice can be bred with mice deficient in the genes involved in viral pathogenicity. This report describes the methods used to analyze the pathogenicity and immune responses of poliovirus using the PVR-tg mouse model.

  7. Transgenic mouse models of hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirma, Nameer B; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R

    2012-09-01

    Mouse models of breast cancer, especially transgenic and knockout mice, have been established as valuable tools in shedding light on factors involved in preneoplastic changes, tumor development and malignant progression. The majority of mouse transgenic models develop estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors. This is seen as a drawback because the majority of human breast cancers present an ER positive phenotype. On the other hand, several transgenic mouse models have been developed that produce ER positive mammary tumors. These include mice over-expressing aromatase, ERα, PELP-1 and AIB-1. In this review, we will discuss the value of these models as physiologically relevant in vivo systems to understand breast cancer as well as some of the pitfalls involving these models. In all, we argue that the use of transgenic models has improved our understanding of the molecular aspects and biology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Hui; WANG Phillip L.; TSIEN Joe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the precUnical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic tech-nologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and limitations for systematic production of transgenic primates.

  9. A transgenic mouse model for trilateral retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, J.M.; Marcus, D.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Carpenter, J.L.; Windle, J.J.; Mellon, P.; Albert, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a murine model of trilateral retinoblastoma. Ocular retinoblastoma and central nervous system tumors are observed in a line of mice formed by the transgenic expression of SV40 T-antigen. An oncogenic protein known to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product (p105-Rb) is specifically

  10. Autopsy and histological analysis of the transgenic mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijbels, Marion J. J.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, transgenic and knock-out mouse models have become common use in research laboratories. Detailed phenotypic characterization of such models is essential for understanding basic mechanisms of normal physiology and disease. Hereto, pathological examination is a very helpful tool.

  11. Nuclear receptor TLX stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and enhances learning and memory in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kiyohito; Qu, Qiuhao; Sun, GuoQiang; Ye, Peng; Li, Wendong; Asuelime, Grace; Sun, Emily; Tsai, Guochuan E; Shi, Yanhong

    2014-06-24

    The role of the nuclear receptor TLX in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition has just begun to be explored. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse model that expresses TLX under the control of the promoter of nestin, a neural precursor marker. Transgenic TLX expression led to mice with enlarged brains with an elongated hippocampal dentate gyrus and increased numbers of newborn neurons. Specific expression of TLX in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus via lentiviral transduction increased the numbers of BrdU(+) cells and BrdU(+)NeuN(+) neurons. Furthermore, the neural precursor-specific expression of the TLX transgene substantially rescued the neurogenic defects of TLX-null mice. Consistent with increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, the TLX transgenic mice exhibited enhanced cognition with increased learning and memory. These results suggest a strong association between hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition, as well as significant contributions of TLX to hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory.

  12. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    OpenAIRE

    KUANG, Hui; WANG, Phillip L.; TSIEN, Joe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the preclinical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic technologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and...

  13. BAC-Dkk3-EGFP Transgenic Mouse: An In Vivo Analytical Tool for Dkk3 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Muranishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dickkopf (DKK family proteins are secreted modulators of the Wnt signaling pathway and are capable of regulating the development of many organs and tissues. We previously identified Dkk3 to be a molecule predominantly expressed in the mouse embryonic retina. However, which cell expresses Dkk3 in the developing and mature mouse retina remains to be elucidated. To examine the precise expression of the Dkk3 protein, we generated BAC-Dkk3-EGFP transgenic mice that express EGFP integrated into the Dkk3 gene in a BAC plasmid. Expression analysis using the BAC-Dkk3-EGFP transgenic mice revealed that Dkk3 is expressed in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs at embryonic stages and in Müller glial cells in the adult retina. Since Müller glial cells may play a potential role in retinal regeneration, BAC-Dkk3-EGFP mice could be useful for retinal regeneration studies.

  14. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Fan, Xiaotang [Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: haiweixu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: baiyungene@gmail.com [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2009-07-31

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  15. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-04-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with olycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site.

  16. Transgenic mouse - Methods and protocols, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Marten H. Hofner (from the Dept. of Pathology of the Groningen University and Jan M. van Deursen (from the Mayo College of Medicine at Rochester, MN, USA provided us with the valuable second edition of Transgenic mouse: in fact, eventhough we are in the –omics era and already equipped with the state-of-the-art techniques in whatsoever field, still we need to have gene(s functional analysis data to understand common and complex deseases. Transgenesis is still an irreplaceable method and protocols to well perform it are more than welcome. Here, how to get genetic modified mice (the quintessential model of so many human deseases considering how much of the human genes are conserved in the mouse and the great block of genic synteny existing between the two genomes is analysed in deep and presented in clearly detailed step by step protocols....

  17. A novel transgenic mouse model of lysosomal storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Miranda, Sonia; Ji, Rui; Jurczyk, Agata; Aryee, Ken-Edwin; Mo, Shunyan; Fletcher, Terry; Shaffer, Scott A; Greiner, Dale L; Bortell, Rita; Gregg, Ronald G; Cheng, Alan; Hennings, Leah J; Rittenhouse, Ann R

    2016-11-01

    Knockout technology has proven useful for delineating functional roles of specific genes. Here we describe and provide an explanation for striking pathology that occurs in a subset of genetically engineered mice expressing a rat Ca V β2a transgene under control of the cardiac α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Lesions were limited to mice homozygous for transgene and independent of native Cacnb2 genomic copy number. Gross findings included an atrophied pancreas; decreased adipose tissue; thickened, orange intestines; and enlarged liver, spleen, and abdominal lymph nodes. Immune cell infiltration and cell engulfment by macrophages were associated with loss of pancreatic acinar cells. Foamy macrophages diffusely infiltrated the small intestine's lamina propria, while similar macrophage aggregates packed liver and splenic red pulp sinusoids. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant, iron-negative, Oil Red O-positive, and autofluorescent cytoplasm was indicative of a lipid storage disorder. Electron microscopic analysis revealed liver sinusoids distended by clusters of macrophages containing intracellular myelin "swirls" and hepatocytes with enlarged lysosomes. Additionally, build up of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and triglycerides, along with changes in liver metabolic enzyme levels, were consistent with a lipid processing defect. Because of this complex pathology, we examined the transgene insertion site. Multiple transgene copies inserted into chromosome 19; at this same site, an approximate 180,000 base pair deletion occurred, ablating cholesterol 25-hydroxylase and partially deleting lysosomal acid lipase and CD95 Loss of gene function can account for the altered lipid processing, along with hypertrophy of the immune system, which define this phenotype, and serendipitously provides a novel mouse model of lysosomal storage disorder. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  19. Dantrolene is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein which results in the selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. Our group has previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca2+ signaling is abnormal in MSNs from the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128. Moreover, we demonstrated that deranged intracellular Ca2+ signaling sensitizes YAC128 MSNs to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity when compared to wild type (WT MSNs. In previous studies we also observed abnormal neuronal Ca2+ signaling in neurons from spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2 and spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3 mouse models and demonstrated that treatment with dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and clinically relevant Ca2+ signaling stabilizer, was neuroprotective in experiments with these mouse models. The aim of the current study was to evaluate potential beneficial effects of dantrolene in experiments with YAC128 HD mouse model. Results The application of caffeine and glutamate resulted in increased Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in YAC128 MSN cultures when compared to WT MSN cultures. Pre-treatment with dantrolene protected YAC128 MSNs from glutamate excitotoxicty, with an effective concentration of 100 nM and above. Feeding dantrolene (5 mg/kg twice a week to YAC128 mice between 2 months and 11.5 months of age resulted in significantly improved performance in the beam-walking and gait-walking assays. Neuropathological analysis revealed that long-term dantrolene feeding to YAC128 mice significantly reduced the loss of NeuN-positive striatal neurons and reduced formation of Httexp nuclear aggregates. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that deranged Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in HD pathology. Our data also implicate the RyanRs as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HD and demonstrate that Ryan

  20. Dantrolene is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wu, Jun; Lvovskaya, Svetlana; Herndon, Emily; Supnet, Charlene; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2011-11-25

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein which results in the selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Our group has previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca2+) signaling is abnormal in MSNs from the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128). Moreover, we demonstrated that deranged intracellular Ca2+ signaling sensitizes YAC128 MSNs to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity when compared to wild type (WT) MSNs. In previous studies we also observed abnormal neuronal Ca2+ signaling in neurons from spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) and spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) mouse models and demonstrated that treatment with dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and clinically relevant Ca2+ signaling stabilizer, was neuroprotective in experiments with these mouse models. The aim of the current study was to evaluate potential beneficial effects of dantrolene in experiments with YAC128 HD mouse model. The application of caffeine and glutamate resulted in increased Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in YAC128 MSN cultures when compared to WT MSN cultures. Pre-treatment with dantrolene protected YAC128 MSNs from glutamate excitotoxicty, with an effective concentration of 100 nM and above. Feeding dantrolene (5 mg/kg) twice a week to YAC128 mice between 2 months and 11.5 months of age resulted in significantly improved performance in the beam-walking and gait-walking assays. Neuropathological analysis revealed that long-term dantrolene feeding to YAC128 mice significantly reduced the loss of NeuN-positive striatal neurons and reduced formation of Httexp nuclear aggregates. Our results support the hypothesis that deranged Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in HD pathology. Our data also implicate the RyanRs as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HD and demonstrate that RyanR inhibitors and Ca2+ signaling stabilizers such as

  1. Bioenergetic Defects and Oxidative Damage in Transgenic Mouse Models of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Susan

    1999-01-01

    ... (HE) and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), using transgenic mouse models. Studies in this first year employed C-14-2-deoxyglucose in vivo autoradiography and spectrophotometric metabolic enzyme assays...

  2. Transgenic APP expression during postnatal development causes persistent locomotor hyperactivity in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Shaefali P; Born, Heather A; Das, Pritam; Jankowsky, Joanna L

    2012-06-18

    Transgenic mice expressing disease-associated proteins have become standard tools for studying human neurological disorders. Transgenes are often expressed using promoters chosen to drive continuous high-level expression throughout life rather than temporal and spatial fidelity to the endogenous gene. This approach has allowed us to recapitulate diseases of aging within the two-year lifespan of the laboratory mouse, but has the potential for creating aberrant phenotypes by mechanisms unrelated to the human disorder. We show that overexpression of the Alzheimer's-related amyloid precursor protein (APP) during early postnatal development leads to severe locomotor hyperactivity that can be significantly attenuated by delaying transgene onset until adulthood. Our data suggest that exposure to transgenic APP during maturation influences the development of neuronal circuits controlling motor activity. Both when matched for total duration of APP overexpression and when matched for cortical amyloid burden, animals exposed to transgenic APP as juveniles are more active in locomotor assays than animals in which APP overexpression was delayed until adulthood. In contrast to motor activity, the age of APP onset had no effect on thigmotaxis in the open field as a rough measure of anxiety, suggesting that the interaction between APP overexpression and brain development is not unilateral. Our findings indicate that locomotor hyperactivity displayed by the tet-off APP transgenic mice and several other transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease may result from overexpression of mutant APP during postnatal brain development. Our results serve as a reminder of the potential for unexpected interactions between foreign transgenes and brain development to cause long-lasting effects on neuronal function in the adult. The tet-off APP model provides an easy means of avoiding developmental confounds by allowing transgene expression to be delayed until the mice reach adulthood.

  3. Transgenic Expression of Constitutively Active RAC1 Disrupts Mouse Rod Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongman; Bush, Ronald A.; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Fariss, Robert N.; Kjellstrom, Sten; Sieving, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Dominant-active RAC1 rescues photoreceptor structure in Drosophila rhodopsin-null mutants, indicating an important role in morphogenesis. This report assesses the morphogenetic effect of activated RAC1 during mammalian rod photoreceptor development using transgenic mice that express constitutively active (CA) RAC1. Methods. Transgenic mice were generated by expressing CA RAC1 under control of the Rhodopsin promoter, and morphological features of the photoreceptors were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Function was evaluated by electroretinography. Potential protein partners of CA RAC1 were identified by co-immunoprecipitation of retinal extracts. Results. Constitutively active RAC1 expression in differentiating rods disrupted outer retinal lamination as early as postnatal day (P)6, and many photoreceptor cell nuclei were displaced apically into the presumptive subretinal space. These photoreceptors did not develop normal inner and outer segments and had abnormal placement of synaptic elements. Some photoreceptor nuclei were also mislocalized into the inner nuclear layer. Extensive photoreceptor degeneration was subsequently observed in the adult animal. Constitutively active RAC1 formed a complex with the polarity protein PAR6 and with microtubule motor dynein in mouse retina. The normal localization of the PAR6 complex was disrupted in CA RAC1-expressing rod photoreceptors. Conclusions. Constitutively active RAC1 had a profound negative effect on mouse rod cell viability and development. Rod photoreceptors in the CA RAC1 retina exhibited a defect in polarity and migration. Constitutively active RAC1 disrupted rod morphogenesis and gave a phenotype resembling that found in the Crumbs mutant. PAR6 and dynein are two potential downstream effectors that may be involved in CA RAC1-mediated defective mouse photoreceptor morphogenesis. PMID:24651551

  4. Evaluation of a C57BL/6J × 129S1/SvImJ Hybrid Nestin-Thymidine Kinase Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying the Functional Significance of Exercise-Induced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G F; Majdak, P; Miller, D S; Bucko, P J; Merritt, J R; Krebs, C P; Rhodes, J S

    2015-01-01

    New neurons are continuously generated in the adult hippocampus but their function remains a mystery. The nestin thymidine kinase (nestin-TK) transgenic method has been used for selective and conditional reduction of neurogenesis for the purpose of testing the functional significance of new neurons in learning, memory and motor performance. Here we explored the nestin-TK model on a hybrid genetic background (to increase heterozygosity, and "hybrid vigor"). Transgenic C57BL/6J (B6) were crossed with 129S1/SvImJ (129) producing hybrid offspring (F1) with the B6 half of the genome carrying a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) transgene regulated by a modified nestin promoter. In the presence of exogenously administered valganciclovir, new neurons expressing TK undergo apoptosis. Female B6 nestin-TK mice ( n = 80) were evaluated for neurogenesis reduction as a positive control. Male and female F1 nestin-TK mice ( n = 223) were used to determine the impact of neurogenesis reduction on the Morris water maze (MWM) and rotarod. All mice received BrdU injections to label dividing cells and either valganciclovir or control chow, with or without a running wheel for 30 days. Both the F1 and B6 background displayed approximately 50% reduction in neurogenesis, a difference that did not impair learning and memory on the MWM or rotarod performance. Running enhanced neurogenesis and performance on the rotarod but not MWM suggesting the F1 background may not be suitable for studying pro-cognitive effects of exercise on MWM. Greater reduction of neurogenesis may be required to observe behavioral impacts. Alternatively, new neurons may not play a critical role in learning, or compensatory mechanisms in pre-existing neurons could have masked the deficits. Further work using these and other models for selectively reducing neurogenesis are needed to establish the functional significance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in behavior.

  5. Development of a transgenic mouse model to study the immunogenicity of recombinant human insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torosantucci, Riccardo; Brinks, Vera; Kijanka, Grzegorz; Halim, Liem Andhyk; Sauerborn, Melody; Schellekens, Huub; Jiskoot, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models are commonly used to assess the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins and to investigate the immunological processes leading to antidrug antibodies. The aim of this work was to develop a transgenic (TG) Balb/c mouse model for evaluating the immunogenicity of recombinant human insulin

  6. Preparation and Observation of Fresh-frozen Sections of the Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Mouse Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Masahito; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Kato, Ichiro; Hiraga, Koichi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Demura, Makoto; Mori, Yoshihiro; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Kawano, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Hard tissue decalcification can cause variation in the constituent protein characteristics. This paper describes a method of preparating of frozen mouse head sections so as to clearly observe the nature of the constituent proteins. Frozen sections of various green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse heads were prepared using the film method developed by Kawamoto and Shimizu. This method made specimen dissection without decalcification possible, wherein GFP was clearly observed in an undamaged state. Conversely, using the same method with decalcification made GFP observation in the transgenic mouse head difficult. This new method is suitable for observing GFP marked cells, enabling us to follow the transplanted GFP marked cells within frozen head sections

  7. Nrl-Cre transgenic mouse mediates loxP recombination in developing rod photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Diana S; Razafsky, David; Potter, Chloe; Hodzic, Didier; Chen, Shiming

    2016-03-01

    The developing mouse retina is a tractable model for studying neurogenesis and differentiation. Although transgenic Cre mouse lines exist to mediate conditional genetic manipulations in developing mouse retinas, none of them act specifically in early developing rods. For conditional genetic manipulations of developing retinas, a Nrl-Cre mouse line in which the Nrl promoter drives expression of Cre in rod precursors was created. The results showed that Nrl-Cre expression was specific to the retina where it drives rod-specific recombination with a temporal pattern similar to endogenous Nrl expression during retinal development. This Nrl-Cre transgene does not negatively impact retinal structure and function. Taken together, the data suggested that the Nrl-Cre mouse line was a valuable tool to drive Cre-mediated recombination specifically in developing rods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Towards Transgenic Primates:What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Phillip; L.; TSIEN; Joe; Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans,monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the preclinical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases.Various powerful genetic tech-nologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models.We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and limitations for systematic production of transgenic primates.

  9. A novel transgenic mouse model of lysosomal storage disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Miranda, Sonia; Ji, Rui; Jurczyk, Agata; Aryee, Ken-Edwin; Mo, Shunyan; Fletcher, Terry; Shaffer, Scott A.; Greiner, Dale L.; Bortell, Rita; Gregg, Ronald G.; Cheng, Alan; Hennings, Leah J.; Rittenhouse, Ann R.

    2016-01-01

    We provide an explanation for striking pathology found in a subset of genetically engineered mice homozygous for a rat CaVβ2a transgene (Tg+/+). Multiple transgene (Tg) copies inserted into chromosome 19; at this same site a large deletion occurred, ablating cholesterol 25-hydroxylase and partially deleting lysosomal acid lipase and CD95. Their loss of function can account for lipid build up and immune system hypertrophy, which defines this phenotype and serendipitously provides a novel model...

  10. Generation of single-copy transgenic mouse embryos directly from ES cells by tetraploid embryo complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Roong

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic mice have been used extensively to analyze gene function. Unfortunately, traditional transgenic procedures have only limited use in analyzing alleles that cause lethality because lines of founder mice cannot be established. This is frustrating given that such alleles often reveal crucial aspects of gene function. For this reason techniques that facilitate the generation of embryos expressing such alleles would be of enormous benefit. Although the transient generation of transgenic embryos has allowed limited analysis of lethal alleles, it is expensive, time consuming and technically challenging. Moreover a fundamental limitation with this approach is that each embryo generated is unique and transgene expression is highly variable due to the integration of different transgene copy numbers at random genomic sites. Results Here we describe an alternative method that allows the generation of clonal mouse embryos harboring a single-copy transgene at a defined genomic location. This was facilitated through the production of Hprt negative embryonic stem cells that allow the derivation of embryos by tetraploid embryo complementation. We show that targeting transgenes to the hprt locus in these ES cells by homologous recombination can be efficiently selected by growth in HAT medium. Moreover, embryos derived solely from targeted ES cells containing a single copy LacZ transgene under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter exhibited the expected cardiac specific expression pattern. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that tetraploid embryo complementation by F3 hprt negative ES cells facilitates the generation of transgenic mouse embryos containing a single copy gene at a defined genomic locus. This approach is simple, extremely efficient and bypasses any requirement to generate chimeric mice. Moreover embryos generated by this procedure are clonal in that they are all derived from a single ES cell lines. This

  11. Transgenic RNAi in mouse oocytes: The first decade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Radek; Svoboda, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 134, 1-2 (2012), s. 64-68 ISSN 0378-4320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : RNAi * oocyte * transgene * silencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2012

  12. In Vivo Monitoring of Pancreatic β-Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Smith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We generated a transgenic mouse model (RIP-luc for the in vivo monitoring of pancreatic islet mass and function in response to metabolic disease. Using the rat insulin promoter fused to firefly luciferase, and noninvasive technology to detect luciferase activity, we tracked changes in reporter signal during metabolic disease states and correlated the changes in luciferase signal with metabolic status of the mouse. Transgene expression was found to be specific to the pancreatic islets in this transgenic model. Basal transgene expression was tracked in male and female mice fed either a chow or a high-fat diet and in response to treatment with streptozotocin. Pancreatic bioluminescent signal increased in mice fed a high-fat diet compared with chow-fed animals. In a model of chemically induced diabetes, the bioluminescent signal decreased in accordance with the onset of diabetes and reduction of islet β-cell number. Preliminary studies using islets transplanted from this transgenic model suggest that in vivo image analysis can also be used to monitor transplanted islet viability and survival in the host. This transgenic model is a useful tool for in vivo studies of pancreatic β-cells and as a donor for islet transplantation studies.

  13. Expression of human erythropoietin gene in the mammary gland of a transgenic mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuš, Tomáš; Malý, Petr; Poplštein, M.; Landa, Vladimír; Trefil, P.; Lidický, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2001), s. 187-195 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : erythropoietin, mammary gland, transgenic mouse Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  14. Expression of human eryhropoietin gene in the mammary gland of a transgenic mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuš, T.; Malý, Petr; Poplštein, M.; Landa, Vladimír; Trefil, P.; Lidický, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2001), s. 187-195 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MPO PP-Z1/09/96 Keywords : erythropoietin * recombinant protein * transgenic mouse Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  15. T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses Induced in ret Transgenic Mouse Model of Malignant Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abschuetz, Oliver [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Osen, Wolfram [Division of Translational Immunology, German Cancer Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Frank, Kathrin [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Kato, Masashi [Unit of Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Schadendorf, Dirk [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45122 (Germany); Umansky, Viktor, E-mail: v.umansky@dkfz.de [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2012-04-26

    Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous skin melanoma, in which the ret transgene is expressed in melanocytes under the control of metallothionein-I promoter. After a short latency, around 25% mice develop macroscopic skin melanoma metastasizing to lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs and brain, whereas other transgenic mice showed only metastatic lesions without visible skin tumors. We found that tumor lesions expressed melanoma associated antigens (MAA) tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, TRP-2 and gp100, which could be applied as targets for the immunotherapy. Upon peptide vaccination, ret transgenic mice without macroscopic melanomas were able to generate T cell responses not only against a strong model antigen ovalbumin but also against typical MAA TRP-2. Although mice bearing macroscopic primary tumors could also display an antigen-specific T cell reactivity, it was significantly down-regulated as compared to tumor-free transgenic mice or non-transgenic littermates. We suggest that ret transgenic mice could be used as a pre-clinical model for the evaluation of novel strategies of melanoma immunotherapy.

  16. Cellular, molecular and functional characterisation of YAC transgenic mouse models of Friedreich ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Anjomani Virmouni

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. We have previously established and performed preliminary characterisation of several human FXN yeast artificial chromosome (YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models containing GAA repeat expansions, Y47R (9 GAA repeats, YG8R (90 and 190 GAA repeats and YG22R (190 GAA repeats.We now report extended cellular, molecular and functional characterisation of these FXN YAC transgenic mouse models. FXN transgene copy number analysis of the FRDA mice demonstrated that the YG22R and Y47R lines each have a single copy of the FXN transgene while the YG8R line has two copies. Single integration sites of all transgenes were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH analysis of metaphase and interphase chromosomes. We identified significant functional deficits, together with a degree of glucose intolerance and insulin hypersensitivity, in YG8R and YG22R FRDA mice compared to Y47R and wild-type control mice. We also confirmed increased somatic GAA repeat instability in the cerebellum and brain of YG22R and YG8R mice, together with significantly reduced levels of FXN mRNA and protein in the brain and liver of YG8R and YG22R compared to Y47R.Together these studies provide a detailed characterisation of our GAA repeat expansion-based YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models that will help investigations of FRDA disease mechanisms and therapy.

  17. A BAC-based transgenic mouse specifically expresses an inducible Cre in the urothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Huai Shen

    Full Text Available Cre-loxp mediated conditional knockout strategy has played critical roles for revealing functions of many genes essential for development, as well as the causal relationships between gene mutations and diseases in the postnatal adult mice. One key factor of this strategy is the availability of mice with tissue- or cell type-specific Cre expression. However, the success of the traditional molecular cloning approach to generate mice with tissue specific Cre expression often depends on luck. Here we provide a better alternative by using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based recombineering to insert iCreERT2 cDNA at the ATG start of the Upk2 gene. The BAC-based transgenic mice express the inducible Cre specifically in the urothelium as demonstrated by mRNA expression and staining for LacZ expression after crossing with a Rosa26 reporter mouse. Taking into consideration the size of the gene of interest and neighboring genes included in a BAC, this method should be widely applicable for generation of mice with tissue specific gene expression or deletions in a more specific manner than previously reported.

  18. Liver BCATm transgenic mouse model reveals the important role of the liver in maintaining BCAA homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananieva, Elitsa A; Van Horn, Cynthia G; Jones, Meghan R; Hutson, Susan M

    2017-02-01

    Unlike other amino acids, the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) largely bypass first-pass liver degradation due to a lack of hepatocyte expression of the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm). This sets up interorgan shuttling of BCAAs and liver-skeletal muscle cooperation in BCAA catabolism. To explore whether complete liver catabolism of BCAAs may impact BCAA shuttling in peripheral tissues, the BCATm gene was stably introduced into mouse liver. Two transgenic mouse lines with low and high hepatocyte expression of the BCATm transgene (LivTg-LE and LivTg-HE) were created and used to measure liver and plasma amino acid concentrations and determine whether the first two BCAA enzymatic steps in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney were impacted. Expression of the hepatic BCATm transgene lowered the concentrations of hepatic BCAAs while enhancing the concentrations of some nonessential amino acids. Extrahepatic BCAA metabolic enzymes and plasma amino acids were largely unaffected, and no growth rate or body composition differences were observed in the transgenic animals as compared to wild-type mice. Feeding the transgenic animals a high-fat diet did not reverse the effect of the BCATm transgene on the hepatic BCAA catabolism, nor did the high-fat diet cause elevation in plasma BCAAs. However, the high-fat-diet-fed BCATm transgenic animals experienced attenuation in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the liver and had impaired blood glucose tolerance. These results suggest that complete liver BCAA metabolism influences the regulation of glucose utilization during diet-induced obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Kumar, A.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to musculoskeletal disuse and radiation result in bone loss; we hypothesized that these catabolic treatments cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby alter the tight balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used transgenic mice which over-express the human gene for catalase, targeted to mitochondria (MCAT). Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts the ROS hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. MCAT mice were shown previously to display reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiosensitivity of the CNS compared to wild type controls (WT). As expected, MCAT mice expressed the transgene in skeletal tissue, and in marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors cultured ex vivo, and also showed greater catalase activity compared to wildtype (WT) mice (3-6 fold). Colony expansion in marrow cells cultured under osteoblastogenic conditions was 2-fold greater in the MCAT mice compared to WT mice, while the extent of mineralization was unaffected. MCAT mice had slightly longer tibiae than WT mice (2%, P less than 0.01), although cortical bone area was slightly lower in MCAT mice than WT mice (10%, p=0.09). To challenge the skeletal system, mice were treated by exposure to combined disuse (2 wk Hindlimb Unloading) and total body irradiation Cs(137) (2 Gy, 0.8 Gy/min), then bone parameters were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA to detect possible interaction effects. Treatment caused a 2-fold increase (p=0.015) in malondialdehyde levels of bone tissue (ELISA) in WT mice, but had no effect in MCAT mice. These findings indicate that the transgene conferred protection from oxidative damage caused by treatment. Unexpected differences between WT and MCAT mice emerged in skeletal responses to treatment.. In WT mice, treatment did not alter osteoblastogenesis, cortical bone area, moment of inertia, or bone perimeter, whereas in MCAT mice, treatment increased these

  20. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Moyer, E. L.; Kumar, A.; Tahimic, Candice C. G.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss can occur due to many challenges such age, radiation, microgravity, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a critical role in bone resorption by osteoclasts (Bartell et al. 2014). We hypothesize that suppression of excess ROS in skeletal cells, both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, regulates skeletal growth and remodeling. To test our hypothesis, we used transgenic mCAT mice which overexpress the human anti-oxidant catalase gene targeted to the mitochondria, the main site for endogenous ROS production. mCAT mice have a longer life-span than wildtype controls and have been used to study various age-related disorders. To stimulate remodeling, 16 week old mCAT mice or wildtype mice were exposed to treatment (hindlimb-unloading and total body-irradiation) or sham treatment conditions (control). Tissues were harvested 2 weeks later for skeletal analysis (microcomputed tomography), biochemical analysis (gene expression and oxidative damage measurements), and ex vivo bone marrow derived cell culture (osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis). mCAT mice expressed the transgene and displayed elevated catalase activity in skeletal tissue and marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts grown ex vivo. In addition, when challenged with treatment, bone tissues from wildtype mice showed elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating oxidative damage) whereas mCAT mice did not. Correlation analysis revealed that increased catalase activity significantly correlated with decreased MDA levels and that increased oxidative damage correlated with decreased percent bone volume (BVTV). In addition, ex-vivo cultured osteoblast colony growth correlated with catalase activity in the osteoblasts. Thus, we showed that these transgenic mice can be used as a model to study the relationship between markers of oxidative damage and skeletal properties. mCAT mice displayed reduced BVTV and trabecular number relative to wildtype mice, as well as increased structural model index in the

  1. A Mutation of the Prdm9 Mouse Hybrid Sterility Gene Carried by a Transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihola, O; Trachtulec, Z

    2017-01-01

    PRDM9 is a protein with histone-3-methyltransferase activity, which specifies the sites of meiotic recombination in mammals. Deficiency of the Prdm9 gene in the laboratory mouse results in complete arrest of the meiotic prophase of both sexes. Moreover, the combination of certain PRDM9 alleles from different mouse subspecies causes hybrid sterility, e.g., the male-specific meiotic arrest found in the (PWD/Ph × C57BL/6J)F1 animals. The fertility of all these mice can be rescued using a Prdm9-containing transgene. Here we characterized a transgene made from the clone RP24-346I22 that was expected to encompass the entire Prdm9 gene. Both (PWD/Ph × C57BL/6J)F1 intersubspecific hybrid males and Prdm9-deficient laboratory mice of both sexes carrying this transgene remained sterile, suggesting that Prdm9 inactivation occurred in the Tg(RP24-346I22) transgenics. Indeed, comparative qRT-PCR analysis of testicular RNAs from transgene-positive versus negative animals revealed similar expression levels of Prdm9 mRNAs from the exons encoding the C-terminal part of the protein but elevated expression from the regions coding for the N-terminus of PRDM9, indicating that the transgenic carries a new null Prdm9 allele. Two naturally occurring alternative Prdm9 mRNA isoforms were overexpressed in Tg(RP24-346I22), one formed via splicing to a 3'-terminal exon consisting of short interspersed element B2 and one isoform including an alternative internal exon of 28 base pairs. However, the overexpression of these alternative transcripts was apparently insufficient for Prdm9 function or for increasing the fertility of the hybrid males.

  2. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genomic localization of the Z/EG transgene in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Sophie; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Lobe, Corrinne; Larue, Lionel

    2010-02-01

    The Z/EG transgenic mouse line, produced by Novak et al., displays tissue-specific EGFP expression after Cre-mediated recombination. The autofluorescence of EGFP allows the visualization of cells of interest displaying Cre recombination. The initial construct was designed such that cells without Cre recombination express the beta-galactosidase marker, facilitating counterselection. We used inverse PCR to identify the site of integration of the Z/EG transgene, to improve the efficiency of homozygous Z/EG mouse production. Recombined cells produced large amounts of EGFP protein, resulting in higher levels of fluorescence and therefore greater contrast with nonrecombined cells. We mapped the transgene to the G1 region of chromosome 5. This random insertion was found to have occurred 230-bp upstream from the start codon of the Rasa4 gene. The insertion of the Z/EG transgene in the C57BL/6 genetic background had no effect on Rasa4 expression. Homozygous Z/EG mice therefore had no obvious phenotype. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Transgenic Mouse Develops Cardiac Hypertrophy, Lean Body Mass and Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuglozeh, Edem

    2017-07-01

    Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) is one of the six members of cysteine-rich, heparin-binding proteins, secreted as modular protein and recognised to play a major function in cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation as well as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo. CTGF Knockout (KO) mice have several craniofacial defects and bone miss shaped due to an impairment of the vascular system development during chondrogenesis. The aim of the study was to establish an association between multiple modular functions of CTGF and the phenotype and cardiovascular functions in transgenic mouse. Bicistronic cassette was constructed using pIRES expressing vector (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA). The construct harbours mouse cDNA in tandem with LacZ cDNA as a reporter gene under the control of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The plasmid was linearised with NotI restriction enzyme, and 50 ng of linearised plasmid was injected into mouse pronucleus for the chimaera production. Immunohistochemical methods were used to assess the colocalisation renin and CTGF as well as morphology and rheology of the cardiovascular system. The chimeric mice were backcrossed against the wild-type C57BL/6 to generate hemizygous (F1) mouse. Most of the offsprings died as a result of respiratory distress and those that survived have low CTGF gene copy number, approximately 40 molecules per mouse genome. The copy number assessment on the dead pups showed 5×10 3 molecules per mouse genome explaining the threshold of the gene in terms of toxicity. Interestingly, the result of this cross showed 85% of the progenies to be positive deviating from Mendelian first law. All F2 progenies died excluding the possibility of establishing the CTGF transgenic mouse line, situation that

  5. Immunohistochemical analysis of Clara cell secretory protein expression in a transgenic model of mouse lung carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Sarah M.; Vassallo, Jeffrey D.; Dieter, Matthew Z.; Lewis, Cindy L.; Whiteley, Laurence O.; Fix, Andrew S.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunohistochemical methods have been widely used to determine the histogenesis of spontaneous and chemically-induced mouse lung tumors. Typically, antigens for either alveolar Type II cells or bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells are studied. In the present work, the morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype of a transgenic mouse designed to develop lung tumors arising from Clara cells was evaluated. In this model, Clara cell-specific transformation is accomplished by directed expression of the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) under the mouse Clara cell secretory protein (CC10) promoter. In heterozygous mice, early lesions at 1 month of age consisted of hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells. These progressed to adenoma by 2 months as proliferating epithelium extended into adjacent alveolar spaces. By 4 months, a large portion of the lung parenchyma was composed of tumor masses. Expression of constitutive CC10 was diminished in transgenic animals at all time points. Only the occasional cell or segment of the bronchiolar epithelium stained positively for CC10 by immunohistochemistry, and all tumors were found to be uniformly negative for staining. These results were corroborated by Western blotting, where CC10 was readily detectable in whole lung homogenate from nontransgenic animals, but not detected in lung from transgenic animals at any time point. Tumors were also examined for expression of surfactant apoprotein C (SPC), an alveolar Type II cell-specific marker, and found to be uniformly negative for staining. These results indicate that, in this transgenic model, expression of CC10, which is widely used to determine whether lung tumors arise from Clara cells, was reduced and subsequently lost during Clara cell tumor progression

  6. Radio-deoxynucleoside Analogs used for Imaging tk Expression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Tian, Xincheng Lu, Hong Guo, David Corn, Joseph Molter, Bingcheng Wang, Guangbin Luo, Zhenghong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A group of radiolabeled thymidine analogs were developed as radio-tracers for imaging herpes viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk or its variants used as reporter gene. A transgenic mouse model was created to express tk upon liver injury or naturally occurring hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The purpose of this study was to use this unique animal model for initial testing with radio-labeled thymidine analogs, mainly a pair of newly emerging nucleoside analogs, D-FMAU and L-FMAU.Methods: A transgeneic mouse model was created by putting a fused reporter gene system, firefly luciferase (luc and HSV1-tk, under the control of mouse alpha fetoprotein (Afp promoter. Initial multimodal imaging, which was consisted of bioluminescent imaging (BLI and planar gamma scintigraphy with [125I]-FIAU, was used for examining the model creation in the new born and liver injury in the adult mice. Carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN was then administrated to induce HCC in these knock-in mice such that microPET imaging could be used to track the activity of Afp promoter during tumor development and progression by imaging tk expression first with [18F]-FHBG. Dynamic PET scans with D-[18F]-FMAU and L-[18F]-FMAU were then performed to evaluate this pair of relatively new tracers. Cells were derived from these liver tumors for uptake assays using H-3 labeled version of PET tracers.Results: The mouse model with dual reporters: HSV1-tk and luc placed under the transcriptional control of an endogenous Afp promoter was used for imaging studies. The expression of the Afp gene was highly specific in proliferative hepatocytes, in regenerative liver, and in developing fetal liver, and thus provided an excellent indicator for liver injury and cancer development in adult mice. Both D-FMAU and L-FMAU showed stable liver tumor uptake where the tk gene was expressed under the Afp promoter. The performance of this pair of tracers was slightly different in terms of signal

  7. UVA-induced mutational spectra in the laci gene from transgenic mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelick, N.J.; O'Kelly, J.A.; Biedermann, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The UVB (295-320 nm) component of sunlight was once thought to be the sole cause of photoaging and skin cancer. However, there is now compelling evidence to suggest that chronic irradiation with UVA (320-400 nm) is a significant component of the etiologies of these diseases. To identify acute markers of UVA damage, we investigated UVA-induced mutagenesis in vivo by using a lacI transgenic mouse mutation assay. The backs of adult female C57BL/6 Big Blue reg-sign mice were shaved and exposed daily to a low or a high dose of UVA for 5 consecutive days. One group remained unexposed. The high dose of UVA significantly increased the mutant frequency in skin determined 12 days after the last exposure. Mutant frequencies were (Avg ± SEM, n=7-8/group): 6.1 ± 0.5 x 10 -5 (high dose). DNA sequence analysis of mutant lacI genes demonstrated that the high dose of UVA produced a different mutational spectrum compared to control. The mutational spectrum from the low dose mutants was not different from the control spectrum in skin generated previously; the predominant classes of recovered mutations were GC→At transitions at CpG sites (11/35) and GC →TA transversions (12/35). In contrast, in the high dose group, GC →AT transitions at non-CpG sites predominated (61/97 mutations); three tandem base substitutions (1 GG →AA; 2 CC→TT) were uniquely recovered; and an increased frequency of recovered GC→CG substitutions was observed (12/97 vs. none in controls). The recovered high dose spectrum is consistent with the types of DNA damage generated by UVA as well as by reactive oxygen species. These studies demonstrate that UVA is mutagenic in vivo and that this assay can be used to study early events in UVA-induced skin damage

  8. Actin Nemaline Myopathy Mouse Reproduces Disease, Suggests Other Actin Disease Phenotypes and Provides Cautionary Note on Muscle Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Gianina; Jackaman, Connie; Sewry, Caroline A.; McNamara, Elyshia; Squire, Sarah E.; Potter, Allyson C.; Papadimitriou, John; Griffiths, Lisa M.; Bakker, Anthony J.; Davies, Kay E.; Laing, Nigel G.; Nowak, Kristen J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) cause congenital myopathies including nemaline myopathy, actin aggregate myopathy and rod-core disease. The majority of patients with ACTA1 mutations have severe hypotonia and do not survive beyond the age of one. A transgenic mouse model was generated expressing an autosomal dominant mutant (D286G) of ACTA1 (identified in a severe nemaline myopathy patient) fused with EGFP. Nemaline bodies were observed in multiple skeletal muscles, with serial sections showing these correlated to aggregates of the mutant skeletal muscle α-actin-EGFP. Isolated extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles were significantly weaker than wild-type (WT) muscle at 4 weeks of age, coinciding with the peak in structural lesions. These 4 week-old mice were ∼30% less active on voluntary running wheels than WT mice. The α-actin-EGFP protein clearly demonstrated that the transgene was expressed equally in all myosin heavy chain (MHC) fibre types during the early postnatal period, but subsequently became largely confined to MHCIIB fibres. Ringbinden fibres, internal nuclei and myofibrillar myopathy pathologies, not typical features in nemaline myopathy or patients with ACTA1 mutations, were frequently observed. Ringbinden were found in fast fibre predominant muscles of adult mice and were exclusively MHCIIB-positive fibres. Thus, this mouse model presents a reliable model for the investigation of the pathobiology of nemaline body formation and muscle weakness and for evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions. The occurrence of core-like regions, internal nuclei and ringbinden will allow analysis of the mechanisms underlying these lesions. The occurrence of ringbinden and features of myofibrillar myopathy in this mouse model of ACTA1 disease suggests that patients with these pathologies and no genetic explanation should be screened for ACTA1 mutations. PMID:22174871

  9. A transgenic mouse model for measles virus infection of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Glenn F.; Manchester, Marianne; Daniels, Lia R.; Callahan, Eric M.; Belman, Alec R.; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to the rash, fever, and upper respiratory tract congestion that are the hallmarks of acute measles virus (MV) infection, invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) can occur, establishing a persistent infection primarily in neurons. The recent identification of the human membrane glycoprotein, CD46, as the MV receptor allowed for the establishment of transgenic mice in which the CD46 gene was transcriptionally regulated by a neuron-specific promoter. Expression of the measles receptor rendered primary CD46-positive neurons permissive to infection with MV–Edmonston. Notably, viral transmission within these cultures occurred in the absence of extracellular virus, presumably via neuronal processes. No infection was seen in nontransgenic mice inoculated intracerebrally with MV–Edmonston. In contrast, scattered neurons were infected following inoculation of transgenic adults, and an impressive widespread neuronal infection was established in transgenic neonates. The neonatal infection resulted in severe CNS disease by 3–4 weeks after infection. Illness was characterized initially by awkward gait and a lack of mobility, and in later stages seizures leading to death. These results show that expression of the MV receptor on specific murine cells (neurons) in vivo is absolutely essential to confer both susceptibility to infection and neurologic disease by this human virus. The disparity in clinical findings between neonatal and adult transgenic mice indicates that differences exist between the developing and mature CNS with respect to MV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:9114047

  10. Investigation of the mechanism of action of alemtuzumab in a human CD52 transgenic mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanping; Turner, Michael J; Shields, Jacqueline; Gale, Matthew S; Hutto, Elizabeth; Roberts, Bruce L; Siders, William M; Kaplan, Johanne M

    2009-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52, an antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant lymphocytes. It is approved for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and is undergoing Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The exact mechanism by which alemtuzumab mediates its biological effects in vivo is not clearly defined and mechanism of action studies have been hampered by the lack of cross-reactivity between human and mouse CD52. To address this issue, a transgenic mouse expressing human CD52 (hCD52) was created. Transgenic mice did not display any phenotypic abnormalities and were able to mount normal immune responses. The tissue distribution of hCD52 and the level of expression by various immune cell populations were comparable to those seen in humans. Treatment with alemtuzumab replicated the transient increase in serum cytokines and depletion of peripheral blood lymphocytes observed in humans. Lymphocyte depletion was not as profound in lymphoid organs, providing a possible explanation for the relatively low incidence of infection in alemtuzumab-treated patients. Interestingly, both lymphocyte depletion and cytokine induction by alemtuzumab were largely independent of complement and appeared to be mediated by neutrophils and natural killer cells because removal of these populations with antibodies to Gr-1 or asialo-GM-1, respectively, strongly inhibited the activity of alemtuzumab whereas removal of complement by treatment with cobra venom factor had no impact. The hCD52 transgenic mouse appears to be a useful model and has provided evidence for the previously uncharacterized involvement of neutrophils in the activity of alemtuzumab. PMID:19740383

  11. Androgen receptor levels during progression of prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model

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    Krisna Murti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To construct tissue microarrays (TMAs that consisted of prostate tumours from the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP mice and non-transgenic murine prostates and to assess androgen receptor (AR levels during progression of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice by immunohistochemistry.Methods Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E sections from the ventral and dorso-lateral prostate lobes of non-transgenic, intact TRAMP and castrated TRAMP were used to demarcate regions of interest for TMAs construction. The samples on TMAs were used to evaluate AR expression using video image analysis (VIA.Results AR was expressed during cancer progression, but AR levels were reduced or absent in late stage disease. Furthermore, when AR levels were compared in tumours from intact and castrate animals, a significant increase in AR levels was observed following androgen ablation.Conclusion Similar to clinical prostate cancer, in the TRAMP model, prostate tumours evolve mechanisms to maintain AR expression and AR responsive gene pathways following castration to facilitate continued tumour growth. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:5-13Keywords : androgen ablation therapy, tissue microarrays, haematoxylin and eosin, video image analysis

  12. Insulin deficiency exacerbates cerebral amyloidosis and behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model

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    Teng Wei-Ping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although increasing evidence has indicated that brain insulin dysfunction is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD, the underlying mechanisms by which insulin deficiency may impact the development of AD are still obscure. Using a streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulin deficient diabetic AD transgenic mouse model, we evaluated the effect of insulin deficiency on AD-like behavior and neuropathology. Results Our data showed that administration of STZ increased the level of blood glucose and reduced the level of serum insulin, and further decreased the phosphorylation levels of insulin receptors, and increased the activities of glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the APP/PS1 mouse brain. We further showed that STZ treatment promoted the processing of amyloid-β (Aβ precursor protein resulting in increased Aβ generation, neuritic plaque formation, and spatial memory deficits in transgenic mice. Conclusions Our present data indicate that there is a close link between insulin deficient diabetes and cerebral amyloidosis in the pathogenesis of AD.

  13. Transgenic overexpression of NanogP8 in the mouse prostate is insufficient to initiate tumorigenesis but weakly promotes tumor development in the Hi-Myc mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bigang; Gong, Shuai; Li, Qiuhui; Chen, Xin; Moore, John; Suraneni, Mahipal V; Badeaux, Mark D; Jeter, Collene R; Shen, Jianjun; Mehmood, Rashid; Fan, Qingxia; Tang, Dean G

    2017-08-08

    This project was undertaken to address a critical cancer biology question: Is overexpression of the pluripotency molecule Nanog sufficient to initiate tumor development in a somatic tissue? Nanog1 is critical for the self-renewal and pluripotency of ES cells, and its retrotransposed homolog, NanogP8 is preferentially expressed in somatic cancer cells. Our work has shown that shRNA-mediated knockdown of NanogP8 in prostate, breast, and colon cancer cells inhibits tumor regeneration whereas inducible overexpression of NanogP8 promotes cancer stem cell phenotypes and properties. To address the key unanswered question whether tissue-specific overexpression of NanogP8 is sufficient to promote tumor development in vivo , we generated a NanogP8 transgenic mouse model, in which the ARR 2 PB promoter was used to drive NanogP8 cDNA. Surprisingly, the ARR 2 PB-NanogP8 transgenic mice were viable, developed normally, and did not form spontaneous tumors in >2 years. Also, both wild type and ARR 2 PB-NanogP8 transgenic mice responded similarly to castration and regeneration and castrated ARR 2 PB-NanogP8 transgenic mice also did not develop tumors. By crossing the ARR 2 PB-NanogP8 transgenic mice with ARR 2 PB-Myc (i.e., Hi-Myc) mice, we found that the double transgenic (i.e., ARR 2 PB-NanogP8; Hi-Myc) mice showed similar tumor incidence and histology to the Hi-Myc mice. Interestingly, however, we observed white dots in the ventral lobes of the double transgenic prostates, which were characterized as overgrown ductules/buds featured by crowded atypical Nanog-expressing luminal cells. Taken together, our present work demonstrates that transgenic overexpression of NanogP8 in the mouse prostate is insufficient to initiate tumorigenesis but weakly promotes tumor development in the Hi-Myc mouse model.

  14. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Induces Cancer and Embryonic Merkel Cell Proliferation in a Transgenic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuda, Masahiro; Guastafierro, Anna; Geng, Xuehui; Shuda, Yoko; Ostrowski, Stephen M; Lukianov, Stefan; Jenkins, Frank J; Honda, Kord; Maricich, Stephen M; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes the majority of human Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) and encodes a small T (sT) antigen that transforms immortalized rodent fibroblasts in vitro. To develop a mouse model for MCV sT-induced carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice with a flox-stop-flox MCV sT sequence homologously recombined at the ROSA locus (ROSAsT), allowing Cre-mediated, conditional MCV sT expression. Standard tamoxifen (TMX) administration to adult UbcCreERT2; ROSAsT mice, in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, resulted in MCV sT expression in multiple organs that was uniformly lethal within 5 days. Conversely, most adult UbcCreERT2; ROSAsT mice survived low-dose tamoxifen administration but developed ear lobe dermal hyperkeratosis and hypergranulosis. Simultaneous MCV sT expression and conditional homozygous p53 deletion generated multi-focal, poorly-differentiated, highly anaplastic tumors in the spleens and livers of mice after 60 days of TMX treatment. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from these mice induced to express MCV sT exhibited anchorage-independent cell growth. To examine Merkel cell pathology, MCV sT expression was also induced during mid-embryogenesis in Merkel cells of Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT mice, which lead to significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in touch domes at late embryonic ages that normalized postnatally. Tamoxifen administration to adult Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT and Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT; p53flox/flox mice had no effects on Merkel cell numbers and did not induce tumor formation. Taken together, these results show that MCV sT stimulates progenitor Merkel cell proliferation in embryonic mice and is a bona fide viral oncoprotein that induces full cancer cell transformation in the p53-null setting.

  15. Tumorigenic potential of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG in vivo investigated using a transgenic mouse model, and effects of cross breeding with p53 (+/− transgenic mice

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    Fong Miranda Y

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG is an oncogene that is overexpressed in variety of tumors and exhibits characteristics of a transforming gene. Previous transgenic mouse models to access the tumorigenic potential in the pituitary and ovary have resulted in dysplasia without formation of visible tumors, possibly due to the insufficient expression of PTTG. PTTG expression level is critical for ovarian tumorigenesis in a xenograft model. Therefore, the tumorigenic function of PTTG in vivo remains unclear. We generated a transgenic mouse that overexpresses PTTG driven by the CMV promoter to determine whether PTTG functions as a transforming oncogene that is capable of initiating tumorigenesis. Methods Transgenic animals were generated by microinjection of PTTG transgene into the male pronucleus of FVB 0.5 day old embryos. Expression levels of PTTG in tissues of transgenic animals were analyzed using an immunohistochemical analysis. H&E staining and immunohistostaining were performed to examine the type of tumor in transgenic and PTTG transgenic/p53+/- animals. Results PTTG transgenic offspring (TgPTTG were monitored for tumor development at various ages. H&E analysis was performed to identify the presence of cancer and hyperplastic conditions verified with the proliferation marker PCNA and the microvessel marker CD31. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine transgene expression, revealing localization to the epithelium of the fallopian tube, with more generalized expression in the liver, lung, kidney, and spleen. At eight months of age, 2 out of 15 TgPTTG developed ovarian cancer, 2 out of 15 developed benign tumors, 2 out of 15 developed cervical dysplasia, and 3 out of 15 developed adenomyosis of the uterus. At ten months of age, 2 out of 10 TgPTTG developed adenocarcinoma of the ovary, 1 out of 10 developed a papillary serous adenocarcinoma, and 2 out of 10 presented with atypia of ovarian epithelial cells

  16. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marielza Andrade; Schöwe, Natalia Mendes; Monteiro-Silva, Karla Cristina; Baraldi-Tornisielo, Ticiana; Souza, Suzzanna Ingryd Gonçalves; Balthazar, Janaina; Albuquerque, Marilia Silva; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  17. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Marielza Andrade Nunes

    Full Text Available The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd20Lms/2J and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  18. A Naturally Fluorescent Mgp Transgenic Mouse for Angiogenesis and Glaucoma Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Priyadarsini; Mitra, Rajendra N; Periasamy, Ramesh; Han, Zongchao; Borrás, Teresa

    2018-02-01

    Our goal was to generate and characterize a new mouse model in which only angiogenesis- and glaucoma-relevant tissues would be naturally fluorescent. The Matrix Gla (MGP) gene is highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and trabecular meshwork (TM). We sought to direct our Mgp-Cre.KI mouse recombinase to VSMC/TM cells to produce their longitudinal fluorescent profiles. Homozygous Mgp-Cre.KI mice were crossed with Ai9 homozygous reporter mice harboring a loxP-flanked STOP cassette preventing transcription of a DsRed fluorescent protein (tdTomato). The F1 double-heterozygous (Mgp-tdTomato) was examined by direct fluorescence, whole mount, histology, and fundus photography. Custom-made filters had 554/23 emission and 609/54 exciter nanometer wavelengths. Proof of concept of the model's usefulness was conducted by inducing guided imaging laser burns. Evaluation of a vessel's leakage and proliferation was followed by noninvasive angiography. The Mgp-tdTomato mouse was viable, fertile, with normal IOP and ERG. Its phenotype exhibited red paws and snout (cartilage expression), which precluded genotyping. A fluorescent red ring was seen at the limbus and confirmed to be TM expression by histology. The entire retinal vasculature was red fluorescent (VSMC) and directly visualized by fundus photography. Laser burns on the Mgp-tdTomato allowed separation of leakiness and neovascularization evaluation parameters. The availability of a transgenic mouse naturally fluorescent in glaucoma-relevant tissues and retinal vasculature brings the unique opportunity to study a wide spectrum of single and combined glaucomatous conditions in vivo. Moreover, the Mgp-tdTomato mouse provides a new tool to study mechanisms and therapeutics of retinal angiogenesis longitudinally.

  19. A Naturally Fluorescent Mgp Transgenic Mouse for Angiogenesis and Glaucoma Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Priyadarsini; Mitra, Rajendra N.; Periasamy, Ramesh; Han, Zongchao

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Our goal was to generate and characterize a new mouse model in which only angiogenesis- and glaucoma-relevant tissues would be naturally fluorescent. The Matrix Gla (MGP) gene is highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and trabecular meshwork (TM). We sought to direct our Mgp-Cre.KI mouse recombinase to VSMC/TM cells to produce their longitudinal fluorescent profiles. Methods Homozygous Mgp-Cre.KI mice were crossed with Ai9 homozygous reporter mice harboring a loxP-flanked STOP cassette preventing transcription of a DsRed fluorescent protein (tdTomato). The F1 double-heterozygous (Mgp-tdTomato) was examined by direct fluorescence, whole mount, histology, and fundus photography. Custom-made filters had 554/23 emission and 609/54 exciter nanometer wavelengths. Proof of concept of the model's usefulness was conducted by inducing guided imaging laser burns. Evaluation of a vessel's leakage and proliferation was followed by noninvasive angiography. Results The Mgp-tdTomato mouse was viable, fertile, with normal IOP and ERG. Its phenotype exhibited red paws and snout (cartilage expression), which precluded genotyping. A fluorescent red ring was seen at the limbus and confirmed to be TM expression by histology. The entire retinal vasculature was red fluorescent (VSMC) and directly visualized by fundus photography. Laser burns on the Mgp-tdTomato allowed separation of leakiness and neovascularization evaluation parameters. Conclusions The availability of a transgenic mouse naturally fluorescent in glaucoma-relevant tissues and retinal vasculature brings the unique opportunity to study a wide spectrum of single and combined glaucomatous conditions in vivo. Moreover, the Mgp-tdTomato mouse provides a new tool to study mechanisms and therapeutics of retinal angiogenesis longitudinally. PMID:29392320

  20. Three-dimensional MR microscopy of a transgenic mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, R.W.; Strife, J.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Chan, C.B.; Sanbe, A.; Robbins, J. [Div. of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Dardzinski, B.J.; Dunn, S.; Schmithorst, V.; Holland, S.K. [Imaging Research Center, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Background. Scientists are now able to alter the genetics of vertebrate embryos routinely to produce animal models of human developmental diseases. However, our understanding of structural changes in these animal models is limited by current methodologies. Histological techniques, although providing great anatomic detail, display only ''static'' data (one time point only) in two dimensions. Ultrasound may be used to generate continuous time course data, but is limited by interobserver variation, limited acoustic windows, and relatively low resolution. Objective. To apply the high resolution, non-destructive, and three-dimensional acquisition capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy to compare the hearts of normal mice versus an established transgenic mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Materials and methods. Transgenic mice exhibiting dilated cardiomyopathy were developed via the introduction of a mutated, heart-specific gene (myosin light chain). Post-mortem cardiac imaging was performed on the transgenic mice and normal controls. MR imaging was performed on a Bruker 3T imaging magnet using a custom radiofrequency coil following contrast perfusion of the atrial and ventricular chambers. Image resolution was 156 {mu}m isotropic voxels. MR images were compared to gross pathologic specimens. Imaging data were post-processed using custom software to calculate the volumes of the atria and ventricles and to display the three-dimensional morphology of the chambers and myocardium. Results. Of the seven mice scanned, four exhibited normal right atrial (average = 14.8 {mu}l {+-} 1.4), left atrial (average = 8.5 {mu}l {+-} 0.3), right ventricular (average = 12.9 {mu}l {+-} 2.7), and left ventricular (average 3.3 {mu}l {+-} 0.5) volumes. Three mice exhibited dilatation of the right and left cardiac chambers (RA average = 23.9 {mu}l {+-} 5.6; LA average = 15.9 {mu}l {+-} 4.8; RV average = 32.5 {mu}l {+-} 6.8; LV average 24.0 {mu}l {+-} 1

  1. Heterogeneous transgene expression in the retinas of the TH-RFP, TH-Cre, TH-BAC-Cre and DAT-Cre mouse lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, H E; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, L; Hardi, C N; McMahon, D G; Brecha, N C

    2015-10-29

    Transgenic mouse lines are essential tools for understanding the connectivity, physiology and function of neuronal circuits, including those in the retina. This report compares transgene expression in the retina of a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) mouse line with three catecholamine-related Cre recombinase mouse lines [TH-bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-, TH-, and dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre] that were crossed with a ROSA26-tdTomato reporter line. Retinas were evaluated and immunostained with commonly used antibodies including those directed to TH, GABA and glycine to characterize the RFP or tdTomato fluorescent-labeled amacrine cells, and an antibody directed to RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing to identify ganglion cells. In TH-RFP retinas, types 1 and 2 dopamine (DA) amacrine cells were identified by their characteristic cellular morphology and type 1 DA cells by their expression of TH immunoreactivity. In the TH-BAC-, TH-, and DAT-tdTomato retinas, less than 1%, ∼ 6%, and 0%, respectively, of the fluorescent cells were the expected type 1 DA amacrine cells. Instead, in the TH-BAC-tdTomato retinas, fluorescently labeled AII amacrine cells were predominant, with some medium diameter ganglion cells. In TH-tdTomato retinas, fluorescence was in multiple neurochemical amacrine cell types, including four types of polyaxonal amacrine cells. In DAT-tdTomato retinas, fluorescence was in GABA immunoreactive amacrine cells, including two types of bistratified and two types of monostratified amacrine cells. Although each of the Cre lines was generated with the intent to specifically label DA cells, our findings show a cellular diversity in Cre expression in the adult retina and indicate the importance of careful characterization of transgene labeling patterns. These mouse lines with their distinctive cellular labeling patterns will be useful tools for future studies of retinal function and visual processing. Published by Elsevier

  2. Pharmacodynamic study of Bay41-4109 in HBV transgenic mouse model

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    Xiu-mei LI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the pharmacodynamics of Bay41-4109,a novel anti-HBV compound,in HBV transgenic mouse model.Methods specific pathogen frce(SPF level TgM(HBV D1.3mice were divided into 3 groups: Bay41-4109 group [30mg/(kg·d],lamivudine group [30mg/(kg·d] and vehicle group(0.5% sodium carboxymethycellulose,with 32 in each.Antiviral effect of Bay41-4109 was tested in HBV transgenic mice including the analysis of HBcAg changes in liver tissue by immunohistochemistry,and changes in HBV DNA in liver and serum by quantitative real time PCR analysis.Serum transaminase(ALT and AST and body weight were assayed to evaluate the safety of the compound.Results Oral Bay41-4109 significantly reduced the number of HBV core antigen(HBcAg positive cell nucleus,average area of HBcAg positive cell nucleus and the rate of OD compared with vehicle group after 50 days treatment(P 0.05.However,Bay41-4109 could not significantly reduce HBV-specific DNA in HBV transgenic mice,both in liver and plasma.No significant impact was found on ALT,AST and body weigh of Bay41-4109-treated mice.Conclusions Bay41-4109 can more effectively reduce cytoplasmic HBcAg in liver sections than lamivudine.It is suggested that Bay41-4109,a different mode of action from lamivudine,represents a promising anti-HBV drug candidate with good antiviral effect and safety.

  3. CCL2-ethanol interactions and hippocampal synaptic protein expression in a transgenic mouse model

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    Donna eGruol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to ethanol produces a number of detrimental effects on behavior. Neuroadaptive changes in brain structure or function underlie these behavioral changes and may be transient or persistent in nature. Central to the functional changes are alterations in the biology of neuronal and glial cells of the brain. Recent data show that ethanol induces glial cells of the brain to produce elevated levels of neuroimmune factors including CCL2, a key innate immune chemokine. Depending on the conditions of ethanol exposure, the upregulated levels of CCL2 can be transient or persistent and outlast the period of ethanol exposure. Importantly, results indicate that the upregulated levels of CCL2 may lead to CCL2-ethanol interactions that mediate or regulate the effects of ethanol on the brain. Glial cells are in close association with neurons and regulate many neuronal functions. Therefore, effects of ethanol on glial cells may underlie some of the effects of ethanol on neurons. To investigate this possibility, we are studying the effects of chronic ethanol on hippocampal synaptic function in a transgenic mouse model that expresses elevated levels of CCL2 in the brain through enhanced glial expression, a situation know to occur in alcoholics. Both CCL2 and ethanol have been reported to alter synaptic function in the hippocampus. In the current study, we determined if interactions are evident between CCL2 and ethanol at level of hippocampal synaptic proteins. Two ethanol exposure paradigms were used; the first involved ethanol exposure by drinking and the second involved ethanol exposure in a paradigm that combines drinking plus ethanol vapor. The first paradigm does not produce dependence on ethanol, whereas the second paradigm is commonly used to produce ethanol dependence. Results show modest effects of both ethanol exposure paradigms on the level of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of CCL2 transgenic mice compared with their non-transgenic

  4. Augmentation of phenotype in a transgenic Parkinson mouse heterozygous for a Gaucher mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Ianai; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Giasson, Benoit I; Nussbaum, Robert L

    2014-12-01

    The involvement of the protein α-synuclein (SNCA) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is strongly supported by the facts that (i) missense and copy number mutations in the SNCA gene can cause inherited Parkinson's disease; and (ii) Lewy bodies in sporadic Parkinson's disease are largely composed of aggregated SNCA. Unaffected heterozygous carriers of Gaucher disease mutations have an increased risk for Parkinson's disease. As mutations in the GBA gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GBA) are known to interfere with lysosomal protein degradation, GBA heterozygotes may demonstrate reduced lysosomal SNCA degradation, leading to increased steady-state SNCA levels and promoting its aggregation. We have created mouse models to investigate the interaction between GBA mutations and synucleinopathies. We investigated the rate of SNCA degradation in cultured primary cortical neurons from mice expressing wild-type mouse SNCA, wild-type human SNCA, or mutant A53T SNCA, in a background of either wild-type Gba or heterozygosity for the L444P GBA mutation associated with Gaucher disease. We also tested the effect of this Gaucher mutation on motor and enteric nervous system function in these transgenic animals. We found that human SNCA is stable, with a half-life of 61 h, and that the A53T mutation did not significantly affect its half-life. Heterozygosity for a naturally occurring Gaucher mutation, L444P, reduced GBA activity by 40%, reduced SNCA degradation and triggered accumulation of the protein in culture. This mutation also resulted in the exacerbation of motor and gastrointestinal deficits found in the A53T mouse model of Parkinson's disease. This study demonstrates that heterozygosity for a Gaucher disease-associated mutation in Gba interferes with SNCA degradation and contributes to its accumulation, and exacerbates the phenotype in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain

  5. Neonatal Death and Heart Failure in Mouse with Transgenic HSP60 Expression

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    Tsung-Hsien Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial heat shock proteins, such as HSP60, are chaperones responsible for the folding, transport, and quality control of mitochondrial matrix proteins and are essential for maintaining life. Both prosurvival and proapoptotic roles have been proposed for HSP60, and HSP60 is reportedly involved in the initiation of autoimmune, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases. The role of HSP60 in pathogenesis of these diseases remains unclear, partly because of the lack of mouse models expressing HSP60. In this study we generated HSP60 conditional transgenic mice suitable for investigating in vivo outcomes by expressing HSP60 at the targeted organ in disease models. Ubiquitous HSP60 induction in the embryonic stage caused neonatal death in mice at postnatal day 1. A high incidence of atrial septal defects was observed in HSP60-expressing mice, with increased apoptosis and myocyte degeneration that possibly contributed to massive hemorrhage and sponge-like cardiac muscles. Our results showed that neonatal heart failure through HSP60 induction likely involves developmental defects and excessive apoptosis. The conditional HSP60 mouse model is useful for studying crucial biological questions concerning HSP60.

  6. Increased infectivity of anchorless mouse scrapie prions in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Brent; Phillips, Katie; Meade-White, Kimberly; Striebel, James; Chesebro, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is found in all mammals, mostly as a glycoprotein anchored to the plasma membrane by a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Following prion infection, host protease-sensitive prion protein (PrPsen or PrPC) is converted into an abnormal, disease-associated, protease-resistant form (PrPres). Biochemical characteristics, such as the PrP amino acid sequence, and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and GPI anchoring, can affect the transmissibility of prions as well as the biochemical properties of the PrPres generated. Previous in vivo studies on the effects of GPI anchoring on prion infectivity have not examined cross-species transmission. In this study, we tested the effect of lack of GPI anchoring on a species barrier model using mice expressing human PrP. In this model, anchorless 22L prions derived from tg44 mice were more infectious than 22L prions derived from C57BL/10 mice when tested in tg66 transgenic mice, which expressed wild-type anchored human PrP at 8- to 16-fold above normal. Thus, the lack of the GPI anchor on the PrPres from tg44 mice appeared to reduce the effect of the mouse-human PrP species barrier. In contrast, neither source of prions induced disease in tgRM transgenic mice, which expressed human PrP at 2- to 4-fold above normal. Prion protein (PrP) is found in all mammals, usually attached to cells by an anchor molecule called GPI. Following prion infection, PrP is converted into a disease-associated form (PrPres). While most prion diseases are species specific, this finding is not consistent, and species barriers differ in strength. The amino acid sequence of PrP varies among species, and this variability affects prion species barriers. However, other PrP modifications, including glycosylation and GPI anchoring, may also influence cross-species infectivity. We studied the effect of PrP GPI anchoring using a mouse-to-human species barrier model. Experiments showed that prions produced by

  7. Establishment of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for widespread and temporal genetic modification in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Hirotake; Hori, Akiko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Kondo, Saki; Kanegae, Yumi; Saito, Izumu; Ichise, Taeko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-07-29

    Temporal genetic modification of mice using the ligand-inducible Cre/loxP system is an important technique that allows the bypass of embryonic lethal phenotypes and access to adult phenotypes. In this study, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for the purpose of widespread and temporal Cre recombination. The new line, named CM32, expresses the GFPneo-fusion gene in a wide variety of tissues before FLP recombination and tamoxifen-inducible Cre after FLP recombination. Using FLP-recombined CM32 mice (CM32Δ mice) and Cre reporter mouse lines, we evaluated the efficiency of Cre recombination with and without tamoxifen administration to adult mice, and found tamoxifen-dependent induction of Cre recombination in a variety of adult tissues. In addition, we demonstrated that conditional activation of an oncogene could be achieved in adults using CM32Δ mice. CM32Δ;T26 mice, which harbored a Cre recombination-driven, SV40 large T antigen-expressing transgene, were viable and fertile. No overt phenotype was found in the mice up to 3 months after birth. Although they displayed pineoblastomas (pinealoblastomas) and/or thymic enlargement due to background Cre recombination by 6 months after birth, they developed epidermal hyperplasia when administered tamoxifen. Collectively, our results suggest that the CM32Δ transgenic mouse line can be applied to the assessment of adult phenotypes in mice with loxP-flanked transgenes.

  8. Targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Sezen, Sena F; Burnett, Arthur L

    2012-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a state of chronic vasculopathy characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, but the sources and mechanisms responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are unknown. We evaluated whether SCD activates NADPH oxidase, induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, and decreases antioxidants in the SCD mouse penis. We further tested the hypothesis that targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the SCD mouse penis. SCD transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Hemizygous (hemi) mice served as controls. Mice received an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. Markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase subunits p67(phox) , p47(phox) , and gp91(phox) ), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes. Sources of ROS, oxidative stress, and enzymatic antioxidants in the SCD penis. Relative to hemi mice, SCD increased (Ppenis. Apocynin treatment of sickle mice reversed (P0.05) prevented eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of hemi mice did not affect any of these parameters. NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are sources of oxidative stress in the SCD penis; decreased GPx1 further contributes to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase upregulation decreases oxidative stress, implying a major role for NADPH oxidase as a ROS source and a potential target for improving vascular function in the SCD mouse penis. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Caffeine alleviates progressive motor deficits in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nélio; Simões, Ana T; Prediger, Rui D; Hirai, Hirokazu; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Pereira de Almeida, Luís

    2017-03-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a neurodegenerative spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) associated with an expanded polyglutamine tract within ataxin-3 for which there is currently no available therapy. We previously showed that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, delays the appearance of striatal damage resulting from expression of full-length mutant ataxin-3. Here we investigated the ability of caffeine to alleviate behavioral deficits and cerebellar neuropathology in transgenic mice with a severe ataxia resulting from expression of a truncated fragment of polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 in Purkinje cells. Control and transgenic c57Bl6 mice expressing in the mouse cerebella a truncated form of human ataxin-3 with 69 glutamine repeats were allowed to freely drink water or caffeinated water (1g/L). Treatments began at 7 weeks of age, when motor and ataxic phenotype emerges in MJD mice, and lasted up to 20 weeks. Mice were tested in a panel of locomotor behavioral paradigms, namely rotarod, beam balance and walking, pole, and water maze cued-platform version tests, and then sacrificed for cerebellar histology. Caffeine consumption attenuated the progressive loss of general and fine-tuned motor function, balance, and grip strength, in parallel with preservation of cerebellar morphology through decreasing the loss of Purkinje neurons and the thinning of the molecular layer in different folia. Caffeine also rescued the putative striatal-dependent executive and cognitive deficiencies in MJD mice. Our findings provide the first in vivo demonstration that caffeine intake alleviates behavioral disabilities in a severely impaired animal model of SCA. Ann Neurol 2017;81:407-418. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  10. Systemic and oral immunogenicity of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed by transgenic peanut plants in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, Abha; Renukaradhya, G.J.; Rajasekhar, M.; Sita, G. Lakshmi; Shaila, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Rinderpest causes a devastating disease, often fatal, in wild and domestic ruminants. It has been eradicated successfully using a live, attenuated vaccine from most part of the world leaving a few foci of disease in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. We have developed transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants expressing hemagglutinin (H) protein of rinderpest virus (RPV), which is antigenically authentic. In this work, we have evaluated the immunogenicity of peanut-expressed H protein using mouse model, administered parenterally as well as orally. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with the transgenic peanut extract elicited antibody response specific to H. These antibodies neutralized virus infectivity in vitro. Oral immunization of mice with transgenic peanut induced H-specific serum IgG and IgA antibodies. The systemic and oral immunogenicity of plant-derived H in absence of any adjuvant indicates the potential of edible vaccine for rinderpest

  11. PET/SPECT/CT multimodal imaging in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisgard, R.; Alberini, J.L.; Jego, B.; Siquier, K.; Theze, B.; Guillermet, S.; Tavitian, B. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie BioMedicale, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Inserm, U803, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2008-02-15

    Background. - In the therapy monitoring of breast cancer, conventional imaging methods include ultrasound, mammography, CT and MRI, which are essentially based on tumor size modifications. However these modifications represent a late consequence of the biological response and fail to differentiate scar or necrotic tissue from residual viable tumoral tissue. Therefore, a current objective is to develop tools able to predict early response to treatment. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) are imaging modalities able to provide extremely sensitive quantitative molecular data and are widely used in humans and animals. Results. - Mammary epithelial cells of female transgenic mice expressing the polyoma middle T onco-protein (Py M.T.), undergo four distinct stages of tumour progression, from pre malignant to malignant stages. Stages are identifiable in the mammary tissue and can lead to the development of distant metastases Longitudinal studies by dynamic whole body acquisitions by multimodal imaging including PET, SPECT and Computed Tomography (CT) allow following the tumoral evolution in Py M.T. mice in comparison with the histopathological analysis. At four weeks of age, mammary hyperplasia was identified by histopathology, but no abnormalities were found by palpation or detected by PET with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose. Such as in some human mammary cancers, the sodium iodide sym-porter (N.I.S.) in tumoral mammary epithelial cells is expressed in this mouse model. In order to investigate the expression of N.I.S. in the Py M.T. mice mammary tumours, [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4} imaging was performed with a dedicated SPECT/CT system camera (B.I.O.S.P.A.C.E. Gamma Imager/CT). Local uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4} was detected as early as four weeks of age. The efficacy of chemotherapy was evaluated in this mouse model using a conventional regimen (Doxorubicine, 100 mg/ kg) administered weekly from nine to

  12. Transgenic Mouse Model Harboring the Transcriptional Fusion Ccl20-Luciferase as a Novel Reporter of Pro-Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, Martina; Van Maele, Laurye; Tabareau, Julien; Cayet, Delphine; Errea, Agustina; Ferreira, Ana María; Rumbo, Martin; Sirard, Jean Claude

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CCL20, the unique ligand of CCR6 functions as an attractant of immune cells. Expression of CCL20 is induced by Toll-like Receptor (TLR) signaling or proinflammatory cytokine stimulation. However CCL20 is also constitutively produced at specific epithelial sites of mucosa. This expression profile is achieved by transcriptional regulation. In the present work we characterized regulatory features of mouse Ccl20 gene. Transcriptional fusions between the mouse Ccl20 promoter and the firefly luciferase (luc) encoding gene were constructed and assessed in in vitro and in vivo assays. We found that liver CCL20 expression and luciferase activity were upregulated by systemic administration of the TLR5 agonist flagellin. Using shRNA and dominant negative form specific for mouse TLR5, we showed that this expression was controlled by TLR5. To address in situ the regulation of gene activity, a transgenic mouse line harboring a functional Ccl20-luc fusion was generated. The luciferase expression was highly concordant with Ccl20 expression in different tissues. Our data indicate that the transgenic mouse model can be used to monitor activation of innate response in vivo. PMID:24265691

  13. Viscoelasticity of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse brain studied by Brillouin microspectroscopy and correlative Raman analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mattana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidopathy is one of the most prominent hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma. The plaques consist of abnormal deposits mainly composed of an aggregation-prone protein fragment, β-amyloid 1-40/1-42, into the extracellular matrix. Brillouin microspectroscopy is an all-optical contactless technique that is based on the interaction between visible light and longitudinal acoustic waves or phonons, giving access to the viscoelasticity of a sample on a subcellular scale. Here, we describe the first application of micromechanical mapping based on Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to probe the stiffness of individual amyloid plaques in the hippocampal part of the brain of a β-amyloid overexpressing transgenic mouse. Correlative analysis based on Brillouin and Raman microspectroscopy showed that amyloid plaques have a complex structure with a rigid core of β-pleated sheet conformation (β-amyloid protein surrounded by a softer ring-shaped region richer in lipids and other protein conformations. These preliminary results give a new insight into the plaque biophysics and biomechanics, and a valuable contrast mechanism for the study and diagnosis of amyloidopathy.

  14. Tooth loss might not alter molecular pathogenesis in an aged transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Yasunari; Koretake, Katsunori; Okada, Shinsuke; Doi, Kazuya; Jung, Cha-Gyun; Michikawa, Makoto; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have reported that tooth loss is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the association between tooth loss and cognition and the impact of tooth loss on the molecular pathogenesis of AD remain elusive. In this study, we tested the effect of tooth loss on learning and memory and on the molecular pathogenesis of AD in an aged AD model mice. We divided 14-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, an AD model mouse line, into upper molar extracted group (experimental) and molar intact group (control). At 18 months old, we analysed not only the changes of amyloid-beta (Aβ), pyramidal cells in the brain but also the learning and memory ability with step-through passive avoidance test. The amount of Aβ and the number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus were not significantly different between the experimental and control group. Similarly, the difference of learning and memory ability could not be distinguished between the groups. Neither molecular pathogenesis of AD nor associated learning and memory were aggravated by tooth loss in these mice. The limited results of this study which used the aged mice may help the dental profession to plan and explain treatments to patients with AD, which must be designed while taking into account the severity of the AD symptoms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Aberrant Wound Healing in an Epidermal Interleukin-4 Transgenic Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Bao, Lei; Chan, Lawrence S.; DiPietro, Luisa A.; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing in a pre-existing Th2-dominated skin milieu was assessed by using an epidermal specific interleukin-4 (IL-4) transgenic (Tg) mouse model, which develops a pruritic inflammatory skin condition resembling human atopic dermatitis. Our results demonstrated that IL-4 Tg mice had delayed wound closure and re-epithelialization even though these mice exhibited higher degrees of epithelial cell proliferation. Wounds in IL-4 Tg mice also showed a marked enhancement in expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, elevated infiltration of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages, CD3+ lymphocytes, and epidermal dendritic T lymphocytes. In addition, these mice exhibited a significantly higher level of angiogenesis as compared to wild type mice. Furthermore, wounds in IL-4 Tg mice presented with larger amounts of granulation tissue, but had less expression and deposition of collagen. Taken together, an inflamed skin condition induced by IL-4 has a pronounced negative influence on the healing process. Understanding more about the pathogenesis of wound healing in a Th2- dominated environment may help investigators explore new potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:26752054

  16. Origin of Androgen-Insensitive Poorly Differentiated Tumors in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy J. Huss

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Following castration, the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP model demonstrates rapid development of SV40-Tag-driven poorly differentiated tumors that express neuroendocrine cell markers. The cell population dynamics within the prostates of castrated TRAMP mice were characterized by analyzing the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd and the expression of SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and androgen receptor (AR. Fourteen days postcastration, the remaining epithelial cells and adenocarcinoma cells were nonproliferative and lacked detectable SV40-Tag or synaptophysin expression. In contrast, morphologically distinct intraglandular foci were identified which expressed SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and Ki67, but that lacked AR expression. These proliferative SV40-Tag and synaptophysin-expressing intraglandular foci were associated with the rare BrdUrd-retaining cells. These foci expanded rapidly in the postcastration prostate environment, in contrast to the AR- and SV40-Tag-expressing adenocarcinoma cells that lost SV40-Tag expression and underwent apoptosis after castration. Intraglandular foci of synaptophysin-expressing cells were also observed in the prostates of intact TRAMP mice at a comparable frequency; however, they did not progress to rapidly expanding tumors until much later in the life of the mice. This suggests that the foci of neuroendocrine-like cells that express SV40-Tag and synaptophysin, but lack AR, arise independent of androgen-deprivation and represent the source of the poorly differentiated tumors that are the lethal phenotype in the TRAMP model.

  17. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signalization Implication in Periodontitis: New Evidence from a RANK Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Sojod

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases.

  18. Cardiac Dysfunction in HIV-1 Transgenic Mouse: Role of Stress and BAG3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Tilley, Douglas G; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Klotman, Paul E; Khalili, Kamel; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-08-01

    Since highly active antiretroviral therapy improved long-term survival of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, AIDS cardiomyopathy has become an increasingly relevant clinical problem. We used human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transgenic (Tg26) mouse to explore molecular mechanisms of AIDS cardiomyopathy. Tg26 mice had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) mass and smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes. Under basal conditions, cardiac contractility and relaxation and single myocyte contraction dynamics were not different between wild-type (WT) and Tg26 mice. Ten days after open heart surgery, contractility and relaxation remained significantly depressed in Tg26 hearts, suggesting that Tg26 mice did not tolerate surgical stress well. To simulate heart failure in which expression of Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is reduced, we down-regulated BAG3 by small hairpin ribonucleic acid in WT and Tg26 hearts. BAG3 down-regulation significantly reduced contractility in Tg26 hearts. BAG3 overexpression rescued contractile abnormalities in myocytes expressing the HIV-1 protein Tat. We conclude: (i) Tg26 mice exhibit normal contractile function at baseline; (ii) Tg26 mice do not tolerate surgical stress well; (iii) BAG3 down-regulation exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in Tg26 mice; (iv) BAG3 overexpression rescued contractile abnormalities in myocytes expressing HIV-1 protein Tat; and (v) BAG3 may occupy a role in pathogenesis of AIDS cardiomyopathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signalization Implication in Periodontitis: New Evidence from a RANK Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojod, Bouchra; Chateau, Danielle; Mueller, Christopher G.; Babajko, Sylvie; Berdal, Ariane; Lézot, Frédéric; Castaneda, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg) and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases. PMID:28596739

  20. Enhanced Antibody Responses in a Novel NOG Transgenic Mouse with Restored Lymph Node Organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes (LNs are at the center of adaptive immune responses. Various exogenous substances are transported into LNs and a series of immune responses ensue after recognition by antigen–specific lymphocytes. Although humanized mice have been used to reconstitute the human immune system, most lack LNs due to deficiency of the interleukin (IL-2Rγ gene (cytokine common γ chain, γc. In this study, we established a transgenic strain, NOG-pRORγt-γc, in the NOD/shi-scid-IL-2Rγnull (NOG background, in which the γc gene was expressed in a lymph-tissue inducer (LTi lineage by the endogenous promoter of RORγt. In this strain, LN organogenesis was normalized and the number of human T cells substantially increased in the periphery after reconstitution of the human immune system by human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The distribution of human T cells differed between NOG-pRORγt-γc Tg and NOG-non Tg mice. About 40% of human T cells resided in LNs, primarily the mesenteric LNs. The LN-complemented humanized mice exhibited antigen-specific immunoglobulin G responses together and an increased number of IL-21+–producing CD4+ T cells in LNs. This novel mouse strain will facilitate recapitulation of human immune responses.

  1. Posttranslational inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Champion, Hunter C.; Hsu, Lewis L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction in the penis. However, the mechanism of decreased eNOS function/activation in the penis in association with SCD is not known. AIMS Our hypothesis in the present study was that eNOS is functionally inactivated in the SCD penis in association with impairments in eNOS posttranslational phosphorylation and the enzyme’s interactions with its regulatory proteins. METHODS Sickle cell transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Wild type (WT) mice served as controls. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site) and Thr-495 (negative regulatory site), total eNOS, and phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177) expressions, and eNOS interactions with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and caveolin-1 were measured by Western blot. Constitutive NOS catalytic activity was measured by conversion of L-[14C]arginine-to-L-[14C]citrulline in the presence of calcium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Molecular mechanisms of eNOS dysfunction in the sickle mouse penis. RESULTS eNOS phosphorylated on Ser-1177, an active portion of eNOS, was decreased in the sickle mouse penis compared to WT penis. eNOS interaction with its positive protein regulator HSP90, but not with its negative protein regulator caveolin-1, and phosphorylated AKT expression, as well as constitutive NOS activity, were also decreased in the sickle mouse penis compared to WT penis. eNOS phosphorylated on Thr-495, total eNOS, HSP90, and caveolin-1 protein expressions in the penis were not affected by SCD. CONCLUSION These findings provide a molecular basis for chronically reduced eNOS function in the penis by SCD, which involves decreased eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 and decreased eNOS-HSP90 interaction. PMID:21143412

  2. Protective effects of positive lysosomal modulation in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David; Hwang, Jeannie; Estick, Candice; Nishiyama, Akiko; Kumar, Saranya Santhosh; Baveghems, Clive; Young-Oxendine, Hollie B; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Charalambides, Ana; Bahr, Ben A

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative pathology in which defects in proteolytic clearance of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) likely contribute to the progressive nature of the disorder. Lysosomal proteases of the cathepsin family exhibit up-regulation in response to accumulating proteins including Aβ(1-42). Here, the lysosomal modulator Z-Phe-Ala-diazomethylketone (PADK) was used to test whether proteolytic activity can be enhanced to reduce the accumulation events in AD mouse models expressing different levels of Aβ pathology. Systemic PADK injections in APP(SwInd) and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice caused 3- to 8-fold increases in cathepsin B protein levels and 3- to 10-fold increases in the enzyme's activity in lysosomal fractions, while neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme remained unchanged. Biochemical analyses indicated the modulation predominantly targeted the active mature forms of cathepsin B and markedly changed Rab proteins but not LAMP1, suggesting the involvement of enhanced trafficking. The modulated lysosomal system led to reductions in both Aβ immunostaining as well as Aβ(x-42) sandwich ELISA measures in APP(SwInd) mice of 10-11 months. More extensive Aβ deposition in 20-22-month APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice was also reduced by PADK. Selective ELISAs found that a corresponding production of the less pathogenic Aβ(1-38) occurs as Aβ(1-42) levels decrease in the mouse models, indicating that PADK treatment leads to Aβ truncation. Associated with Aβ clearance was the elimination of behavioral and synaptic protein deficits evident in the two transgenic models. These findings indicate that pharmacologically-controlled lysosomal modulation reduces Aβ(1-42) accumulation, possibly through intracellular truncation that also influences extracellular deposition, and in turn offsets the defects in synaptic composition and cognitive functions. The selective modulation promotes clearance at different levels of Aβ pathology and provides proof

  3. A human DAZ transgene confers partial rescue of the mouse Dazl null phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, R.; Grimes, B.; Speed, R. M.; Taggart, M.; Maguire, S. M.; Ross, A.; McGill, N. I.; Saunders, P. T. K.; Cooke, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    In a subset of infertile men, a spectrum of spermatogenic defects ranging from a complete absence of germ cells (sertoli cell only) to oligozoospermia is associated with microdeletions of the DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) gene cluster on human distal Yq. DAZ encodes a testis-specific protein with RNA-binding potential recently derived from a single-copy gene DAZL1 (DAZ-like) on chromosome 3. Y chromosomal DAZ homologues are confined to humans and higher primates. It remains unclear which function unique to higher primate spermatogenesis DAZ may serve, and the functional status of the gene recently has been questioned. To assess the extent of functional conservation we have tested the capacity of a human DAZ gene contained in a 225-kb yeast artificial chromosome to complement the sterile phenotype of the Dazl null mouse (Dazl−/−), which is characterized by severe germ-cell depletion and meiotic failure. Although Dazl−/− mice remained infertile when the DAZ transgene was introduced, histological examination revealed a partial and variable rescue of the mutant phenotype, manifest as a pronounced increase in the germ cell population of the seminiferous tubules and survival to the pachytene stage of meiosis. As well as constituting definitive proof of the spermatogenic role of the DAZ gene product, these findings confirm the high degree of functional conservation between the DAZ and DAZL1 genes, suggesting they may constitute a single target for contraceptive intervention and raising the possibility of therapeutic up-regulation of the DAZL1 gene in infertile men. PMID:10393944

  4. Germline recombination in a novel Cre transgenic line, Prl3b1-Cre mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Soudy, Al-Sayed; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Seiya; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Shawki, Hossam H; Katoh, Megumi C; Basha, Walaa A; Ibrahim, Abdelaziz E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Iseki, Hiroyoshi; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Hiromori, Youhei; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; Sugiyama, Fumihiro

    2016-07-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process by which spermatogonial stem cells differentiate into spermatozoa. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of the process, the Cre/loxP system has been widely utilized for conditional gene knockout in mice. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of the 2.5 kbp of the Prolactin family 3, subfamily b, member 1 (Prl3b1) gene promoter (Prl3b1-cre). Prl3b1 was initially reported to code for placental lactogen 2 (PL-2) protein in placenta along with increased expression toward the end of pregnancy. PL-2 was found to be expressed in germ cells in the testis, especially in spermatocytes. To analyze the specificity and efficiency of Cre recombinase activity in Prl3b1-cre mice, the mice were mated with reporter R26GRR mice, which express GFP ubiquitously before and tdsRed exclusively after Cre recombination. The systemic examination of Prl3b1-cre;R26GRR mice revealed that tdsRed-positive cells were detected only in the testis and epididymis. Fluorescence imaging of Prl3b1-cre;R26GRR testes suggested that Cre-mediated recombination took place in the germ cells with approximately 74% efficiency determined by in vitro fertilization. In conclusion, our results suggest that the Prl3b1-cre mice line provides a unique resource to understand testicular germ-cell development. genesis 54:389-397, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Insights into mechanisms of transmission and pathogenesis from transgenic mouse models of prion diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julie A.; Telling, Glenn C.

    2018-01-01

    Prions represent a new paradigm of protein-mediated information transfer. In the case of mammals, prions are the cause of fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, sometimes referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE’s), which frequently occur as epidemics. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the canonical mechanism of conformational corruption of cellular prion protein (PrPC) by the pathogenic isoform (PrPSc) that is the basis of prion formation in TSE’s, is common to a spectrum of proteins associated with various additional human neurodegenerative disorders, including the more common Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The peerless infectious properties of TSE prions, and the unparalleled tools for their study, therefore enable elucidation of mechanisms of template-mediated conformational propagation that are generally applicable to these related disease states. Many unresolved issues remain including the exact molecular nature of the prion, the detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms of prion propagation, and the means by which prion diseases can be both genetic and infectious. In addition, we know little about the mechanism by which neurons degenerate during prion diseases. Tied to this, the physiological role of the normal form of the prion protein remains unclear and it is uncertain whether or not loss of this function contributes to prion pathogenesis. The factors governing the transmission of prions between species remain unclear, in particular the means by which prion strains and PrP primary structure interact to affect inter-species prion transmission. Despite all these unknowns, advances in our understanding of prions have occurred because of their transmissibility to experimental animals and the development of transgenic (Tg) mouse models has done much to further our understanding about various aspects of prion biology. In this review we will focus on advances in our understanding of prion biology that

  6. Physiological Characterization of Vestibular Efferent Brainstem Neurons Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Sara; Magnusson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    The functional role of efferent innervation of the vestibular end-organs in the inner ear remains elusive. This study provides the first physiological characterization of the cholinergic vestibular efferent (VE) neurons in the brainstem by utilizing a transgenic mouse model, expressing eGFP under a choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT)-locus spanning promoter in combination with targeted patch clamp recordings. The intrinsic electrical properties of the eGFP-positive VE neurons were compared to the properties of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) brainstem neurons, which gives rise to efferent innervation of the cochlea. Both VE and the LOC neurons were marked by their negative resting membrane potential neurons differed significantly in the depolarizing range. When injected with positive currents, VE neurons fired action potentials faithfully to the onset of depolarization followed by sparse firing with long inter-spike intervals. This response gave rise to a low response gain. The LOC neurons, conversely, responded with a characteristic delayed tonic firing upon depolarizing stimuli, giving rise to higher response gain than the VE neurons. Depolarization triggered large TEA insensitive outward currents with fast inactivation kinetics, indicating A-type potassium currents, in both the inner ear-projecting neuronal types. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Kv4.3 and 4.2 ion channel subunits in both the VE and LOC neurons. The difference in spiking responses to depolarization is related to a two-fold impact of these transient outward currents on somatic integration in the LOC neurons compared to in VE neurons. It is speculated that the physiological properties of the VE neurons might be compatible with a wide-spread control over motion and gravity sensation in the inner ear, providing likewise feed-back amplification of abrupt and strong phasic signals from the semi-circular canals and of tonic signals from the gravito-sensitive macular organs. PMID:24867596

  7. PET imaging of tumor neovascularization in a transgenic mouse model with a novel 64Cu-DOTA-knottin peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Kimura, Richard H; Withofs, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    for a noninvasive detection and characterization of smaller lung nodules, thus increasing the chances of positive treatment outcome. In this study, we investigate the ability to characterize lung tumors that spontaneously arise in a transgenic mouse model. The tumors are first identified with small animal CT...... peptide are compared with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET small animal imaging. Lung nodules as small as 3 mm in diameter were successfully identified in the transgenic mice by small animal CT, and both 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F and FDG were able to differentiate lung nodules from the surrounding...... followed by characterization with the use of small animal PET with a novel 64Cu-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacylododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-knottin peptide that targets integrins upregulated during angiogenesis on the tumor associated neovasculature. The imaging results obtained with the knottin...

  8. Conditional reverse tet-transactivator mouse strains for the efficient induction of TRE-regulated transgenes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas E Dow

    Full Text Available Tetracycline or doxycycline (dox-regulated control of genetic elements allows inducible, reversible and tissue specific regulation of gene expression in mice. This approach provides a means to investigate protein function in specific cell lineages and at defined periods of development and disease. Efficient and stable regulation of cDNAs or non-coding elements (e.g. shRNAs downstream of the tetracycline-regulated element (TRE requires the robust expression of a tet-transactivator protein, commonly the reverse tet-transactivator, rtTA. Most rtTA strains rely on tissue specific promoters that often do not provide sufficient rtTA levels for optimal inducible expression. Here we describe the generation of two mouse strains that enable Cre-dependent, robust expression of rtTA3, providing tissue-restricted and consistent induction of TRE-controlled transgenes. We show that these transgenic strains can be effectively combined with established mouse models of disease, including both Cre/LoxP-based approaches and non Cre-dependent disease models. The integration of these new tools with established mouse models promises the development of more flexible genetic systems to uncover the mechanisms of development and disease pathogenesis.

  9. Selective loss of mouse embryos due to the expression of transgenic major histocompatibility class I molecules early in embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aït-Azzouzene, D; Langkopf, A; Cohen, J; Bleux, C; Gendron, M C; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, C

    1998-05-01

    Among the numerous hypotheses proposed to explain the absence of fetal rejection by the mother in mammals, it has been suggested that regulation of expression of the polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at the fetal-maternal interface plays a major role. In addition to a lack of MHC gene expression in the placenta throughout gestation, the absence of polymorphic MHC molecules on the early embryo, as well as their low level of expression after midgestation, could contribute to this important biologic phenomenon. In order to test this hypothesis, we have produced transgenic mice able to express polymorphic MHC class I molecules early in embryogenesis. We have placed the MHC class la gene H-2Kb under the control of a housekeeping gene promoter, the hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG) gene minimal promoter. This construct has been tested for functionality after transfection into mouse fibroblast L cells. The analysis of three founder transgenic mice and their progeny suggested that fetoplacental units that could express the H-2Kb heavy chains are unable to survive in utero beyond midgestation. We have shown further that a much higher resorption rate, on days 11 to 13 of embryonic development, is observed among transgenic embryos developing from eggs microinjected at the one-cell stage with the pHMG-Kb construct than in control embryos. This lethality is not due to immune phenomena, since it is observed in histocompatible combinations between mother and fetus. These results are discussed in the context of what is currently known about the regulation of MHC expression at the fetal-maternal interface and in various transgenic mouse models.

  10. Derivation of mouse embryonic stem cell lines from tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mice crossed with a human SNCA transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Chumarina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC lines were derived by crossing heterozygous transgenic (tg mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH promoter, with homozygous alpha-synuclein (aSYN mice expressing human mutant SNCAA53T under the control of the mouse Prion promoter (MoPrP, or wildtype (WT mice. The expression of GFP and human aSYN was validated by immunocytochemistry in midbrain neuron cultures upon differentiation of mESC lines using stromal cell-derived inducing activity. These mESC lines can help to study the impact of human aSYN expression in neurons and oligodendrocytes, and also trace GFP-expressing midbrain neurons.

  11. Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, V; Lopez, C L; Manoharan, J; Maschuw, K; Wichmann, S; Baier, A; Holler, J P; Ramaswamy, A; Bartsch, D K; Waldmann, J

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20 mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehicle in a prevention (weeks 5-12) and a survival group (week 5 till death). Tumor surface, weight of pancreatic glands, immunostaining for AT1-R and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB), and mice survival were analyzed. In addition, sections from human specimens of 20 insulinomas, ten gastrinomas, and 12 non-functional pNENs were evaluated for AT1-R and NFKB (NFKB1) expression and grouped according to the current WHO classification. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in BON1 cells, with the combination being the most effective. Treatment with enalapril and ASS led to significant downregulation of known target genes Vegf and Rela at RNA level. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in the prevention group displayed by a reduction of tumor size (84%/67%) and number (30%/45%). Furthermore, daily treatment with enalapril and ASS prolonged the overall median survival compared with vehicle-treated Rip1-Tag2 (107 days) mice by 9 and 17 days (P=0.016 and P=0.013). The AT1-R and the inflammatory transcription factor NFKB were abolished completely upon enalapril and ASS treatment. AT1-R and NFKB expressions were observed in 80% of human pNENs. Enalapril and ASS may provide an approach for chemoprevention and treatment of pNENs. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Mouse Carrying a Functional Human β-Globin Gene with the IVSI-6 Thalassemia Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Breveglieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models that carry mutations causing thalassemia represent a suitable tool to test in vivo new mutation-specific therapeutic approaches. Transgenic mice carrying the β-globin IVSI-6 mutation (the most frequent in Middle-Eastern regions and recurrent in Italy and Greece are, at present, not available. We report the production and characterization of a transgenic mouse line (TG-β-IVSI-6 carrying the IVSI-6 thalassemia point mutation within the human β-globin gene. In the TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse (a the transgenic integration region is located in mouse chromosome 7; (b the expression of the transgene is tissue specific; (c as expected, normally spliced human β-globin mRNA is produced, giving rise to β-globin production and formation of a human-mouse tetrameric chimeric hemoglobin αmu-globin2/βhu-globin2 and, more importantly, (d the aberrant β-globin-IVSI-6 RNAs are present in blood cells. The TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse reproduces the molecular features of IVSI-6 β-thalassemia and might be used as an in vivo model to characterize the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting the cryptic sites responsible for the generation of aberrantly spliced β-globin RNA sequences, caused by the IVSI-6 mutation. These experiments are expected to be crucial for the development of a personalized therapy for β-thalassemia.

  13. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Mouse Carrying a Functional Human β-Globin Gene with the IVSI-6 Thalassemia Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Irene; Lampronti, Ilaria; Salvatori, Francesca; Fabbri, Enrica; Zuccato, Cristina; Cosenza, Lucia C.; Montagner, Giulia; Borgatti, Monica; Altruda, Fiorella; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Carandina, Gianni; Aiello, Vincenzo; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models that carry mutations causing thalassemia represent a suitable tool to test in vivo new mutation-specific therapeutic approaches. Transgenic mice carrying the β-globin IVSI-6 mutation (the most frequent in Middle-Eastern regions and recurrent in Italy and Greece) are, at present, not available. We report the production and characterization of a transgenic mouse line (TG-β-IVSI-6) carrying the IVSI-6 thalassemia point mutation within the human β-globin gene. In the TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse (a) the transgenic integration region is located in mouse chromosome 7; (b) the expression of the transgene is tissue specific; (c) as expected, normally spliced human β-globin mRNA is produced, giving rise to β-globin production and formation of a human-mouse tetrameric chimeric hemoglobin mu α-globin2/hu β-globin2 and, more importantly, (d) the aberrant β-globin-IVSI-6 RNAs are present in blood cells. The TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse reproduces the molecular features of IVSI-6 β-thalassemia and might be used as an in vivo model to characterize the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting the cryptic sites responsible for the generation of aberrantly spliced β-globin RNA sequences, caused by the IVSI-6 mutation. These experiments are expected to be crucial for the development of a personalized therapy for β-thalassemia. PMID:26097845

  14. Toxicity of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon in a transgenic mouse model of the human paraoxonase (PON1) Q192R polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Toby B.; Walter, Betsy J.; Shih, Diana M.; Tward, Aaron D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Timchalk, Chuck; Richter, Rebecca J.; Costa, Lucio G.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2005-08-01

    The Q192R polymorphism of paraoxonase (PON1) has been shown to affect hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. The Q192 and R192 alloforms exhibit equivalent catalytic efficiencies of hydrolysis for diazoxon, the oxon form of the pesticide (DZ). However, the R192 alloform has a higher catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis than does the Q192 alloform for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the oxon form of the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPS). The current study examined the relevance of these observations for in-vivo exposures to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon. Methods Using a transgenic mouse model we examined the relevance of the Q192R polymorphism for exposure to CPS and CPO in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated that expressed either human PON1Q192 or PON1R192 at equivalent levels, in the absence of endogenous mouse PON1. Dose-response and time course experiments were performed on adult mice exposed dermally to CPS or CPO. Morbidity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and diaphragm were determined in the first 24 h following exposure. Results Mice expressing PON1Q192 were significantly more sensitive to CPO, and to a lesser extent CPS, than were mice expressing PON1R192. The time course of inhibition following exposure to 1.2 mg/kg CPO revealed maximum inhibition of brain AChE at 6?12 h, with PON1R192, PON1Q192, and PON1? /? mice exhibiting 40, 70 and 85% inhibition, respectively, relative to control mice. The effect of PON1 removal on the dose?response curve for CPS exposure was remarkably consistent with a PBPK/PD model of CPS exposure. Conclusion These results indicate that individuals expressing only the PON1Q192 allele would be more sensitive to the adverse effects of CPO or CPS exposure, especially if they are expressing a low level of plasma PON1Q192.

  15. Investigating the Role of FIP200 in Mammary Carcinogenesis Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagy, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    ...) deletion in mammary-specific polyoma middle-T transgenic mice. We monitored mammary carcinogenesis in positive control (FAKFlox/Flox; MMTV-PyVT) and target (FAKFlox/Flox; MMTV-Cre; MMTV-PyVT) females...

  16. Fetal programming of blood pressure in a transgenic mouse model of altered intrauterine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Giuseppe; Costantine, Maged M; Tamayo, Esther; Hankins, Gary D V; Saade, George R; Longo, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide is essential in the vascular adaptation to pregnancy, as knockout mice lacking nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) have abnormal utero-placental perfusion, hypertension and growth restriction. We previously showed with ex vivo studies on transgenic animals lacking NOS3 that adverse intrauterine environment alters fetal programming of vascular reactivity in adult offspring. The current research shows that altered vascular reactivity correlates with higher blood pressure in vivo. Our data suggest that higher blood pressure depends on both genetic background (NOS3 deficiency) and uterine environment, becomes more evident with age (> 7 postnatal weeks), activity and stress, is gender specific (preponderant among males), and can be affected by the sleep-awake cycle. In utero or early postnatal life (programming is associated with abnormal blood pressure (BP) profiles in vivo. Mice lacking a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (KO, NOS3 -/- ) and wild-type mice (WT, NOS3 +/+ ) were crossbred to generate homozygous NOS3 -/- (KO), maternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOM: mother with adverse intrauterine environment from NOS3 deficiency), paternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOP: mother with normal in utero milieu) and NOS3 +/+ (WT) litters. BP was measured in vivo at 7, 14 and 21 weeks of age. After univariate analysis, multivariate population-averaged linear regression models were used to identify factors affecting BP. When compared to WT offspring, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MAP) BP progressively increased from KOP, to KOM, and peaked among KO (P 7 postnatal weeks), higher locomotor activity, daytime recordings, and recent blood pressure transducer insertion (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that KOM had higher SBP than KOP (P < 0.05). Our study indicates that adverse intrauterine environment contributes, along with multiple other factors, to account for hypertension; moreover, in utero or early postnatal life may represent

  17. Brain transcriptional stability upon prion protein-encoding gene invalidation in zygotic or adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béringue Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological function of the prion protein remains largely elusive while its key role in prion infection has been expansively documented. To potentially assess this conundrum, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of the brain of wild-type mice with that of transgenic mice invalidated at this locus either at the zygotic or at the adult stages. Results Only subtle transcriptomic differences resulting from the Prnp knockout could be evidenced, beside Prnp itself, in the analyzed adult brains following microarray analysis of 24 109 mouse genes and QPCR assessment of some of the putatively marginally modulated loci. When performed at the adult stage, neuronal Prnp disruption appeared to sequentially induce a response to an oxidative stress and a remodeling of the nervous system. However, these events involved only a limited number of genes, expression levels of which were only slightly modified and not always confirmed by RT-qPCR. If not, the qPCR obtained data suggested even less pronounced differences. Conclusions These results suggest that the physiological function of PrP is redundant at the adult stage or important for only a small subset of the brain cell population under classical breeding conditions. Following its early reported embryonic developmental regulation, this lack of response could also imply that PrP has a more detrimental role during mouse embryogenesis and that potential transient compensatory mechanisms have to be searched for at the time this locus becomes transcriptionally activated.

  18. Mutagenicity of ultraviolet A radiation in the lacI transgene in Big Blue mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-in; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Sunlight ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation has been implicated in the etiology of human skin cancer. A genotoxic mode of action for UVA radiation has been suggested that involves photosensitization reactions giving rise to promutagenic DNA lesions. We investigated the mutagenicity of UVA in the lacI transgene in Big Blue mouse embryonic fibroblasts. UVA irradiation of these cells at a physiologically relevant dose of 18 J/cm 2 caused a 2.8-fold increase in the lacI mutant frequency relative to control, i.e., 12.12 ± 1.84 versus 4.39 ± 1.99 x 10 -5 (mean ± S.D.). DNA sequencing analysis showed that of 100 UVA-induced mutant plaques and 54 spontaneously arisen control plaques, 97 and 51, respectively, contained a minimum of one mutation along the lacI transgene. The vast majority of both induced- and spontaneous mutations were single base substitutions, although less frequently, there were also single and multiple base deletions and insertions, and tandem base substitutions. Detailed mutation spectrometry analysis revealed that G:C → T:A transversions, the signature mutations of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly induced by UVA irradiation (P -5 ; P < 0.00001). These findings are in complete agreement with those previously observed in the cII transgene of the same model system, and reaffirm the notion that intracellular photosensitization reactions causing promutagenic oxidative DNA damage are involved in UVA genotoxicity

  19. Establishment and evaluation of a transgenic mouse model of arthritis induced by overexpressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Blockade of TNFα by monoclonal antibody has been widely used for the therapy of RA since the 1990s; however, its mechanism of efficacy, and potential safety concerns of the treatment are still not fully understood. This study sought to establish a transgenic arthritic mouse model by overexpressing human TNFα (hTNFα and to apply this model as a means to evaluate therapeutic consequences of TNFα inhibitors. The transgenic mouse line (TgTC with FVB background was generated by incorporating 3′-modified hTNFα gene sequences. A progressively erosive polyarthritis developed in the TgTC mice, with many characteristics observed in human rheumatoid arthritis, including polyarticular swelling, impairment of movement, synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone erosion. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that hTNFα is not only expressed in hyperplastic synovial membrane, but also in tissues without lesions, including brain, lung and kidney. Treatment of the TgTC mice with anti-hTNFα monoclonal antibodies (mAb significantly decreased the level of hTNFα in the diseased joint and effectively prevented development of arthritis in a dose-dependent response fashion. Our results indicated that the TgTC mice represent a genetic model which can be used to comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutics of TNFα-related diseases.

  20. Caspase-cleaved tau exhibits rapid memory impairment associated with tau oligomers in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungDoo; Choi, Hyunwoo; Lee, WonJae; Park, Hyejin; Kam, Tae-In; Hong, Se-Hoon; Nah, Jihoon; Jung, Sunmin; Shin, Bora; Lee, Huikyong; Choi, Tae-Yong; Choo, Hyosun; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Choi, Se-Young; Kayed, Rakez; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2016-03-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases like AD, tau forms neurofibrillary tangles, composed of tau protein. In the AD brain, activated caspases cleave tau at the 421th Asp, generating a caspase-cleaved form of tau, TauC3. Although TauC3 is known to assemble rapidly into filaments in vitro, a role of TauC3 in vivo remains unclear. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse expressing human TauC3 using a neuron-specific promoter. In this mouse, we found that human TauC3 was expressed in the hippocampus and cortex. Interestingly, TauC3 mice showed drastic learning and spatial memory deficits and reduced synaptic density at a young age (2-3months). Notably, tau oligomers as well as tau aggregates were found in TauC3 mice showing memory deficits. Further, i.p. or i.c.v. injection with methylene blue or Congo red, inhibitors of tau aggregation in vitro, and i.p. injection with rapamycin significantly reduced the amounts of tau oligomers in the hippocampus, rescued spine density, and attenuated memory impairment in TauC3 mice. Together, these results suggest that TauC3 facilitates early memory impairment in transgenic mice accompanied with tau oligomer formation, providing insight into the role of TauC3 in the AD pathogenesis associated with tau oligomers and a useful AD model to test drug candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Huperzine A activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Si-Ling; Zhao, Bao-Lu; Teng, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhan-You

    2011-04-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally to β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1 double-transgenic mice for 4 months. We observed an increase in ADAM10 and a decrease in BACE1 and APP695 protein levels and, subsequently, a reduction in Aβ levels and Aβ burden were present in HupA-treated mouse brain, suggesting that HupA enhances the nonamyloidogenic APP cleavage pathway. Importantly, our results further showed that HupA inhibited GSK3α/β activity, and enhanced the β-catenin level in the transgenic mouse brain and in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutation APP, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of HupA is not related simply to its AChE inhibition and antioxidation, but also involves other mechanisms, including targeting of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in AD brain.

  2. Cell survival and differentiation with nanocrystalline glass-like carbon using substantia nigra dopaminergic cells derived from transgenic mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noela Rodriguez-Losada

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine requires, in many cases, physical supports to facilitate appropriate cellular architecture, cell polarization and the improvement of the correct differentiation processes of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent cells or adult cells. Because the interest in carbon nanomaterials has grown within the last decade in light of a wide variety of applications, the aim of this study was to test and evaluate the suitability and cytocompatibility of a particular nanometer-thin nanocrystalline glass-like carbon film (NGLC composed of curved graphene flakes joined by an amorphous carbon matrix. This material is a disordered structure with high transparency and electrical conductivity. For this purpose, we used a cell line (SN4741 from substantia nigra dopaminergic cells derived from transgenic mouse embryos. Cells were cultured either in a powder of increasing concentrations of NGLC microflakes (82±37μm in the medium or on top of nanometer-thin films bathed in the same culture medium. The metabolism activity of SN4741 cells in presence of NGLC was assessed using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT and apoptosis/necrosis flow cytometry assay respectively. Growth and proliferation as well as senescence were demonstrated by western blot (WB of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, monoclonal phosphorylate Histone 3 (serine 10 (PH3 and SMP30 marker. Specific dopaminergic differentiation was confirmed by the WB analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. Cell maturation and neural capability were characterized using specific markers (SYP: synaptophysin and GIRK2: G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 protein via immunofluorescence and coexistence measurements. The results demonstrated cell positive biocompatibility with different concentrations of NGLC. The cells underwent a process of adaptation of SN4741 cells to NGLC where their metabolism decreases. This process is related to a decrease of PH3 expression and

  3. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Anson; Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti; Yoo, Si-Eun; Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. → HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. → HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. → HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1 +/0 ) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1 +/0 mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1 +/0 cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1 +/0 cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  4. Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0162 TITLE: Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c -Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and...DATES COVERED 15Sept2013 - 14Sept2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c -Myc Oncogenic...ABSTRACT We previously made a PB-Cre4/Ai-Myc model for Cre-induced and androgen-independent expression of c -Myc and Luc2 in prostate. This is designed

  5. Doublecortin (DCX is not essential for survival and differentiation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagroop eDhaliwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, expression of the microtubule-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX is associated with neural progenitor cells (NPCs that give rise to new neurons in the dentate gyrus. Many studies quantify the number of DCX-expressing cells as a proxy for the level of adult neurogenesis, yet no study has determined the effect of removing DCX from adult hippocampal NPCs. Here, we use a retroviral and inducible mouse transgenic approach to either knockdown or knockout DCX from adult NPCs in the dentate gyrus and examine how this affects cell survival and neuronal maturation. Our results demonstrate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of DCX or Cre-mediated recombination in floxed DCX mice does not alter hippocampal neurogenesis and does not change the neuronal fate of the NPCs. Together these findings show that the survival and maturation of adult-generated hippocampal neurons does not require DCX.

  6. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  7. Serum β-amyloid peptide levels spike in the early stage of Alzheimer-like plaque pathology in an APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jue; Qiao, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Shenghua; Xue, Mengzhou; Chen, Wenwu; Wang, Xinchun; Tempier, Adrien; Huang, Qingjun; Kong, Jiming; Li, Xin-Min

    2013-11-01

    Serum levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides may represent an early biomarker in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we investigated the temporal kinetic changes in the levels of serum Aβ 1-42 and 40 in an amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin (PS)1 double transgenic mouse model of AD. Serum Aβ peptide levels in 2-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 18-month old, and liver Aβ 1-40 level in 6-month old mice were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results revealed that serum Aβ levels peaked in 3-month old transgenic mice, and the Aβ level in non-transgenic and transgenic mice is comparable in liver. Compared to the 6-month old transgenic mice, Congo red staining showed that the 3-month old transgenic mice had minimum brain Aβ plaques, corresponding to the early stage of Alzheimer-like plaque pathology, and confocal microscope images showed that the deposition of Aβ in their cerebral vessels was minimal. Furthermore, results of the water maze test, showed that memory was normal for the 3- month old transgenic mice when compared to age-matched non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that serum Aβ peptide levels may be peaked during the early stage of AD. Monitoring serum Aβ peptide levels in the potential AD population may provide an early diagnosis of AD prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms.

  8. Proteomic profiling of brain cortex tissues in a Tau transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Seong-Hun; Jung, In-Soo; Han, Gi-Yeon; Kim, Nam-Hee; Kim, Hyun-Jung [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan-Wha, E-mail: cwkim@korea.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A transgenic mouse model expressing NSE-htau23 was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2D-gel electrophoresis to analyze the cortex proteins of transgenic mice was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentially expressed spots in different stages of AD were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTP1 and CAII were downregulated with the progression of AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SCRN1 and ATP6VE1 were up regulated and down regulated differentially. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves regionalized neuronal death, synaptic loss, and an accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques. Although there have been numerous studies on tau proteins and AD in various stages of neurodegenerative disease pathology, the relationship between tau and AD is not yet fully understood. A transgenic mouse model expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled human wild-type tau (NSE-htau23), which displays some of the typical Alzheimer-associated pathological features, was used to analyze the brain proteome associated with tau tangle deposition. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed to compare the cortex proteins of transgenic mice (6- and 12-month-old) with those of control mice. Differentially expressed spots in different stages of AD were identified with ESI-Q-TOF (electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight) mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, glutathione S-transferase P 1 (GSTP1) and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) were down-regulated with the progression of AD, and secerin-1 (SCRN1) and V-type proton ATPase subunit E 1 (ATP6VE1) were up-regulated only in the early stages, and down-regulated in the later stages of AD. The proteins, which were further confirmed by RT-PCR at the mRNA level and with western blotting at the protein level, are expected to be good candidates as drug targets for AD. The

  9. Proteomic profiling of brain cortex tissues in a Tau transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seong-Hun; Jung, In-Soo; Han, Gi-Yeon; Kim, Nam-Hee; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A transgenic mouse model expressing NSE-htau23 was used. ► 2D-gel electrophoresis to analyze the cortex proteins of transgenic mice was used. ► Differentially expressed spots in different stages of AD were identified. ► GSTP1 and CAII were downregulated with the progression of AD. ► SCRN1 and ATP6VE1 were up regulated and down regulated differentially. -- Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves regionalized neuronal death, synaptic loss, and an accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques. Although there have been numerous studies on tau proteins and AD in various stages of neurodegenerative disease pathology, the relationship between tau and AD is not yet fully understood. A transgenic mouse model expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled human wild-type tau (NSE-htau23), which displays some of the typical Alzheimer-associated pathological features, was used to analyze the brain proteome associated with tau tangle deposition. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed to compare the cortex proteins of transgenic mice (6- and 12-month-old) with those of control mice. Differentially expressed spots in different stages of AD were identified with ESI-Q-TOF (electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight) mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, glutathione S-transferase P 1 (GSTP1) and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) were down-regulated with the progression of AD, and secerin-1 (SCRN1) and V-type proton ATPase subunit E 1 (ATP6VE1) were up-regulated only in the early stages, and down-regulated in the later stages of AD. The proteins, which were further confirmed by RT-PCR at the mRNA level and with western blotting at the protein level, are expected to be good candidates as drug targets for AD. The study of up- and down-regulation of proteins during the progression of AD helps to explain the mechanisms associated with neuronal

  10. A Mutation of the Prdm9 Mouse Hybrid Sterility Gene Carried by a Transgene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihola, Ondřej; Trachtulec, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2017), s. 27-30 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Prdm9 * transgene * meiosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2016

  11. Oral carcinogenesis is not achieved in different carcinogen-treated PAI-1 transgenic and wild-type mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoustidis, Dimitris; Nisyrios, Themistoklis; Nkenke, Emeka; Lijnen, Roger; Ragos, Vassilis; Perrea, Despina; Donta, Ismini; Vaena, Apostolia; Yapijakis, Christos; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to assess the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in oral squamous cancer development and progression, two different carcinogen treatment protocols were conducted. Protocol I included mice from a PAI-1 transgenic (Tg) breed (n=56) and their wild-type (WT) counterparts (n=56), divided into one control group and two main experimental groups, treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. Protocol II included the same number and types of animals and groups, which were similarly treated with 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in drinking water. Two drugs that affect plasma PAI-1 levels, enalapril and pravastatin, were administered to certain subgroups of animals in both protocols. None of the animals developed macroscopically-visible oral cancer lesions. Eleven animals under Protocol I and 52 animals under Protocol II died. Skin lesions were noted only in DMBA-treated animals (n=9). Almost all animals administered with 4-NQO developed alopecia and lost weight, while two of them developed stomach tumours, and one female mouse developed a large ovarian cyst. Transgenic mice may respond differently when used in well-established carcinogen models and oral carcinogenesis is hard to achieve in these rodents.

  12. ATM localization and gene expression in the adult mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemput, Julia; Masson, Christel; Bigot, Karine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Dansault, Anouk; Provost, Alexandra; Gadin, Stéphanie; Aoufouchi, Said; Menasche, Maurice; Abitbol, Marc

    2009-01-01

    High levels of metabolism and oxygen consumption in most adult murine ocular compartments, combined with exposure to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are major sources of oxidative stress, causing DNA damage in ocular cells. Of all mammalian body cells, photoreceptor cells consume the largest amount of oxygen and generate the highest levels of oxidative damage. The accumulation of such damage throughout life is a major factor of aging tissues. Several multiprotein complexes have recently been identified as the major sensors and mediators involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The activity of these complexes initially seemed to be restricted to dividing cells, given their ultimate role in major cell cycle checkpoints. However, it was later established that they are also active in post-mitotic cells. Recent findings demonstrate that the DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for the development, maintenance, and normal functioning of the adult central nervous system. One major molecular factor in the DDR is the protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). It is required for the rapid induction of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks. These cytotoxic DNA lesions may be caused by oxidative damage. To understand how ATM prevents oxidative stress and participates in the maintenance of genomic integrity and cell viability of the adult retina, we determined the ATM expression patterns and studied its localization in the adult mouse eye. Atm gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR experiments and its localization by in situ hybridization on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. ATM protein expression was determined by western blot analysis of proteins homogenates extracted from several mouse tissues and its localization by immunohistochemistry experiments performed on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. In addition, subcellular localization was realized by confocal microscopy imaging of ocular tissue sections, with a special

  13. Shortcomings of short hairpin RNA-based transgenic RNA interference in mouse oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarnová, Lenka; Malík, Radek; Sedláček, Radislav; Svoboda, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2010), s. 1-10 ISSN 1477-5751 R&D Project s: GA MŠk ME09039 Grant - others:EMBO SDIG(DE) project 1483 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : transgenic RNAi * shRNA * oocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.jnrbm.com/content/9/1/8

  14. Shortcomings of short hairpin RNA-based transgenic RNA interference in mouse oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarnová, Lenka; Malík, Radek; Sedláček, Radislav; Svoboda, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2010), s. 1-10 ISSN 1477-5751 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09039 Grant - others:EMBO SDIG(DE) project 1483 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : transgenic RNAi * shRNA * oocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.jnrbm.com/content/9/1/8

  15. Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in transgenic mouse septum: an anti-GFP immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verimli, Ural; Sehirli, Umit S

    2016-09-01

    The septum is a basal forebrain region located between the lateral ventricles in rodents. It consists of lateral and medial divisions. Medial septal projections regulate hippocampal theta rhythm whereas lateral septal projections are involved in processes such as affective functions, memory formation, and behavioral responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons of the septal region possess the 65 and 67 isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. Although data on the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in the septal region generally appears to indicate glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 dominance, different studies have given inconsistent results in this regard. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain information on the distributions of both of these glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the septal region in transgenic mice. Two animal groups of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice were utilized in the experiment. Brain sections from the region were taken for anti-green fluorescent protein immunohistochemistry in order to obtain estimated quantitative data on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons. Following the immunohistochemical procedures, the mean numbers of labeled cells in the lateral and medial septal nuclei were obtained for the two isoform groups. Statistical analysis yielded significant results which indicated that the 65 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase predominates in both lateral and medial septal nuclei (unpaired two-tailed t-test p glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 in the septal region in glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice.

  16. A Comprehensive Atlas of the Adult Mouse Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany R.; Wright, David K.; Gradie, Paul E.; Johnston, Leigh A.; Pask, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are routinely used to study the development of the external genitalia and, in particular, the process of male urethral closure. This is because misplacement of the male penile urethra, or hypospadias, is amongst the most common birth defects reported in humans. While mice present a tractable model to study penile development, several structures differ between mice and humans, and there is a lack of consensus in the literature on their annotation and developmental origins. Defining the ontology of the mouse prepuce is especially important for the relevance and interpretation of mouse models of hypospadias to human conditions. We have developed a detailed annotation of the adult mouse penis that addresses these differences and enables an accurate comparison of murine and human hypospadias phenotypes. Through MRI data, gross morphology and section histology, we define the origin of the mouse external and internal prepuces, their relationship to the single human foreskin as well as provide a comprehensive view of the various structures of the mouse penis and their associated muscle attachments within the body. These data are combined to annotate structures in a novel 3D adult penis atlas that can be downloaded, viewed at any angle, and manipulated to examine the relationship of various structures. PMID:26112156

  17. New Insights on the Morphology of Adult Mouse Penis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Esequiel; Weiss, Dana A.; Yang, Jennifer H.; Menshenina, Julia; Ferretti, Max; Cunha, Tristan J.; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adult mouse penis represents the end point of masculine sex differentiation of the embryonic genital tubercle and contains bone, cartilage, the urethra, erectile bodies, several types of epithelium, and many individual cell types arrayed into specific anatomical structures. Using contemporary high-resolution imaging techniques, we sought to provide new insights to the current description of adult mouse penile morphology to enable understanding of penile abnormalities, including hypospadias. Examination of serial transverse and longitudinal sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction provided a new appreciation of the individual structures in the adult mouse penis and their 3D interrelationships. In so doing, we discovered novel paired erectile bodies, the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP), and more accurately described the urethral meatus. These morphological observations were quantified by morphometric analysis and now provide accurate morphological end points of sex differentiation of mouse penis that will be the foundation of future studies to identify normal and abnormal penile development. PMID:21918128

  18. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ-mediated retinal ganglion cell death in human tyrosinase T cell receptor transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Husain

    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated the characterization of human tyrosinase TCR bearing h3T-A2 transgenic mouse model, which exhibits spontaneous autoimmune vitiligo and retinal dysfunction. The purpose of current study was to determine the role of T cells and IFN-γ in retina dysfunction and retinal ganglion cell (RGC death using this model. RGC function was measured by pattern electroretinograms (ERGs in response to contrast reversal of patterned visual stimuli. RGCs were visualized by fluorogold retrograde-labeling. Expression of CD3, IFN-γ, GFAP, and caspases was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. All functional and structural changes were measured in 12-month-old h3T-A2 mice and compared with age-matched HLA-A2 wild-type mice. Both pattern-ERGs (42%, p = 0.03 and RGC numbers (37%, p = 0.0001 were reduced in h3T-A2 mice when compared with wild-type mice. The level of CD3 expression was increased in h3T-A2 mice (h3T-A2: 174 ± 27% vs. HLA-A2: 100%; p = 0.04. The levels of effector cytokine IFN-γ were also increased significantly in h3T-A2 mice (h3T-A2: 189 ± 11% vs. HLA-A2: 100%; p = 0.023. Both CD3 and IFN-γ immunostaining were increased in nerve fiber (NF and RGC layers of h3T-A2 mice. In addition, we have seen a robust increase in GFAP staining in h3T-A2 mice (mainly localized to NF layer, which was substantially reduced in IFN-γ ((-/- knockout h3T-A2 mice. We also have seen an up-regulation of caspase-3 and -9 in h3T-A2 mice. Based on our data we conclude that h3T-A2 transgenic mice exhibit visual defects that are mostly associated with the inner retinal layers and RGC function. This novel h3T-A2 transgenic mouse model provides opportunity to understand RGC pathology and test neuroprotective strategies to rescue RGCs.

  19. The adaptive immune system promotes initiation of prostate carcinogenesis in a human c-Myc transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Monique H M; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; van Burgsteden, Johan; Cioni, Bianca; van Zeeburg, Hester J T; Song, Ji-Ying; Zevenhoven, John; Hawinkels, Lukas J A C; de Visser, Karin E; Bergman, Andries M

    2017-11-07

    Increasing evidence from epidemiological and pathological studies suggests a role of the immune system in the initiation and progression of multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. Reports on the contribution of the adaptive immune system are contradictive, since both suppression and acceleration of disease development have been reported. This study addresses the functional role of lymphocytes in prostate cancer development using a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) of human c-Myc driven prostate cancer (Hi-Myc mice) combined with B and T cell deficiency (RAG1 -/- mice). From a pre-cancerous stage on, Hi-Myc mice showed higher accumulation of immune cells in their prostates then wild-type mice, of which macrophages were the most abundant. The onset of invasive adenocarcinoma was delayed in Hi-MycRAG1 -/- compared to Hi-Myc mice and associated with decreased infiltration of leukocytes into the prostate. In addition, lower levels of the cytokines CXCL2, CCL5 and TGF-β1 were detected in Hi-MycRAG1 -/- compared to Hi-Myc mouse prostates. These results from a GEMM of prostate cancer provide new insights into the promoting role of the adaptive immune system in prostate cancer development. Our findings indicate that the endogenous adaptive immune system does not protect against de novo prostate carcinogenesis in Hi-Myc transgenic mice, but rather accelerates the formation of invasive adenocarcinomas. This may have implications for the development of novel treatment strategies.

  20. A transgenic mouse line for molecular genetic analysis of excitatory glutamatergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgius, Lotta; Restrepo, C. Ernesto; Leao, Richardson N.

    2010-01-01

    Excitatory glutamatergic neurons are part of most of the neuronal circuits in the mammalian nervous system. We have used BAC-technology to generate a BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line where Cre expression is driven by the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) promotor. This BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line...... showed specific expression of Cre in Vglut2 positive cells in the spinal cord with no ectopic expression in GABAergic or glycinergic neurons. This mouse line also showed specific Cre expression in Vglut2 positive structures in the brain such as thalamus, hypothalamus, superior colliculi, inferior...... colliculi and deep cerebellar nuclei together with nuclei in the midbrain and hindbrain. Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to Cre expressing cells in the spinal cord and brain and occurred as early as E 12.5. Known Vglut2 positive neurons showed normal electrophysiological properties in the BAC...

  1. Disrupted hippocampal sharp‐wave ripple‐associated spike dynamics in a transgenic mouse model of dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witton, Jonathan; Staniaszek, Lydia E.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Randall, Andrew D.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Key points High frequency (100–250 Hz) neuronal oscillations in the hippocampus, known as sharp‐wave ripples (SWRs), synchronise the firing behaviour of groups of neurons and play a key role in memory consolidation.Learning and memory are severely compromised in dementias such as Alzheimer's disease; however, the effects of dementia‐related pathology on SWRs are unknown.The frequency and temporal structure of SWRs was disrupted in a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy (one of the major hallmarks of several dementias).Excitatory pyramidal neurons were more likely to fire action potentials in a phase‐locked manner during SWRs in the mouse model of tauopathy; conversely, inhibitory interneurons were less likely to fire phase‐locked spikes during SWRs.These findings indicate there is reduced inhibitory control of hippocampal network events and point to a novel mechanism which may underlie the cognitive impairments in this model of dementia. Abstract Neurons within the CA1 region of the hippocampus are co‐activated during high frequency (100–250 Hz) sharp‐wave ripple (SWR) activity in a manner that probably drives synaptic plasticity and promotes memory consolidation. In this study we have used a transgenic mouse model of dementia (rTg4510 mice), which overexpresses a mutant form of tau protein, to examine the effects of tauopathy on hippocampal SWRs and associated neuronal firing. Tetrodes were used to record simultaneous extracellular action potentials and local field potentials from the dorsal CA1 pyramidal cell layer of 7‐ to 8‐month‐old wild‐type and rTg4510 mice at rest in their home cage. At this age point these mice exhibit neurofibrillary tangles, neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Epochs of sleep or quiet restfulness were characterised by minimal locomotor activity and a low theta/delta ratio in the local field potential power spectrum. SWRs detected off‐line were significantly lower in amplitude and had an altered temporal

  2. In the absence of endogenous mouse apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein E*2(Arg-158 → Cys) transgenic mice develop more severe hyperlipoproteinemia than apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Dijk, K.W. van; Hof, H.B. van 't; Gorp, P.J.J. van; Zee, A. van der; Boom, H. van der; Breuer, M.L.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekesf, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E*2(Arg-155 → Cys) (APOE*2) transgenic mice were generated and compared to the previously generated apolipoprotein E*3- Leiden (APOE*3-Leiden) transgenic mice to study the variable expression of hyperlipoproteinemia associated with these two APOE variants. In the presence of the

  3. Sildenafil promotes eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. The Overexpression of TDP-43 Protein in the Neuron and Oligodendrocyte Cells Causes the Progressive Motor Neuron Degeneration in the SOD1 G93A Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Tang, Chunyan; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jiao; Liang, Huiting; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Renshi

    2016-01-01

    The recent investigation suggested that the TDP-43 protein was closely related to the motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the pathogenesis contributed to motor neuron degeneration largely remained unknown. Therefore, we detected the alteration of TDP-43 expression and distribution in the adult spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse model for searching the possible pathogenesis of ALS. We examined the TDP-43 expression and distribution in the different anatomic regions, segments and neural cells in the adult spinal cord at the different stages of the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic model by the fluorescent immunohistochemical technology. We revealed that the amount of TDP-43 positive cell was cervical>lumbar>thoracic segment, that in the ventral horn was more than that in the dorsal horn, a few of TDP-43 protein sparsely expressed and distributed in the other regions, the TDP-43 protein weren't detected in the white matter and the central canal. The TDP-43 protein was mostly expressed and distributed in the nuclear of neuron cells and the cytoplasm of oligodendrocyte cells of the gray matter surrounding the central canal of spinal cord by the granular shape in the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic mice. The amount of TDP-43 positive cell significantly increased at the onset and progression stages of ALS following with the increase of neuron death in spinal cord, particularly in the ventral horn of cervical segment at the progression stage. Our results suggested that the overexpression of TDP-43 protein in the neuron and oligodendrocyte cell causes the progressive motor neuron degeneration in the ALS-like mouse model.

  5. Kill two birds with one stone: making multi-transgenic pre-diabetes mouse models through insulin resistance and pancreatic apoptosis pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Kong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance accompanied by defective insulin secretion. Transgenic mouse models play an important role in medical research. However, single transgenic mouse models may not mimic the complex phenotypes of most cases of type 2 diabetes. Methods Focusing on genes related to pancreatic islet damage, peripheral insulin resistance and related environmental inducing factors, we generated single-transgenic (C/EBP homology protein, CHOP mice (CHOP mice, dual-transgenic (human islet amyloid polypeptide, hIAPP; CHOP mice (hIAPP-CHOP mice and triple-transgenic (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1; hIAPP; CHOP mice (11β-HSD1-hIAPP- CHOP mice. The latter two types of transgenic (Tg animals were induced with high-fat high-sucrose diets (HFHSD. We analyzed the diabetes-related symptoms and histology features of the transgenic animals. Results Comparing symptoms on the spot-checked points, we determined that the triple-transgene mice were more suitable for systematic study. The results of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT of triple-transgene animals began to change 60 days after induction (p < 0.001. After 190 days of induction, the body weights (p < 0.01 and plasma glucose of the animals in Tg were higher than those of the animals in Negative Control (Nc. After sacrificed, large amounts of lipid were found deposited in adipose (p < 0.01 and ectopically deposited in the non-adipose tissues (p < 0.05 or 0.01 of the animals in the Tg HFHSD group. The weights of kidneys and hearts of Tg animals were significantly increased (p < 0.01. Serum C peptide (C-P was decreased due to Tg effects, and insulin levels were increased due to the effects of the HFHSD in the Tg HFHSD group, indicating that damaged insulin secretion and insulin resistance hyperinsulinemia existed simultaneously in these animals. The serum corticosterone of Tg was slightly higher than those of Nc due to the

  6. Cyclin D1 and mammary carcinoma: new insights from transgenic mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, Robert L; Musgrove, Elizabeth A

    2002-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is one of the most commonly overexpressed oncogenes in breast cancer, with 45–50% of primary ductal carcinomas overexpressing this oncoprotein. Targeted deletion of the gene encoding cyclin D1 demonstrates an essential role in normal mammary gland development while transgenic studies provide evidence that cyclin D1 is a weak oncogene in mammary epithelium. In a recent exciting development, Yu et al. demonstrate that cyclin D1-deficient mice are resistant to mammary carcinomas induced by c-neu and v-Ha-ras, but not those induced by c-myc or Wnt-1. These findings define a pivotal role for cyclin D1 in a subset of mammary cancers in mice and imply a functional role for cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancer

  7. A Nestin-cre transgenic mouse is insufficient for recombination in early embryonic neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Liang

    2012-09-01

    Nestin-cre transgenic mice have been widely used to direct recombination to neural stem cells (NSCs and intermediate neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Here we report that a readily utilized, and the only commercially available, Nestin-cre line is insufficient for directing recombination in early embryonic NSCs and NPCs. Analysis of recombination efficiency in multiple cre-dependent reporters and a genetic mosaic line revealed consistent temporal and spatial patterns of recombination in NSCs and NPCs. For comparison we utilized a knock-in Emx1cre line and found robust recombination in NSCs and NPCs in ventricular and subventricular zones of the cerebral cortices as early as embryonic day 12.5. In addition we found that the rate of Nestin-cre driven recombination only reaches sufficiently high levels in NSCs and NPCs during late embryonic and early postnatal periods. These findings are important when commercially available cre lines are considered for directing recombination to embryonic NSCs and NPCs.

  8. Functional and histopathological identification of the respiratory failure in a DMSXL transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrica-Adrian Panaite

    2013-05-01

    Acute and chronic respiratory failure is one of the major and potentially life-threatening features in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1. Despite several clinical demonstrations showing respiratory problems in DM1 patients, the mechanisms are still not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate whether the DMSXL transgenic mouse model for DM1 exhibits respiratory disorders and, if so, to identify the pathological changes underlying these respiratory problems. Using pressure plethysmography, we assessed the breathing function in control mice and DMSXL mice generated after large expansions of the CTG repeat in successive generations of DM1 transgenic mice. Statistical analysis of breathing function measurements revealed a significant decrease in the most relevant respiratory parameters in DMSXL mice, indicating impaired respiratory function. Histological and morphometric analysis showed pathological changes in diaphragmatic muscle of DMSXL mice, characterized by an increase in the percentage of type I muscle fibers, the presence of central nuclei, partial denervation of end-plates (EPs and a significant reduction in their size, shape complexity and density of acetylcholine receptors, all of which reflect a possible breakdown in communication between the diaphragmatic muscles fibers and the nerve terminals. Diaphragm muscle abnormalities were accompanied by an accumulation of mutant DMPK RNA foci in muscle fiber nuclei. Moreover, in DMSXL mice, the unmyelinated phrenic afferents are significantly lower. Also in these mice, significant neuronopathy was not detected in either cervical phrenic motor neurons or brainstem respiratory neurons. Because EPs are involved in the transmission of action potentials and the unmyelinated phrenic afferents exert a modulating influence on the respiratory drive, the pathological alterations affecting these structures might underlie the respiratory impairment detected in DMSXL mice. Understanding

  9. Wheel-running in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: protection or symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Helene; Ambrée, Oliver; Lewejohann, Lars; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Paulus, Werner; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Sachser, Norbert

    2008-06-26

    Several studies on both humans and animals reveal benefits of physical exercise on brain function and health. A previous study on TgCRND8 mice, a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, reported beneficial effects of premorbid onset of long-term access to a running wheel on spatial learning and plaque deposition. Our study investigated the effects of access to a running wheel after the onset of Abeta pathology on behavioural, endocrinological, and neuropathological parameters. From day 80 of age, the time when Abeta deposition becomes apparent, TgCRND8 and wildtype mice were kept with or without running wheel. Home cage behaviour was analysed and cognitive abilities regarding object recognition memory and spatial learning in the Barnes maze were assessed. Our results show that, in comparison to Wt mice, Tg mice were characterised by impaired object recognition memory and spatial learning, increased glucocorticoid levels, hyperactivity in the home cage and high levels of stereotypic behaviour. Access to a running wheel had no effects on cognitive or neuropathological parameters, but reduced the amount of stereotypic behaviour in transgenics significantly. Furthermore, wheel-running was inversely correlated with stereotypic behaviour, suggesting that wheel-running may have stereotypic qualities. In addition, wheel-running positively correlated with plaque burden. Thus, in a phase when plaques are already present in the brain, it may be symptomatic of brain pathology, rather than protective. Whether or not access to a running wheel has beneficial effects on Alzheimer-like pathology and symptoms may therefore strongly depend on the exact time when the wheel is provided during development of the disease.

  10. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Behavioral and Neuropathological Deficits in a Transgenic Model Mouse of α-synucleinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, Kiren; Inglis, Chandra; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; May, Verena; Winkler, Juergen; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    The term α-synucleinopathies refers to a group of age-related neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) that display an abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). In contrast to the neuronal α-syn accumulation observed in PD and DLB, MSA is characterized by a widespread oligodendrocytic α-syn accumulation. Transgenic mice expressing human α-syn under the oligodendrocyte-specific myelin basic protein promoter (MBP1-hαsyn tg mice) model many of the behavioral and neuropathological alterations observed in MSA. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be protective in toxin-induced models of PD, however its effects in an in vivo transgenic model of α-synucleinopathy remain unclear. In this context, this study examined the effect of fluoxetine in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice, a model of MSA. Fluoxetine adminstration ameliorated motor deficits in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice, with a concomitant decrease in neurodegenerative pathology in the basal ganglia, neocortex and hippocampus. Fluoxetine adminstration also increased levels of the neurotrophic factors, GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice compared to vehicle-treated tg mice. This fluoxetine-induced increase in GDNF and BDNF protein levels was accompanied by activation of the ERK signaling pathway. The effects of fluoxetine adminstration on myelin and serotonin markers were also examined. Collectively these results indicate that fluoxetine may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for MSA and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22281106

  11. Broader expression of the mouse platelet factor 4-cre transgene beyond the megakaryocyte lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuy, F; Aguilar, A; Strassel, C; Eckly, A; Freund, J-N; Duluc, I; Gachet, C; Lanza, F; Léon, C

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing cre recombinase under the control of the platelet factor 4 (Pf4) promoter, in the context of a 100-kb bacterial artificial chromosome, have become a valuable tool with which to study genetic modifications in the platelet lineage. However, the specificity of cre expression has recently been questioned, and the time of its onset during megakaryopoiesis remains unknown. To characterize the expression of this transgene, we used double-fluorescent cre reporter mice. In the bone marrow, Pf4-cre-mediated recombination had occurred in all CD42-positive megakaryocytes as early as stage I of maturation, and in rare CD42-negative cells. In circulating blood, all platelets had recombined, along with only a minor fraction of CD45-positive cells. However, we found that all tissues contained recombined cells of monocyte/macrophage origin. When recombined, these cells might potentially modify the function of the tissues under particular conditions, especially inflammatory conditions, which further increase recombination in immune cells. Unexpectedly, a subset of epithelial cells from the distal colon showed signs of recombination resulting from endogenous Pf4-cre expression. This is probably the basis of the unexplained colon tumors developed by Apc(flox/flox) ;Pf4-cre mice, generated in a separate study on the role of Apc in platelet formation. Altogether, our results indicate early recombination with full penetrance in megakaryopoiesis, and confirm the value of Pf4-cre mice for the genetic engineering of megakaryocytes and platelets. However, care must be taken when investigating the role of platelets in processes outside hemostasis, especially when immune cells might be involved. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Fluoxetine ameliorates behavioral and neuropathological deficits in a transgenic model mouse of α-synucleinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, Kiren; Inglis, Chandra; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; May, Verena; Winkler, Juergen; Masliah, Eliezer

    2012-04-01

    The term α-synucleinopathies refers to a group of age-related neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) that display an abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). In contrast to the neuronal α-syn accumulation observed in PD and DLB, MSA is characterized by a widespread oligodendrocytic α-syn accumulation. Transgenic mice expressing human α-syn under the oligodendrocyte-specific myelin basic protein promoter (MBP1-hαsyn tg mice) model many of the behavioral and neuropathological alterations observed in MSA. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be protective in toxin-induced models of PD, however its effects in an in vivo transgenic model of α-synucleinopathy remain unclear. In this context, this study examined the effect of fluoxetine in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice, a model of MSA. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated motor deficits in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice, with a concomitant decrease in neurodegenerative pathology in the basal ganglia, neocortex and hippocampus. Fluoxetine administration also increased levels of the neurotrophic factors, GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice compared to vehicle-treated tg mice. This fluoxetine-induced increase in GDNF and BDNF protein levels was accompanied by activation of the ERK signaling pathway. The effects of fluoxetine administration on myelin and serotonin markers were also examined. Collectively these results indicate that fluoxetine may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for MSA and other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of microglial activation protects hippocampal neurogenesis and improves cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Barbara; Lindvall, Olle; Tesco, Giuseppina; Ekdahl, Christine T; Nitsch, Roger M

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia with macrophage-like functions invade and surround β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly contributing to the turnover of Aβ, but they can also secrete proinflammatory factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Microglia are known to modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. To determine the role of microglia on neurogenesis in brains with Aβ pathology, we inhibited microglial activation with the tetracycline derivative minocycline in doubly transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and mutant human presenilin-1 (PS1). Minocycline increased the survival of new dentate granule cells in APP/PS1 mice indicated by more BrdU+/NeuN+ cells as compared to vehicle-treated transgenic littermates, accompanied by improved behavioral performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task. Both brain levels of Aβ and Aβ-related morphological deficits in the new neurons labeled with GFP-expressing retrovirus were unaffected in minocycline-treated mice. These results suggest a role for microglia in Aβ-related functional deficits and in suppressing the survival of new neurons, and show that modulation of microglial function with minocycline can protect hippocampal neurogenesis in the presence of Aβ pathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Differential gene expression between skin and cervix induced by the E7 oncoprotein in a transgenic mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra Sierra, E; Díaz Chávez, J; Cortés-Malagón, EM; Uribe-Figueroa, L; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; Lambert, PF; Gariglio, P

    2013-01-01

    HPV16 E7 oncoprotein expression in K14E7 transgenic mice induces cervical cancer after 6 months of treatment with the co-carcinogen 17β-estradiol. In untreated mice, E7 also induces skin tumors late in life albeit at low penetrance. These findings indicate that E7 alters cellular functions in cervix and skin so as to predispose these organs to tumorigenesis. Using microarrays, we determined the global genes expression profile in cervical and skin tissue of young adult K14E7 transgenic mice without estrogen treatment. In these tissues, the E7 oncoprotein altered the transcriptional pattern of genes involved in several biological processes including signal transduction, transport, metabolic process, cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell differentiation, immune response and inflammatory response. Among the E7-dysregulated genes were ones not previously known to be involved in cervical neoplasia including DMBT1, GLI1 and 17βHSD2 in cervix, as well as MMP2, 12, 14, 19 and 27 in skin. PMID:22980503

  15. The I2020T Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 transgenic mouse exhibits impaired locomotive ability accompanied by dopaminergic neuron abnormalities

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    Maekawa Tatsunori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 is the gene responsible for autosomal-dominant Parkinson’s disease (PD, PARK8, but the mechanism by which LRRK2 mutations cause neuronal dysfunction remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated for the first time a transgenic (TG mouse strain expressing human LRRK2 with an I2020T mutation in the kinase domain, which had been detected in the patients of the original PARK8 family. Results The TG mouse expressed I2020T LRRK2 in dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and olfactory bulb. In both the beam test and rotarod test, the TG mice exhibited impaired locomotive ability in comparison with their non-transgenic (NTG littermates. Although there was no obvious loss of DA neurons in either the substantia nigra or striatum, the TG brain showed several neurological abnormalities such as a reduced striatal dopamine content, fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus in DA neurons, and an increased degree of microtubule polymerization. Furthermore, the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive primary neurons derived from the TG mouse showed an increased frequency of apoptosis and had neurites with fewer branches and decreased outgrowth in comparison with those derived from the NTG controls. Conclusions The I2020T LRRK2 TG mouse exhibited impaired locomotive ability accompanied by several dopaminergic neuron abnormalities. The TG mouse should provide valuable clues to the etiology of PD caused by the LRRK2 mutation.

  16. Pomegranate from Oman Alleviates the Brain Oxidative Damage in Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Selvaraju Subash

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD neuropathology. Pomegranates (石榴 Shí Liú contain very high levels of antioxidant polyphenolic substances, as compared to other fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols have been shown to be neuroprotective in different model systems. Here, the effects of the antioxidant-rich pomegranate fruit grown in Oman on brain oxidative stress status were tested in the AD transgenic mouse. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576 were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA. Four-month-old Tg2576 mice were fed with 4% pomegranate or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress was found in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO and protein carbonyls. Concomitantly, decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed in Tg2576 mice treated with control diet. Supplementation with 4% pomegranate attenuated oxidative damage, as evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione (GSH, and Glutathione S transferase (GST]. The activities of membrane-bound enzymes [Na+ K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE] were altered in the brain regions of Tg2576 mouse treated with control diet, and 4% pomegranate supplementation was able to restore the activities of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. The results suggest that the therapeutic potential of 4% pomegranate in the treatment of AD might be associated with counteracting the oxidative stress by the presence of active phytochemicals in it.

  17. Metabonomic Profiling of TASTPM Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

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    Hu, Zeping; Browne, Edward R.; Liu, Tao; Angel, Thomas E.; Ho, Paul C.; Chun Yong Chan, Eric

    2012-12-07

    Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is important for the development of new therapies against and diagnosis of AD. In this study, non-targeted metabotyping of TASTPM transgenic AD mice was performed. The metabolic profiles of both brain and plasma of TASTPM mice were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to those of wild type C57BL/6J mice. TASTPM mice were metabolically distinct compared to wild type mice (Q28 Y = 0.587 and 0.766 for PLS-DA models derived from brain and plasma, respectively). A number of metabolites were found to be perturbed in TASTPM mice in both brain (D11 fructose, L-valine, L-serine, L-threonine, zymosterol) and plasma (D-glucose, D12 galactose, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, palmitic acid and D-gluconic acid). In addition, enzyme immunoassay confirmed that selected endogenous steroids were significantly perturbed in brain (androstenedione and 17-OH-progesterone) and plasma (cortisol and testosterone) of TASTPM mice. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that perturbations related to amino acid metabolism (brain), steroid biosynthesis (brain), linoleic acid metabolism (plasma) and energy metabolism (plasma) accounted for the differentiation of TASTPM and wild-type

  18. Gene-Environment Interaction Research and Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chouliaras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD remains largely unknown. Recent evidence has suggested that gene-environment interactions (GxE may play a crucial role in its development and progression. Whereas various susceptibility loci have been identified, like the apolipoprotein E4 allele, these cannot fully explain the increasing prevalence of AD observed with aging. In addition to such genetic risk factors, various environmental factors have been proposed to alter the risk of developing AD as well as to affect the rate of cognitive decline in AD patients. Nevertheless, aside from the independent effects of genetic and environmental risk factors, their synergistic participation in increasing the risk of developing AD has been sparsely investigated, even though evidence points towards such a direction. Advances in the genetic manipulation of mice, modeling various aspects of the AD pathology, have provided an excellent tool to dissect the effects of genes, environment, and their interactions. In this paper we present several environmental factors implicated in the etiology of AD that have been tested in transgenic animal models of the disease. The focus lies on the concept of GxE and its importance in a multifactorial disease like AD. Additionally, possible mediating mechanisms and future challenges are discussed.

  19. Effects of dietary saw palmetto on the prostate of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model (TRAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Teri L; Worstell, Teresa R; Greenberg, Norman M; Roselli, Charles E

    2007-05-01

    Several of the proposed mechanisms for the actions of the liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (SPE) are exerted on known risk factors for prostate cancer (CaP). This study investigated whether SPE could prevent the progression of CaP in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Two different doses of SPE designed to deliver 50 mg/kg/day SPE and 300 mg/kg/day SPE were administered in a custom diet to TRAMP mice for 12 or 24 weeks. Body and organ weights were used to evaluate toxicity, and radioimmunoassay was used to measure plasma and tissue androgen levels to monitor effects of SPE on 5alpha reductase activity. Prostate tissues were evaluated histologically to determine the effect of treatment on tumor grade, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Treatment with 300 mg/kg/day SPE from 4 to 24 weeks of age significantly reduced the concentration of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate and resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis and significant decrease in pathological tumor grade and frank tumor incidence. Dietary supplementation with SPE may be effective in controlling CaP tumorigenesis. SPE suppression of prostatic DHT levels lends support to the hypothesis that inhibition of the enzyme 5alpha-reductase is a mechanism of action of this substance. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Selenomethionine Ameliorates Neuropathology in the Olfactory Bulb of a Triple Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Zhong-Hao Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory dysfunction is an early and common symptom in Alzheimer′s disease (AD and is reported to be related to several pathologic changes, including the deposition of Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein as well as synaptic impairment. Selenomethionine (Se-Met, the major form of selenium in animals and humans, may be a promising therapeutic option for AD as it decreases the deposition of Aβ and tau hyperphosphorylation in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3× Tg-AD. In this study, 4-month-old AD mice were treated with 6 µg/mL Se-Met in drinking water for 12 weeks and the effect of Se-Met on neuropathological deficits in olfactory bulb (OB of 3× Tg-AD mice was investigated. The administration of Se-Met effectively decreased the production and deposition of Aβ by inhibiting β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1-regulated amyloid precursor protein (APP processing and reduced the level of total tau and phosphorylated tau, which depended on depressing the activity and expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5. Meanwhile, Se-Met reduced glial activation, relieved neuroinflammation and attenuated neuronal cell death in the OB of AD mice. So Se-Met could improve pathologic changes of AD in the OB, which further demonstrated the potential therapeutic effect of Se-Met in AD.

  1. Detection and Quantification of 8-Hydroxy-2′-Deoxyguanosine in Alzheimer’s Transgenic Mouse Urine using Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Nestorova, Gergana; Rissman, Robert A.; Feng, June

    2013-01-01

    8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the major forms of oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and is commonly analyzed as an excellent marker of DNA lesions. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive method to accurately and rapidly quantify the 8-OHdG by using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The method involved the use of specific antibody to detect DNA lesions (8-OHdG) and consecutive fluorescence labeling. Next, the urine sample with 8-OHdG fluorescently labeled along with other constituents was resolved by capillary electrophoretic system and the lesion of interest was detected using fluorescence detector. The limit of detection was 0.18 fmol, which is sufficient sensitivity for detection and quantification of 8-OHdG in untreated urine samples. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be 11.32 % for migration time, and 5.52 % for peak area. To demonstrate the utility of this method, the urinary concentration of 8-OHdG in an Alzheimer’s transgenic mouse model was determined. Collectively, our results indicate that this methodology offers great advantages such as high separation efficiency, good selectivity, low limit of detection (LOD), simplicity and low cost of analysis. PMID:23712533

  2. Long-term dietary supplementation of pomegranates, figs and dates alleviate neuroinflammation in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musthafa Mohamed Essa

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating age-related neurodegenerative disease with no specific treatment at present. The APPsw/Tg2576 mice exhibit age-related deterioration in memory and learning as well as amyloid-beta (Aβ accumulation, and this mouse strain is considered an effective model for studying the mechanism of accelerated brain aging and senescence. The present study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of dietary supplements pomegranate, figs, or the dates on suppressing inflammatory cytokines in APPsw/Tg2576 mice. Changes in the plasma cytokines and Aβ, ATP, and inflammatory cytokines were investigated in the brain of transgenic mice. Significantly enhanced levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, TNF-α and Eotaxin activity were decreased by administration of the diet supplements containing pomegranates, figs, or dates. In addition, putative delays in the formation of senile plaques, as indicated by a decreasing tendency of brain Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 contents, were observed. Thus, novel results mediated by reducing inflammatory cytokines during aging may represent one mechanism by which these supplements exert their beneficial effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  3. Polygalae Radix Extract Prevents Axonal Degeneration and Memory Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Hiroo; Tohda, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur due to degenerated axons and disrupted neural networks. Since only limited recovery is possible after the destruction of neural networks, preventing axonal degeneration during the early stages of disease progression is necessary to prevent AD. Polygalae Radix (roots of Polygala tenuifolia ; PR) is a traditional herbal medicine used for sedation and amnesia. In this study, we aimed to clarify and analyze the preventive effects of PR against memory deficits in a transgenic AD mouse model, 5XFAD. 5XFAD mice demonstrated memory deficits at the age of 5 months. Thus, the water extract of Polygalae Radix (PR extract) was orally administered to 4-month-old 5XFAD mice that did not show signs of memory impairment. After consecutive administrations for 56 days, the PR extract prevented cognitive deficit and axon degeneration associated with the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques in the perirhinal cortex of the 5XFAD mice. PR extract did not influence the formation of Aβ plaques in the brain of the 5XFAD mice. In cultured neurons, the PR extract prevented axonal growth cone collapse and axonal atrophy induced by Aβ. Additionally, it prevented Aβ-induced endocytosis at the growth cone of cultured neurons. Our previous study reported that endocytosis inhibition was enough to prevent Aβ-induced growth cone collapse, axonal degeneration, and memory impairments. Therefore, the PR extract possibly prevented axonal degeneration and memory impairment by inhibiting endocytosis. PR is the first preventive drug candidate for AD that inhibits endocytosis in neurons.

  4. Transgenic Mouse Lines Subdivide External Segment of the Globus Pallidus (GPe) Neurons and Reveal Distinct GPe Output Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro, Kevin J.; Bouchard, Rachel S.; Holt, Hiromi A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cell-type diversity in the brain enables the assembly of complex neural circuits, whose organization and patterns of activity give rise to brain function. However, the identification of distinct neuronal populations within a given brain region is often complicated by a lack of objective criteria to distinguish one neuronal population from another. In the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), neuronal populations have been defined using molecular, anatomical, and electrophysiological criteria, but these classification schemes are often not generalizable across preparations and lack consistency even within the same preparation. Here, we present a novel use of existing transgenic mouse lines, Lim homeobox 6 (Lhx6)–Cre and parvalbumin (PV)–Cre, to define genetically distinct cell populations in the GPe that differ molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically. Lhx6–GPe neurons, which do not express PV, are concentrated in the medial portion of the GPe. They have lower spontaneous firing rates, narrower dynamic ranges, and make stronger projections to the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta compared with PV–GPe neurons. In contrast, PV–GPe neurons are more concentrated in the lateral portions of the GPe. They have narrower action potentials, deeper afterhyperpolarizations, and make stronger projections to the subthalamic nucleus and parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus. These electrophysiological and anatomical differences suggest that Lhx6–GPe and PV–GPe neurons participate in different circuits with the potential to contribute to different aspects of motor function and dysfunction in disease. PMID:24501350

  5. MRI to assess chemoprevention in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, Ali S; Shankar, Adarsh; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Iskander, ASM; Janic, Branislava; Ali, Meser M; Gautam, Subhash C

    2011-01-01

    The current method to determine the efficacy of chemoprevention in TRAMP mouse model of carcinoma of prostate (CaP) is by extracting and weighing the prostate at different time points or by immunohistochemistry analysis. Non-invasive determination of volumes of prostate glands and seminal vesicles before, during and after treatment would be valuable in investigating the efficacy of newer chemopreventive agents in CaP. The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 3 tesla clinical MRI system can be used to follow the effect of chemoprevention in TRAMP model of mouse CaP. Mice were randomized into control and treated groups. The animals in treated group received 10 µmol/kg of CDDO, 5 days a week for 20 weeks. Animals underwent in vivo MRI of prostate gland and seminal vesicles by a clinical 3 Tesla MRI system just before (at 5 weeks), during and at the end of treatment, at 25 weeks. T1-weighted and fat saturation (FATSAT) multiecho fast spin echo T2- weighted images (T2WI) were acquired. Volume of the prostate glands and seminal vesicles was determined from MR images. T2 signal intensity changes in the seminal vesicles were determined by subtracting higher echo time (TE) from lower TE T2WI. Following treatments all animals were sacrificed, prostate and seminal vesicles collected, and the tissues prepared for histological staining. All data were expressed as mean ± 1 standard deviation. Two-way or multivariate analysis of variance followed by post-hoc test was applied to determine the significant differences. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Histological analysis indicated tumor in 100% of control mice, whereas 10% of the treated mice showed tumor in prostate gland. Both MRI and measured prostate weights showed higher volume/weight in control mouse group. MRI showed significantly higher volume of seminal vesicles in control animals and T2 signal intensity changes in seminal vesicles of control mice

  6. PET imaging of brain with the β-amyloid probe, [11C]6-OH-BTA-1, in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hiroshi; Ye, Daniel; Cohen, Robert M.; Ichise, Masanori; Liow, Jeih-San; Cai, Lisheng; Musachio, John L.; Hong, Jinsoo; Crescenzo, Mathew; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Zoghbi, Sami; Vines, Douglass C.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Jacobowitz, David; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V.; Katada, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of [ 11 C]6-OH-BTA-1 and positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET imaging was performed with the NIH ATLAS small animal scanner in six elderly transgenic mice (Tg2576; age 22.0±1.8 months; 23.6±2.6 g) overexpressing a mutated form of human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) known to result in the production of Aβ plaques, and in six elderly wild-type litter mates (age 21.8±1.6 months; 29.5±4.7 g). Dynamic PET scans were performed for 30 min in each mouse under 1% isoflurane inhalation anesthesia after a bolus injection of 13-46 MBq of [ 11 C]6-OH-BTA-1. PET data were reconstructed with 3D OSEM. On the coronal PET image, irregular regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on frontal cortex (FR), parietal cortex (PA), striatum (ST), thalamus (TH), pons (PO), and cerebellum (CE), guided by a mouse stereotaxic atlas. Time-activity curves (TACs) (expressed as percent injected dose per gram normalized to body weight: % ID-kg/g) were obtained for FR, PA, ST, TH, PO, and CE. ROI-to-CE radioactivity ratios were also calculated. Following PET scans, sections of mouse brain prepared from anesthetized and fixative-perfused mice were stained with thioflavin-S. TACs for [ 11 C]6-OH-BTA-1 in all ROIs peaked early (at 30-55 s), with radioactivity washing out quickly thereafter in both transgenic and wild-type mice. Peak uptake in all regions was significantly lower in transgenic mice than in wild-type mice. During the later part of the washout phase (12-30 min), the mean FR/CE and PA/CE ratios were higher in transgenic than in wild-type mice (1.06±0.04 vs 0.98±0.07, p=0.04; 1.06±0.09 vs 0.93±0.08 p=0.02) while ST/CE, TH/CE, and PO/CE ratios were not. Ex vivo staining revealed widespread Aβ plaques in cortex, but not in cerebellum of transgenic mice or in any brain regions of wild-type mice. Marked reductions in brain uptake of this

  7. A transgenic mouse marking live replicating cells reveals in vivo transcriptional program of proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochendler, Agnes; Weinberg-Corem, Noa; Moran, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Most adult mammalian tissues are quiescent, with rare cell divisions serving to maintain homeostasis. At present, the isolation and study of replicating cells from their in vivo niche typically involves immunostaining for intracellular markers of proliferation, causing the loss of sensitive biolo...

  8. Phenotyping of nNOS neurons in the postnatal and adult female mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachlaki, Konstantina; Malone, Samuel A; Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Hrabovszky, Erik; Münzberg, Heike; Giacobini, Paolo; Ango, Fabrice; Prevot, Vincent

    2017-10-15

    Neurons expressing nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) and thus capable of synthesizing NO play major roles in many aspects of brain function. While the heterogeneity of nNOS-expressing neurons has been studied in various brain regions, their phenotype in the hypothalamus remains largely unknown. Here we examined the distribution of cells expressing nNOS in the postnatal and adult female mouse hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. In both adults and neonates, nNOS was largely restricted to regions of the hypothalamus involved in the control of bodily functions, such as energy balance and reproduction. Labeled cells were found in the paraventricular, ventromedial, and dorsomedial nuclei as well as in the lateral area of the hypothalamus. Intriguingly, nNOS was seen only after the second week of life in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). The most dense and heavily labeled population of cells was found in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OV) and the median preoptic nucleus (MEPO), where most of the somata of the neuroendocrine neurons releasing GnRH and controlling reproduction are located. A great proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the OV/MEPO and ARH were seen to express estrogen receptor (ER) α. Notably, almost all ERα-immunoreactive cells of the OV/MEPO also expressed nNOS. Moreover, the use of EYFP Vglut2 , EYFP Vgat , and GFP Gad67 transgenic mouse lines revealed that, like GnRH neurons, most hypothalamic nNOS neurons have a glutamatergic phenotype, except for nNOS neurons of the ARH, which are GABAergic. Altogether, these observations are consistent with the proposed role of nNOS neurons in physiological processes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages. PMID:25502280

  10. The S100A4 Oncoprotein Promotes Prostate Tumorigenesis in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Hifzur R; Adhami, Vaqar M; Parray, Aijaz

    2013-01-01

    earlier showed that S100A4 expression progressively increases in prostatic tissues with the advancement of prostate cancer (CaP) in TRAMP, an autochthonous mouse model. To study the functional significance of S100A4 in CaP, we generated a heterozygously deleted S100A4 (TRAMP/S100A4(+/-)) genotype...... (intracellular and extracellular) forms. We observed that 1) the growth-promoting effect of S100A4 is due to its activation of NFκB, 2) S100A4-deficient tumors exhibit reduced NFκB activity, 3) S100A4 regulates NFκB through the RAGE receptor, and 4) S100A4 and RAGE co-localize in prostatic tissues of mice......S100A4, a calcium-binding protein, is known for its role in the metastatic spread of tumor cells, a late event of cancer disease. This is the first report showing that S100A4 is not merely a metastatic protein but also an oncoprotein that plays a critical role in the development of tumors. We...

  11. Hippocampal adaptive response following extensive neuronal loss in an inducible transgenic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Myczek

    Full Text Available Neuronal loss is a common component of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders (including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease and brain traumas (stroke, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. One brain region that commonly exhibits neuronal loss in several neurodegenerative disorders is the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for the formation and retrieval of memories. Long-lasting and sometimes unrecoverable deficits caused by neuronal loss present a unique challenge for clinicians and for researchers who attempt to model these traumas in animals. Can these deficits be recovered, and if so, is the brain capable of regeneration following neuronal loss? To address this significant question, we utilized the innovative CaM/Tet-DT(A mouse model that selectively induces neuronal ablation. We found that we are able to inflict a consistent and significant lesion to the hippocampus, resulting in hippocampally-dependent behavioral deficits and a long-lasting upregulation in neurogenesis, suggesting that this process might be a critical part of hippocampal recovery. In addition, we provide novel evidence of angiogenic and vasculature changes following hippocampal neuronal loss in CaM/Tet-DTA mice. We posit that angiogenesis may be an important factor that promotes neurogenic upregulation following hippocampal neuronal loss, and both factors, angiogenesis and neurogenesis, can contribute to the adaptive response of the brain for behavioral recovery.

  12. An Intranasal Formulation of Erythropoietin (Neuro-EPO) Prevents Memory Deficits and Amyloid Toxicity in the APPSwe Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cruz, Yamila; Strehaiano, Manon; Rodríguez Obaya, Teresita; García Rodríguez, Julío César; Maurice, Tangui

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine known to have effective cytoprotective action in the brain, particularly in ischemic, traumatic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative conditions. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of a low sialic form of EPO, Neuro-EPO, applied intranasally in rodent models of stroke or cerebellar ataxia and in a non-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we analyzed the protective effect of Neuro-EPO in APPSwe mice, a reference transgenic mouse model of AD. Mice were administered 3 times a day, 3 days in the week with Neuro-EPO (125, 250 μg/kg) intranasally, between 12 and 14 months of age. Motor responses, general activity, and memory responses were analyzed during and after treatment. The deficits in spontaneous alternation, place learning in the water-maze, and novel object recognition observed in APPSwe mice were alleviated by the low dose of Neuro-EPO. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, trophic factor levels, and a synaptic marker were analyzed in the hippocampus or cortex of the animals. The increases in lipid peroxidation or in GFAP and Iba-1 contents in APPSwe mice were significantly reduced after Neuro-EPO. Activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways was analyzed. The increases in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, TNFα, or Fas ligand levels observed in APPSwe mice were reduced by Neuro-EPO. Finally, immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses of Aβ1-42 levels in the APPSwe mouse cortex and hippocampus showed a marked reduction in Aβ deposits and in soluble and insoluble Aβ1-42 forms. This study therefore confirmed the neuroprotective activity of EPO, particularly for an intranasally deliverable formulation, devoid of erythropoietic side effects, in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Neuro-EPO alleviated memory alterations, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis induction, and amyloid load in 14-month-old APPSwe mice.

  13. Chronic stress induced cognitive impairment in APP/PS-1 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Bing HAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS on the cognitive function and brain morphological changes in APP/PS-1 mice, one of the genetic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and to investigate the possible role of environmental factors in genetic mouse model of AD. Methods  There were 22-week-old wild-type C57BL/6 male mice (control group, N = 15 and APP/PS-1 double transgenic male mice [N = 27: AD group (N = 13 and AD + CUMS group (N = 14] tested in this study. Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory of the mice. Amyloid deposition in the hippocampus was determined by Congo red staining. The ultrastructure of neurons in hippocampal CA1 region was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM.  Results  Compared with control group, AD + CUMS group had significantly longer fifth-day escape latency [(33.14 ± 14.37 s vs (21.22 ± 12.16 s; t = -2.701, P = 0.045], and significantly shortened time spent in platform quadrant [(9.74±1.35 s vs (15.02 ± 1.33 s; t = 2.639, P = 0.012] in Morris water maze test. Compared with AD group, the percentage of amyloid plaque area in hippocampal area was increased in AD + CUMS group [(0.59 ± 0.03% vs (0.04 ± 0.03%; t = -2.900, P = 0.005]. The ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in AD group was slightly damaged: cellular membrane was intact; cell matrix was uniform; intracelluar lipofuscin could be seen; the structure of nucleus and nuclear membrane had no obvious changes; mild fusion of cristae and membrane was seen in mitochondria; Golgi apparatus was partially indistinct; endoplasmic reticulum was mildly expanded. The ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in AD + CUMS group was obviously damaged, including blurred cell membrane, reduced low-density and high-density granules in cytoplasm, uneven cell matrix, reduced number of organelles, lipofuscin and autophagosome deposition, obvious condensation of chromatin distributing over

  14. An inducible transgenic mouse model for immune mediated hepatitis showing clearance of antigen expressing hepatocytes by CD8+ T cells.

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    Marcin Cebula

    Full Text Available The liver has the ability to prime immune responses against neo antigens provided upon infections. However, T cell immunity in liver is uniquely modulated by the complex tolerogenic property of this organ that has to also cope with foreign agents such as endotoxins or food antigens. In this respect, the nature of intrahepatic T cell responses remains to be fully characterized. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the CD8+ T cell responses in the liver, we established a novel OVA_X_CreER(T2 mouse model. Upon tamoxifen administration OVA antigen expression is observed in a fraction of hepatocytes, resulting in a mosaic expression pattern. To elucidate the cross-talk of CD8+ T cells with antigen-expressing hepatocytes, we adoptively transferred K(b/OVA257-264-specific OT-I T cells to OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice or generated triple transgenic OVA_X CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice. OT-I T cells become activated in OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice and induce an acute and transient hepatitis accompanied by liver damage. In OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice, OVA induction triggers an OT-I T cell mediated, fulminant hepatitis resulting in 50% mortality. Surviving mice manifest a long lasting hepatitis, and recover after 9 weeks. In these experimental settings, recovery from hepatitis correlates with a complete loss of OVA expression indicating efficient clearance of the antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Moreover, a relapse of hepatitis can be induced upon re-induction of cured OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice indicating absence of tolerogenic mechanisms. This pathogen-free, conditional mouse model has the advantage of tamoxifen inducible tissue specific antigen expression that reflects the heterogeneity of viral antigen expression and enables the study of intrahepatic immune responses to both de novo and persistent antigen. It allows following the course of intrahepatic immune responses: initiation, the acute phase and antigen clearance.

  15. Highly localized interactions between sensory neurons and sprouting sympathetic fibers observed in a transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mouse

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    Zhang Jun-Ming

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sprouting of sympathetic fibers into sensory ganglia occurs in many preclinical pain models, providing a possible anatomical substrate for sympathetically enhanced pain. However, the functional consequences of this sprouting have been controversial. We used a transgenic mouse in which sympathetic fibers expressed green fluorescent protein, observable in live tissue. Medium and large diameter lumbar sensory neurons with and without nearby sympathetic fibers were recorded in whole ganglion preparations using microelectrodes. Results After spinal nerve ligation, sympathetic sprouting was extensive by 3 days. Abnormal spontaneous activity increased to 15% and rheobase was reduced. Spontaneously active cells had Aαβ conduction velocities but were clustered near the medium/large cell boundary. Neurons with sympathetic basket formations had a dramatically higher incidence of spontaneous activity (71% and had lower rheobase than cells with no sympathetic fibers nearby. Cells with lower density nearby fibers had intermediate phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry of sectioned ganglia showed that cells surrounded by sympathetic fibers were enriched in nociceptive markers TrkA, substance P, or CGRP. Spontaneous activity began before sympathetic sprouting was observed, but blocking sympathetic sprouting on day 3 by cutting the dorsal ramus in addition to the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve greatly reduced abnormal spontaneous activity. Conclusions The data suggest that early sympathetic sprouting into the sensory ganglia may have highly localized, excitatory effects. Quantitatively, neurons with sympathetic basket formations may account for more than half of the observed spontaneous activity, despite being relatively rare. Spontaneous activity in sensory neurons and sympathetic sprouting may be mutually re-enforcing.

  16. Protective Effects of Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Nutrients in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Shengyuan Wang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of intervention with a combination of nutrients in the amyloid precursor protein-presenilin (APP-PSN C57BL/6J double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD.A total of 72 2-month-old APP-PSN mice were randomly assigned to three groups. The model group (MG was fed regular, unsupplemented chow, while the low- and high-dose treatment groups (LG and HG, respectively were given a combination of nutrients that included phosphatidylserine, blueberry extracts, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid as part of their diet. An additional 24 wild-type littermates that were fed unsupplemented chow served as the negative control group (NG. After 3 and 7 months of treatment, the cognitive performance was assessed with the Morris water maze and the shuttle box escape/avoidance task, and the biochemical parameters and oxidative stress were evaluated in both the blood and brain.An improvement in antioxidant capacity was observed in the treatment groups relative to the MG at 3 months, while superior behavioral test results were observed in the mice of the HG and NG groups. In the MG, pycnosis was detected in neuronal nuclei, and a loss of neurons was observed in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. At 7 months, the β-amyloid1-42 peptide accumulation was significantly elevated in the MG but was markedly lower in the mice fed the nutrient combination. The antioxidant capacity and behavioral test scores were also higher in these mice.Early intervention with a combination of nutrients should be considered as a strategy for preventing cognitive decline and other symptoms associated with AD.

  17. Polygalae Radix Extract Prevents Axonal Degeneration and Memory Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Tomoharu Kuboyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Memory impairments in Alzheimer’s disease (AD occur due to degenerated axons and disrupted neural networks. Since only limited recovery is possible after the destruction of neural networks, preventing axonal degeneration during the early stages of disease progression is necessary to prevent AD. Polygalae Radix (roots of Polygala tenuifolia; PR is a traditional herbal medicine used for sedation and amnesia. In this study, we aimed to clarify and analyze the preventive effects of PR against memory deficits in a transgenic AD mouse model, 5XFAD. 5XFAD mice demonstrated memory deficits at the age of 5 months. Thus, the water extract of Polygalae Radix (PR extract was orally administered to 4-month-old 5XFAD mice that did not show signs of memory impairment. After consecutive administrations for 56 days, the PR extract prevented cognitive deficit and axon degeneration associated with the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ plaques in the perirhinal cortex of the 5XFAD mice. PR extract did not influence the formation of Aβ plaques in the brain of the 5XFAD mice. In cultured neurons, the PR extract prevented axonal growth cone collapse and axonal atrophy induced by Aβ. Additionally, it prevented Aβ-induced endocytosis at the growth cone of cultured neurons. Our previous study reported that endocytosis inhibition was enough to prevent Aβ-induced growth cone collapse, axonal degeneration, and memory impairments. Therefore, the PR extract possibly prevented axonal degeneration and memory impairment by inhibiting endocytosis. PR is the first preventive drug candidate for AD that inhibits endocytosis in neurons.

  18. Organotypic brain slice cultures of adult transgenic P301S mice--a model for tauopathy studies.

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    Agneta Mewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organotypic brain slice cultures represent an excellent compromise between single cell cultures and complete animal studies, in this way replacing and reducing the number of animal experiments. Organotypic brain slices are widely applied to model neuronal development and regeneration as well as neuronal pathology concerning stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is characterized by two protein alterations, namely tau hyperphosphorylation and excessive amyloid β deposition, both causing microglia and astrocyte activation. Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, surrounded by activated glia are modeled in transgenic mice, e.g. the tauopathy model P301S. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we explore the benefits and limitations of organotypic brain slice cultures made of mature adult transgenic mice as a potential model system for the multifactorial phenotype of AD. First, neonatal (P1 and adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old transgenic P301S mice have been compared with regard to vitality, which was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays over 15 days. Neonatal slices displayed a constant high vitality level, while the vitality of adult slice cultures decreased significantly upon cultivation. Various preparation and cultivation conditions were tested to augment the vitality of adult slices and improvements were achieved with a reduced slice thickness, a mild hypothermic cultivation temperature and a cultivation CO(2 concentration of 5%. Furthermore, we present a substantial immunohistochemical characterization analyzing the morphology of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in comparison to neonatal tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Until now only adolescent animals with a maximum age of two months have been used to prepare organotypic brain slices. The current study

  19. Lentiviral transgenic microRNA-based shRNA suppressed mouse cytochromosome P450 3A (CYP3A expression in a dose-dependent and inheritable manner.

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    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Cytochomosome P450 enzymes (CYP are heme-containing monooxygenases responsible for oxidative metabolism of many exogenous and endogenous compounds including drugs. The species difference of CYP limits the extent to which data obtained from animals can be translated to humans in pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics studies. Transgenic expression of human CYP in animals lacking or with largely reduced endogenous CYP counterparts is recognized as an ideal strategy to correct CYP species difference. CYP3A is the most abundant CYP subfamily both in human and mammals. In this study, we designed a microRNA-based shRNA (miR-shRNA simultaneously targeting four members of mouse CYP3A subfamily (CYP3A11, CYP3A16, CYP3A41 and CYP3A44, and transgenic mice expressing the designed miR-shRNA were generated by lentiviral transgenesis. Results showed that the CYP3A expression level in transgenic mice was markedly reduced compared to that in wild type or unrelated miR-shRNA transgenic mice, and was inversely correlated to the miR-shRNA expression level. The CYP3A expression levels in transgenic offspring of different generations were also remarkably lower compared to those of controls, and moreover the inhibition rate of CYP3A expression remained comparable over generations. The ratio of the targeted CYP3A transcriptional levels was comparable between knockdown and control mice of the same gender as detected by RT-PCR DGGE analysis. These data suggested that transgenic miR-shRNA suppressed CYP3A expression in a dose-dependent and inheritable manner, and transcriptional levels of the targeted CYP3As were suppressed to a similar extent. The observed knockdown efficacy was further confirmed by enzymatic activity analysis, and data showed that CYP3A activities in transgenic mice were markedly reduced compared to those in wild-type or unrelated miR-shRNA transgenic controls (1.11±0.71 vs 5.85±1.74, 5.9±2.4; P<0.01. This work laid down a foundation to further knock

  20. Impairments in neurogenesis are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Daniel M Iascone

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia, is also associated with depression. Although the precise mechanisms that lead to depression in AD are unknown, the impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in AD may play a role. Adult-born neurons play a critical role in regulating both cognition and mood, and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with depression in other neurological disorders. To assess the relationship between Alzheimer's disease, neurogenesis, and depression, we studied human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP transgenic mice, a well-characterized model of AD. We report that reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis are evident early in disease progression in hAPP mice, but a mild depressive phenotype manifests only in later stages of disease. We found that hAPP mice exhibited a reduction in BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, as well as a reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells, relative to nontransgenic controls at 5-7 months of age. These alterations in neurogenesis appeared to worsen with age, as the magnitude of reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells was greater in hAPP mice at 13-15 months of age. Only 13-15 month old hAPP mice exhibited depressive behavior in the tail suspension test. However, mice at both age groups exhibited deficits in spatial memory, which was observed in the Morris water maze test for hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that neurogenesis impairments are accompanied by cognitive deficits, but are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in hAPP mice.

  1. [Isolation, purification and primary culture of adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rujun; Gong, Kaizheng; Zhang, Zhengang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for primary culture of adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts. Methods Myocardial tissues from adult mice were digested with 1 g/L trypsin and 0.8 g/L collagenase IV by oscillating water bath for a short time repeatedly. Cardiac fibroblasts and myocardial cells were isolated with differential adhesion method. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the purity of cardiac fibroblasts. The cell morphology was observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope. The proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts was analyzed by growth curve and CCK-8 assay. The Smad2/3 phosphorylation induced by TGF-β1 was detected by Western blotting. Results After 90 minutes of differential adhesion, adherent fibroblasts formed spherical cell mass and after 3 days, cells were spindle-shaped and proliferated rapidly. Cells were confluent after 5 days and the growth curve presented nearly "S" shape. The positive expression rate of vimentin was 95%. CCK-8 assay showed that the optimal cell proliferating activity was found from day 3 to day 5. The level of phosphorylated Smad2/3 obviously increased at the second passage induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion This method is economical and stable to isolate cardiac fibroblasts with high activity and high purity from adult mice.

  2. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Carol F.; Ratliff, Michelle L.; Powell, Rebecca; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development

  3. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Carol F., E-mail: carol-webb@omrf.org [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ratliff, Michelle L., E-mail: michelle-ratliff@omrf.org [Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Powell, Rebecca, E-mail: rebeccapowell@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R., E-mail: celeste-wirsig@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Lakiza, Olga, E-mail: olga-lakiza@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Obara, Tomoko, E-mail: tomoko-obara@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  4. Optimised and rapid pre-clinical screening in the SOD1(G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.

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    Richard J Mead

    Full Text Available The human SOD1(G93A transgenic mouse has been used extensively since its development in 1994 as a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. In that time, a great many insights into the toxicity of mutant SOD1 have been gained using this and other mutant SOD transgenic mouse models. They all demonstrate a selective toxicity towards motor neurons and in some cases features of the pathology seen in the human disease. These models have two major drawbacks. Firstly the generation of robust preclinical data in these models has been highlighted as an area for concern. Secondly, the amount of time required for a single preclinical experiment in these models (3-4 months is a hurdle to the development of new therapies. We have developed an inbred C57BL/6 mouse line from the original mixed background (SJLxC57BL/6 SOD1(G93A transgenic line and show here that the disease course is remarkably consistent and much less prone to background noise, enabling reduced numbers of mice for testing of therapeutics. Secondly we have identified very early readouts showing a large decline in motor function compared to normal mice. This loss of motor function has allowed us to develop an early, sensitive and rapid screening protocol for the initial phases of denervation of muscle fibers, observed in this model. We describe multiple, quantitative readouts of motor function that can be used to interrogate this early mechanism. Such an approach will increase throughput for reduced costs, whilst reducing the severity of the experimental procedures involved.

  5. Optimised and rapid pre-clinical screening in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Richard J; Bennett, Ellen J; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Sharp, Paul; Sunyach, Claire; Kasher, Paul; Berwick, Jason; Pettmann, Brigitte; Battaglia, Guiseppe; Azzouz, Mimoun; Grierson, Andrew; Shaw, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    The human SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse has been used extensively since its development in 1994 as a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In that time, a great many insights into the toxicity of mutant SOD1 have been gained using this and other mutant SOD transgenic mouse models. They all demonstrate a selective toxicity towards motor neurons and in some cases features of the pathology seen in the human disease. These models have two major drawbacks. Firstly the generation of robust preclinical data in these models has been highlighted as an area for concern. Secondly, the amount of time required for a single preclinical experiment in these models (3-4 months) is a hurdle to the development of new therapies. We have developed an inbred C57BL/6 mouse line from the original mixed background (SJLxC57BL/6) SOD1(G93A) transgenic line and show here that the disease course is remarkably consistent and much less prone to background noise, enabling reduced numbers of mice for testing of therapeutics. Secondly we have identified very early readouts showing a large decline in motor function compared to normal mice. This loss of motor function has allowed us to develop an early, sensitive and rapid screening protocol for the initial phases of denervation of muscle fibers, observed in this model. We describe multiple, quantitative readouts of motor function that can be used to interrogate this early mechanism. Such an approach will increase throughput for reduced costs, whilst reducing the severity of the experimental procedures involved.

  6. Alterations of cholinergic markers in transgenic APPSWE/PS1DE9 and APPSWE/PS1A246E mouse models of Alzheimer´s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Eva; Jakubík, Jan; Michal, Pavel; Oksman, M.; Iivonen, H.; Tanila, H.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 102, Suppl.1 (2007), s. 133-133 ISSN 0022-3042. [Biennial meeting of the International Society for Neurochemistry /21./ and Annual meeting of the American Society for Neurochemistry /38./. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Cancun] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * cholinergic markers * transgenic mouse model * Alzheimer ´s disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. TRANSGENIC GDNF POSITIVELY INFLUENCES PROLIFERATION, DIFFERENTIATION, MATURATION AND SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURONS PRODUCED FROM MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

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    Daniel Édgar Cortés

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESC are pluripotent and thus can differentiate into every cell type present in the body. Directed differentiation into motor neurons has been described for pluripotent cells. Although neurotrophic factors promote neuronal survival, their role in neuronal commitment is elusive. Here, we developed double-transgenic lines of mouse ESC that constitutively produce Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and also contain a GFP reporter, driven by HB9, which is expressed only by postmitotic motor neurons. After lentiviral transduction, ESC lines integrated and expressed the human GDNF gene without altering pluripotency markers before differentiation. Further, GDNF-ESC showed significantly higher spontaneous release of this neurotrophin to the medium, when compared to controls. To study motor neuron induction, control and GDNF cell lines were grown as embryoid bodies and stimulated with retinoic acid and Sonic Hedgehog. In GDNF-overexpressing cells, a significant increase of proliferative Olig2+ precursors, which are specified as spinal motor neurons, was found. Accordingly, GDNF increases the yield of cells with the pan motor neuronal markers HB9, monitored by GFP expression, and Isl1. At terminal differentiation, almost all differentiated neurons express phenotypic markers of motor neurons in GDNF cultures, with lower proportions in control cells. To test if the effects of GDNF were present at early differentiation stages, exogenous recombinant human GDNF was added to control ESC, also resulting in enhanced motor neuron differentiation. This effect was abolished by the co-addition of neutralizing anti-GDNF antibodies, strongly suggesting that differentiating ESC are responsive to GDNF. Using the HB9::GFP reporter, motor neurons were selected for electrophysiological recordings. Motor neurons differentiated from GDNF-ESC, compared to control motor neurons, showed greater electrophysiological maturation, characterized by

  8. Androgenic dependence of exophytic tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer: a role for thrombospondin-1

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    Yao Jorge L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid hormones influence mitogenic signaling pathways, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoints, and it has long been known that incidence of bladder cancer (BC in men is several times greater than in women, a difference that cannot be attributed to environmental or lifestyle factors alone. Castration reduces incidence of chemically-induced BC in rodents. It is unclear if this effect is due to hormonal influences on activation/deactivation of carcinogens or a direct effect on urothelial cell proliferation or other malignant processes. We examined the effect of castration on BC growth in UPII-SV40T transgenic mice, which express SV40 T antigen specifically in urothelium and reliably develop BC. Furthermore, because BC growth in UPII-SV40T mice is exophytic, we speculated BC growth was dependent on angiogenesis and angiogenesis was, in turn, androgen responsive. Methods Flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPDCT was used to longitudinally measure exophytic BC growth in UPII-SV40T male mice sham-operated, castrated, or castrated and supplemented with dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Human normal bladder and BC biopsies and mouse bladder were examined quantitatively for thrombospondin-1 (TSP1 protein expression. Results Mice castrated at 24 weeks of age had decreased BC volumes at 32 weeks compared to intact mice (p = 0.0071 and castrated mice administered DHT (p = 0.0233; one-way ANOVA, JMP 6.0.3, SAS Institute, Inc.. Bladder cancer cell lines responded to DHT treatment with increased proliferation, regardless of androgen receptor expression levels. TSP1, an anti-angiogenic factor whose expression is inhibited by androgens, had decreased expression in bladders of UPII-SV40T mice compared to wild-type. Castration increased TSP1 levels in UPII-SV40T mice compared to intact mice. TSP1 protein expression was higher in 8 of 10 human bladder biopsies of normal versus malignant tissue from the same patients. Conclusion

  9. Mena deficiency delays tumor progression and decreases metastasis in polyoma middle-T transgenic mouse mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Wang, Yarong; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Sellers, Rani S; Wang, Weigang; Li, Jiufeng; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2010-01-01

    The actin binding protein Mammalian enabled (Mena), has been implicated in the metastatic progression of solid tumors in humans. Mena expression level in primary tumors is correlated with metastasis in breast, cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Cells expressing high Mena levels are part of the tumor microenvironment for metastasis (TMEM), an anatomical structure that is predictive for risk of breast cancer metastasis. Previously we have shown that forced expression of Mena adenocarcinoma cells enhances invasion and metastasis in xenograft mice. Whether Mena is required for tumor progression is still unknown. Here we report the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression, metastasis and on normal mammary gland development. To investigate the role of Mena in tumor progression and metastasis, Mena deficient mice were intercrossed with mice carrying a transgene expressing the polyoma middle T oncoprotein, driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus. The progeny were investigated for the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression via staging of primary mammary tumors and by evaluation of morbidity. Stages of metastatic progression were investigated using an in vivo invasion assay, intravital multiphoton microscopy, circulating tumor cell burden, and lung metastases. Mammary gland development was studied in whole mount mammary glands of wild type and Mena deficient mice. Mena deficiency decreased morbidity and metastatic dissemination. Loss of Mena increased mammary tumor latency but had no affect on mammary tumor burden or histologic progression to carcinoma. Elimination of Mena also significantly decreased epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced in vivo invasion, in vivo motility, intravasation and metastasis. Non-tumor bearing mice deficient for Mena also showed defects in mammary gland terminal end bud formation and branching. Deficiency of Mena decreases metastasis by slowing tumor progression and reducing tumor cell invasion and intravasation. Mena

  10. The second-generation ALK inhibitor alectinib effectively induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells and inhibits tumor growth in a TH-MYCN transgenic neuroblastoma mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaxiong; Guan, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Yu, Yang; Woodfield, Sarah E; Zhang, Huiyuan; Yang, Kristine L; Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Qi, Lin; Li, Xiaonan; Gu, Jerry; Xu, Xin; Jin, Jingling; Muscal, Jodi A; Yang, Tianshu; Xu, Guo-Tong; Yang, Jianhua

    2017-08-01

    Activating germline mutations of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) occur in most cases of hereditary neuroblastoma (NB) and the constitutively active kinase activity of ALK promotes cell proliferation and survival in NB. Therefore, ALK kinase is a potential therapeutic target for NB. In this study, we show that the novel ALK inhibitor alectinib effectively suppressed cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in NB cell lines with either wild-type ALK or mutated ALK (F1174L and D1091N) by blocking ALK-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. In addition, alectinib enhanced doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in NB cells. Furthermore, alectinib induced apoptosis in an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model. Also, in the TH-MYCN transgenic mouse model, alectinib resulted in decreased tumor growth and prolonged survival time. These results indicate that alectinib may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of NB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic caffeine treatment reverses memory impairment and the expression of brain BNDF and TrkB in the PS1/APP double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Jia, Ning; Li, Ji; Yang, Li; Min, Lian-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying doses of caffeine on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF) and TrkB in PS1/APP double transgenic mouse models. PS1/APP double transgenic mice were administered 0.3 ml/day of saline, 1.5 mg/day of caffeine or 0.75 mg/day of caffeine for eight weeks. A water maze test and western blotting were used to determine the memory capability and expression of hippocampal BNDF and TrkB of the mice. The results demonstrated that 0.75 mg/day and 1.5 mg/day doses of caffeine significantly increased memory capability and the expression of hippocampal BDNF and TrkB in PS1/APP mice with a dose-response effect. The results suggested that chronic caffeine treatment may reverse memory impairment in PS1/APP transgenic mice, and BDNF and its receptor TrkB, may be involved in this process.

  12. Utility of a human FcRn transgenic mouse model in drug discovery for early assessment and prediction of human pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Lindsay B.; Wang, Mengmeng; Kavosi, Mania S.; Joyce, Alison; Kurz, Jeffrey C.; Fan, Yao-Yun; Dowty, Martin E.; Zhang, Minlei; Zhang, Yiqun; Cheng, Aili; Hua, Fei; Jones, Hannah M.; Neubert, Hendrik; Polzer, Robert J.; O'Hara, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Therapeutic antibodies continue to develop as an emerging drug class, with a need for preclinical tools to better predict in vivo characteristics. Transgenic mice expressing human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn) have potential as a preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) model to project human PK of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Using a panel of 27 mAbs with a broad PK range, we sought to characterize and establish utility of this preclinical animal model and provide guidance for its application in drug development of mAbs. This set of mAbs was administered to both hemizygous and homozygous hFcRn transgenic mice (Tg32) at a single intravenous dose, and PK parameters were derived. Higher hFcRn protein tissue expression was confirmed by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry in Tg32 homozygous versus hemizygous mice. Clearance (CL) was calculated using non-compartmental analysis and correlations were assessed to historical data in wild-type mouse, non-human primate (NHP), and human. Results show that mAb CL in hFcRn Tg32 homozygous mouse correlate with human (r2 = 0.83, r = 0.91, p PK studies, enhancement of the early selection of lead molecules, and ultimately a decrease in the time for a drug candidate to reach the clinic. PMID:27232760

  13. Generation of Pet1210-Cre Transgenic Mouse Line Reveals Non-Serotonergic Expression Domains of Pet1 Both in CNS and Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Barbara; Migliarini, Sara; Pacini, Giulia; Pratelli, Marta; Pasqualetti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Neurons producing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) constitute one of the most widely distributed neuronal networks in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and exhibit a profuse innervation throughout the CNS already at early stages of development. Serotonergic neuron specification is controlled by a combination of secreted molecules and transcription factors such as Shh, Fgf4/8, Nkx2.2, Lmx1b and Pet1. In the mouse, Pet1 mRNA expression appears between 10 and 11 days post coitum (dpc) in serotonergic post-mitotic precursors and persists in serotonergic neurons up to adulthood, where it promotes the expression of genes defining the mature serotonergic phenotype such as tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) and serotonin transporter (SERT). Hence, the generation of genetic tools based on Pet1 specific expression represents a valuable approach to study the development and function of the serotonergic system. Here, we report the generation of a Pet1210-Cre transgenic mouse line in which the Cre recombinase is expressed under the control of a 210 kb fragment from the Pet1 genetic locus to ensure a reliable and faithful control of somatic recombination in Pet1 cell lineage. Besides Cre-mediated recombination accurately occurred in the serotonergic system as expected and according to previous studies, Pet1210-Cre transgenic mouse line allowed us to identify novel, so far uncharacterized, Pet1 expression domains. Indeed, we showed that in the raphe Pet1 is expressed also in a non-serotonergic neuronal population intermingled with Tph2-expressing cells and mostly localized in the B8 and B9 nuclei. Moreover, we detected Cre-mediated recombination also in the developing pancreas and in the ureteric bud derivatives of the kidney, where it reflected a specific Pet1 expression. Thus, Pet1210-Cre transgenic mouse line faithfully drives Cre-mediated recombination in all Pet1 expression domains representing a valuable tool to genetically manipulate serotonergic and non

  14. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Megha; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Li, Rena; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  15. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Verma

    Full Text Available Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe of Alzheimer's disease (AD which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  16. Protein composition and synthesis in the adult mouse spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodieck, L.S.; Luttges, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Properties of spinal cord proteins were studied in adult mice subjected to unilateral crush or electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve. The protein composition of spinal tissue was determined using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with subcellular fractionation. Comparisons of mouse spinal cord and brain revealed similarities in the types but differences in the concentrations of myelin associated proteins, nuclear histones and other proteins. Comparisons with sciatic nerve proteins demonstrated differences in types of proteins but similarities in the concentration of myelin proteins and nuclear histones. The short term (less than 2 hrs.) incorporation of radioactive amino acids into spinal cord proteins revealed heterogeneous rates of incorporation. Neither nerve crush six days prior to testing nor sciatic nerve stimulation had a significant effect on the protein composition or amino acid incorporation rates of spinal cord tissue. These observations suggest that known differences in spinal cord function following alterations in nerve input may be dependent upon different mechanisms than have been found in the brain

  17. Effect of eugenol on the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene and the formation of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts in the X-lacZ-transgenic mouse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Steenwinkel, M.J.S.T.; Asten, J.G. van; Delft, J.H.M. van; Baan, R.A.; Verhagen, H.

    1996-01-01

    To study the possible reduction by eugenol of the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of benzoja]pyrene (B[a]P) in vivo, the X-lacZ-transgenic mouse strain 40.6 (Muta(TM)Mouse) was used. Male mice were fed a diet containing 0.4% (w/w) eugenol or a control diet for 58 days. On day 10, half of the mice

  18. Dissection of Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus from Adult Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Hideo; Toyama, Keiko; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the most widely studied areas in the brain because of its important functional role in memory processing and learning, its remarkable neuronal cell plasticity, and its involvement in epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. The hippocampus is composed of distinct regions; the dentate gyrus, which comprises mainly granule neurons, and Ammon's horn, which comprises mainly pyramidal neurons, and the two regions are connected by both anatomic and functional circuits. Many different mRNAs and proteins are selectively expressed in the dentate gyrus, and the dentate gyrus is a site of adult neurogenesis; that is, new neurons are continually generated in the adult dentate gyrus. To investigate mRNA and protein expression specific to the dentate gyrus, laser capture microdissection is often used. This method has some limitations, however, such as the need for special apparatuses and complicated handling procedures. In this video-recorded protocol, we demonstrate a dissection technique for removing the dentate gyrus from adult mouse under a stereomicroscope. Dentate gyrus samples prepared using this technique are suitable for any assay, including transcriptomic, proteomic, and cell biology analyses. We confirmed that the dissected tissue is dentate gyrus by conducting real-time PCR of dentate gyrus-specific genes, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) and desmoplakin (Dsp), and Ammon's horn enriched genes, Meis-related gene 1b (Mrg1b) and TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3 (Tyro3). The mRNA expressions of TDO2 and Dsp in the dentate gyrus samples were detected at obviously higher levels, whereas Mrg1b and Tyro3 were lower levels, than those in the Ammon's horn samples. To demonstrate the advantage of this method, we performed DNA microarray analysis using samples of whole hippocampus and dentate gyrus. The mRNA expression of TDO2 and Dsp, which are expressed selectively in the dentate gyrus, in the whole hippocampus of alpha

  19. Mutagenicity of the peroxisome proliferators clofibrate, Wyeth 14,643 and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in the lacZ plasmid-based transgenic mouse mutation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boerrigter Michaël

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferators are considered rodent carcinogens that are putative human non-carcinogens based on the presumed absence of direct genetic toxicity in rodent and human cells and the resistance of human cells to the induction of peroxisomes by peroxisome proliferators. The highly sensitive lacZ plasmid-based transgenic mouse mutation assay was employed to investigate the mutagenicity of several peroxisome proliferators based on several lines of evidence suggesting that these agents may in fact exert a genotoxic effect. Methods Male and female lacZ-plasmid based transgenic mice were treated at 4 months of age with 6 doses of 2,333 mg di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DHEP, 200 mg Wyeth-14,643, or 90 mg clofibrate per kg of bodyweight, respectively, over a two-week period. Control animals were treated with the respective vehicles only (35% propyl glycol for DEHP and Wyeth-14,643 treatment controls and sterile water for clofibrate treatment controls. The mutant frequency in liver, kidney and spleen DNA was determined as the proportion of retrieved mutant and wild-type lacZ plasmids expressed in Escherichia Coli C host cells employing a positive selection system for mutant plasmids. Results Exposure to DEHP or Wyeth-14,643 significantly increased the mutant frequency in liver, but not in kidney or spleen, of both female and male mice. Treatment with clofibrate did not lead to an increased mutant frequency in any of the organs studied. Conclusion The results indicate that some peroxisome proliferators display an organ-specific mutagenicity in lacZ plasmid-based transgenic mice consistent with historical observations of organ- and compound-specific carcinogenicity.

  20. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, P.-C.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Lee, K.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4 + T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4 + T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni

  1. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kishimoto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled “Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease” (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016 [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography of (64)Cu-DOTA-Rituximab in a Transgenic Mouse Model Expressing Human CD20 for Clinical Translation to Image NHL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Arutselvan; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate (64)Cu-DOTA-rituximab (PETRIT) in a preclinical transgenic mouse model expressing human CD20 for potential clinical translation. PROCEDURES: (64)Cu was chelated to DOTA-rituximab. Multiple radiolabeling, quality assurance, and imaging experiments were performed....... The human CD20 antigen was expressed in B cells of transgenic mice (CD20TM). The mice groups studied were: (a) control (nude mice, n¿=¿3) that received 7.4 MBq/dose, (b) with pre-dose (CD20TM, n¿=¿6) received 2 mg/kg pre-dose of cold rituximab prior to PETRIT of 7.4 MBq/dose, and (c) without pre-dose (CD20......TM, n¿=¿6) PETRIT alone received 7.4 MBq/dose. Small animal PET was used to image mice at various time points (0, 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h). The OLINDA/EXM software was used to determine the human equivalent dose for individual organs. RESULTS: PETRIT was obtained with a specific activity of 545...

  3. A New Transgenic Mouse Model of Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia Raised by Sustained Activation of Met Tyrosine Kinase in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other diseases characterized by the onset of cachexia, congestive heart failure takes a place of relevance, considering the high prevalence of this pathology in most European countries and in the United States, and is undergoing a rapid increase in developing countries. Actually, only few models of cardiac cachexia exist. Difficulties in the recruitment and follow-up of clinical trials implicate that new reproducible and well-characterized animal models are pivotal in developing therapeutic strategies for cachexia. We generated a new model of cardiac cachexia: a transgenic mouse expressing Tpr-Met receptor, the activated form of c-Met receptor of hepatocyte growth factor, specifically in the heart. We showed that the cardiac-specific induction of Tpr-Met raises a cardiac hypertrophic remodelling, which progresses into concentric hypertrophy with concomitant increase in Gdf15 mRNA levels. Hypertrophy progresses to congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, characterized by reduced body weight gain and food intake and skeletal muscle wasting. Prevention trial by suppressing Tpr-Met showed that loss of body weight could be prevented. Skeletal muscle wasting was also associated with altered gene expression profiling. We propose transgenic Tpr-Met mice as a new model of cardiac cachexia, which will constitute a powerful tool to understand such complex pathology and test new drugs/approaches at the preclinical level.

  4. Molecular mechanisms underlying protective effects of quercetin against mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cell culture and MitoPark transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced cAMP response-element binding protein phosphorylation and expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates the PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Transgene mus som sygdomsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have proven to be useful tools in understanding both basic biology and the events associated with disease. Recent technical advances in the area of genomic manipulation in combination with the availability of the human and murine genomic sequences now allow the precise...... tailoring of the mouse genome. In this review we describe a few systems in which transgenic animal models have been employed for the purpose of studying the etiology of human diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Feb-17...

  6. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5' flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3' flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels

  7. Tissue-specific in vivo genetic toxicity of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons assessed using the Muta™Mouse transgenic rodent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alexandra S., E-mail: alexandra.long@hc-sc.gc.ca [Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mechanistic Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lemieux, Christine L. [Air Health Science Division, Water and Air Quality Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Arlt, Volker M. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); White, Paul A. [Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mechanistic Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    Test batteries to screen chemicals for mutagenic hazard include several endpoints regarded as effective for detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Traditional in vivo methods primarily examine clastogenic endpoints in haematopoietic tissues. Although this approach is effective for identifying systemically distributed clastogens, some mutagens may not induce clastogenic effects; moreover, genotoxic effects may be restricted to the site of contact and/or related tissues. An OECD test guideline for transgenic rodent (TGR) gene mutation assays was released in 2011, and the TGR assays permit assessment of mutagenicity in any tissue. This study assessed the responses of two genotoxicity endpoints following sub-chronic oral exposures of male Muta™Mouse to 9 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Clastogenicity was assessed via induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood, and mutagenicity via induction of lacZ transgene mutations in bone marrow, glandular stomach, small intestine, liver, and lung. Additionally, the presence of bulky PAH-DNA adducts was examined. Five of the 9 PAHs elicited positive results across all endpoints in at least one tissue, and no PAHs were negative or equivocal across all endpoints. All PAHs were positive for lacZ mutations in at least one tissue (sensitivity = 100%), and for 8 PAHs, one or more initial sites of chemical contact (i.e., glandular stomach, liver, small intestine) yielded a greater response than bone marrow. Five PAHs were positive in the micronucleus assay (sensitivity = 56%). Furthermore, all PAHs produced DNA adducts in at least one tissue. The results demonstrate the utility of the TGR assay for mutagenicity assessment, especially for compounds that may not be systemically distributed. - Highlights: • The Muta™Mouse is a reliable tool for in vivo mutagenicity assessment of PAHs. • All 9 PAHs induced lacZ transgene mutations in small intestine. • Only 5 of 9 PAHs induced lacZ mutations and micronuclei in

  8. Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy Image-Guided Intraventricular Gene Delivery at Murine Embryonic Age 9.5 and 10.5 Produces Distinct Transgene Expression Patterns at the Adult Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Jang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In utero injection of a retroviral vector into the embryonic telencephalon aided by ultrasound backscatter microscopy permits introduction of a gene of interest at an early stage of development. In this study, we compared the tissue distribution of gene expression in adult mice injected with retroviral vectors at different embryonic ages in utero. Following ultrasound image-guided gene delivery (UIGD into the embryonic telencephalon, adult mice were subjected to whole-body luciferase imaging and immunohistochemical analysis at 6 weeks and 1 year postinjection. Luciferase activity was observed in a wide range of tissues in animals injected at embryonic age 9.5 (E9.5, whereas animals injected at E10.5 showed brain-localized reporter gene expression. These results suggest that mouse embryonic brain creates a closed and impermeable structure around E10. Therefore, by injecting a transgene before or after E10, transgene expression can be manipulated to be local or systemic. Our results also provide information that widens the applicability of UIGD beyond neuroscience studies.

  9. Benzyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Prostate Cancer Development in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma Mouse Prostate (TRAMP Model, Which Is Associated with the Induction of Cell Cycle G1 Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jin Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC is a hydrolysis product of glucotropaeolin, a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, and has been shown to have anti-tumor properties. In the present study, we investigated whether BITC inhibits the development of prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP mice. Five-week old, male TRAMP mice and their nontransgenic littermates were gavage-fed with 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg of BITC every day for 19 weeks. The weight of the genitourinary tract increased markedly in TRAMP mice and this increase was suppressed significantly by BITC feeding. H and E staining of the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate demonstrated that well-differentiated carcinoma (WDC was a predominant feature in the TRAMP mice. The number of lobes with WDC was reduced by BITC feeding while that of lobes with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was increased. BITC feeding reduced the number of cells expressing Ki67 (a proliferation marker, cyclin A, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2 in the prostatic tissue. In vitro cell culture results revealed that BITC decreased DNA synthesis, as well as CDK2 and CDK4 activity in TRAMP-C2 mouse prostate cancer cells. These results indicate that inhibition of cell cycle progression contributes to the inhibition of prostate cancer development in TRAMP mice treated with BITC.

  10. [Isolation and purification of BMScs of GFP transgenic mouse using the method of adhering to cuture plastic in different time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Ying; Yang, Hui-Lun; Xiang, Tao; Mei, Yan; Hu, Huo-Zhen; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2006-03-01

    To adopt the method of adhering to culture plastic in different time for cultivating and purifying BMSCs of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. Bone marrow cells isolated from GFP transgenic mice are directly planted in culture flask and an exchange of the total volume medium is made at different time. Then the cells adhering to culture plastic are differently counted according to the cell types and are examined by immunohistochemistry using the antibodies of CD44, CD45 and CD54 in three days. Moreover, the cells after the exchange of the total volume medium in 4 hours, 8 hours and 24 hours are selected and successively subcultured down to the fifth passage. Then the result of amplification is calculated and the cells are examined by immunohistochemistry using the antibodies of CD44, CD45 and CD54. With the extending of the time for the first exchange of medium, the density of cells adhering to culture plastic increased accordingly, but the BMSCs proportion decreased. The cells after first exchange of medium in 4 hours had high BMSCs proportion but low BMSCs density, and the cells in 24 hours had high BMSCs density and low BMSCs proportion. However, the cells in 8-10 hours had high BMSCs density and also high BMSCs proportion. The subcultured BMSCs could stably express GFP. The method of adhering to culture plastic in different time for cultivating and purifying BMSCs of GFP transgenic mice is effective. It is suitable to make the first exchange of total volume medium in 8-10 hours. The subcultured cell has the capacity for amplification and will probably be a seed cell for the research of tissue engineering and gene therapy.

  11. Transgenic nude mouse with green fluorescent protein expression-based human glioblastoma multiforme animal model with EGFR expression and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guo-Wei; Lan, Fo-Lin; Gao, Jian-Guo; Jiang, Cai-Mou; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Yue-Hong; Shao, He-Dui; He, Xue-Yang; Chen, Jin-Long; Long, Jian-Wu; Xiao, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Zhi-Tong; Diao, Yi

    2012-08-01

    Previously, we developed an orthotopic xenograft model of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with high EGFR expression and invasiveness in Balb/c nu/nu nude mice. Now we also developed the same orthotopic xenograft model in transgenic nude mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The present orthotopic xenografts labeled by phycoerythrin fluorescing red showed high EGFR expression profile, and invasive behavior under a bright green-red dual-color fluorescence background. A striking advantage in the present human GBM model is that the change of tumor growth can be observed visually instead of sacrificing animals in our further antitumor therapy studies.

  12. Generation of mRx-Cre Transgenic Mouse Line for Efficient Conditional Gene Deletion in Early Retinal Progenitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klímová, Lucie; Láchová, Jitka; Machoň, Ondřej; Sedláček, Radislav; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e63029 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2198; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11214; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011032; GA ČR GAP305/10/2143; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : eye development * lens * retina * transgenic mice Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  13. Chronic caffeine treatment reverses memory impairment and the expression of brain BNDF and TrkB in the PS1/APP double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    HAN, KUN; JIA, NING; LI, JI; YANG, LI; MIN, LIAN-QIU

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying doses of caffeine on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF) and TrkB in PS1/APP double transgenic mouse models. PS1/APP double transgenic mice were administered 0.3 ml/day of saline, 1.5 mg/day of caffeine or 0.75 mg/day of caffeine for eight weeks. A water maze test and western blotting were used to determine the memory capability and expression of hippocampal BNDF and TrkB of the ...

  14. Detection by voxel-wise statistical analysis of significant changes in regional cerebral glucose uptake in an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Albertine; Hérard, Anne-Sophie; Delatour, Benoît; Hantraye, Philippe; Bonvento, Gilles; Dhenain, Marc; Delzescaux, Thierry

    2010-06-01

    Biomarkers and technologies similar to those used in humans are essential for the follow-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models, particularly for the clarification of mechanisms and the screening and validation of new candidate treatments. In humans, changes in brain metabolism can be detected by 1-deoxy-2-[(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET) and assessed in a user-independent manner with dedicated software, such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). FDG-PET can be carried out in small animals, but its resolution is low as compared to the size of rodent brain structures. In mouse models of AD, changes in cerebral glucose utilization are usually detected by [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) autoradiography, but this requires prior manual outlining of regions of interest (ROI) on selected sections. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of applying the SPM method to 3D autoradiographic data sets mapping brain metabolic activity in a transgenic mouse model of AD. We report the preliminary results obtained with 4 APP/PS1 (64+/-1 weeks) and 3 PS1 (65+/-2 weeks) mice. We also describe new procedures for the acquisition and use of "blockface" photographs and provide the first demonstration of their value for the 3D reconstruction and spatial normalization of post mortem mouse brain volumes. Despite this limited sample size, our results appear to be meaningful, consistent, and more comprehensive than findings from previously published studies based on conventional ROI-based methods. The establishment of statistical significance at the voxel level, rather than with a user-defined ROI, makes it possible to detect more reliably subtle differences in geometrically complex regions, such as the hippocampus. Our approach is generic and could be easily applied to other biomarkers and extended to other species and applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterisation of the p53 pathway in cell lines established from TH-MYCN transgenic mouse tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lindi; Esfandiari, Arman; Reaves, William; Vu, Annette; Hogarty, Michael D; Lunec, John; Tweddle, Deborah A

    2018-03-01

    Cell lines established from the TH-MYCN transgenic murine model of neuroblastoma are a valuable preclinical, immunocompetent, syngeneic model of neuroblastoma, for which knowledge of their p53 pathway status is important. In this study, the Trp53 status and functional response to Nutlin-3 and ionising radiation (IR) were determined in 6 adherent TH-MYCN transgenic cell lines using Sanger sequencing, western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Sensitivity to structurally diverse MDM2 inhibitors (Nutlin-3, MI-63, RG7388 and NDD0005) was determined using XTT proliferation assays. In total, 2/6 cell lines were Trp53 homozygous mutant (NHO2A and 844MYCN+/+) and 1/6 (282MYCN+/-) was Trp53 heterozygous mutant. For 1/6 cell lines (NHO2A), DNA from the corresponding primary tumour was found to be Trp53 wt. In all cases, the presence of a mutation was consistent with aberrant p53 signalling in response to Nutlin-3 and IR. In comparison to TP53 wt human neuroblastoma cells, Trp53 wt murine control and TH-MYCN cell lines were significantly less sensitive to growth inhibition mediated by MI-63 and RG7388. These murine Trp53 wt and mutant TH-MYCN cell lines are useful syngeneic, immunocompetent neuroblastoma models, the former to test p53-dependent therapies in combination with immunotherapies, such as anti-GD2, and the latter as models of chemoresistant relapsed neuroblastoma when aberrations in the p53 pathway are more common. The spontaneous development of Trp53 mutations in 3 cell lines from TH-MYCN mice may have arisen from MYCN oncogenic driven and/or ex vivo selection. The identified species-dependent selectivity of MI-63 and RG7388 should be considered when interpreting in vivo toxicity studies of MDM2 inhibitors.

  16. Cerebellar stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xin; Guan, Wuqiang; Yu, Yong-Chun; Fu, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • No new neurons and astrocytes are generated in adult mouse cerebellum. • Very few mash1 + or nestin + stem cells exist, and most of them are quiescent. • Cell proliferation rate is diversified among cerebellar regions and decreases over time. - Abstract: Although previous studies implied that cerebellar stem cells exist in some adult mammals, little is known about whether these stem cells can produce new neurons and astrocytes. In this study by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, we found that there are abundant BrdU + cells in adult mouse cerebellum, and their quantity and density decreases significantly over time. We also found cell proliferation rate is diversified in different cerebellar regions. Among these BrdU + cells, very few are mash1 + or nestin + stem cells, and the vast majority of cerebellar stem cells are quiescent. Data obtained by in vivo retrovirus injection indicate that stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse cerebellum. Instead, some cells labeled by retrovirus are Iba1 + microglia. These results indicate that very few stem cells exist in adult mouse cerebellum, and none of these stem cells contribute to neurogenesis and astrogenesis under physiological condition

  17. Induced dural lymphangiogenesis facilities soluble amyloid-beta clearance from brain in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ru Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired amyloid-β clearance from the brain is a core pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. The therapeutic effect of current pharmacotherapies is unsatisfactory, and some treatments cause severe side effects. The meningeal lymphatic vessels might be a new route for amyloid-β clearance. This study investigated whether promoting dural lymphangiogenesis facilitated the clearance of amyloid-β from the brain. First, human lymphatic endothelial cells were treated with 100 ng/mL recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor-C (rhVEGF-C protein. Light microscopy verified that rhVEGF-C, a specific ligand for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3, significantly promoted tube formation of human lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. In an in vivo study, 200 μg/mL rhVEGF-C was injected into the cisterna magna of APP/PS1 transgenic mice, once every 2 days, four times in total. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated high levels of dural lymphangiogenesis in Alzheimer's disease mice. One week after rhVEGF-C administration, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that levels of soluble amyloid-β were decreased in cerebrospinal fluid and brain. The Morris water maze test demonstrated that spatial cognition was restored. These results indicate that the upregulation of dural lymphangiogenesis facilities amyloid-β clearance from the brain of APP/PS1 mice, suggesting the potential of the VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling pathway as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2006-05-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins.

  19. Chronic Dietary Supplementation of 4% Figs on the Modification of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraju Subash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the changes in the plasma Aβ, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer’s disease (AD transgenic mice (Tg2576 after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na+ K+ ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of Aβ (1–40, 1–42 significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs.

  20. Gabapentin-lactam, but not gabapentin, reduces protein aggregates and improves motor performance in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Birgit; Ludin, Dagmar E; Gerds, Thomas A; Lücking, Carl H; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Feuerstein, Thomas J

    2004-08-01

    Gabapentin (GBP), an anti-convulsant widely used in the treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes, has been suggested to have neuroprotective properties. There is evidence, however, that the neuroprotective properties attributed to GBP are rather associated with a derivative of GBP, gabapentin-lactam (GBP-L), which opens mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels, in contrast to GBP. We explored whether GBP and GBP-L may attenuate the course of a monogenetic autosomal neurodegenerative disorder, Huntington's disease (HD), using a transgenic mouse model. R6/2 mice treated with GBP-L performed walking on a narrow beam better than mice receiving no treatment, vehicle or GBP, suggesting a beneficial effect of GBP-L on motor function. In addition, a marked reduction of neuronal nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions was observed in brains of mice treated with GBP-L. The pharmacokinetics of GBP-L yielded a mean plasma concentration near the EC50 of GBP-L to open mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels. These findings support the role of GBP-L as a novel neuroprotective substance in vivo.

  1. Characterization of the transgenic CA-AhR mouse - cell specific expression of the CA-AhR using CYP1A1 as a marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnberg, S.; Lindstam, M.; Andersson, P.; Hanberg, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Poellinger, L. [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs performed by WHO and EU lead to major concerns. The tolerable daily intake for humans has been assessed to be within the range of human exposures occurring in the general population today. Dioxins are known to adversely impair reproduction and affect development of reproductive organs, as well as the early development of the immune and the nervous systems. The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) mediates most toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and PCBs. In order to study the mechanisms of toxicity of ligands of the Ah receptor we have created a transgenic mouse model expressing a constitutively active Ah receptor (CA-AhR). The mutant Ah receptor is expressed and functionally active in most (or all) organs. Consequently, the CA-AhR mice show several of the well-known effects of dioxin exposure. Since the CA-AhR is continuously active at a relatively low level and from early development, this model resembles the human exposure scenario and is thus suitable for studies on mechanisms of action of Ah receptor ligands.

  2. Doublecortin-like knockdown in the adult mouse brain : implications for neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    The results in this thesis showed for the first time doublecortin-like (DCL)-specific expression in the adult mouse brain. Besides the expected regions with the capacity to generate new neurons (hippocampus and olfactory forebrain), DCL expression was found in three novel brain areas namely

  3. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  4. Increased adipogenesis in cultured embryonic chondrocytes and in adult bone marrow of dominant negative Erg transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Flajollet

    Full Text Available In monolayer culture, primary articular chondrocytes have an intrinsic tendency to lose their phenotype during expansion. The molecular events underlying this chondrocyte dedifferentiation are still largely unknown. Several transcription factors are important for chondrocyte differentiation. The Ets transcription factor family may be involved in skeletal development. One family member, the Erg gene, is mainly expressed during cartilage formation. To further investigate the potential role of Erg in the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, we isolated and cultured chondrocytes from the rib cartilage of embryos of transgenic mice that express a dominant negative form of Erg (DN-Erg during cartilage formation. DN-Erg expression in chondrocytes cultured for up to 20 days did not affect the early dedifferentiation usually observed in cultured chondrocytes. However, lipid droplets accumulated in DN-Erg chondrocytes, suggesting adipocyte emergence. Transcriptomic analysis using a DNA microarray, validated by quantitative RT-PCR, revealed strong differential gene expression, with a decrease in chondrogenesis-related markers and an increase in adipogenesis-related gene expression in cultured DN-Erg chondrocytes. These results indicate that Erg is involved in either maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype in vitro or in cell fate orientation. Along with the in vitro studies, we compared adipocyte presence in wild-type and transgenic mice skeletons. Histological investigations revealed an increase in the number of adipocytes in the bone marrow of adult DN-Erg mice even though no adipocytes were detected in embryonic cartilage or bone. These findings suggest that the Ets transcription factor family may contribute to the homeostatic balance in skeleton cell plasticity.

  5. Automated home cage assessment shows behavioral changes in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Esteban; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2013-08-01

    Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is an autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by ataxia, involuntary movements, and dementia. A novel SCA17 mouse model having a 71 polyglutamine repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) has shown age related motor deficit using a classic motor test, yet concomitant weight increase might be a confounding factor for this measurement. In this study we used an automated home cage system to test several motor readouts for this same model to confirm pathological behavior results and evaluate benefits of automated home cage in behavior phenotyping. Our results confirm motor deficits in the Tbp/Q71 mice and present previously unrecognized behavioral characteristics obtained from the automated home cage, indicating its use for high-throughput screening and testing, e.g. of therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibody-Mediated Rejection in a Blood Group A-Transgenic Mouse Model of ABO-Incompatible Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Bruce; Fisicaro, Nella; Wang, Szu-I; Kratochvil, Annetta; Labonte, Katrina; Tao, Kesheng; Pearcey, Jean; Marshall, Thuraya; Mengel, Michael; Sis, Banu; Fan, Xiaohu; dʼApice, Anthony J F; Cowan, Peter J; West, Lori J

    2016-06-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) organ transplantation is performed owing to unremitting donor shortages. Defining mechanisms of antibody-mediated rejection, accommodation, and tolerance of ABOi grafts is limited by lack of a suitable animal model. We report generation and characterization of a murine model to enable study of immunobiology in the setting of ABOi transplantation. Transgenesis of a construct containing human A1- and H-transferases under control of the ICAM-2 promoter was performed in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. A-transgenic (A-Tg) mice were assessed for A-antigen expression by histology and flow cytometry. B6 wild-type (WT) mice were sensitized with blood group A-human erythrocytes; others received passive anti-A monoclonal antibody and complement after heart transplant. Serum anti-A antibodies were assessed by hemagglutination. "A-into-O" transplantation (major histocompatibility complex syngeneic) was modeled by transplanting hearts from A-Tg mice into sensitized or nonsensitized WT mice. Antibody-mediated rejection was assessed by morphology/immunohistochemistry. A-Tg mice expressed A-antigen on vascular endothelium and other cells including erythrocytes. Antibody-mediated rejection was evident in 15/17 A-Tg grafts in sensitized WT recipients (median titer, 1:512), with 2 showing hyperacute rejection and rapid cessation of graft pulsation. Hyperacute rejection was observed in 8/8 A-Tg grafts after passive transfer of anti-A antibody and complement into nonsensitized recipients. Antibody-mediated rejection was not observed in A-Tg grafts transplanted into nonsensitized mice. A-Tg heart grafts transplanted into WT mice with abundant anti-A antibody manifests characteristic features of antibody-mediated rejection. These findings demonstrate an effective murine model to facilitate study of immunologic features of ABOi transplantation and to improve potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  7. PET imaging of brain with the {beta}-amyloid probe, [{sup 11}C]6-OH-BTA-1, in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Hiroshi [Fujita Health University, Department of Radiology, Aichi (Japan); National Institutes of Health, Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ye, Daniel; Cohen, Robert M. [National Institutes of Health, Geriatric Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ichise, Masanori; Liow, Jeih-San; Cai, Lisheng; Musachio, John L.; Hong, Jinsoo; Crescenzo, Mathew; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Zoghbi, Sami; Vines, Douglass C.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B. [National Institutes of Health, Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Jacobowitz, David [USUHS, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V. [National Institutes of Health, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Katada, Kazuhiro [Fujita Health University, Department of Radiology, Aichi (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of [{sup 11}C]6-OH-BTA-1 and positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) plaques in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET imaging was performed with the NIH ATLAS small animal scanner in six elderly transgenic mice (Tg2576; age 22.0{+-}1.8 months; 23.6{+-}2.6 g) overexpressing a mutated form of human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) known to result in the production of A{beta} plaques, and in six elderly wild-type litter mates (age 21.8{+-}1.6 months; 29.5{+-}4.7 g). Dynamic PET scans were performed for 30 min in each mouse under 1% isoflurane inhalation anesthesia after a bolus injection of 13-46 MBq of [{sup 11}C]6-OH-BTA-1. PET data were reconstructed with 3D OSEM. On the coronal PET image, irregular regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on frontal cortex (FR), parietal cortex (PA), striatum (ST), thalamus (TH), pons (PO), and cerebellum (CE), guided by a mouse stereotaxic atlas. Time-activity curves (TACs) (expressed as percent injected dose per gram normalized to body weight: % ID-kg/g) were obtained for FR, PA, ST, TH, PO, and CE. ROI-to-CE radioactivity ratios were also calculated. Following PET scans, sections of mouse brain prepared from anesthetized and fixative-perfused mice were stained with thioflavin-S. TACs for [{sup 11}C]6-OH-BTA-1 in all ROIs peaked early (at 30-55 s), with radioactivity washing out quickly thereafter in both transgenic and wild-type mice. Peak uptake in all regions was significantly lower in transgenic mice than in wild-type mice. During the later part of the washout phase (12-30 min), the mean FR/CE and PA/CE ratios were higher in transgenic than in wild-type mice (1.06{+-}0.04 vs 0.98{+-}0.07, p=0.04; 1.06{+-}0.09 vs 0.93{+-}0.08 p=0.02) while ST/CE, TH/CE, and PO/CE ratios were not. Ex vivo staining revealed widespread A{beta} plaques in cortex, but not in cerebellum of transgenic mice or in any brain regions of wild

  8. GFAP promoter driven transgenic expression of PDGFB in the mouse brain leads to glioblastoma in a Trp53 null background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hede, Sanna-Maria; Hansson, Inga; Afink, Gijs B.; Eriksson, Anna; Nazarenko, Inga; Andrae, Johanna; Genove, Guillem; Westermark, Bengt; Nistér, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most common and malignant astrocytic brain tumors in human adults. The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is commonly mutated and/or lost in astrocytic brain tumors and the TP53 alterations are often found in combination with excessive growth factor signaling via PDGF/PDGFRalpha. Here,

  9. Isolation and culture of adult mouse vestibular nucleus neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Aydın; Altuntaş, Serap; Öztürk, Gürkan; Erdoğan, Ender; Cengiz, Nureddin

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: Isolated cell cultures are widely used to study neuronal properties due to their advantages. Although embryonic animals are preferred for culturing, their morphological or electrophysiological properties may not reflect adult neurons, which may be important in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to develop a method for preparing isolated cell cultures of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) from adult mice and describe its morphological and electrophysiological properties.Materials and methods: Vestibular nucleus neurons were mechanically and enzymatically isolated and cultured using a defined medium with known growth factors. Cell survival was measured with propidium iodide, and electrophysiological properties were investigated with current-clamp recording.Results: Vestibular neurons grew neurites in cultures, gaining adult-like morphological properties, and stayed viable for 3 days in culture. Adding bovine calf serum, nerve growth factor, or insulin-like growth factor into the culture medium enhanced neuronal viability. Current-clamp recording of the cultured neurons revealed tonic and phasic-type neurons with similar input resistance, resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude, and duration. Conclusion: Vestibular neurons from adult mice can be cultured, and regenerate axons in a medium containing appropriate growth factors. Culturing adult vestibular neurons provides a new method to study age-related pathologies of the vestibular system.

  10. The role of mutated amyloid beta 1-42 stimulating dendritic cells in a PDAPP transgenic mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jia-lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Amyloid plaque is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Anti-beta-amyloid (Aβ immunotherapy is effective in removing brain Aβ, but has shown to be associated with detrimental effects. To avoid severe adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis induced by amyloid beta vaccine with adjuvant, and take advantage of amyloid beta antibody's therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's disease sufficiently, our group has developed a new Alzheimer vaccine with mutated amyloid beta 1-42 peptide stimulating dendritic cells (DC. Our previous work has confirmed that DC vaccine can induce adequate anti-amyloid beta antibody in PDAPP Tg mice safely and efficiently. The DC vaccine can improve impaired learning and memory in the Alzheimer's animal model, and did not cause microvasculitis, microhemorrhage or meningoencephalitis in the animal model. However, the exact mechanism of immunotherapy which reduces Aβ deposition remains unknown. In this report, we studied the mechanism of the vaccine, thinking that this may have implications for better understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods A new Alzheimer vaccine with mutated amyloid beta 1-42 peptide stimulating DC which were obtained from C57/B6 mouse bone marrow was developed. Amyloid beta with Freund's adjuvant was inoculated at the same time to act as positive control. After the treatment was done, the samples of brains were collected, fixed, cut. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the expression of the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR, membrane-bound protein tyrosine phosphatase (CD45, the ATP-binding cassette family of active transporters (ABCA1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE and Aβ in mouse brain tissue. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to defect CA1, CA2, CA3, DG, Rad in hippocampus region and positive neuron in cortex region. Results Aβ was significantly reduced in the

  11. Microarray analysis of androgen-regulated gene expression in testis: the use of the androgen-binding protein (ABP-transgenic mouse as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman Gail

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is an androgen-dependent process, yet the molecular mechanisms of androgens' actions in testis are poorly understood. Transgenic mice overexpressing rat androgen-binding protein (ABP in their testes have reduced levels of intratesticular androgens and, as a result, show a progressive impairment of spermatogenesis. We used this model to characterize changes in global gene expression in testis in response to reduced bioavailability of androgens. Methods Total RNA was extracted from testes of 30-day old transgenic and wild-type control mice, converted to cRNA, labeled with biotin, and hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. Microarray results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Three-hundred-eighty-one genes (3.05% of all transcripts represented on the chips were up-regulated and 198 genes (1.59% were down-regulated by at least a factor of 2 in the androgen-deficient animals compared to controls. Genes encoding membrane proteins, intracellular signaling molecules, enzymes, proteins participating in the immune response, and those involved in cytoskeleton organization were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated group. Among the down-regulated transcripts, those coding for extracellular proteins were overrepresented most dramatically, followed by those related to proteolysis, cell adhesion, immune response, and growth factor, cytokine, and ion channel activities. Transcripts with the greatest potential impact on cellular activities included several transcription factors, intracellular signal transducers, secreted signaling molecules and enzymes, and various cell surface molecules. Major nodes in the up-regulated network were IL-6, AGT, MYC, and A2M, those in the down-regulated network were IL-2, -4, and -10, MAPK8, SOCS1, and CREB1. Conclusion Microarray analysis followed by gene ontology profiling and connectivity analysis identified several functional

  12. Regulation by commensal bacteria of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Naoki; Kotani, Takenori; Konno, Tasuku; Setiawan, Jajar; Nishigaito, Yuka; Saito, Yasuyuki; Murata, Yoji; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Matozaki, Takashi

    2018-04-15

    In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells are continuously replaced by adult-born neurons, which are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of such neuronal cell turnover in the adult mouse brain. Administration of mixture of antibiotics to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice markedly attenuated the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the SVZ cells. The treatment with antibiotics also reduced newly generated BrdU-positive neurons in the mouse OB. In addition, the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of germ-free (GF) mice was markedly reduced compared to that apparent for SPF mice. In contrast, the reduced incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of GF mice was recovered by their co-housing with SPF mice, suggesting that commensal bacteria promote the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells. Finally, we found that administration of ampicillin markedly attenuated the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of SPF mice. Our results thus suggest that ampicillin-sensitive commensal bacteria regulate the neurogenesis in the SVZ of adult mouse brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dipotassium N-stearoyltyrosinate ameliorated pathological injuries in triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, anandamide (AEA analogues have been well recognized for its potent neuroprotective effects in counteracting the deterioration of Alzheimer's disease (AD brains through multiple pathological processes. In our previous studies, dipotassium N-stearoyltyrosinate (NSTK, an AEA analogue synthesized by our laboratory was reported to exert significant efficacy through multiple interventions. Within this study, the amyloid precursor protein (APPSWE/presenilin-1 (PS1M146V/TauP301L mouse (3×Tg-AD model was used to explore further the neuroprotective effects of NSTK and its underlying mechanisms. NSTK could increase spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field and low anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, and improve the spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze. The biochemical analysis suggested that NSTK could decrease Aβ42 deposition, abnormal tau aggregation, and the expressions of p-APP Thr668, PS1 and p-tau Ser202/Thr205 in the hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice. Consistently, NSTK could reduce the level of malondialdehyde, increase the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Up-regulation of Bcl-2, and down-regulation of BAX, caspase-3 and inflammatory cytokines also occurred in the hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice after treatment with NSTK. Thus, NSTK could intervene in multiple pathological processes of AD and would be a drug candidate against AD.

  14. Folate deficiency enhances arsenic effects on expression of genes involved in epidermal differentiation in transgenic K6/ODC mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Gail M.; Ahlborn, Gene J.; Delker, Don A.; Kitchin, Kirk T.; O'Brien, Thomas G.; Chen Yan; Kohan, Michael J.; Roop, Barbara C.; Ward, William O.; Allen, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure in humans is associated with cancers of the skin, lung, bladder and other tissues. There is evidence that folate deficiency may increase susceptibility to arsenic effects, including skin lesions. K6/ODC mice develop skin tumors when exposed to 10 ppm sodium arsenite for 5 months. In the current study, K6/ODC mice maintained on either a folate deficient or folate sufficient diet were exposed to 0, 1, or 10 ppm sodium arsenite in the drinking water for 30 days. Total RNA was isolated from skin samples and gene expression analyzed using Affymetrix Mouse 430 2.0 GeneChips. Data from 24 samples, with 4 mice in each of the 6 treatment groups, were RMA normalized and analyzed by two-way ANOVA using GeneSpring TM . Top gene ontology (GO) categories for genes responding significantly to both arsenic treatment and folate deficiency include nucleotide metabolism and cell organization and biogenesis. For many of these genes, folate deficiency magnifies the response to arsenic treatment. In particular, expression of markers of epidermal differentiation, e.g., loricrin, small proline rich proteins and involucrin, was significantly reduced by arsenic in the folate sufficient animals, and reduced further or at a lower arsenic dose in the folate deficient animals. In addition, expression of a number of epidermal cell growth/proliferation genes and cellular movement genes was altered. These results indicate that arsenic disrupts the normal balance of cell proliferation and differentiation, and that folate deficiency exacerbates these effects, consistent with the view that folate deficiency is a nutritional susceptibility factor for arsenic-induced skin tumorigenesis

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.

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    Kensuke Tomio

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE, derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX-knockout (KO and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis.

  16. Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Kensuke; Kawana, Kei; Taguchi, Ayumi; Isobe, Yosuke; Iwamoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aki; Kojima, Satoko; Mori, Mayuyo; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Arimoto, Takahide; Oda, Katsutoshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Taketani, Yuji; Kang, Jing X; Arai, Hiroyuki; Arita, Makoto; Kozuma, Shiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX)-knockout (KO) and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis.

  17. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Henrik H Hansen

    Full Text Available One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP and presenilin-1 (PS1 are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the 'London' (hAPPLon/PS1A246E and 'Swedish' mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c., or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.. In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD.

  19. Astrocytosis precedes amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer APPswe transgenic mouse brain: a correlative positron emission tomography and in vitro imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Ni, Ruiqing; Voytenko, Larysa; Marutle, Amelia [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Centre for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Gulyas, Balazs; Halldin, Christer [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Nanyang Technological University, NTU - Imperial College, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Toth, Miklos; Haeggkvist, Jenny [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Centre for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-04-17

    Pathological studies suggest that neuroinflammation is exacerbated by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels in the brain early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The time course and relationships between astrocytosis and Aβ deposition were examined using multitracer in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in an AD transgenic mouse model, followed by postmortem autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis. PET imaging with the amyloid plaque tracer {sup 11}C-AZD2184 and the astroglial tracer {sup 11}C-deuterium-L-deprenyl ({sup 11}C-DED) was carried out in APPswe mice aged 6, 8-15 and 18-24 months (4-6 animals/group) and in wild-type (wt) mice aged 8-15 and 18-24 months (3-6 animals/group). Tracer uptake was quantified by region of interest analysis using PMOD software and a 3-D digital mouse brain atlas. Postmortem brain tissues from the same APPswe and wt mice in all age groups were analysed for Aβ deposition and astrocytosis by in vitro autoradiography using {sup 3}H-AZD2184, {sup 3}H-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and {sup 3}H-L-deprenyl and immunostaining performed with antibodies for Aβ{sub 42} and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in sagittal brain sections. {sup 11}C-AZD2184 PET retention in the cerebral cortices of APPswe mice was significantly higher at 18-24 months than in age-matched wt mice. Cortical and hippocampal {sup 11}C-DED PET binding was significantly higher at 6 months than at 8-15 months or 18-24 months in APPswe mice, and it was also higher than at 8-15 months in wt mice. In vitro autoradiography {sup 3}H-AZD2184 and {sup 3}H-PIB binding confirmed the in vivo findings with {sup 11}C-AZD2184 and demonstrated age-dependent increases in Aβ deposition in APPswe cortex and hippocampus. There were no significant differences between APPswe and wt mice in {sup 3}H-L-deprenyl autoradiography binding across age groups. Immunohistochemical quantification demonstrated more Aβ{sub 42} deposits in the cortex and hippocampus and more

  20. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

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    Lunt Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. Methods To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT breast cancer mouse model. Results We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs, demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. Conclusion These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

  1. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid depletion activates caspases and decreases NMDA receptors in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calon, Frédéric; Lim, Giselle P; Morihara, Takashi; Yang, Fusheng; Ubeda, Oliver; Salem, Norman; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2005-08-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA) intake is a readily manipulated dietary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies in animals confirm the deleterious effect of n-3 PFA depletion on cognition and on dendritic scaffold proteins. Here, we show that in transgenic mice overexpressing the human AD gene APPswe (Tg2576), safflower oil-induced n-3 PFA deficiency caused a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits, NR2A and NR2B, in the cortex and hippocampus with no loss of the presynaptic markers, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25). n-3 PFA depletion also decreased the NR1 subunit in the hippocampus and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) in the cortex of Tg2576 mice. These effects of dietary n-3 PFA deficiency were greatly amplified in Tg2576 mice compared to nontransgenic mice. Loss of the NR2B receptor subunit was not explained by changes in mRNA expression, but correlated with p85alpha phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase levels. Most interestingly, n-3 PFA deficiency dramatically increased levels of protein fragments, corresponding to caspase/calpain-cleaved fodrin and gelsolin in Tg2576 mice. This effect was minimal in nontransgenic mice suggesting that n-3 PFA depletion potentiated caspase activation in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22 : 6n-3) partly protected from NMDA receptor subunit loss and accumulation of fodrin and gelsolin fragments but fully prevented CaMKII decrease. The marked effect of dietary n-3 PFA on NMDA receptors and caspase/calpain activation in the cortex of an animal model of AD provide new insights into how dietary essential fatty acids may influence cognition and AD risk.

  2. Comparison of Sirtuin 3 Levels in ALS and Huntington’s Disease—Differential Effects in Human Tissue Samples vs. Transgenic Mouse Models

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    Eva Buck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by distinct patterns of neuronal loss. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS upper and lower motoneurons degenerate whereas in Huntington’s disease (HD medium spiny neurons in the striatum are preferentially affected. Despite these differences the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are remarkably similar. In addition, non-neuronal features, such as weight loss implicate a dysregulation in energy metabolism. Mammalian sirtuins, especially the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3, regulate mitochondrial function and aging processes. SIRT3 expression depends on the activity of the metabolic master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, a modifier of ALS and HD in patients and model organisms. This prompted us to systematically probe Sirt3 mRNA and protein levels in mouse models of ALS and HD and to correlate these with patient tissue levels. We found a selective reduction of Sirt3 mRNA levels and function in the cervical spinal cord of end-stage ALS mice (superoxide dismutase 1, SOD1G93A. In sharp contrast, a tendency to increased Sirt3 mRNA levels was found in the striatum in HD mice (R6/2. Cultured primary neurons express the highest levels of Sirt3 mRNA. In primary cells from PGC-1α knock-out (KO mice the Sirt3 mRNA levels were highest in astrocytes. In human post mortem tissue increased mRNA and protein levels of Sirt3 were found in the spinal cord in ALS, while Sirt3 levels were unchanged in the human HD striatum. Based on these findings we conclude that SIRT3 mediates the different effects of PGC-1α during the course of transgenic (tg ALS and HD and in the human conditions only partial aspects Sirt3 dysregulation manifest.

  3. Alterations in endocytic protein expression with increasing age in the transgenic APP695 V717I London mouse model of amyloid pathology: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rhian S; Alsaqati, Mouhamed; Bice, Justin S; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Good, Mark A; Kidd, Emma J

    2017-10-18

    A major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing age, but the reason behind this association has not been identified. It is thought that the changes in endocytosis seen in AD patients are causal for this condition. Thus, we hypothesized that the increased risk of developing AD associated with ageing may be because of changes in endocytosis. We investigated using Western blotting whether the expression of endocytic proteins involved in clathrin-mediated and clathrin-independent endocytosis are altered by increasing age in a mouse model of amyloid pathology. We used mice transgenic for human amyloid precursor protein containing the V717I London mutation. We compared the London mutation mice with age-matched wild-type (WT) controls at three ages, 3, 9 and 18 months, representing different stages in the development of pathology in this model. Having verified that the London mutation mice overexpressed amyloid precursor protein and β-amyloid, we found that the expression of the smallest isoform of PICALM, a key protein involved in the regulation of clathrin-coated pit formation, was significantly increased in WT mice, but decreased in the London mutation mice with age. PICALM levels in WT 18-month mice and clathrin levels in WT 9-month mice were significantly higher than those in the London mutation mice of the same ages. The expression of caveolin-1, involved in clathrin-independent endocytosis, was significantly increased with age in all mice. Our results suggest that endocytic processes could be altered by the ageing process and such changes could partly explain the association between ageing and AD.

  4. Transcriptome signature of the adult mouse choroid plexus

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    Marques Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the gene expression profile of several tissues in humans and in rodent animal models has been explored, analysis of the complete choroid plexus (CP transcriptome is still lacking. A better characterization of the CP transcriptome can provide key insights into its functions as one of the barriers that separate the brain from the periphery and in the production of cerebrospinal fluid. Methods This work extends further what is known about the mouse CP transcriptome through a microarray analysis of CP tissue from normal mice under physiological conditions. Results We found that the genes most highly expressed are those implicated in energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and in ribosomal function, which is in agreement with the secretory nature of the CP. On the other hand, genes encoding for immune mediators are among those with lower expression in basal conditions. In addition, we found genes known to be relevant during brain development, and not previously identified to be expressed in the CP, including those encoding for various axonal guidance and angiogenesis molecules and for growth factors. Some of these are known to influence the neural stem cell niche in the subventricular zone, highlighting the involvement of the CP as a likely modulator of neurogenesis. Interestingly, our observations confirm that the CP transcriptome is unique, displaying low homology with that of other tissues. Of note, we describe here that the closest similarity is with the transcriptome of the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Conclusions Based on the data presented here, it will now be possible to further explore the function of particular proteins of the CP secretome in health and in disease.

  5. Differential Structural Development of Adult-Born Septal Hippocampal Granule Cells in the Thy1-GFP Mouse, Nuclear Size as a New Index of Maturation.

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    Tijana Radic

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is frequently studied in the mouse hippocampus. We examined the morphological development of adult-born, immature granule cells in the suprapyramidal blade of the septal dentate gyrus over the period of 7-77 days after mitosis with BrdU-labeling in 6-weeks-old male Thy1-GFP mice. As Thy1-GFP expression was restricted to maturated granule cells, it was combined with doublecortin-immunolabeling of immature granule cells. We developed a novel classification system that is easily applicable and enables objective and direct categorization of newborn granule cells based on the degree of dendritic development in relation to the layer specificity of the dentate gyrus. The structural development of adult-generated granule cells was correlated with age, albeit with notable differences in the time course of development between individual cells. In addition, the size of the nucleus, immunolabeled with the granule cell specific marker Prospero-related homeobox 1 gene, was a stable indicator of the degree of a cell's structural maturation and could be used as a straightforward parameter of granule cell development. Therefore, further studies could employ our doublecortin-staging system and nuclear size measurement to perform investigations of morphological development in combination with functional studies of adult-born granule cells. Furthermore, the Thy1-GFP transgenic mouse model can be used as an additional investigation tool because the reporter gene labels granule cells that are 4 weeks or older, while very young cells could be visualized through the immature marker doublecortin. This will enable comparison studies regarding the structure and function between young immature and older matured granule cells.

  6. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of vinclozolin induced mouse adult onset disease and associated sperm epigenome biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R; Haque, Md M; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MRI visualization of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration along the RMS in the adult mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreys, Ruth; Vande Velde, Greetje; Krylychkina, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The adult rodent brain contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs), generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), which migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to visualize endogenous NPC migration...... by a longitudinal MRI study and validated with histology. Here, we visualized endogenous NPC migration in the mouse brain by in vivo MRI and demonstrated accumulation of MPIO-labeled NPCs in the OB over time with ex vivo MRI. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of in situ injection of MPIOs on adult...

  8. Adult Mouse Liver Contains Two Distinct Populations of Cholangiocytes

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    Bin Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biliary system plays an important role in several acquired and genetic disorders of the liver. We have previously shown that biliary duct epithelium contains cells giving rise to proliferative Lgr5+ organoids in vitro. However, it remained unknown whether all biliary cells or only a specific subset had this clonogenic activity. The cell surface protease ST14 was identified as a positive marker for the clonogenic subset of cholangiocytes and was used to separate clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Only ST14hi duct cells had the ability to generate organoids that could be serially passaged. The gene expression profiles of clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells were similar, but several hundred genes were differentially expressed. RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that clonogenic duct cells are interspersed among regular biliary epithelium at a ∼1:3 ratio. We conclude that adult murine cholangiocytes can be subdivided into two populations differing in their proliferative capacity.

  9. The influence of chronic stress on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function in different human GFAP-ApoE transgenic adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Tao; Zhao, Jun; Fang, Hui; Liu, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele (ApoE4) is an important genetic risk factor for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors such as stress may play a critical role in AD pathogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive changes in different human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE transgenic adult male mice under chronic stress conditions. On the open field test, anxiety-like behavior was increased in the non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice relative to the corresponding GFAP-ApoE3 (ApoE ɛ3 allele) mice. Anxiety-like behavior was increased in the stressed GFAP-ApoE3 mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE3 mice, but was unexpectedly decreased in the stressed GFAP-ApoE4 mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 mice. On the novel object recognition task, both GFAP-ApoE4 and GFAP-ApoE3 mice exhibited long-term non-spatial memory impairment after chronic stress. Interestingly, short-term non-spatial memory impairment (based on the novel object recognition task) was observed only in the stressed GFAP-ApoE4 male mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice. In addition, short-term spatial memory impairment was observed in the stressed GFAP-ApoE3 transgenic male mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE3 transgenic male mice; however, short-term spatial memory performance of GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic male mice was not reduced compared to non-stressed control mice based on the Y-maze task. In conclusion, our findings suggested that chronic stress affects anxiety-like behavior and spatial and non-spatial memory in GFAP-ApoE transgenic mice in an ApoE isoform-dependent manner.

  10. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity and skeletal muscle metabolism in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Flynn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were analyzed for exercise capacity by involuntary treadmill running. To assess oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, we performed indirect calorimetry, monitored blood glucose and lactate levels, and performed histochemical analyses on muscle fibers. Surprisingly, we found that Myog-deleted mice performed significantly better than controls in high- and low-intensity treadmill running. This enhanced exercise capacity was due to more efficient oxidative metabolism during low- and high-intensity exercise and more efficient glycolytic metabolism during high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, Myog-deleted mice had an enhanced response to long-term voluntary exercise training on running wheels. We identified several candidate genes whose expression was altered in exercise-stressed muscle of mice lacking myogenin. The results suggest that myogenin plays a critical role as a high-level transcriptional regulator to control the energy balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in adult skeletal muscle.

  11. An adult passive transfer mouse model to study desmoglein 3 signaling in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Katja; Galichet, Arnaud; Sayar, Beyza S; Scothern, Anthea; Howald, Denise; Zymann, Hillard; Siffert, Myriam; Zenhäusern, Denise; Bolli, Reinhard; Koch, Peter J; Garrod, David; Suter, Maja M; Müller, Eliane J

    2012-02-01

    Evidence has accumulated that changes in intracellular signaling downstream of desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) may have a significant role in epithelial blistering in the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Currently, most studies on PV involve passive transfer of pathogenic antibodies into neonatal mice that have not finalized epidermal morphogenesis, and do not permit analysis of mature hair follicles (HFs) and stem cell niches. To investigate Dsg3 antibody-induced signaling in the adult epidermis at defined stages of the HF cycle, we developed a model with passive transfer of AK23 (a mouse monoclonal pathogenic anti-Dsg3 antibody) into adult 8-week-old C57Bl/6J mice. Validated using histopathological and molecular methods, we found that this model faithfully recapitulates major features described in PV patients and PV models. Two hours after AK23 transfer, we observed widening of intercellular spaces between desmosomes and EGFR activation, followed by increased Myc expression and epidermal hyperproliferation, desmosomal Dsg3 depletion, and predominant blistering in HFs and oral mucosa. These data confirm that the adult passive transfer mouse model is ideally suited for detailed studies of Dsg3 antibody-mediated signaling in adult skin, providing the basis for investigations on novel keratinocyte-specific therapeutic strategies.

  12. A transgenic approach to study argininosuccinate synthetase gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) participates in urea, nitric oxide and arginine production. Besides transcriptional regulation, a post-transcriptional regulation affecting nuclear precursor RNA stability has been reported. To study whether such post-transcriptional regulation underlines particular temporal and spatial ASS expression, and to investigate how human ASS gene behaves in a mouse background, a transgenic mouse system using a modified bacterial artificial chromosome carrying the human ASS gene tagged with EGFP was employed. Results Two lines of ASS-EGFP transgenic mice were generated: one with EGFP under transcriptional control similar to that of the endogenous ASS gene, another with EGFP under both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation as that of the endogenous ASS mRNA. EGFP expression in the liver, the organ for urea production, and in the intestine and kidney that are responsible for arginine biosynthesis, was examined. Organs taken from embryos E14.5 stage to young adult were examined under a fluorescence microscope either directly or after cryosectioning. The levels of EGFP and endogenous mouse Ass mRNAs were also quantified by S1 nuclease mapping. EGFP fluorescence and EGFP mRNA levels in both the liver and kidney were found to increase progressively from embryonic stage toward birth. In contrast, EGFP expression in the intestine was higher in neonates and started to decline at about 3 weeks after birth. Comparison between the EGFP profiles of the two transgenic lines indicated the developmental and tissue-specific regulation was mainly controlled at the transcriptional level. The ASS transgene was of human origin. EGFP expression in the liver followed essentially the mouse Ass pattern as evidenced by zonation distribution of fluorescence and the level of EGFP mRNA at birth. However, in the small intestine, Ass mRNA level declined sharply at 3 week of age, and yet substantial EGFP mRNA was still detectable at this stage

  13. Chronic caffeine treatment reverses memory impairment and the expression of brain BNDF and TrkB in the PS1/APP double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, KUN; JIA, NING; LI, JI; YANG, LI; MIN, LIAN-QIU

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying doses of caffeine on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF) and TrkB in PS1/APP double transgenic mouse models. PS1/APP double transgenic mice were administered 0.3 ml/day of saline, 1.5 mg/day of caffeine or 0.75 mg/day of caffeine for eight weeks. A water maze test and western blotting were used to determine the memory capability and expression of hippocampal BNDF and TrkB of the mice. The results demonstrated that 0.75 mg/day and 1.5 mg/day doses of caffeine significantly increased memory capability and the expression of hippocampal BDNF and TrkB in PS1/APP mice with a dose-response effect. The results suggested that chronic caffeine treatment may reverse memory impairment in PS1/APP transgenic mice, and BDNF and its receptor TrkB, may be involved in this process. PMID:23900282

  14. Distinct transmissibility features of TSE sources derived from ruminant prion diseases by the oral route in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4 overexpressing the ovine prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Arsac

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a misfolded form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP. Some of them, such as classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (BSE, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME, kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, are acquired by the oral route exposure to infected tissues. We investigated the possible transmission by the oral route of a panel of strains derived from ruminant prion diseases in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4 overexpressing the ovine prion protein (A136R154Q171 under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Sources derived from Nor98, CH1641 or 87V scrapie sources, as well as sources derived from L-type BSE or cattle-passaged TME, failed to transmit by the oral route, whereas those derived from classical BSE and classical scrapie were successfully transmitted. Apart from a possible effect of passage history of the TSE agent in the inocula, this implied the occurrence of subtle molecular changes in the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres following oral transmission that can raises concerns about our ability to correctly identify sheep that might be orally infected by the BSE agent in the field. Our results provide proof of principle that transgenic mouse models can be used to examine the transmissibility of TSE agents by the oral route, providing novel insights regarding the pathogenesis of prion diseases.

  15. Identification and characterization of adult mouse meniscus stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Shi, Rui Rui; Gendelman, Ashira; Mathewson, Dylan; Gamer, Jackson; Rosen, Vicki

    Meniscal damage is a common problem that accelerates the onset of knee osteoarthritis. Stem cell-based tissue engineering treatment approaches have shown promise in preserving meniscal tissue and restoring meniscal function. The purpose of our study was to identify meniscus-derived stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) from mouse, a model system that allows for in vivo analysis of the mechanisms underlying meniscal injury and healing. MSPCs were isolated from murine menisci grown in explant culture and characterized for stem cell properties. Flow cytometry was used to detect the presence of surface antigens related to stem cells, and qRT-PCR was used to examine the gene expression profile of MSPCs. Major proteins associated with MSPCs were localized in the adult mouse knee using immunohistochemistry. Our data show that MSPCs have universal stem cell-like properties including clonogenicity and multi-potentiality. MSPCs expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, Sca-1, CD90, and CD73 and when cultured had elevated levels of biglycan and collagen type I, important extracellular matrix components of adult meniscus. MSPC also expressed significant levels of Lox and Igf-1, genes associated with the embryonic meniscus. Localization studies showed staining for these same proteins in the superficial and outer zones of the adult mouse meniscus, regions thought to harbor endogenous repair cells. MSPCs represent a novel resident stem cell population in the murine meniscus. Analysis of MSPCs in mice will allow for a greater understanding of the cell biology of the meniscus, essential information for enhancing therapeutic strategies for treating knee joint injury and disease.

  16. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca2+ homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Arthur M.; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J.; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (...

  17. A novel type of self-beating cardiomyocytes in adult mouse ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the presence of resident heart cells that are distinct from terminally-differentiated cardiomyocytes. Adult mouse heart was coronary perfused with collagenase, and ventricles were excised and further digested. After spinning cardiomyocyte-containing fractions down, the supernatant fraction was collected and cultured without adding any chemicals. Two to five days after plating, some of rounded cells adhered to the culture dish, gradually changed their shape and then started self-beating. These self-beating cells did not appreciably proliferate but underwent a further morphological maturation process to form highly branched shapes with many projections. These cells were mostly multinucleated, well sarcomeric-organized and expressed cardiac marker proteins, defined as atypically-shaped cardiomyocytes (ACMs). Patch-clamp experiments revealed that ACMs exhibited spontaneous action potentials arising from the preceding slow diastolic depolarization. We thus found a novel type of resident heart cells in adult cardiac ventricles that spontaneously develop into self-beating cardiomyocytes.

  18. Cathepsin B-dependent motor neuron death after nerve injury in the adult mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li; Wu, Zhou; Baba, Masashi [Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Peters, Christoph [Institute fuer Molekulare Medizin und Zellforshung, Albert-Ludwings-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Uchiyama, Yasuo [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi, E-mail: nakan@dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Cathepsin B (CB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in neuron and glia. {yields} CB increased in hypogrossal nucleus neurons after nerve injury in adult mice. {yields} CB-deficiency significantly increased the mean survival ratio of injured neurons. {yields} Thus, CB plays a critical role in axotomy-induced neuronal death in adult mice. -- Abstract: There are significant differences in the rate of neuronal death after peripheral nerve injury between species. The rate of neuronal death of motor neurons after nerve injury in the adult rats is very low, whereas that in adult mice is relatively high. However, the understanding of the mechanism underlying axotomy-induced motor neuron death in adult mice is limited. Cathepsin B (CB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, has been implicated in three major morphologically distinct pathways of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death. The possible involvement of CB in the neuronal death of hypogrossal nucleus (HGN) neurons after nerve injury in adult mice was thus examined. Quantitative analyses showed the mean survival ratio of HGN neurons in CB-deficient (CB-/-) adult mice after nerve injury was significantly greater than that in the wild-type mice. At the same time, proliferation of microglia in the injured side of the HGN of CB-/- adult mice was markedly reduced compared with that in the wild-type mice. On the injured side of the HGN in the wild-type adult mice, both pro- and mature forms of CB markedly increased in accordance with the increase in the membrane-bound form of LC3 (LC3-II), a marker protein of autophagy. Furthermore, the increase in CB preceded an increase in the expression of Noxa, a major executor for axotomy-induced motor neuron death in the adult mouse. Conversely, expression of neither Noxa or LC3-II was observed in the HGN of adult CB-/- mice after nerve injury. These observations strongly suggest that CB plays a critical role in axotomy

  19. Cathepsin B-dependent motor neuron death after nerve injury in the adult mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Wu, Zhou; Baba, Masashi; Peters, Christoph; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cathepsin B (CB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in neuron and glia. → CB increased in hypogrossal nucleus neurons after nerve injury in adult mice. → CB-deficiency significantly increased the mean survival ratio of injured neurons. → Thus, CB plays a critical role in axotomy-induced neuronal death in adult mice. -- Abstract: There are significant differences in the rate of neuronal death after peripheral nerve injury between species. The rate of neuronal death of motor neurons after nerve injury in the adult rats is very low, whereas that in adult mice is relatively high. However, the understanding of the mechanism underlying axotomy-induced motor neuron death in adult mice is limited. Cathepsin B (CB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, has been implicated in three major morphologically distinct pathways of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death. The possible involvement of CB in the neuronal death of hypogrossal nucleus (HGN) neurons after nerve injury in adult mice was thus examined. Quantitative analyses showed the mean survival ratio of HGN neurons in CB-deficient (CB-/-) adult mice after nerve injury was significantly greater than that in the wild-type mice. At the same time, proliferation of microglia in the injured side of the HGN of CB-/- adult mice was markedly reduced compared with that in the wild-type mice. On the injured side of the HGN in the wild-type adult mice, both pro- and mature forms of CB markedly increased in accordance with the increase in the membrane-bound form of LC3 (LC3-II), a marker protein of autophagy. Furthermore, the increase in CB preceded an increase in the expression of Noxa, a major executor for axotomy-induced motor neuron death in the adult mouse. Conversely, expression of neither Noxa or LC3-II was observed in the HGN of adult CB-/- mice after nerve injury. These observations strongly suggest that CB plays a critical role in axotomy-induced mortor neuron

  20. Nogo-A is a reliable oligodendroglial marker in adult human and mouse CNS and in demyelinated lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Maruschak, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    to be strongly expressed in mature oligodendrocytes in vivo. In the present investigation we analyzed the expression patterns of Nogo-A in adult mouse and human CNS as well as in demyelinating animal models and multiple sclerosis lesions. Nogo-A expression was compared with that of other frequently used...... oligodendroglial markers such as CC1, CNP, and in situ hybridization for proteolipid protein mRNA. Nogo-A strongly and reliably labeled oligodendrocytes in the adult CNS as well as in demyelinating lesions and thus represents a valuable tool for the identification of oligodendrocytes in human and mouse CNS tissue...

  1. A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

  2. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples.

  3. Expression of the neuronal adaptor protein X11alpha protects against memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2010-01-01

    X11alpha is a neuronal-specific adaptor protein that binds to the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP). Overexpression of X11alpha reduces Abeta production but whether X11alpha also protects against Abeta-related memory dysfunction is not known. To test this possibility, we crossed X11alpha transgenic mice with AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice. AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice produce high levels of brain Abeta and develop age-related defects in memory function that correlate with increasing Abeta load. Overexpression of X11alpha alone had no detectable adverse effect upon behavior. However, X11alpha reduced brain Abeta levels and corrected spatial reference memory defects in aged X11alpha\\/AbetaPP double transgenics. Thus, X11alpha may be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  4. Evidence that a synthetic amyloid-ß oligomer-binding peptide (ABP) targets amyloid-ß deposits in transgenic mouse brain and human Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Balu; Ito, Shingo; Atkinson, Trevor; Gaudet, Chantal; Ménard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Whitfield, James

    2014-03-14

    The synthetic ~5 kDa ABP (amyloid-ß binding peptide) consists of a region of the 228 kDa human pericentrioloar material-1 (PCM-1) protein that selectively and avidly binds in vitro Aβ1-42 oligomers, believed to be key co-drivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not monomers (Chakravarthy et al., (2013) [3]). ABP also prevents Aß1-42 from triggering the apoptotic death of cultured human SHSY5Y neuroblasts, likely by sequestering Aß oligomers, suggesting that it might be a potential AD therapeutic. Here we support this possibility by showing that ABP also recognizes and binds Aβ1-42 aggregates in sections of cortices and hippocampi from brains of AD transgenic mice and human AD patients. More importantly, ABP targets Aβ1-42 aggregates when microinjected into the hippocampi of the brains of live AD transgenic mice. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging Detects Microstructural Alterations in Brain of alfa-Synuclein Overexpressing Transgenic Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khainar, A.; Latta, P.; Dražanová, Eva; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Szabó, N.; Arab, A.; Hutter-Paier, B.; Havas, D.; Windisch, M.; Šulcová, A.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Rektorová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2015), 281-289 ISSN 1029-8428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : diffusion kurtosis imaging * alfa-Synuclein * TNWT-61 * Parkinson’s disease * Transgenic mice * TBSS Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.140, year: 2015

  6. Generation of hyaline cartilaginous tissue from mouse adult dermal fibroblast culture by defined factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Sasagawa, Satoru; Outani, Hidetatsu; Nakagawa, Kanako; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Repair of cartilage injury with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical problem. Because of the limited number of chondrocytes in vivo, coupled with in vitro de-differentiation of chondrocytes into fibrochondrocytes, which secrete type I collagen and have an altered matrix architecture and mechanical function, there is a need for a novel cell source that produces hyaline cartilage. The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has provided a tool for reprogramming dermal fibroblasts to an undifferentiated state by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors. Here, we show that retroviral expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4) and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9) induces polygonal chondrogenic cells directly from adult dermal fibroblast cultures. Induced cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, i.e., the promoters of type I collagen genes were extensively methylated. Although some induced cell lines formed tumors when subcutaneously injected into nude mice, other induced cell lines generated stable homogenous hyaline cartilage–like tissue. Further, the doxycycline-inducible induction system demonstrated that induced cells are able to respond to chondrogenic medium by expressing endogenous Sox9 and maintain chondrogenic potential after substantial reduction of transgene expression. Thus, this approach could lead to the preparation of hyaline cartilage directly from skin, without generating iPS cells. PMID:21293062

  7. A human apoB100 transgenic mouse expresses human apoB100 in the RPE and develops features of early AMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujihara, Masashi; Bartels, Emil; Nielsen, Lars B

    2009-01-01

    changes consistent with early human AMD including loss of basal infoldings and accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the RPE, and basal laminar deposits containing long-spacing collagen and heterogeneous debris in Bruch membrane of apoB100 mice. In apoB100 mice given a high-fat diet, basal linear...... transgenic for a human genomic fragment encoding the full length human apoB ("apoB100" mice) and litter-mate control mice were given a normal chow or high-fat diet for 12 months. Mice were evaluated for human apoB mRNA expression in the RPE/choroid and liver by RT-qPCR. Phenotypic changes associated......-like deposits were identified in 12-month-old mice. Linear regression analysis showed that the genotype (human apoB transgene) was a stronger influencing factor than high-fat diet in producing AMD-like lesions used in this study. Human apoB100 transgenic mice overexpress apoB in RPE and, with time, develop...

  8. Hsf-1 affects podocyte markers NPHS1, NPHS2 and WT1 in a transgenic mouse model of TTRVal30Met-related amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Ioannis; Mavroeidi, Vasiliki; Stylianou, Kostas; Andronikidi, Eva; Lioudaki, Eirini; Perakis, Kostas; Stratigis, Spyridon; Vardaki, Eleftheria; Zafeiri, Maria; Giannakakis, Kostantinos; Plaitakis, Andreas; Amoiridis, George; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Daphnis, Eugene

    2013-09-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy is characterized by transthyretin (TTR) deposition in various tissues, including the kidneys. While deposition induces organ dysfunction, renal involvement in TTR-related amyloidosis could manifest from proteinuria to end-stage kidney failure. As proteinuria is considered result of glomerular filtration barrier injury we investigated whether TTR deposition affects either glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or podocytes. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and gene expression studies for nephrin, podocin and WT1 were run on renal tissue from human-TTRV30M transgenic mice hemizygous or homozygous for heat shock factor one (Hsf-1). Transmission electron microscopy was used for evaluation of podocyte foot process width (PFW) and GBM thickness in Hsf-1 hemizygous mice with or without TTRV30M or amyloid deposition. Glomeruli of hsf-1 hemizygous transgenic mice showed lower nephrin and podocin protein levels but an increased podocyte number when compared to Hsf-1 homozygous transgenic mice. Nephrin, podocin and WT1 gene expression levels were unaffected by the Hsf-1 carrier status. TTRV30M deposition was associated with increased PFW and GBM thickness. Under the effect of Hsf-1 hemizygosity, TTRV30M deposition has deleterious effects on GBM thickness, PFW and slit diaphragm composition, without affecting nephrin and podocin gene expression.

  9. The effect of PN-1, a Traditional Chinese Prescription, on the Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is a complete medical system that has been practiced for more than 3000 years. Prescription number 1 (PN-1 consists of several Chinese medicines and is designed according to TCM theories to treat patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The evidence of clinical practice suggests the benefit effects of PN-1 on cognitive deficits of dementia patients. We try to prove and explain this by using contemporary methodology and transgenic animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The behavioral studies were developed to evaluate the memory of transgenic animals after intragastric administration of PN-1 for 3 months. Amyloid beta-protein (Aβ neuropathology was quantified using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The western blotting was used to detect the levels of plasticity associated proteins. The safety of PN-1 on mice was also assessed through multiple parameters. Results showed that PN-1 could effectively relieve learning and memory impairment of transgenic animals. Possible mechanisms showed that PN-1 could significantly reduce plaque burden and Aβ levels and boost synaptic plasticity. Our observations showed that PN-1 could improve learning and memory ability through multiple mechanisms without detectable side effects on mice. We propose that PN-1 is a promising alternative treatment for AD in the future.

  10. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is required for myeloid progenitor cell homeostasis in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzonka, Laura; Ullas, Sumana; Chinnam, Meenalakshmi; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Fisher, Daniel T; Golding, Michelle; Appenheimer, Michelle M; Nemeth, Michael J; Evans, Sharon; Goodrich, David W

    2014-01-01

    Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover.

  11. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is required for myeloid progenitor cell homeostasis in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pitzonka

    Full Text Available Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover.

  12. Expression of the Norrie disease gene (Ndp) in developing and adult mouse eye, ear, and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Smallwood, Philip; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The Norrie disease gene (Ndp) codes for a secreted protein, Norrin, that activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to its receptor, Frizzled-4. This signaling system is required for normal vascular development in the retina and for vascular survival in the cochlea. In mammals, the pattern of Ndp expression beyond the retina is poorly defined due to the low abundance of Norrin mRNA and protein. Here, we characterize Ndp expression during mouse development by studying a knock-in mouse that carries the coding sequence of human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) inserted at the Ndp locus (Ndp(AP)). In the CNS, Ndp(AP) expression is apparent by E10.5 and is dynamic and complex. The anatomically delimited regions of Ndp(AP) expression observed prenatally in the CNS are replaced postnatally by widespread expression in astrocytes in the forebrain and midbrain, Bergman glia in the cerebellum, and Müller glia in the retina. In the developing and adult cochlea, Ndp(AP) expression is closely associated with two densely vascularized regions, the stria vascularis and a capillary plexus between the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion. These observations suggest the possibility that Norrin may have developmental and/or homeostatic functions beyond the retina and cochlea. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Meis1 Is Required for Adult Mouse Erythropoiesis, Megakaryopoiesis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Erin Miller

    Full Text Available Meis1 is recognized as an important transcriptional regulator in hematopoietic development and is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia, both as a Hox transcription factor co-factor and independently. Despite the emerging recognition of Meis1's importance in the context of both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis, there is not yet a full understanding of Meis1's functions and the relevant pathways and genes mediating its functions. Recently, several conditional mouse models for Meis1 have been established. These models highlight a critical role for Meis1 in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS as a mediator of Meis1 function in this compartment. There are, however, several reported differences between these studies in terms of downstream progenitor populations impacted and effectors of function. In this study, we describe further characterization of a conditional knockout model based on mice carrying a loxP-flanked exon 8 of Meis1 which we crossed onto the inducible Cre localization/expression strains, B6;129-Gt(ROSA26Sor(tm1(Cre/ERTNat/J or B6.Cg-Tg(Mx1-Cre1Cgn/J. Findings obtained from these two inducible Meis1 knockout models confirm and extend previous reports of the essential role of Meis1 in adult HSC maintenance and expansion and provide new evidence that highlights key roles of Meis1 in both megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. Gene expression analyses point to a number of candidate genes involved in Meis1's role in hematopoiesis. Our data additionally support recent evidence of a role of Meis1 in ROS regulation.

  14. Organotypic hippocampal slice culture from the adult mouse brain: a versatile tool for translational neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjeong; Kim, Eosu; Park, Minsun; Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee

    2013-03-05

    One of the most significant barriers towards translational neuropsychiatry would be an unavailability of living brain tissues. Although organotypic brain tissue culture could be a useful alternative enabling observation of temporal changes induced by various drugs in living brain tissues, a proper method to establish a stable organotypic brain slice culture system using adult (rather than neonatal) hippocampus has been still elusive. In this study, we evaluated our simple method using the serum-free culture medium for successful adult organotypic hippocampal slice culture. Several tens of hippocampal slices from a single adult mouse (3-5 months old) were cultured in serum-free versus serum-containing conventional culture medium for 30 days and underwent various experiments to validate the effects of the existence of serum in the culture medium. Neither the excessive regression of neuronal viability nor metabolic deficiency was observed in the serum-free medium culture in contrast to the serum-containing medium culture. Despite such viability, newly generated immature neurons were scarcely detected in the serum-free culture, suggesting that the original neurons in the brain slice persist rather than being replaced by neurogenesis. Key structural features of in vivo neural tissue constituting astrocytes, neural processes, and pre- and post-synapses were also well preserved in the serum-free culture. In conclusion, using the serum-free culture medium, the adult hippocampal slice culture system will serve as a promising ex vivo tool for various fields of neuroscience, especially for studies on aging-related neuropsychiatric disorders or for high throughput screening of potential agents working against such disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecdysone Receptor-based Singular Gene Switches for Regulated Transgene Expression in Cells and Adult Rodent Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoghyun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled gene expression is an indispensable technique in biomedical research. Here, we report a convenient, straightforward, and reliable way to induce expression of a gene of interest with negligible background expression compared to the most widely used tetracycline (Tet-regulated system. Exploiting a Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR-based gene regulatory system, we generated nonviral and adenoviral singular vectors designated as pEUI(+ and pENTR-EUI, respectively, which contain all the required elements to guarantee regulated transgene expression (GAL4-miniVP16-EcR, termed GvEcR hereafter, and 10 tandem repeats of an upstream activation sequence promoter followed by a multiple cloning site. Through the transient and stable transfection of mammalian cell lines with reporter genes, we validated that tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist, reversibly induced gene expression, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with negligible background expression. In addition, we created an adenovirus derived from the pENTR-EUI vector that readily infected not only cultured cells but also rodent tissues and was sensitive to tebufenozide treatment for regulated transgene expression. These results suggest that EcR-based singular gene regulatory switches would be convenient tools for the induction of gene expression in cells and tissues in a tightly controlled fashion.

  16. Wnt3 and Gata4 regulate axon regeneration in adult mouse DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Run-Shan; Liu, Pei-Pei; Xi, Feng; Wang, Wei-Hua; Tang, Gang-Bin; Wang, Rui-Ying; Saijilafu; Liu, Chang-Mei

    2018-05-05

    Neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS) have a poor intrinsic axon growth potential after injury, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Wingless-related mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (WNT) family members regulate neural stem cell proliferation, axon tract and forebrain development in the nervous system. Here we report that Wnt3 is an important modulator of axon regeneration. Downregulation or overexpression of Wnt3 in adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons enhances or inhibits their axon regeneration ability respectively in vitro and in vivo. Especially, we show that Wnt3 modulates axon regeneration by repressing mRNA translation of the important transcription factor Gata4 via binding to the three prime untranslated region (3'UTR). Downregulation of Gata4 could restore the phenotype exhibited by Wnt3 downregulation in DRG neurons. Taken together, these data indicate that Wnt3 is a key intrinsic regulator of axon growth ability of the nervous system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic Remodeling of Pericytes In Vivo Maintains Capillary Coverage in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrée-Anne Berthiaume

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Direct contact and communication between pericytes and endothelial cells is critical for maintenance of cerebrovascular stability and blood-brain barrier function. Capillary pericytes have thin processes that reach hundreds of micrometers along the capillary bed. The processes of adjacent pericytes come in close proximity but do not overlap, yielding a cellular chain with discrete territories occupied by individual pericytes. Little is known about whether this pericyte chain is structurally dynamic in the adult brain. Using in vivo two-photon imaging in adult mouse cortex, we show that while pericyte somata were immobile, the tips of their processes underwent extensions and/or retractions over days. The selective ablation of single pericytes provoked exuberant extension of processes from neighboring pericytes to contact uncovered regions of the endothelium. Uncovered capillary regions had normal barrier function but were dilated until pericyte contact was regained. Pericyte structural plasticity may be critical for cerebrovascular health and warrants detailed investigation. : Pericyte-endothelial contact is important for many aspects of cerebrovascular health. Berthiaume et al. use longitudinal two-photon imaging to show that the processes of brain capillary pericytes are structurally plastic in vivo. Their processes can grow hundreds of micrometers to ensure contact with exposed endothelium following ablation of a single pericyte. Keywords: capillary, pericyte, endothelium, blood-brain barrier, blood flow, plasticity, two-photon imaging, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, stroke

  18. Cell proliferation, movement and differentiation during maintenance of the adult mouse adrenal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ping Chang

    Full Text Available Appropriate maintenance and regeneration of adult endocrine organs is important in both normal physiology and disease. We investigated cell proliferation, movement and differentiation in the adult mouse adrenal cortex, using different 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU labelling regimens and immunostaining for phenotypic steroidogenic cell markers. Pulse-labelling showed that cell division was largely confined to the outer cortex, with most cells moving inwards towards the medulla at around 13-20 µm per day, though a distinct labelled cell population remained in the outer 10% of the cortex. Pulse-chase-labelling coupled with phenotypic immunostaining showed that, unlike cells in the inner cortex, most BrdU-positive outer cortical cells did not express steroidogenic markers, while co-staining for BrdU and Ki67 revealed that some outer cortical BrdU-positive cells were induced to proliferate following acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH treatment. Extended pulse-chase-labelling identified cells in the outer cortex which retained BrdU label for up to 18-23 weeks. Together, these observations are consistent with the location of both slow-cycling stem/progenitor and transiently amplifying cell populations in the outer cortex. Understanding the relationships between these distinct adrenocortical cell populations will be crucial to clarify mechanisms underpinning adrenocortical maintenance and long-term adaptation to pathophysiological states.

  19. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Sapra, Geeta; Patterson, Natalie L; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Ueyama, Tomomi; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC). Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  20. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca C Bernardo

    Full Text Available Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF. AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC. Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  1. A subchronic feeding safety evaluation of transgenic milk containing human β-defensin 3 on reproductive system of C57BL/6J mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming-Qing; Zhang, Ruiqi; Yang, Yange; Luo, Yuru; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Yingli; Zhang, Yong; Qing, Suzhu

    2018-05-01

    Bovine mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland which has been generally treated by antibiotic delivery. While the increasing drug-resistant bacteria and the high consumption of the antibiotic had become a noticeable concern. In a previous study, a mammary special vector expressing human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts to produce mastitis-resistant bovine. This investigation focused on potential unintended effects of transgenic milk containing hBD3 produced by these mastitis-resistant bovine on the reproductive system of C57BL/6J mice. Mice were fed with diets containing transgenic milk or conventional milk, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet for 90 days, and non-milk diet was selected as the negative group. The reproductive system was given special attention including reproductive organ/body ratios, necropsy and histopathology, serum sex hormone, sperm parameters, estrus cycle and the expression level of some specific genes which could indicate the development and function of reproductive system. No diet-related significant differences were observed among three groups in this 90-day feeding study. The results indicated that hBD3 milk does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in C57BL/6J rats compared with conventional milk or the control diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodistribution studies of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-directed monoclonal antibodies in the EpCAM-transgenic mouse tumor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosterink, Jos G. W.; McLaughlin, Pamela M. J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Hendrikse, Harry H.; Van Zanten, Jacoba; Van Garderen, Evert; Harmsen, Martin C.; De Leij, Lou F. M. H.

    2007-01-01

    The human pancarcinoma-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) (EGP-2, CO17-1A) is a well-known target for carcinoma-directed immunotherapy. Mouse-derived mAbs directed to EpCAM have been used to treat colon carcinoma patients showing well-tolerable toxic side effects but limited

  3. Thy1.2 YFP-16 transgenic mouse labels a subset of large-diameter sensory neurons that lack TRPV1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Taylor-Clark

    Full Text Available The Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse expresses yellow fluorescent protein (YFP in specific subsets of peripheral and central neurons. The original characterization of this model suggested that YFP was expressed in all sensory neurons, and this model has been subsequently used to study sensory nerve structure and function. Here, we have characterized the expression of YFP in the sensory ganglia (DRG, trigeminal and vagal of the Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse, using biochemical, functional and anatomical analyses. Despite previous reports, we found that YFP was only expressed in approximately half of DRG and trigeminal neurons and less than 10% of vagal neurons. YFP-expression was only found in medium and large-diameter neurons that expressed neurofilament but not TRPV1. YFP-expressing neurons failed to respond to selective agonists for TRPV1, P2X(2/3 and TRPM8 channels in Ca2+ imaging assays. Confocal analysis of glabrous skin, hairy skin of the back and ear and skeletal muscle indicated that YFP was expressed in some peripheral terminals with structures consistent with their presumed non-nociceptive nature. In summary, the Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse expresses robust YFP expression in only a subset of sensory neurons. But this mouse model is not suitable for the study of nociceptive nerves or the function of such nerves in pain and neuropathies.

  4. Rhythmic ganglion cell activity in bleached and blind adult mouse retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzler, Jacob; Channappa, Lakshmi; Zeck, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    In retinitis pigmentosa--a degenerative disease which often leads to incurable blindness--the loss of photoreceptors deprives the retina from a continuous excitatory input, the so-called dark current. In rodent models of this disease this deprivation leads to oscillatory electrical activity in the remaining circuitry, which is reflected in the rhythmic spiking of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It remained unclear, however, if the rhythmic RGC activity is attributed to circuit alterations occurring during photoreceptor degeneration or if rhythmic activity is an intrinsic property of healthy retinal circuitry which is masked by the photoreceptor's dark current. Here we tested these hypotheses by inducing and analysing oscillatory activity in adult healthy (C57/Bl6) and blind mouse retinas (rd10 and rd1). Rhythmic RGC activity in healthy retinas was detected upon partial photoreceptor bleaching using an extracellular high-density multi-transistor-array. The mean fundamental spiking frequency in bleached retinas was 4.3 Hz; close to the RGC rhythm detected in blind rd10 mouse retinas (6.5 Hz). Crosscorrelation analysis of neighbouring wild-type and rd10 RGCs (separation distance rhythmic RGC spiking in these retinas is driven by a network of presynaptic neurons. The inhibition of glutamatergic ganglion cell input or the inhibition of gap junctional coupling abolished the rhythmic pattern. In rd10 and rd1 retinas the presynaptic network leads to local field potentials, whereas in bleached retinas additional pharmacological disinhibition is required to achieve detectable field potentials. Our results demonstrate that photoreceptor bleaching unmasks oscillatory activity in healthy retinas which shares many features with the functional phenotype detected in rd10 retinas. The quantitative physiological differences advance the understanding of the degeneration process and may guide future rescue strategies.

  5. Adult plasticity in the subcortical auditory pathway of the maternal mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Miranda

    Full Text Available Subcortical auditory nuclei were traditionally viewed as non-plastic in adulthood so that acoustic information could be stably conveyed to higher auditory areas. Studies in a variety of species, including humans, now suggest that prolonged acoustic training can drive long-lasting brainstem plasticity. The neurobiological mechanisms for such changes are not well understood in natural behavioral contexts due to a relative dearth of in vivo animal models in which to study this. Here, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a natural life experience with increased demands on the auditory system - motherhood - is associated with improved temporal processing in the subcortical auditory pathway. We measured the auditory brainstem response to test whether mothers and pup-naïve virgin mice differed in temporal responses to both broadband and tone stimuli, including ultrasonic frequencies found in mouse pup vocalizations. Mothers had shorter latencies for early ABR peaks, indicating plasticity in the auditory nerve and the cochlear nucleus. Shorter interpeak latency between waves IV and V also suggest plasticity in the inferior colliculus. Hormone manipulations revealed that these cannot be explained solely by estrogen levels experienced during pregnancy and parturition in mothers. In contrast, we found that pup-care experience, independent of pregnancy and parturition, contributes to shortening auditory brainstem response latencies. These results suggest that acoustic experience in the maternal context imparts plasticity on early auditory processing that lasts beyond pup weaning. In addition to establishing an animal model for exploring adult auditory brainstem plasticity in a neuroethological context, our results have broader implications for models of perceptual, behavioral and neural changes that arise during maternity, where subcortical sensorineural plasticity has not previously been considered.

  6. Adult plasticity in the subcortical auditory pathway of the maternal mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jason A; Shepard, Kathryn N; McClintock, Shannon K; Liu, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Subcortical auditory nuclei were traditionally viewed as non-plastic in adulthood so that acoustic information could be stably conveyed to higher auditory areas. Studies in a variety of species, including humans, now suggest that prolonged acoustic training can drive long-lasting brainstem plasticity. The neurobiological mechanisms for such changes are not well understood in natural behavioral contexts due to a relative dearth of in vivo animal models in which to study this. Here, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a natural life experience with increased demands on the auditory system - motherhood - is associated with improved temporal processing in the subcortical auditory pathway. We measured the auditory brainstem response to test whether mothers and pup-naïve virgin mice differed in temporal responses to both broadband and tone stimuli, including ultrasonic frequencies found in mouse pup vocalizations. Mothers had shorter latencies for early ABR peaks, indicating plasticity in the auditory nerve and the cochlear nucleus. Shorter interpeak latency between waves IV and V also suggest plasticity in the inferior colliculus. Hormone manipulations revealed that these cannot be explained solely by estrogen levels experienced during pregnancy and parturition in mothers. In contrast, we found that pup-care experience, independent of pregnancy and parturition, contributes to shortening auditory brainstem response latencies. These results suggest that acoustic experience in the maternal context imparts plasticity on early auditory processing that lasts beyond pup weaning. In addition to establishing an animal model for exploring adult auditory brainstem plasticity in a neuroethological context, our results have broader implications for models of perceptual, behavioral and neural changes that arise during maternity, where subcortical sensorineural plasticity has not previously been considered.

  7. Fictive locomotion in the adult decerebrate and spinal mouse in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; Grøndahl, Lillian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, transgenic mice have been created with mutations affecting the components of the mammalian spinal central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion, however, it has currently only been possible to evoke fictive locomotion in mice, using neonatal in vitro preparations. Here, we demonstrate...... organisation and allowing for future results in transgenic mice to be extrapolated to existing knowledge of CPG components and circuitry obtained in larger species....

  8. Evidence of functional duplicity of Nestin expression in the adult mouse midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Farzanehfar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD. Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study. Adult (>8-weeks old transgenic NesCreERT2/GtROSA or NesCreERT2/R26eYFP mice were used to permanently label Nestin-expressing cells and their progeny with β-galactosidase (β-gal or enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP, respectively. Most β-gal+ or eYFP+ cells were found in the ependymal lining of the midbrain aqueduct (Aq and in the midline ventral to Aq. Smaller but significant numbers were in the periaqueductal gray (PAG, the ventral tegmental area (VTA, and in SNc. Low-level basal proliferation was evidenced by a modest increase in number of β-gal+ or eYFP+ cells over time, fewer β-gal+ or eYFP+ cells when mice were administered the anti-mitotic agent Cytarabine, and incorporation of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU in a very small number of β-gal+ cells. No evidence of migration was found, including no immunoreactivity against the migration markers doublecortin (DCX or polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM, and no dispersal of β-gal+ or eYFP+ cells through the midbrain parenchyma over time. However, β-gal+ or eYFP+ cells did increase in size and express higher levels of mature neuronal genes over time, indicating growth and neuronal differentiation. In mice whose SNc dopamine neurons had been depleted with 6-hydroxy-dopamine, a model of PD, there were ~2-fold more β-gal+ cells in SNc specifically, although the proportion that were also NeuN+ was not affected

  9. Transplantation of adult mouse iPS cell-derived photoreceptor precursors restores retinal structure and function in degenerative mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd A Tucker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine whether adult mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, could be used to produce retinal precursors and subsequently photoreceptor cells for retinal transplantation to restore retinal function in degenerative hosts. iPSCs were generated using adult dsRed mouse dermal fibroblasts via retroviral induction of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, KLF4 and c-Myc. As with normal mouse ES cells, adult dsRed iPSCs expressed the pluripotency genes SSEA1, Oct4, Sox2, KLF4, c-Myc and Nanog. Following transplantation into the eye of immune-compromised retinal degenerative mice these cells proceeded to form teratomas containing tissue comprising all three germ layers. At 33 days post-differentiation a large proportion of the cells expressed the retinal progenitor cell marker Pax6 and went on to express the photoreceptor markers, CRX, recoverin, and rhodopsin. When tested using calcium imaging these cells were shown to exhibit characteristics of normal retinal physiology, responding to delivery of neurotransmitters. Following subretinal transplantation into degenerative hosts differentiated iPSCs took up residence in the retinal outer nuclear layer and gave rise to increased electro retinal function as determined by ERG and functional anatomy. As such, adult fibroblast-derived iPSCs provide a viable source for the production of retinal precursors to be used for transplantation and treatment of retinal degenerative disease.

  10. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  11. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  12. TGF-β1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Barron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is overexpressed in wound repair and in most proliferative disorders including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The stromal microenvironment at these sites is reactive and typified by altered phenotype, matrix deposition, inflammatory responses, and alterations in nerve density and biology. TGF-β1 is known to modulate several stromal responses; however there are few transgenic models to study its integrated biology. To address the actions of TGF-β1 in prostate disorders, we targeted expression of an epitope tagged and constitutively active TGF-β1 via the enhanced probasin promoter to the murine prostate gland epithelium. Transgenic mice developed age-dependent lesions leading to severe, yet focal attenuation of epithelium, and a discontinuous basal lamina. These changes were associated with elevated fibroplasia and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels. Elevated recruitment of CD115+ myeloid cells but not mature macrophages was observed in nerve ganglia, also in an age-dependent manner. Similar phenotypic changes were observed using a human prostate epithelium tissue recombination xenograft model, where epithelial cells engineered to overexpress TGF-β1 induced fibrosis and altered matrix deposition concurrent with inflammation in the stromal compartment. Together, these data suggest that elevated TGF-β1 expression induces a fibroplasia stromal response associated with breach of epithelial wall structure and inflammatory involvement of nerve ganglia and vessels. The novel findings of ganglia and vessel inflammation associated with formation of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini is important as each of these are observed in human prostate carcinoma and may play a role in disease progression.

  13. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on sleep and brain interstitial fluid amyloid-β in an APP transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fan; Zhang, Tony J; Mahan, Thomas E; Jiang, Hong; Holtzman, David M

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impairment of cognitive function, extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss. There is substantial evidence that the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD and that Aβ aggregation is a concentration dependent process. Recently, it was found that Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) are regulated by the sleep-wake cycle in both humans and mice; ISF Aβ is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep. Intracerebroventricular infusion of orexin increased wakefulness and ISF Aβ levels, and chronic sleep deprivation significantly increased Aβ plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APP) mice. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a well-documented sleep regulatory substance which promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep. GHRHR(lit/lit) mice that lack functional GHRH receptor have shorter sleep duration and longer wakefulness during light periods. The current study was undertaken to determine whether manipulating sleep by interfering with GHRH signaling affects brain ISF Aβ levels in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (PS1APP) transgenic mice that overexpress mutant forms of APP and PSEN1 that cause autosomal dominant AD. We found that intraperitoneal injection of GHRH at dark onset increased sleep and decreased ISF Aβ and that delivery of a GHRH antagonist via reverse-microdialysis suppressed sleep and increased ISF Aβ. The diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/lit) mice was significantly smaller than that in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/+) mice. However despite decreased sleep in GHRHR deficient mice, this was not associated with an increase in Aβ accumulation later in life. One of several possibilities for the finding is the fact that GHRHR deficient mice have GHRH-dependent but sleep-independent factors which protect against Aβ deposition. Copyright © 2014

  14. A Protein Aggregation Inhibitor, Leuco-Methylthioninium Bis(Hydromethanesulfonate, Decreases α-Synuclein Inclusions in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Synucleinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Schwab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein (α-Syn aggregation is a pathological feature of synucleinopathies, neurodegenerative disorders that include Parkinson’s disease (PD. We have tested whether N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-10H-phenothiazine-3,7-diaminium bis(hydromethanesulfonate (leuco-methylthioninium bis(hydromethanesulfonate; LMTM, a tau aggregation inhibitor, affects α-Syn aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Both cellular and transgenic models in which the expression of full-length human α-Syn (h-α-Syn fused with a signal sequence peptide to promote α-Syn aggregation were used. Aggregated α-Syn was observed following differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells transfected with h-α-Syn. The appearance of aggregated α-Syn was inhibited by LMTM, with an EC50 of 1.1 μM, with minimal effect on h-α-Syn mRNA levels being observed. Two independent lines of mice (L58 and L62 transgenic for the same fusion protein accumulated neuronal h-α-Syn that, with aging, developed into fibrillary inclusions characterized by both resistance to proteinase K (PK-cleavage and their ability to bind thiazin red. There was a significant decrease in α-Syn-positive neurons in multiple brain regions following oral treatment of male and female mice with LMTM administered daily for 6 weeks at 5 and 15 mg MT/kg. The early aggregates of α-Syn and the late-stage fibrillar inclusions were both susceptible to inhibition by LMTM, a treatment that also resulted in the rescue of movement and anxiety-related traits in these mice. The results suggest that LMTM may provide a potential disease modification therapy in PD and other synucleinopathies through the inhibition of α-Syn aggregation.

  15. The Vaginal Acquisition and Dissemination of HIV-1 Infection in a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model Is Facilitated by Coinfection with Herpes Simplex Virus 2 and Is Inhibited by Microbicide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Kieran; Khajoueinejad, Nazanin; Zheng, Jian Hua; Kiser, Patrick; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Herold, Betsy; Goldstein, Harris

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection significantly increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition, thereby contributing to the expanding HIV-1 epidemic. To investigate whether HSV-2 infection directly facilitates mucosal HIV-1 acquisition, we used our transgenic hCD4/R5/cT1 mouse model which circumvents major entry and transcription blocks preventing murine HIV-1 infection by targeting transgenic expression of human CD4, CCR5, and cyclin T1 genes to CD4(+) T cells and myeloid-committed cells. Productive infection of mucosal leukocytes, predominantly CD4(+) T cells, was detected in all hCD4/R5/cT1 mice intravaginally challenged with an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, HIV-Du151.2env-NLuc, which expresses an env gene (C.Du151.2) cloned from an acute heterosexually infected woman and a NanoLuc luciferase reporter gene. Lower genital tract HIV-1 infection after HIV-Du151.2env-NLuc intravaginal challenge was increased ~4-fold in hCD4/R5/cT1 mice coinfected with HSV-2. Furthermore, HIV-1 dissemination to draining lymph nodes was detected only in HSV-2-coinfected mice. HSV-2 infection stimulated local infiltration and activation of CD4(+) T cells and dendritic cells, likely contributing to the enhanced HIV-1 infection and dissemination in HSV-2-coinfected mice. We then used this model to demonstrate that a novel gel containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), the more potent prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), but not the TFV microbicide gel utilized in the recent CAPRISA 004, VOICE (Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic), and FACTS 001 clinical trials, was effective as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to completely prevent vaginal HIV-1 infection in almost half of HSV-2-coinfected mice. These results also support utilization of hCD4/R5/cT1 mice as a highly reproducible immunocompetent preclinical model to evaluate HIV-1 acquisition across the female genital tract. Multiple epidemiological studies have reported that

  16. Moderate activation of IKK2-NF-kB in unstressed adult mouse liver induces cytoprotective genes and lipogenesis without apparent signs of inflammation or fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Lei, Xiaohong; Zhang, Qinghao

    2015-07-30

    The NF-kB signaling, regulated by IKK1-p52/RelB and IKK2-p65, is activated by various stresses to protect or damage the liver, in context-specific manners. Two previous studies of liver-specific expression of constitutive active IKK2 (IKK2ca) showed that strong activation of IKK2-NF-kB in mouse livers caused inflammation, insulin resistance, and/or fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to understand how moderate activation of IKK2-NF-kB in adult mouse livers alters hepatic gene expression and pathophysiology. We generated mice with adult hepatocyte-specific activation of Ikk2 (Liv-Ikk2ca) using Alb-cre mice and Ikk2ca Rosa26 knockin mice in which a moderate expression of Ikk2ca transgene was driven by the endogenous Rosa26 promoter. Surprisingly, compared to wild-type mice, adult male Liv-Ikk2ca mice had higher hepatic mRNA expression of Ikk2 and classical NF-kB targets (e.g. Lcn2 and A20), as well as IKK1, NIK, and RelB, but no changes in markers of inflammation or fibrosis. Blood levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 remained unchanged, and histology analysis showed a lack of injury or infiltration of inflammatory cells in livers of Liv-Ikk2ca mice. Moreover, Liv-Ikk2ca mice had lower mRNA expression of prooxidative enzymes Cyp2e1 and Cyp4a14, higher expression of antioxidative enzymes Sod2, Gpx1, and Nqo1, without changes in key enzymes for fatty acid oxidation, glucose utilization, or gluconeogenesis. In parallel, Liv-Ikk2ca mice and wild-type mice had similar levels of hepatic reduced glutathione, endogenous reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, Liv-Ikk2ca mice had higher Cyp3a11 without down-regulation of most drug processing genes. Regarding nuclear proteins of NF-kB subunits, Liv-Ikk2ca mice had moderately higher p65 and p50 but much higher RelB. Results of ChIP-qPCR showed that the binding of p50 to multiple NF-kB-target genes was markedly increased in Liv-Ikk2ca mice. Additionally, Liv-Ikk2ca mice had moderate increase in triglycerides in

  17. The impact of maternal separation on adult mouse behaviour and on the total neuron number in the mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, K.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    , the number of errors made by the MS24 mice compared to controls and in total distance moved. The mice were subsequently sacrificed and the total number of neurons estimated in the hippocampus using the optical fractionator. We found a significant loss of neurons in the dentate gyrus in MS mice compared...... to controls. Apparently a single maternal separation can impact the number of neurons in mouse hippocampus either by a decrease of neurogenesis or as an increase in neuron apoptosis. This study is the first to assess the result of maternal separation combining behaviour and stereology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  18. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery into the scala media of the normal and deafened adult mouse ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Li, Q; Yang, J; Goddard, J C; Fekete, D M; Lang, H

    2011-06-01

    Murine models are ideal for studying cochlear gene transfer, as many hearing loss-related mutations have been discovered and mapped within the mouse genome. However, because of the small size and delicate nature, the membranous labyrinth of the mouse is a challenging target for the delivery of viral vectors. To minimize injection trauma, we developed a procedure for the controlled release of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) into the scala media of adult mice. This procedure poses minimal risk of injury to structures of the cochlea and middle ear, and allows for near-complete preservation of low and middle frequency hearing. In this study, transduction efficiency and cellular specificity of AAV vectors (serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8) were investigated in normal and drug-deafened ears. Using the cytomegalovirus promoter to drive gene expression, a variety of cell types were transduced successfully, including sensory hair cells and supporting cells, as well as cells in the auditory nerve and spiral ligament. Among all five serotypes, inner hair cells were the most effectively transduced cochlear cell type. All five serotypes of AAV vectors transduced cells of the auditory nerve, though serotype 8 was the most efficient vector for transduction. Our findings indicate that efficient AAV inoculation (via the scala media) can be performed in adult mouse ears, with hearing preservation a realistic goal. The procedure we describe may also have applications for intra-endolymphatic drug delivery in many mouse models of human deafness.

  19. Quantitative expression profile of distinct functional regions in the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Kasukawa

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B* project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/ for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems.

  20. Visualizing form and function in organotypic slices of the adult mouse parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jennifer D; Peters, Christian G; Saunders, Rudel; Won, Jong Hak; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Gunning, William T; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2008-09-01

    An organotypic slice preparation of the adult mouse parotid salivary gland amenable to a variety of optical assessments of fluid and protein secretion dynamics is described. The semi-intact preparation rendered without the use of enzymatic treatment permitted live-cell imaging and multiphoton analysis of cellular and supracellular signals. Toward this end we demonstrated that the parotid slice is a significant addition to the repertoire of tools available to investigators to probe exocrine structure and function since there is currently no cell culture system that fully recapitulates parotid acinar cell biology. Importantly, we show that a subpopulation of the acinar cells of parotid slices can be maintained in short-term culture and retain their morphology and function for up to 2 days. This in vitro model system is a significant step forward compared with enzymatically dispersed acini that rapidly lose their morphological and functional characteristics over several hours, and it was shown to be long enough for the expression and trafficking of exogenous protein following adenoviral infection. This system is compatible with a variety of genetic and physiological approaches used to study secretory function.

  1. Thy1.2 driven expression of transgenic His₆-SUMO2 in the brain of mice alters a restricted set of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Moritz J; Tirard, Marilyn

    2014-08-05

    Protein SUMOylation is a post-translational protein modification with a key regulatory role in nerve cell development and function, but its function in mammals in vivo has only been studied cursorily. We generated two new transgenic mouse lines that express His6-tagged SUMO1 and SUMO2 driven by the Thy1.2 promoter. The brains of mice of the two lines express transgenic His6-SUMO peptides and conjugate them to substrates in vivo but cytoarchitecture and synaptic organization of adult transgenic mouse brains are indistinguishable from the wild-type situation. We investigated the impact of transgenic SUMO expression on gene transcription in the hippocampus by performing genome wide analyses using microarrays. Surprisingly, no changes were observed in Thy1.2::His6-SUMO1 transgenic mice and only a restricted set of genes were upregulated in Thy1.2::His6-SUMO2 mice. Among these, Penk1 (Preproenkephalin 1), which encodes Met-enkephalin neuropeptides, showed the highest degree of alteration. Accordingly, a significant increase in Met-enkephalin peptide levels in the hippocampus of Thy1.2::His6-SUMO2 was detected, but the expression levels and cellular localization of Met-enkephalin receptors were not changed. Thus, transgenic neuronal expression of His6-SUMO1 or His6-SUMO2 only induces very minor phenotypical changes in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Olfactory discrimination training up-regulates and reorganizes expression of microRNAs in adult mouse hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Lugli, Giovanni; Lenon, Angela L; Davis, John M; Torvik, Vetle I; Larson, John

    2010-01-01

    Adult male mice (strain C57Bl/6J) were trained to execute nose-poke responses for water reinforcement; then they were randomly assigned to either of two groups: olfactory discrimination training (exposed to two odours with reward contingent upon correctly responding to one odour) or pseudo-training (exposed to two odours with reward not contingent upon response). These were run in yoked fashion and killed when the discrimination-trained mouse reached a learning criterion of 70% correct respon...

  3. Generation of BAC transgenic epithelial organoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schwank

    Full Text Available Under previously developed culture conditions, mouse and human intestinal epithelia can be cultured and expanded over long periods. These so-called organoids recapitulate the three-dimensional architecture of the gut epithelium, and consist of all major intestinal cell types. One key advantage of these ex vivo cultures is their accessibility to live imaging. So far the establishment of transgenic fluorescent reporter organoids has required the generation of transgenic mice, a laborious and time-consuming process, which cannot be extended to human cultures. Here we present a transfection protocol that enables the generation of recombinant mouse and human reporter organoids using BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome technology.

  4. PAX6 MiniPromoters drive restricted expression from rAAV in the adult mouse retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack W Hickmott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current gene therapies predominantly use small, strong, and readily available ubiquitous promoters. However, as the field matures, the availability of small, cell-specific promoters would be greatly beneficial. Here we design seven small promoters from the human paired box 6 (PAX6 gene and test them in the adult mouse retina using recombinant adeno-associated virus. We chose the retina due to previous successes in gene therapy for blindness, and the PAX6 gene since it is: well studied; known to be driven by discrete regulatory regions; expressed in therapeutically interesting retinal cell types; and mutated in the vision-loss disorder aniridia, which is in need of improved therapy. At the PAX6 locus, 31 regulatory regions were bioinformatically predicted, and nine regulatory regions were constructed into seven MiniPromoters. Driving Emerald GFP, these MiniPromoters were packaged into recombinant adeno-associated virus, and injected intravitreally into postnatal day 14 mice. Four MiniPromoters drove consistent retinal expression in the adult mouse, driving expression in combinations of cell-types that endogenously express Pax6: ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, and Müller glia. Two PAX6-MiniPromoters drive expression in three of the four cell types that express PAX6 in the adult mouse retina. Combined, they capture all four cell types, making them potential tools for research, and PAX6-gene therapy for aniridia.

  5. PAX6 MiniPromoters drive restricted expression from rAAV in the adult mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmott, Jack W; Chen, Chih-Yu; Arenillas, David J; Korecki, Andrea J; Lam, Siu Ling; Molday, Laurie L; Bonaguro, Russell J; Zhou, Michelle; Chou, Alice Y; Mathelier, Anthony; Boye, Sanford L; Hauswirth, William W; Molday, Robert S; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Simpson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Current gene therapies predominantly use small, strong, and readily available ubiquitous promoters. However, as the field matures, the availability of small, cell-specific promoters would be greatly beneficial. Here we design seven small promoters from the human paired box 6 (PAX6) gene and test them in the adult mouse retina using recombinant adeno-associated virus. We chose the retina due to previous successes in gene therapy for blindness, and the PAX6 gene since it is: well studied; known to be driven by discrete regulatory regions; expressed in therapeutically interesting retinal cell types; and mutated in the vision-loss disorder aniridia, which is in need of improved therapy. At the PAX6 locus, 31 regulatory regions were bioinformatically predicted, and nine regulatory regions were constructed into seven MiniPromoters. Driving Emerald GFP, these MiniPromoters were packaged into recombinant adeno-associated virus, and injected intravitreally into postnatal day 14 mice. Four MiniPromoters drove consistent retinal expression in the adult mouse, driving expression in combinations of cell-types that endogenously express Pax6: ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, and Müller glia. Two PAX6-MiniPromoters drive expression in three of the four cell types that express PAX6 in the adult mouse retina. Combined, they capture all four cell types, making them potential tools for research, and PAX6-gene therapy for aniridia.

  6. Daily Supplementation of D-ribose Shows No Therapeutic Benefits in the MHC-I Transgenic Mouse Model of Inflammatory Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, William; Rayavarapu, Sree; van der Meulen, Jack H.; Duba, Ayyappa S.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2013-01-01

    Background Current treatments for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (collectively called myositis) focus on the suppression of an autoimmune inflammatory response within the skeletal muscle. However, it has been observed that there is a poor correlation between the successful suppression of muscle inflammation and an improvement in muscle function. Some evidence in the literature suggests that metabolic abnormalities in the skeletal muscle underlie the weakness that continues despite successful immunosuppression. We have previously shown that decreased expression of a purine nucleotide cycle enzyme, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), leads to muscle weakness in a mouse model of myositis and may provide a mechanistic basis for muscle weakness. One of the downstream metabolites of this pathway, D-ribose, has been reported to alleviate symptoms of myalgia in patients with a congenital loss of AMPD1. Therefore, we hypothesized that supplementing exogenous D-ribose would improve muscle function in the mouse model of myositis. We treated normal and myositis mice with daily doses of D-ribose (4 mg/kg) over a 6-week time period and assessed its effects using a battery of behavioral, functional, histological and molecular measures. Results Treatment with D-ribose was found to have no statistically significant effects on body weight, grip strength, open field behavioral activity, maximal and specific forces of EDL, soleus muscles, or histological features. Histological and gene expression analysis indicated that muscle tissues remained inflamed despite treatment. Gene expression analysis also suggested that low levels of the ribokinase enzyme in the skeletal muscle might prevent skeletal muscle tissue from effectively utilizing D-ribose. Conclusions Treatment with daily oral doses of D-ribose showed no significant effect on either disease progression or muscle function in the mouse model of myositis. PMID:23785461

  7. Daily supplementation of D-ribose shows no therapeutic benefits in the MHC-I transgenic mouse model of inflammatory myositis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Coley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current treatments for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (collectively called myositis focus on the suppression of an autoimmune inflammatory response within the skeletal muscle. However, it has been observed that there is a poor correlation between the successful suppression of muscle inflammation and an improvement in muscle function. Some evidence in the literature suggests that metabolic abnormalities in the skeletal muscle underlie the weakness that continues despite successful immunosuppression. We have previously shown that decreased expression of a purine nucleotide cycle enzyme, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1, leads to muscle weakness in a mouse model of myositis and may provide a mechanistic basis for muscle weakness. One of the downstream metabolites of this pathway, D-ribose, has been reported to alleviate symptoms of myalgia in patients with a congenital loss of AMPD1. Therefore, we hypothesized that supplementing exogenous D-ribose would improve muscle function in the mouse model of myositis. We treated normal and myositis mice with daily doses of D-ribose (4 mg/kg over a 6-week time period and assessed its effects using a battery of behavioral, functional, histological and molecular measures. RESULTS: Treatment with D-ribose was found to have no statistically significant effects on body weight, grip strength, open field behavioral activity, maximal and specific forces of EDL, soleus muscles, or histological features. Histological and gene expression analysis indicated that muscle tissues remained inflamed despite treatment. Gene expression analysis also suggested that low levels of the ribokinase enzyme in the skeletal muscle might prevent skeletal muscle tissue from effectively utilizing D-ribose. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with daily oral doses of D-ribose showed no significant effect on either disease progression or muscle function in the mouse model of myositis.

  8. Reduced type II interleukin-4 receptor signalling drives initiation, but not progression, of colorectal carcinogenesis: evidence from transgenic mouse models and human case?control epidemiological observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Nicola; Northwood, Emma L.; Perry, Sarah L.; Marston, Gemma; Snowden, Helen; Taylor, John C.; Scott, Nigel; Bishop, D. Timothy; Coletta, P. Louise; Hull, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of interleukin (IL)-4 receptor (IL-4R) signalling during mouse carcinogen-induced colorectal carcinogenesis and in a case-control genetic epidemiological study of IL-4Rα single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt focus (ACF; 6 weeks) and tumours (32 weeks) were analysed in wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice, as well as in IL-4Rα (-) (/-) , IL-13 (-/-) and 'double-knockout' (DKO) animals. Colorectal cancer (CRC) cases (1502) and controls (584) ...

  9. Up-regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin in cardiomyocytes from non-hypertrophic and non-failing transgenic mouse hearts expressing N-terminal truncated cardiac troponin I

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    Stephanie Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a restrictive N-terminal truncation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI-ND is up-regulated in the heart in adaptation to hemodynamic stresses. Over-expression of cTnI-ND in the hearts of transgenic mice revealed functional benefits such as increased relaxation and myocardial compliance. In the present study, we investigated the subsequent effect on myocardial remodeling. The alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA isoform is normally expressed in differentiating cardiomyocytes and is a marker for myocardial hypertrophy in adult hearts. Our results show that in cTnI-ND transgenic mice of between 2 and 3 months of age (young adults, a significant level of α-SMA is expressed in the heart as compared with wild-type animals. Although blood vessel density was increased in the cTnI-ND heart, the mass of smooth muscle tissue did not correlate with the increased level of α-SMA. Instead, immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting of protein extracts from isolated cardiomyocytes identified cardiomyocytes as the source of increased α-SMA in cTnI-ND hearts. We further found that while a portion of the up-regulated α-SMA protein was incorporated into the sarcomeric thin filaments, the majority of SMA protein was found outside of myofibrils. This distribution pattern suggests dual functions for the up-regulated α-SMA as both a contractile component to affect contractility and as possible effector of early remodeling in non-hypertrophic, non-failing cTnI-ND hearts.

  10. MYC gene delivery to adult mouse utricles stimulates proliferation of postmitotic supporting cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph C; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony; Jackson, John D

    2012-01-01

    The inner ears of adult humans and other mammals possess a limited capacity for regenerating sensory hair cells, which can lead to permanent auditory and vestibular deficits. During development and regeneration, undifferentiated supporting cells within inner ear sensory epithelia can self-renew and give rise to new hair cells; however, these otic progenitors become depleted postnatally. Therefore, reprogramming differentiated supporting cells into otic progenitors is a potential strategy for restoring regenerative potential to the ear. Transient expression of the induced pluripotency transcription factors, Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc reprograms fibroblasts into neural progenitors under neural-promoting culture conditions, so as a first step, we explored whether ectopic expression of these factors can reverse supporting cell quiescence in whole organ cultures of adult mouse utricles. Co-infection of utricles with adenoviral vectors separately encoding Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and the degradation-resistant T58A mutant of c-Myc (c-MycT58A) triggered significant levels of supporting cell S-phase entry as assessed by continuous BrdU labeling. Of the four factors, c-MycT58A alone was both necessary and sufficient for the proliferative response. The number of BrdU-labeled cells plateaued between 5-7 days after infection, and then decreased ~60% by 3 weeks, as many cycling cells appeared to enter apoptosis. Switching to differentiation-promoting culture medium at 5 days after ectopic expression of c-MycT58A temporarily attenuated the loss of BrdU-labeled cells and accompanied a very modest but significant expansion of the sensory epithelium. A small number of the proliferating cells in these cultures labeled for the hair cell marker, myosin VIIA, suggesting they had begun differentiating towards a hair cell fate. The results indicate that ectopic expression of c-MycT58A in combination with methods for promoting cell survival and differentiation may restore regenerative

  11. MYC gene delivery to adult mouse utricles stimulates proliferation of postmitotic supporting cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Burns

    Full Text Available The inner ears of adult humans and other mammals possess a limited capacity for regenerating sensory hair cells, which can lead to permanent auditory and vestibular deficits. During development and regeneration, undifferentiated supporting cells within inner ear sensory epithelia can self-renew and give rise to new hair cells; however, these otic progenitors become depleted postnatally. Therefore, reprogramming differentiated supporting cells into otic progenitors is a potential strategy for restoring regenerative potential to the ear. Transient expression of the induced pluripotency transcription factors, Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc reprograms fibroblasts into neural progenitors under neural-promoting culture conditions, so as a first step, we explored whether ectopic expression of these factors can reverse supporting cell quiescence in whole organ cultures of adult mouse utricles. Co-infection of utricles with adenoviral vectors separately encoding Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and the degradation-resistant T58A mutant of c-Myc (c-MycT58A triggered significant levels of supporting cell S-phase entry as assessed by continuous BrdU labeling. Of the four factors, c-MycT58A alone was both necessary and sufficient for the proliferative response. The number of BrdU-labeled cells plateaued between 5-7 days after infection, and then decreased ~60% by 3 weeks, as many cycling cells appeared to enter apoptosis. Switching to differentiation-promoting culture medium at 5 days after ectopic expression of c-MycT58A temporarily attenuated the loss of BrdU-labeled cells and accompanied a very modest but significant expansion of the sensory epithelium. A small number of the proliferating cells in these cultures labeled for the hair cell marker, myosin VIIA, suggesting they had begun differentiating towards a hair cell fate. The results indicate that ectopic expression of c-MycT58A in combination with methods for promoting cell survival and differentiation may restore

  12. A powerful transgenic tool for fate mapping and functional analysis of newly generated neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Weisenhorn Daniela M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of appropriate tools and techniques to study fate and functional integration of newly generated neurons has so far hindered understanding of neurogenesis' relevance under physiological and pathological conditions. Current analyses are either dependent on mitotic labeling, for example BrdU-incorporation or retroviral infection, or on the detection of transient immature neuronal markers. Here, we report a transgenic mouse model (DCX-CreERT2 for time-resolved fate analysis of newly generated neurons. This model is based on the expression of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of a doublecortin (DCX promoter, which is specific for immature neuronal cells in the CNS. Results In the DCX-CreERT2 transgenic mice, expression of CreERT2 was restricted to DCX+ cells. In the CNS of transgenic embryos and adult DCX-CreERT2 mice, tamoxifen administration caused the transient translocation of CreERT2 to the nucleus, allowing for the recombination of loxP-flanked sequences. In our system, tamoxifen administration at E14.5 resulted in reporter gene activation throughout the developing CNS of transgenic embryos. In the adult CNS, neurogenic regions were the primary sites of tamoxifen-induced reporter gene activation. In addition, reporter expression could also be detected outside of neurogenic regions in cells physiologically expressing DCX (e.g. piriform cortex, corpus callosum, hypothalamus. Four weeks after recombination, the vast majority of reporter-expressing cells were found to co-express NeuN, revealing the neuronal fate of DCX+ cells upon maturation. Conclusions This first validation demonstrates that our new DCX-CreERT2 transgenic mouse model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate neurogenesis, migration and their long-term fate of neuronal precursors. Moreover, it allows for a targeted activation or deletion of specific genes in neuronal precursors and will thereby contribute to unravel the molecular

  13. Activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanchun [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Guan, Yingjun, E-mail: guanyj@wfmc.edu.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu, Huancai [Department of Orthopedic, Affiliated Hospital, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Wu, Xin; Yu, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyan; Du, Hongmei [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: xwang@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 were upregulated in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus in the ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin and Cyclin D1 co-localized for astrocytes were all increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BrdU/Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. -- Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and fatal loss of motor neurons. In ALS, there is a significant cell proliferation in response to neurodegeneration; however, the exact molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation and differentiation are unclear. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative processes. Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 are three key signaling molecules of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. We determined the expression of Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 in the adult spinal cord of SOD1{sup G93A} ALS transgenic mice at different stages by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. We found that the mRNA and protein of Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 in the spinal cord of the ALS mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. In addition, {beta}-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus and subsequently activated transcription of the target gene, Cyclin D1. BrdU and Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of these mice. Moreover, Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were also expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. The expression of Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin or Cyclin D1 in mature GFAP{sup +} astrocytes increased. Moreover, BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. Our findings suggest that

  14. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanchun; Guan, Yingjun; Liu, Huancai; Wu, Xin; Yu, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyan; Du, Hongmei; Wang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 were upregulated in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. ► β-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus in the ALS mice. ► Wnt3a, β-catenin and Cyclin D1 co-localized for astrocytes were all increased. ► BrdU/Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of ALS mice. ► BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. -- Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and fatal loss of motor neurons. In ALS, there is a significant cell proliferation in response to neurodegeneration; however, the exact molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation and differentiation are unclear. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative processes. Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 are three key signaling molecules of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We determined the expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 in the adult spinal cord of SOD1 G93A ALS transgenic mice at different stages by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. We found that the mRNA and protein of Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 in the spinal cord of the ALS mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. In addition, β-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus and subsequently activated transcription of the target gene, Cyclin D1. BrdU and Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of these mice. Moreover, Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were also expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. The expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin or Cyclin D1 in mature GFAP + astrocytes increased. Moreover, BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. Our findings suggest that neurodegeneration activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice. This

  15. Linear pharmacokinetic parameters for monoclonal antibodies are similar within a species and across different pharmacological targets: A comparison between human, cynomolgus monkey and hFcRn Tg32 transgenic mouse using a population-modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Alison; Keunecke, Anne; van Steeg, Tamara J; van der Graaf, Piet H; Avery, Lindsay B; Jones, Hannah; Berkhout, Jan

    2018-04-10

    The linear pharmacokinetics (PK) of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be considered a class property with values that are similar to endogenous IgG. Knowledge of these parameters across species could be used to avoid unnecessary in vivo PK studies and to enable early PK predictions and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) simulations. In this work, population-pharmacokinetic (popPK) modeling was used to determine a single set of 'typical' popPK parameters describing the linear PK of mAbs in human, cynomolgus monkey and transgenic mice expressing the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn Tg32), using a rich dataset of 27 mAbs. Non-linear PK was excluded from the datasets and a 2-compartment model was applied to describe mAb disposition. Typical human popPK estimates compared well with data from comparator mAbs with linear PK in the clinic. Outliers with higher than typical clearance were found to have non-specific interactions in an affinity-capture self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy assay, offering a potential tool to screen out these mAbs at an early stage. Translational strategies were investigated for prediction of human linear PK of mAbs, including use of typical human popPK parameters and allometric exponents from cynomolgus monkey and Tg32 mouse. Each method gave good prediction of human PK with parameters predicted within 2-fold. These strategies offer alternative options to the use of cynomolgus monkeys for human PK predictions of linear mAbs, based on in silico methods (typical human popPK parameters) or using a rodent species (Tg32 mouse), and call into question the value of completing extensive in vivo preclinical PK to inform linear mAb PK.

  16. Autoradiographic evidence for methamphetamine-induced striatal dopaminergic loss in mouse brain: attenuation in CuZn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, H; Ladenheim, B; Carlson, E; Epstein, C; Cadet, J L

    1996-04-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has long-lasting neurotoxic effects on the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system of rodents. METH-induced neurotoxicity is thought to involve release of DA in presynaptic DA terminals, which is associated with increased formation of oxygen-based free radicals. We have recently shown that METH-induced striatal DA depletion is attenuated in transgenic (Tg) mice that express the human CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. That study did not specifically address the issue of loss of DA terminals. In the present study, we have used receptor autoradiographic studies of [(125)I]RTI-121-labeled DA uptake sites to evaluate the effects of several doses of METH on striatal DA terminals of Non-Tg as well as of heterozygous and homozygous SOD-Tg mice. In Non-Tg mice, METH caused decreases in striatal DA uptake sites in a dose-dependent fashion. The loss of DA terminals was more prominent in the lateral region than in the medial subdivisions of the striatum. In SOD-Tg mice, the loss of DA terminals caused by METH was attenuated in a gene dosage-dependent fashion, with the homozygous mice showing the greatest protection. Female mice were somewhat more resistant than male mice against these deleterious effects of METH. These results provide further evidence for a role of superoxide radicals in the long-term effects of METH. They also suggest the notion of a gender-specific handling of oxidative stress.

  17. A novel transgenic mouse model of growth plate dysplasia reveals that decreased chondrocyte proliferation due to chronic ER stress is a key factor in reduced bone growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Gualeni

    2013-11-01

    Disease mechanisms leading to different forms of chondrodysplasia include extracellular matrix (ECM alterations and intracellular stress resulting in abnormal changes to chondrocyte proliferation and survival. Delineating the relative contribution of these two disease mechanisms is a major challenge in understanding disease pathophysiology in genetic skeletal diseases and a prerequisite for developing effective therapies. To determine the influence of intracellular stress and changes in chondrocyte phenotype to the development of chondrodysplasia, we targeted the expression of the G2320R mutant form of thyroglobulin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of resting and proliferating chondrocytes. Previous studies on this mutant protein have shown that it induces intracellular aggregates and causes cell stress and death in the thyroid gland. The expression and retention of this exogenous mutant protein in resting and proliferating chondrocytes resulted in a chronic cell stress response, growth plate dysplasia and reduced bone growth, without inducing any alterations to the architecture and organization of the cartilage ECM. More significantly, the decreased bone growth seemed to be the direct result of reduced chondrocyte proliferation in the proliferative zone of growth plates in transgenic mice, without transcriptional activation of a classical unfolded protein response (UPR or apoptosis. Overall, these data show that mutant protein retention in the ER of resting and proliferative zone chondrocytes is sufficient to cause disrupted bone growth. The specific disease pathways triggered by mutant protein retention do not necessarily involve a prototypic UPR, but all pathways impact upon chondrocyte proliferation in the cartilage growth plate.

  18. Pomegranate polyphenols and extract inhibit nuclear factor of activated T-cell activity and microglial activation in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kendra L; Combs, Colin K

    2013-05-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) brain is characterized by extracellular plaques of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with reactive microglia. This study aimed to determine whether a dietary intervention could attenuate microgliosis. Memory was assessed in 12-mo-old male amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice via Barnes maze testing followed by division into either a control-fed group provided free access to normal chow and water or a treatment group provided free access to normal chow and drinking water supplemented with pomegranate extract (6.25 mL/L) for 3 mo followed by repeat Barnes maze testing for both groups. Three months of pomegranate feeding decreased the path length to escape of mice compared with their initial 12-mo values (P pomegranate-fed mice had lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentrations (P pomegranate or control mice were also compared with an additional control group of 12-mo-old mice for histologic analysis. Immunocytochemistry showed that pomegranate- but not control-fed mice had attenuated microgliosis (P pomegranate extract-supplemented drinking water (6.25 mL/L) for 1 mo followed by repeat T-maze testing in both groups. One month of pomegranate feeding increased spontaneous alternations versus control-fed mice (P pomegranate extract, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated NFAT activity in a reporter cell line (P pomegranate produces brain antiinflammatory effects that may attenuate AD progression.

  19. Pomegranate Polyphenols and Extract Inhibit Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cell Activity and Microglial Activation In Vitro and in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) brain is characterized by extracellular plaques of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with reactive microglia. This study aimed to determine whether a dietary intervention could attenuate microgliosis. Memory was assessed in 12-mo-old male amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice via Barnes maze testing followed by division into either a control-fed group provided free access to normal chow and water or a treatment group provided free access to normal chow and drinking water supplemented with pomegranate extract (6.25 mL/L) for 3 mo followed by repeat Barnes maze testing for both groups. Three months of pomegranate feeding decreased the path length to escape of mice compared with their initial 12-mo values (P pomegranate-fed mice had lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentrations (P pomegranate or control mice were also compared with an additional control group of 12-mo-old mice for histologic analysis. Immunocytochemistry showed that pomegranate- but not control-fed mice had attenuated microgliosis (P pomegranate extract–supplemented drinking water (6.25 mL/L) for 1 mo followed by repeat T-maze testing in both groups. One month of pomegranate feeding increased spontaneous alternations versus control-fed mice (P pomegranate extract, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated NFAT activity in a reporter cell line (P pomegranate produces brain antiinflammatory effects that may attenuate AD progression. PMID:23468550

  20. Insulin-Like growth factor 1 related pathways and high-fat diet promotion of transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H; Jiang, H W; Ding, Q

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of IGF-1 related pathway in high-fat diet (HFD) promotion of TRAMP mouse PCa progression. TRAMP mice were randomly divided into two groups: HFD group and normal diet group. TRAMP mice of both groups were sacrificed and sampled on the 20th, 24th and 28th week respectively. Serum levels of insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-2 were tested by ELISA. Prostate tissue of TRAMP mice was used for both HE staining and immunohistochemical staining of IGF-1 related pathway proteins, including IGF-1Rα, IGF -1Rβ, IGFBPs and AKT. The mortality of TRAMP mice from HFD group was significantly higher than that of normal diet group (23.81% and 7.14%, p=.035). The tumor incidence of HFD TRAMP mice at 20(th) week was significantly higher than normal diet group (78.57% and 35.71%, p=.022). Serum IGF-1 level of HFD TRAMP mice was significantly higher than that of normal diet TRAMP mice. Serum IGF-1 level tended to increase with HFD TRAMP mice's age. HFD TRAMP mice had higher positive staining rate of IGF-1Rα, IGF-1Rβ, IGFBP3 and Akt than normal diet TRAMP mice. IGF-1 related pathway played an important role in high-fat diet promotion of TRAMP mouse PCa development and progression. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Nestin Reporter Transgene Labels Multiple Central Nervous System Precursor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery S. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic neuroepithelia and adult subventricular zone (SVZ stem and progenitor cells express nestin. We characterized a transgenic line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP specified to neural tissue by the second intronic enhancer of the nestin promoter that had several novel features. During embryogenesis, the dorsal telencephalon contained many and the ventral telencephalon few eGFP+ cells. eGFP+ cells were found in postnatal and adult neurogenic regions. eGFP+ cells in the SVZ expressed multiple phenotype markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein, Dlx, and neuroblast-specific molecules suggesting the transgene is expressed through the lineage. eGFP+ cell numbers increased in the SVZ after cortical injury, suggesting this line will be useful in probing postinjury neurogenesis. In non-neurogenic regions, eGFP was strongly expressed in oligodendrocyte progenitors, but not in astrocytes, even when they were reactive. This eGFP+ mouse will facilitate studies of proliferative neuroepithelia and adult neurogenesis, as well as of parenchymal oligodendrocytes.

  2. CD8+ T cells from a novel T cell receptor transgenic mouse induce liver-stage immunity that can be boosted by blood-stage infection in rodent malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shong Lau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To follow the fate of CD8+ T cells responsive to Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection, we generated an MHC I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line against this pathogen. T cells from this line, termed PbT-I T cells, were able to respond to blood-stage infection by PbA and two other rodent malaria species, P. yoelii XNL and P. chabaudi AS. These PbT-I T cells were also able to respond to sporozoites and to protect mice from liver-stage infection. Examination of the requirements for priming after intravenous administration of irradiated sporozoites, an effective vaccination approach, showed that the spleen rather than the liver was the main site of priming and that responses depended on CD8α+ dendritic cells. Importantly, sequential exposure to irradiated sporozoites followed two days later by blood-stage infection led to augmented PbT-I T cell expansion. These findings indicate that PbT-I T cells are a highly versatile tool for studying multiple stages and species of rodent malaria and suggest that cross-stage reactive CD8+ T cells may be utilized in liver-stage vaccine design to enable boosting by blood-stage infections.

  3. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system.

  4. Early-stage reduction of the dendritic complexity in basolateral amygdala of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Congdi; Long, Ben; Hu, Yarong; Yuan, Jing; Gong, Hui; Li, Xiangning

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a representative age-related neurodegenerative disease that could result in loss of memory and cognitive deficiency. However, the precise onset time of Alzheimer's disease affecting neuronal circuits and the mechanisms underlying the changes are not clearly known. To address the neuroanatomical changes during the early pathologic developing process, we acquired the neuronal morphological characterization of AD in APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice using the Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography system. We reconstructed the neurons in 3D datasets with a resolution of 0.32 × 0.32 × 1 μm and used the Sholl method to analyze the anatomical characterization of the dendritic branches. The results showed that, similar to the progressive change in amyloid plaques, the number of dendritic branches were significantly decreased in 9-month-old mice. In addition, a distinct reduction of dendritic complexity occurred in third and fourth-order dendritic branches of 9-month-old mice, while no significant changes were identified in these parameters in 6-month-old mice. At the branch-level, the density distribution of dendritic arbors in the radial direction decreased in the range of 40–90 μm from the neuron soma in 6-month-old mice. These changes in the dendritic complexity suggest that these reductions contribute to the progressive cognitive impairment seen in APP/PS1 mice. This work may yield insights into the early changes in dendritic abnormality and its relevance to dysfunctional mechanisms of learning, memory and emotion in Alzheimer's disease. - Highlights: • Neuron-level, reduction of dendritic complexity in BLA of 9-month-old AD mice. • Specific range of branch decrease in density of 6-month-old AD mice. • 3D imaging with high resolution will provide insights into brain aging.

  5. Effect of cyanotoxins on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaolu; Zhong, Anyuan; Xu, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    Microcystins LR (MC-LR) are hepatotoxic cyanotoxins that have been shown to induce reproductive toxicity, and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPG) is responsible for the control of reproductive functions. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on HPG axis. This study aimed to investigate the MC-LR-induced toxicity in the reproductive system of mouse and focus on the HPG axis. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0, 3.75, 7.50, 15.00 and 30.00 µg/kg body weight per day) for 1 to 14 days, and it was found that exposure to different concentrations of MC-LR significantly disturbed sperm production in the mice testes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To elucidate the associated possible mechanisms, the serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were assessed. Meanwhile, PCR assays were employed to detect alterations in a series of genes involved in HPG axis, such as FSH, LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their complement receptors. Furthermore, the effect of MC-LR on the viability and testosterone production of Leydig cells were tested in vitro. MC-LR significantly impaired the spermatogenesis of mice possibly through the direct or indirect inhibition of GnRH synthesis at the hypothalamic level, which resulted in reduction of serum levels of LH that lead to suppression of testosterone production in the testis of mice. MC-LR may be a GnRH toxin that would disrupt the reproductive system of mice.

  6. Effect of cyanotoxins on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Xiong

    Full Text Available Microcystins LR (MC-LR are hepatotoxic cyanotoxins that have been shown to induce reproductive toxicity, and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPG is responsible for the control of reproductive functions. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on HPG axis. This study aimed to investigate the MC-LR-induced toxicity in the reproductive system of mouse and focus on the HPG axis.Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0, 3.75, 7.50, 15.00 and 30.00 µg/kg body weight per day for 1 to 14 days, and it was found that exposure to different concentrations of MC-LR significantly disturbed sperm production in the mice testes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To elucidate the associated possible mechanisms, the serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were assessed. Meanwhile, PCR assays were employed to detect alterations in a series of genes involved in HPG axis, such as FSH, LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and their complement receptors. Furthermore, the effect of MC-LR on the viability and testosterone production of Leydig cells were tested in vitro.MC-LR significantly impaired the spermatogenesis of mice possibly through the direct or indirect inhibition of GnRH synthesis at the hypothalamic level, which resulted in reduction of serum levels of LH that lead to suppression of testosterone production in the testis of mice.MC-LR may be a GnRH toxin that would disrupt the reproductive system of mice.

  7. Uptake of ingested bovine lactoferrin and its accumulation in adult mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Romy; Debbabi, Hajer; Blais, Anne; Dubarry, Michel; Rautureau, Michèle; Boyaka, Prosper N; Tome, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties, which is found in milk, other external secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The present study examined the time course of uptake and the pattern of tissue accumulation of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) following intragastric intubation of a single dose to adult naïve mice or to mice daily fed bLf for 4 weeks. Following ingestion, bLf was transferred from the intestine into peripheral blood in a form with intact molecular weight (80 kDa) and localized within 10 to 20 min after oral administration in the liver, kidneys, gall bladder, spleen, and brain of both groups of mice. Immunoreactive bLf could also be detected in the luminal contents of the stomach, small intestine and colon 1 h after intragastric intubation. Interestingly, serum and tissue accumulation of bLf was approximately 50% lower in mice chronically fed this protein than in those given only the single oral dose. Furthermore, significant levels of bLf-specific IgA and IgG antibodies as well as bLf-containing IgA- and IgG immune complexes were detected in mice chronically fed bLf but not in those fed only once. Taken together, these results indicate that bLf resists major proteolytic degradation in the intestinal lumen and is readily absorbed in an antigenic form in blood and various mouse tissues. Chronic ingestion of lactoferrin reduces its uptake, probably through mechanisms such as immune exclusion, which minimize potential harmful reactions to food products.

  8. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca(2+) homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Arthur M; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D; Tilley, Douglas G; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2016-03-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (LV) myocytes BAG3 co-localized with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and L-type Ca(2+) channels in the sarcolemma and t-tubules. BAG3 co-immunoprecipitated with β1-adrenergic receptor, L-type Ca(2+) channels and phospholemman. To simulate decreased BAG3 protein levels observed in human heart failure, we targeted BAG3 by shRNA (shBAG3) in adult LV myocytes. Reducing BAG3 by 55% resulted in reduced contraction and [Ca(2+)]i transient amplitudes in LV myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content but not Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INaCa) or SR Ca(2+) uptake were reduced in isoproterenol-treated shBAG3 myocytes. Forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP restored ICa amplitude in shBAG3 myocytes to that observed in WT myocytes, consistent with BAG3 having effects upstream and at the level of the receptor. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were unaffected but APD50 and APD90 were prolonged in shBAG3 myocytes. Protein levels of Ca(2+) entry molecules and other important excitation-contraction proteins were unchanged in myocytes with lower BAG3. Our findings that BAG3 is localized at the sarcolemma and t-tubules while modulating myocyte contraction and action potential duration through specific interaction with the β1-adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca(2+) channel provide novel insight into the role of BAG3 in cardiomyopathies and increased arrhythmia risks in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca2+ homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Arthur M.; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J.; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (LV) myocytes BAG3 co-localized with Na+-K+-ATPase and L-type Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemma and t-tubules. BAG3 co-immunoprecipitated with β1-adrenergic receptor, L-type Ca2+ channels and phospholemman. To simulate decreased BAG3 protein levels observed in human heart failure, we targeted BAG3 by shRNA (shBAG3) in adult LV myocytes. Reducing BAG3 by 55% resulted in reduced contraction and [Ca2+]i transient amplitudes in LV myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content but not Na+/Ca2+ exchange current (INaCa) or SR Ca2+ uptake were reduced in isoproterenol-treated shBAG3 myocytes. Forskolin or dibutyrl cAMP restored ICa amplitude in shBAG3 myocytes to that observed in WT myocytes, consistent with BAG3 having effects upstream and at the level of the receptor. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were unaffected but APD50 and APD90 were prolonged in shBAG3 myocytes. Protein levels of Ca2+ entry molecules and other important excitation-contraction proteins were unchanged in myocytes with lower BAG3. Our findings that BAG3 is localized at the sarcolemma and t-tubules while modulating myocyte contraction and action potential duration through specific interaction with the β1-adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca2+ channel provide novel insight into the role of BAG3 in cardiomyopathies and increased arrhythmia risks in heart failure. PMID:26796036

  10. Oligodendrocyte- and Neuron-Specific Nogo-A Restrict Dendritic Branching and Spine Density in the Adult Mouse Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmar, Ajmal; Chen, Chia-Chien; Weinmann, Oliver; Kast, Brigitt; Vajda, Flora; Bozeman, James; Isaad, Noel; Zuo, Yi; Schwab, Martin E

    2018-06-01

    Nogo-A has been well described as a myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth and functional neuroregeneration after central nervous system (CNS) injury. Recently, a new role of Nogo-A has been identified as a negative regulator of synaptic plasticity in the uninjured adult CNS. Nogo-A is present in neurons and oligodendrocytes. However, it is yet unclear which of these two pools regulate synaptic plasticity. To address this question we used newly generated mouse lines in which Nogo-A is specifically knocked out in (1) oligodendrocytes (oligoNogo-A KO) or (2) neurons (neuroNogo-A KO). We show that both oligodendrocyte- and neuron-specific Nogo-A KO mice have enhanced dendritic branching and spine densities in layer 2/3 cortical pyramidal neurons. These effects are compartmentalized: neuronal Nogo-A affects proximal dendrites whereas oligodendrocytic Nogo-A affects distal regions. Finally, we used two-photon laser scanning microscopy to measure the spine turnover rate of adult mouse motor cortex layer 5 cells and find that both Nogo-A KO mouse lines show enhanced spine remodeling after 4 days. Our results suggest relevant control functions of glial as well as neuronal Nogo-A for synaptic plasticity and open new possibilities for more selective and targeted plasticity enhancing strategies.

  11. In vivo amyloid-β imaging in the APPPS1-21 transgenic mouse model with a 89Zr- labeled monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie eWaldron

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accumulation of amyloid-β is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and is a target for molecular imaging probes to aid in diagnosis and disease monitoring. This study evaluated the feasibility of using a radiolabeled monoclonal anti-amyloid-β antibody (JRF/AβN/25 to non-invasively assess amyloid-β burden in aged transgenic mice (APPPS1-21 with μPET imaging.Methods: We investigated the antibody JRF/AβN/25 that binds to full-length Aβ. JRF/AβN/25 was radiolabeled with a [89Zr]-desferal chelate and intravenously injected into 12-13 month aged APPPS1-21 mice and their wild-type (WT controls. Mice underwent in vivo μPET imaging at 2, 4 and 7 days post injection and were sacrificed at the end of each time point to assess brain penetrance, plaque labeling, biodistribution and tracer stability. To confirm imaging specificity we also evaluated brain uptake of a non-amyloid targeting [89Zr]-labeled antibody (Trastuzumab as a negative control, additionally we performed a competitive blocking study with non-radiolabeled Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 and finally we assessed the possible confounding effects of blood retention. Results: Voxel-wise analysis of μPET data demonstrated significant [89Zr]-Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 retention in APPPS1-21 mice at all time points investigated. With ex vivo measures of radioactivity, significantly higher retention of [89Zr]-Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 was found at 4 and 7 day pi in APPPS1-21 mice. Despite the observed genotypic differences, comparisons with immunohistochemistry revealed that in vivo plaque labeling was low. Furthermore, pre-treatment with Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 only partially blocked [89Zr]-Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 uptake indicative of a high contribution of non-specific binding. Conclusion: Amyloid plaques were detected in vivo with a radiolabeled monoclonal anti-amyloid antibody. The low brain penetrance of the antibodies in addition to non-specific binding prevented an accurate estimation of plaque

  12. Evaluation of Small-Animal PET Outcome Measures to Detect Disease Modification Induced by BACE Inhibition in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleye, Steven; Waldron, Ann-Marie; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Bottelbergs, Astrid; Wyffels, Leonie; Van Broeck, Bianca; Langlois, Xavier; Schmidt, Mark; Stroobants, Sigrid; Staelens, Steven

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic administration of an inhibitor of the β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) on Alzheimer-related pathology by multitracer PET imaging in transgenic APPPS1-21 (TG) mice. Methods: Wild-type (WT) and TG mice received vehicle or BACE inhibitor (60 mg/kg) starting at 7 wk of age. Outcome measures of brain metabolism, neuroinflammation, and amyloid-β pathology were obtained through small-animal PET imaging with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ( 18 F-PBR), and 18 F-florbetapir ( 18 F-AV45), respectively. Baseline scans were acquired at 6-7 wk of age and follow-up scans at 4, 7, and 12 mo. 18 F-AV45 uptake was measured at 8 and 13 mo of age. After the final scans, histologic measures of amyloid-β (4G8), microglia (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1), astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein), and neuronal nuclei were performed. Results: TG mice demonstrated significant age-associated increases in 18 F-AV45 uptake. An effect of treatment was observed in the cortex ( P = 0.0014), hippocampus ( P = 0.0005), and thalamus ( P treatment, TG mice demonstrated significantly lower 18 F-FDG uptake than WT mice in the thalamus ( P = 0.0004) and hippocampus ( P = 0.0332). Neuronal nucleus staining was lower in both TG groups in the thalamus and cortex. 18 F-PBR111 detected a significant age-related increase in TG mice ( P treatment-induced reduction in activated microglia as demonstrated by histology. Conclusion: Although 18 F-FDG, 18 F-PBR111, and 18 F-AV45 all detected pathologic alterations between TG and WT mice, only 18 F-AV45 could detect an effect of BACE inhibitor treatment. However, changes in WT binding of 18 F-AV45 undermine the specificity of this effect. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  13. Effect of 5'-flanking sequence deletions on expression of the human insulin gene in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromont-Racine, M; Bucchini, D; Madsen, O

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the human insulin gene was examined in transgenic mouse lines carrying the gene with various lengths of DNA sequences 5' to the transcription start site (+1). Expression of the transgene was demonstrated by 1) the presence of human C-peptide in urine, 2) the presence of specific...... of the transgene was observed in cell types other than beta-islet cells....

  14. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  15. Identifying the Long-Term Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic M. Maggio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS is a potent mediator of oxidative stress during neuroinflammation triggered by neurotrauma or neurodegeneration. We previously demonstrated that acute iNOS inhibition attenuated iNOS levels and promoted neuroprotection and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI. The present study investigated the effects of chronic iNOS ablation after SCI using inos-null mice. iNOS−/− knockout and wild-type (WT control mice underwent a moderate thoracic (T8 contusive SCI. Locomotor function was assessed weekly, using the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS, and at the endpoint (six weeks, by footprint analysis. At the endpoint, the volume of preserved white and gray matter, as well as the number of dorsal column axons and perilesional blood vessels rostral to the injury, were quantified. At weeks two and three after SCI, iNOS−/− mice exhibited a significant locomotor improvement compared to WT controls, although a sustained improvement was not observed during later weeks. At the endpoint, iNOS−/− mice showed significantly less preserved white and gray matter, as well as fewer dorsal column axons and perilesional blood vessels, compared to WT controls. While short-term antagonism of iNOS provides histological and functional benefits, its long-term ablation after SCI may be deleterious, blocking protective or reparative processes important for angiogenesis and tissue preservation.

  16. Thalamocortical Projection Neuron and Interneuron Numbers in the Visual Thalamic Nuclei of the Adult C57BL/6 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelio, Marian; García-Amado, María; Clascá, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    A key parameter to constrain predictive, bottom-up circuit models of a given brain domain is the number and position of the neuronal populations involved. These include not only the neurons whose bodies reside within the domain, but also the neurons in distant regions that innervate the domain. The mouse visual cortex receives its main subcortical input from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the lateral posterior (LP) complex of the thalamus. The latter consists of three different nuclei: lateral posterior lateral (LPL), lateral posterior medial rostral (LPMR), and lateral posterior medial caudal (LPMC), each exhibiting specific patterns of connections with the various visual cortical areas. Here, we have determined the number of thalamocortical projection neurons and interneurons in the LP complex and dLGN of the adult C57BL/6 male mouse. We combined Nissl staining and histochemical and immunolabeling methods for consistently delineating nuclei borders, and applied unbiased stereological cell counting methods. Thalamic interneurons were identified using GABA immunolabeling. The C57BL/6 dLGN contains ∼21,200 neurons, while LP complex contains ∼31,000 total neurons. The dLGN and LP are the only nuclei of the mouse dorsal thalamus containing substantial numbers GABA-immunoreactive interneurons. These interneurons, however, are scarcer than previously estimated; they are 5.6% of dLGN neurons and just 1.9% of the LP neurons. It can be thus inferred that the dLGN contains ∼20,000 and the LP complex ∼30,400 thalamocortical projection neurons (∼12,000 in LPL, 15,200 in LPMR, and 4,200 in LPMC). The present dataset is relevant for constraining models of mouse visual thalamocortical circuits, as well as for quantitative comparisons between genetically modified mouse strains, or across species.

  17. Analysis of the modifying influence of Plastin 3 (PLS3) on Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) by generation of transgenic mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Bastian

    2011-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of α-motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Depending on the severity, the clinical spectrum of SMA ranges from early infant death to normal adult life with only mild muscle weakness. To date, no cure is available. SMA is caused by the homozygous loss of the survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1). Besides SMN1, another nearly identical copy of the gene is present in the human genome, thus called...

  18. Glutathione-mimetic D609 alleviates memory deficits and reduces amyloid-β deposition in an AβPP/PS1 transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xie, ZhaoHong; Wei, LiFei; Ding, Mao; Wang, Ping; Bi, JianZhong

    2018-04-18

    Excessive extracellular deposition of amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress is associated with the onset and progression of AD and contributes to Aβ generation. Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) is a glutathione (GSH)-mimetic compound. Although the antioxidant properties of D609 have been well-studied, its potential therapeutic significance on AD remains unclear. In the present study, we used a mouse model of AD to investigate the effects and the mechanism of action of D609 on AD. We found that D609 treatment significantly improved the spatial learning and alleviated the memory decline in the mice harboring amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) double mutations (AβPP/PS1 mice). D609 treatment also increased GSH level, GSH and oxidative glutathione ratio, and superoxide dismutase activity, whereas decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, suggesting that D609 alleviated oxidative stress in AβPP/PS1 mice. In addition, D609 reduced β-secretase 1 level and decreased amyloidogenic processing of AβPP, consequently reducing Aβ deposition in the mice. Thus, our findings suggest that D609 might produce beneficial effects on the prevention and treatment of AD.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  19. Altered cell cycle-related gene expression in brain and lymphocytes from a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease [amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (PS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteras, Noemí; Bartolomé, Fernando; Alquézar, Carolina; Antequera, Desireé; Muñoz, Úrsula; Carro, Eva; Martín-Requero, Ángeles

    2012-09-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that aberrant re-expression of many cell cycle-related proteins and inappropriate neuronal cell cycle control are critical events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Evidence of cell cycle activation in post-mitotic neurons has also been observed in murine models of AD, despite the fact that most of these mice do not show massive loss of neuronal bodies. Dysfunction of the cell cycle appears to affect cells other than neurons, as peripheral cells, such as lymphocytes and fibroblasts from patients with AD, show an altered response to mitogenic stimulation. We sought to determine whether cell cycle disturbances are present simultaneously in both brain and peripheral cells from the amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) mouse model of AD, in order to validate the use of peripheral cells from patients not only to study cell cycle abnormalities as a pathogenic feature of AD, but also as a means to test novel therapeutic approaches. By using cell cycle pathway-specific RT(2)Profiler™ PCR Arrays, we detected changes in a number of cell cycle-related genes in brain as well as in lymphocytes from APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, we found enhanced 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA in lymphocytes from APP/PS1 mice, and increased expression of the cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor Cdkn2a, as detected by immunohistochemistry in cortical neurons of the APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, the cell cycle-related changes in brain and blood cells reported here support the mitosis failure hypothesis in AD and validate the use of peripheral cells as surrogate tissue to study the molecular basis of AD pathogenesis. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Passive immunization targeting the N-terminal projection domain of tau decreases tau pathology and improves cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease and tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chun-ling; Chen, Xia; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Intraneuronal accumulation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain is a histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and a family of related neurodegenerative disorders collectively called tauopathies. At present there is no effective treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases which are clinically characterized by dementia in mid to old-age. Here we report the treatment of 14-17-months-old 3xTg-AD mice with tau antibodies 43D (tau 6-18) and 77E9 (tau 184-195) to the N-terminal projection domain of tau or mouse IgG as a control by intraperitoneal injection once a week for 4 weeks, and the effects of the passive immunization on reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau, Aβ accumulation and cognitive performance in these animals. We found that treatment with tau antibodies 43D and 77E9 reduced total tau level, decreased tau hyperphosphorylated at Ser199, Ser202/Thr205 (AT8), Thr205, Ser262/356 (12E8), and Ser396/404 (PHF-1) sites, and a trend to reduce Aβ pathology. Most importantly, targeting N-terminal tau especially by 43D (tau 6-18) improved reference memory in the Morris water maze task in 3xTg-AD mice. We did not observe any abnormality in general physical characteristics of the treated animals with either of the two antibodies during the course of this study. Taken together, our studies demonstrate for the first time (1) that passive immunization targeting normal tau can effectively clear the hyperphosphorylated protein and possibly reduce Aβ pathology from the brain and (2) that targeting N-terminal projection domain of tau containing amino acid 6-18 is especially beneficial. Thus, targeting selective epitopes of N-terminal domain of tau may present a novel effective therapeutic opportunity for Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

  1. C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are required for Sebocyte differentiation and stratified squamous differentiation in adult mouse skin.

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    John S House

    Full Text Available C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are bZIP transcription factors that are highly expressed in the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands of skin and yet germ line deletion of either family member alone has only mild or no effect on keratinocyte biology and their role in sebocyte biology has never been examined. To address possible functional redundancies and reveal functional roles of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in postnatal skin, mouse models were developed in which either family member could be acutely ablated alone or together in the epidermis and sebaceous glands of adult mice. Acute removal of either C/EBPalpha or C/EBPbeta alone in adult mouse skin revealed modest to no discernable changes in epidermis or sebaceous glands. In contrast, co-ablation of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in postnatal epidermis resulted in disruption of stratified squamous differentiation characterized by hyperproliferation of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes and a defective basal to spinous keratinocyte transition involving an expanded basal compartment and a diminished and delayed spinous compartment. Acute co-ablation of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in sebaceous glands resulted in severe morphological defects, and sebocyte differentiation was blocked as determined by lack of sebum production and reduced expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD3 and melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R, two markers of terminal sebocyte differentiation. Specialized sebocytes of Meibomian glands and preputial glands were also affected. Our results indicate that in adult mouse skin, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are critically involved in regulating sebocyte differentiation and epidermal homeostasis involving the basal to spinous keratinocyte transition and basal cell cycle withdrawal.

  2. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  3. Aberrant splicing in transgenes containing introns, exons, and V5 epitopes: lessons from developing an FSHD mouse model expressing a D4Z4 repeat with flanking genomic sequences.

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    Eugénie Ansseau

    Full Text Available The DUX4 gene, encoded within D4Z4 repeats on human chromosome 4q35, has recently emerged as a key factor in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. This recognition prompted development of animal models expressing the DUX4 open reading frame (ORF alone or embedded within D4Z4 repeats. In the first published model, we used adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV and strong viral control elements (CMV promoter, SV40 poly A to demonstrate that the DUX4 cDNA caused dose-dependent toxicity in mouse muscles. As a follow-up, we designed a second generation of DUX4-expressing AAV vectors to more faithfully genocopy the FSHD-permissive D4Z4 repeat region located at 4q35. This new vector (called AAV.D4Z4.V5.pLAM contained the D4Z4/DUX4 promoter region, a V5 epitope-tagged DUX4 ORF, and the natural 3' untranslated region (pLAM harboring two small introns, DUX4 exons 2 and 3, and the non-canonical poly A signal required for stabilizing DUX4 mRNA in FSHD. AAV.D4Z4.V5.pLAM failed to recapitulate the robust pathology of our first generation vectors following delivery to mouse muscle. We found that the DUX4.V5 junction sequence created an unexpected splice donor in the pre-mRNA that was preferentially utilized to remove the V5 coding sequence and DUX4 stop codon, yielding non-functional DUX4 protein with 55 additional residues on its carboxyl-terminus. Importantly, we further found that aberrant splicing could occur in any expression construct containing a functional splice acceptor and sequences resembling minimal splice donors. Our findings represent an interesting case study with respect to AAV.D4Z4.V5.pLAM, but more broadly serve as a note of caution for designing constructs containing V5 epitope tags and/or transgenes with downstream introns and exons.

  4. CRMP5 regulates generation and survival of newborn neurons in olfactory and hippocampal neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain.

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    Alexandra Veyrac

    Full Text Available The Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins (CRMPS are highly expressed in the developing brain, and in adult brain areas that retain neurogenesis, ie: the olfactory bulb (OB and the dentate gyrus (DG. During brain development, CRMPs are essentially involved in signaling of axon guidance and neurite outgrowth, but their functions in the adult brain remain largely unknown. CRMP5 has been initially identified as the target of auto-antibodies involved in paraneoplasic neurological diseases and further implicated in a neurite outgrowth inhibition mediated by tubulin binding. Interestingly, CRMP5 is also highly expressed in adult brain neurogenic areas where its functions have not yet been elucidated. Here we observed in both neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain that CRMP5 was present in proliferating and post-mitotic neuroblasts, while they migrate and differentiate into mature neurons. In CRMP5(-/- mice, the lack of CRMP5 resulted in a significant increase of proliferation and neurogenesis, but also in an excess of apoptotic death of granule cells in the OB and DG. These findings provide the first evidence that CRMP5 is involved in the generation and survival of newly generated neurons in areas of the adult brain with a high level of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity.

  5. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Keejong; Qian, Jin; Jiang, MeiSheng; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Ming-Che; Chen, Chi-Dar; Lai, Chao-Kuen; Lo, Hsin-Lung; Hsiao, Chin-Ton; Brown, Lucy; Bolen, James; Huang, Hsiao-I; Ho, Pei-Yu; Shih, Ping Yao; Yao, Chen-Wen

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT) that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal ...

  6. Transgenic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) causes premature aging phenotypes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohwee; Vaish, Vivek; Feng, Mingxiao; Field, Kevin; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Shim, Minsub

    2016-10-07

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids, lipid signaling molecules that regulate various physiological processes. COX2, one of the isoforms of COX, is highly inducible in response to a wide variety of cellular and environmental stresses. Increased COX2 expression is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. COX2 expression is also reported to be increased in the tissues of aged humans and mice, which suggests the involvement of COX2 in the aging process. However, it is not clear whether the increased COX2 expression is causal to or a result of aging. We have now addressed this question by creating an inducible COX2 transgenic mouse model. Here we show that post-natal expression of COX2 led to a panel of aging-related phenotypes. The expression of p16, p53, and phospho-H2AX was increased in the tissues of COX2 transgenic mice. Additionally, adult mouse lung fibroblasts from COX2 transgenic mice exhibited increased expression of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase. Our study reveals that the increased COX2 expression has an impact on the aging process and suggests that modulation of COX2 and its downstream signaling may be an approach for intervention of age-related disorders.

  7. Neuron-Enriched Gene Expression Patterns are Regionally Anti-Correlated with Oligodendrocyte-Enriched Patterns in the Adult Mouse and Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Powell Patrick Cheng; French, Leon; Pavlidis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    An important goal in neuroscience is to understand gene expression patterns in the brain. The recent availability of comprehensive and detailed expression atlases for mouse and human creates opportunities to discover global patterns and perform cross-species comparisons. Recently we reported that the major source of variation in gene transcript expression in the adult normal mouse brain can be parsimoniously explained as reflecting regional variation in glia to neuron ratios, and is correlated with degree of connectivity and location in the brain along the anterior-posterior axis. Here we extend this investigation to two gene expression assays of adult normal human brains that consisted of over 300 brain region samples, and perform comparative analyses of brain-wide expression patterns to the mouse. We performed principal components analysis (PCA) on the regional gene expression of the adult human brain to identify the expression pattern that has the largest variance. As in the mouse, we observed that the first principal component is composed of two anti-correlated patterns enriched in oligodendrocyte and neuron markers respectively. However, we also observed interesting discordant patterns between the two species. For example, a few mouse neuron markers show expression patterns that are more correlated with the human oligodendrocyte-enriched pattern and vice-versa. In conclusion, our work provides insights into human brain function and evolution by probing global relationships between regional cell type marker expression patterns in the human and mouse brain.

  8. PPARg mRNA in the adult mouse hypothalamus: distribution and regulation in response to dietary challenges

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    Yang eLiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg is a ligand-activated transcription factor that was originally identified as a regulator of peroxisome proliferation and adipocyte differentiation. Emerging evidence suggests that functional PPARg signaling also occurs within the hypothalamus. However, the exact distribution and identities of PPARg-expressing hypothalamic cells remains under debate. The present study systematically mapped PPARg mRNA expression in the adult mouse brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry. PPARg mRNA was found to be expressed at high levels outside the hypothalamus including the neocortex, the olfactory bulb, the organ of the vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, and the subfornical organ. Within the hypothalamus, PPARg was present at moderate levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the ependymal of the 3rd ventricle. In all examined feeding-related hypothalamic nuclei, PPARg was expressed at very low levels that were close to the limit of detection. Using qPCR techniques, we demonstrated that PPARg mRNA expression was upregulated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in response to fasting. Double in situ hybridization further demonstrated that PPARg was primarily expressed in neurons. Collectively, our observations provide a comprehensive map of PPARg distribution and regulation in the intact adult mouse hypothalamus.

  9. A Novel Procedure for Rapid Imaging of Adult Mouse Brains with MicroCT Using Iodine-Based Contrast.

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    Ryan Anderson

    Full Text Available High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been the primary modality for obtaining 3D cross-sectional anatomical information in animals for soft tissue, particularly brain. However, costs associated with MRI can be considerably high for large phenotypic screens for gross differences in the structure of the brain due to pathology and/or experimental manipulations. MicroCT (mCT, especially benchtop mCT, is becoming a common laboratory equipment with throughput rates equal or faster than any form of high-resolution MRI at lower costs. Here we explore adapting previously developed contrast based mCT to image adult mouse brains in-situ. We show that 2% weight per volume (w/v iodine-potassium iodide solution can be successfully used to image adult mouse brains within 48 hours post-mortem when a structural support matrix is used. We demonstrate that hydrogel can be effectively used as a perfusant which limits the tissue shrinkage due to iodine.

  10. Anthocyanins protect against LPS-induced oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Tahir; Kim, Min Woo; Jo, Myeung Hoon; Jo, Min Gi; Badshah, Haroon; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-11-01

    Several studies provide evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of various neurological disorders. Anthocyanins are polyphenolic compounds and are well known for their anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins (extracted from black soybean) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ROS-mediated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 μg/kg) for 7 days triggers elevated ROS and oxidative stress, which induces neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex. Treatment with 24 mg/kg/day of anthocyanins for 14 days in LPS-injected mice (7 days before and 7 days co-treated with LPS) attenuated elevated ROS and oxidative stress compared to mice that received LPS-injection alone. The immunoblotting results showed that anthocyanins reduced the level of the oxidative stress kinase phospho-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 1 (p-JNK). The immunoblotting and morphological results showed that anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced-ROS-mediated neuroinflammation through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β, TNF-α and the transcription factor NF- k B. Anthocyanins treatment also reduced activated astrocytes and microglia in the cortex of LPS-injected mice, as indicated by reductions in GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. Anthocyanins also prevent overexpression of various apoptotic markers, i.e., Bax, cytosolic cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1. Immunohistochemical fluoro-jade B (FJB) and Nissl staining indicated that anthocyanins prevent LPS-induced neurodegeneration in the mouse cortex. Our results suggest that dietary flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, have antioxidant and neuroprotective activities that could be beneficial to various neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal western diet primes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adult mouse offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruis, M. G. M.; Lendvai, A.; Bloks, V. W.; Zwier, M. V.; Baller, J. F. W.; de Bruin, A.; Groen, A. K.; Plosch, T.

    AimMetabolic programming via components of the maternal diet during gestation may play a role in the development of different aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Using a mouse model, we aimed to characterize the role of maternal western-type diet in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver

  12. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  13. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  14. Use of the viral 2A peptide for bicistronic expression in transgenic mice

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    Trichas Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic animals are widely used in biomedical research and biotechnology. Multicistronic constructs, in which several proteins are encoded by a single messenger RNA, are commonly used in genetically engineered animals. This is currently done by using an internal ribosomal entry site to separate the different coding regions. 2A peptides result in the co-translational 'cleavage' of proteins and are an attractive alternative to the internal ribosomal entry site. They are more reliable than the internal ribosomal entry site and lead to expression of multiple cistrons at equimolar levels. They work in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells, but to date have not been demonstrated to function in transgenic mice in an inheritable manner. Results To test 2A function in transgenic mice and uncover any possible toxicity of widespread expression of the 2A peptide, we made a bicistronic reporter construct containing the coding sequence for a membrane localised red fluorescent protein (Myr-TdTomato and a nuclear localised green fluorescent protein (H2B-GFP, separated by a 2A sequence. When this reporter is transfected into HeLa cells, the two fluorescent proteins correctly localise to mutually exclusive cellular compartments, demonstrating that the bicistronic construct is a reliable readout of 2A function. The two fluorescent proteins also correctly localise when the reporter is electroporated into chick neural tube cells. We made two independent transgenic mouse lines that express the bicistronic reporter ubiquitously. For both lines, transgenic mice are born in Mendelian frequencies and are found to be healthy and fertile. Myr-TdTomato and H2B-GFP segregate to mutually exclusive cellular compartments in all tissues examined from a broad range of developmental stages, ranging from embryo to adult. One transgenic line shows X-linked inheritance of the transgene and mosaic expression in females but uniform expression in males, indicating

  15. Electrophysiological and gene expression characterization of the ontogeny of nestin-expressing cells in the adult mouse midbrain

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    Anupama Dey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The birth of new neurons, or neurogenesis, in the adult midbrain is important for progressing dopamine cell-replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease. Most studies suggest newborn cells remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia within the adult midbrain. However, some studies suggest nestin + neural precursor cells (NPCs have a propensity to generate new neurons here. We sought to confirm this by administering tamoxifen to adult NesCreERT2/R26eYFP transgenic mice, which permanently labelled adult nestin-expressing cells and their progeny with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP. eYFP+ midbrain cells were then characterized 1–32 weeks later in acutely prepared brain slices using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology combined with single-cell RT-qPCR. Most eYFP+ cells exhibited a mature neuronal phenotype with large amplitude fast action potentials (APs, spontaneous post-synaptic currents (sPSCs, and expression of ‘mature’ neuronal genes (NeuN, Gad1, Gad2 and/or VGLUT2. This was the case even at the earliest time-point following tamoxifen (i.e. 1 week. In comparison to neighboring eYFP− (control cells, eYFP+ cells discharged more APs per unit current injection, and had faster AP time-to-peak, hyperpolarized resting membrane potential, smaller membrane capacitance and shorter duration sPSCs. eYFP+ cells were also differentiated from eYFP− cells by increased expression of ‘immature’ pro-neuronal genes (Pax6, Ngn2 and/or Msx1. However, further analyses failed to reveal evidence of a place of birth, neuronal differentiation, maturation and integration indicative of classical neurogenesis. Thus our findings do not support the notion that nestin + NPCs in the adult SNc and midbrain generate new neurons via classical neurogenesis. Rather, they raise the possibility that mature neurons express nestin under unknown circumstances, and that this is associated with altered physiology and gene expression.

  16. Distribution and densitometry mapping of L1-CAM Immunoreactivity in the adult mouse brain – light microscopic observation

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    Yamasaki Hironobu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in mouse brain might provide a basis for understanding its role in the brain. Results We examined the overall distribution of L1 in the adult mouse brain by immunohistochemistry using two polyclonal antibodies against different epitopes for L1. Immunoreactive L1 was widely but unevenly distributed from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical cord. The accumulation of immunoreactive L1 was greatest in a non-neuronal element of the major fibre bundles, i.e. the lateral olfactory tract, olfactory and temporal limb of the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, stria terminalis, globus pallidus, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, solitary tract, and spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. High to highest levels of non-neuronal and neuronal L1 were found in the grey matter; i.e. the piriform and entorhinal cortices, hypothalamus, reticular part of the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, trigeminal spinal nucleus etc. High to moderate density of neuronal L1 was found in the olfactory bulb, layer V of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, pontine grey, superior colliculi, cerebellar cortex, solitary tract nucleus etc. Only low to lowest levels of neuronal L1 were found in the hippocampus, grey matter in the caudate-putamen, thalamus, cerebellar nuclei etc. Conclusion L1 is widely and unevenly distributed in the matured mouse brain, where immunoreactivity was present not only in neuronal elements; axons, synapses and cell soma, but also in non-neuronal elements.

  17. Gene expression of drug metabolizing enzymes in adult and aged mouse liver: A modulation by immobilization stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailova, O.N.; Gulyaeva, L.F.; Filipenko, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    The role of stress in the regulation of enzymatic systems involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, as well as endogenous substrates in the liver was investigated using single immobilization stress as a model. Adult (3 months of age) and aged (26 months) C3H/a male mice were used. Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) mRNA levels in the mouse liver were measured by a semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Excluding CYP1A1, experiments revealed significant differences in the expression of these genes between adult- and aged-control animals. The influence of stress on the expression of genes studied was shown to be higher in adult mice than in aged ones. Our results clearly demonstrate the lack of response or even the attenuation of gene expression in aged animals that may play an important role in age-related pathologies and diseases

  18. The Phospholipase D2 Knock Out Mouse Has Ectopic Purkinje Cells and Suffers from Early Adult-Onset Anosmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu M Vermeren

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D2 (PLD2 is an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid (PA, a lipid messenger molecule involved in a number of cellular events including, through its membrane curvature properties, endocytosis. The PLD2 knock out (PLD2KO mouse has been previously reported to be protected from insult in a model of Alzheimer's disease. We have further analysed a PLD2KO mouse using mass spectrophotometry of its lipids and found significant differences in PA species throughout its brain. We have examined the expression pattern of PLD2 which allowed us to define which region of the brain to analyse for defect, notably PLD2 was not detected in glial-rich regions. The expression pattern lead us to specifically examine the mitral cells of olfactory bulbs, the Cornus Amonis (CA regions of the hippocampus and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We find that the change to longer PA species correlates with subtle architectural defect in the cerebellum, exemplified by ectopic Purkinje cells and an adult-onset deficit of olfaction. These observations draw parallels to defects in the reelin heterozygote as well as the effect of high fat diet on olfaction.

  19. Generation of NSE-MerCreMer transgenic mice with tamoxifen inducible Cre activity in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Ka Man Kam

    Full Text Available To establish a genetic tool for conditional deletion or expression of gene in neurons in a temporally controlled manner, we generated a transgenic mouse (NSE-MerCreMer, which expressed a tamoxifen inducible type of Cre recombinase specifically in neurons. The tamoxifen inducible Cre recombinase (MerCreMer is a fusion protein containing Cre recombinase with two modified estrogen receptor ligand binding domains at both ends, and is driven by the neural-specific rat neural specific enolase (NSE promoter. A total of two transgenic lines were established, and expression of MerCreMer in neurons of the central and enteric nervous systems was confirmed. Transcript of MerCreMer was detected in several non-neural tissues such as heart, liver, and kidney in these lines. In the background of the Cre reporter mouse strain Rosa26R, Cre recombinase activity was inducible in neurons of adult NSE-MerCreMer mice treated with tamoxifen by intragastric gavage, but not in those fed with corn oil only. We conclude that NSE-MerCreMer lines will be useful for studying gene functions in neurons for the conditions that Cre-mediated recombination resulting in embryonic lethality, which precludes investigation of gene functions in neurons through later stages of development and in adult.

  20. Human CD68 promoter GFP transgenic mice allow analysis of monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif J; McNeill, Eileen; Kapellos, Theodore S; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Norman, Sophie; Burd, Sarah; Smart, Nicola; Machemer, Daniel E W; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Channon, Keith M; Chawla, Ajay; Greaves, David R

    2014-10-09

    The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115(+) monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow-derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression for 72 hours after differentiation into macrophages, allowing continued cell tracking during resolution of inflammation. In summary, this novel CD68-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource for analyzing monocyte mobilization and monocyte trafficking as well as studying the fate of recruited monocytes in models of acute and chronic inflammation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Genetic human prion disease modelled in PrP transgenic Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M; Cardova, Alzbeta; Wolf, Hanna; Pradl, Lydia; Vorberg, Ina; Jackson, Walker S; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2017-09-20

    Inherited human prion diseases, such as fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), are associated with autosomal dominant mutations in the human prion protein gene PRNP and accumulation of PrP Sc , an abnormal isomer of the normal host protein PrP C , in the brain of affected individuals. PrP Sc is the principal component of the transmissible neurotoxic prion agent. It is important to identify molecular pathways and cellular processes that regulate prion formation and prion-induced neurotoxicity. This will allow identification of possible therapeutic interventions for individuals with, or at risk from, genetic human prion disease. Increasingly, Drosophila has been used to model human neurodegenerative disease. An important unanswered question is whether genetic prion disease with concomitant spontaneous prion formation can be modelled in Drosophila We have used pUAST/PhiC31-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to generate Drosophila transgenic for murine or hamster PrP (prion protein) that carry single-codon mutations associated with genetic human prion disease. Mouse or hamster PrP harbouring an FFI (D178N) or fCJD (E200K) mutation showed mild Proteinase K resistance when expressed in Drosophila Adult Drosophila transgenic for FFI or fCJD variants of mouse or hamster PrP displayed a spontaneous decline in locomotor ability that increased in severity as the flies aged. Significantly, this mutant PrP-mediated neurotoxic fly phenotype was transferable to recipient Drosophila that expressed the wild-type form of the transgene. Collectively, our novel data are indicative of the spontaneous formation of a PrP-dependent neurotoxic phenotype in FFI- or CJD-PrP transgenic Drosophila and show that inherited human prion disease can be modelled in this invertebrate host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. A novel reporter allele for monitoring Dll4 expression within the embryonic and adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Herman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Canonical Notch signaling requires the presence of a membrane bound ligand and a corresponding transmembrane Notch receptor. Receptor engagement induces multiple proteolytic cleavage events culminating in the nuclear accumulation of the Notch intracellular domain and its binding to a transcriptional co-factor to mediate gene expression. Notch signaling networks are essential regulators of vascular patterning and angiogenesis, as well as myriad other biological processes. Delta-like 4 (Dll4 encodes the earliest Notch ligand detected in arterial cells, and is enriched in sprouting endothelial tip cells. Dll4 expression has often been inferred by proxy using a lacZ knockin reporter allele. This is problematic, as a single copy of Dll4 is haploinsufficient. Additionally, Notch activity regulates Dll4 transcription, making it unclear whether these reporter lines accurately reflect Dll4 expression. Accordingly, precisely defining Dll4 expression is essential for determining its role in development and disease. To address these limitations, we generated a novel BAC transgenic allele with a nuclear-localized β-galactosidase reporter (Dll4-BAC-nlacZ. Through a comparative analysis, we show the BAC line overcomes previous issues of haploinsufficiency, it recapitulates Dll4 expression in vivo, and allows superior visualization and imaging. As such, this novel Dll4 reporter is an important addition to the growing Notch toolkit.

  3. The morphological changes of adult mouse testes after 60Co Gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruji, M.; Movahedin, M.; Gourabi, H.; Jabbary Arfaee, A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytotoxic therapy can lead to prolonged azoospermia or even sterility. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes of mouse testes after γ-Radiation. Methods: After anesthetizing of NMRI mice, testes and their surrounding tissues were irradiated using a cobalt therapy machine. Four experimental groups were irradiated with fractionated doses of: 1.5+8, 1.5+12 and 1.5+16 Gy (with an interval of 24 h) and single dose of 14 Gy. Non-irradiated mice were considered as control group. Testes were removed 4, 6 and 8 weeks following irradiation, weighed and processed for light microscopic study. Diameters of seminiferous tubules and their lumens, epithelium thickness, percentage of different types of tubules and number of spermatogenic cell were measured. Moreover, sperm count motility and viability rates were evaluated in epididymis. Results: Number of normal tubules, epithelium thickness, tubules diameter and lumen diameter were significantly reduced with high dose irradiation in comparison with control testes. The recovery was observed after 8 weeks. Epididymal sperm count, motility and viability rates were significantly decreased in the irradiated mice comparing non-irradiated ones. These parameters were increased after 8 weeks. Conclusion: According to the results, irradiation can cause temporary azoospermia in mouse and this effect is reversible after 8 weeks

  4. Quiescent Oct4+ Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) Repopulate Ablated Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein+ NSCs in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Rachel L; Yammine, Samantha Z; Morshead, Cindi M; van der Kooy, Derek

    2017-09-01

    Adult primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) are a rare population of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) - Oct4 + cells in the mouse forebrain subependymal zone bordering the lateral ventricles that give rise to clonal neurospheres in leukemia inhibitory factor in vitro. pNSC neurospheres can be passaged to self-renew or give rise to GFAP + NSCs that form neurospheres in epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, which we collectively refer to as definitive NSCs (dNSCs). Label retention experiments using doxycycline-inducible histone-2B (H2B)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice and several chase periods of up to 1 year quantified the adult pNSC cell cycle time as 3-5 months. We hypothesized that while pNSCs are not very proliferative at baseline, they may exist as a reserve pool of NSCs in case of injury. To test this function of pNSCs, we obtained conditional Oct4 knockout mice, Oct4 fl/fl ;Sox1 Cre (Oct4 CKO ), which do not yield adult pNSC-derived neurospheres. When we ablated the progeny of pNSCs, namely all GFAP + dNSCs, in these Oct4 CKO mice, we found that dNSCs did not recover as they do in wild-type mice, suggesting that pNSCs are necessary for dNSC repopulation. Returning to the H2B-GFP mice, we observed that the cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside ablation of proliferating cells including dNSCs-induced quiescent pNSCs to proliferate and significantly dilute their H2B-GFP label. In conclusion, we demonstrate that pNSCs are the most quiescent stem cells in the adult brain reported to date and that their lineage position upstream of GFAP + dNSCs allows them to repopulate a depleted neural lineage. Stem Cells 2017;35:2071-2082. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into a ... We describe a simple method to generate relatively pure cardiomyocytes from mouse ... In this study, we described the generation of transgenic.

  6. Low CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio associated with inflammatory arthropathy in human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohsugi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1 can cause an aggressive malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL as well as inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. A transgenic mouse that expresses HTLV-1 Tax also develops T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and an inflammatory arthropathy that resembles rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to identify the primary T-cell subsets involved in the development of arthropathy in Tax transgenic mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By 24 months of age, Tax transgenic mice developed severe arthropathy with a cumulative incidence of 22.8%. The pathological findings of arthropathy in Tax transgenic mice were similar to those seen in human rheumatoid arthritis or mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, with synovial proliferation and a positive rheumatoid factor. Before the onset of spontaneous arthropathy, young and old Tax transgenic mice were not sensitive to collagen and did not develop arthritis after immunization with type II collagen. The arthropathic Tax transgenic mice showed a significantly decreased proportion of splenic CD4(+ T cells, whereas the proportion of splenic CD8(+ T cells was increased. Regulatory T cells (CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ were significantly decreased and CD8(+ T cells that expressed the chemokine receptor CCR4 (CD8(+CCR4(+ were significantly increased in arthropathic Tax transgenic mice. The expression of tax mRNA was strong in the spleen and joints of arthropathic mice, with a 40-fold increase compared with healthy transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that Tax transgenic mice develop rheumatoid-like arthritis with proliferating synovial cells in the joints; however, the proportion of different splenic T-cell subsets in these mice was completely different from other commonly used animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. The crucial T-cell subsets in arthropathic Tax transgenic mice appear to resemble

  7. Application of Echocardiography on Transgenic Mice with Cardiomyopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathies are common cardiac disorders that primarily affect cardiac muscle resulting in cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Transgenic mouse disease models have been developed to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying heart failure and sudden cardiac death observed in cardiomyopathy cases and to explore the therapeutic outcomes in experimental animals in vivo. Echocardiography is an essential diagnostic tool for accurate and noninvasive assessment of cardiac structure and function in experimental animals. Our laboratory has been among the first to apply high-frequency research echocardiography on transgenic mice with cardiomyopathies. In this work, we have summarized our and other studies on assessment of systolic and diastolic dysfunction using conventional echocardiography, pulsed Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging in transgenic mice with various cardiomyopathies. Estimation of embryonic mouse hearts has been performed as well using this high-resolution echocardiography. Some technical considerations in mouse echocardiography have also been discussed.

  8. Generation of an ABCG2GFPn-puro transgenic line - A tool to study ABCG2 expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orford, Michael; Mean, Richard; Lapathitis, George; Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena; Panayi, Helen; Malas, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter 2 (ABCG2) is expressed by stem cells in many organs and in stem cells of solid tumors. These cells are isolated based on the side population (SP) phenotype, a Hoechst 3342 dye efflux property believed to be conferred by ABCG2. Because of the limitations of this approach we generated transgenic mice that express Nuclear GFP (GFPn) coupled to the Puromycin-resistance gene, under the control of ABCG2 promoter/enhancer sequences. We show that ABCG2 is expressed in neural progenitors of the developing forebrain and spinal cord and in embryonic and adult endothelial cells of the brain. Using the neurosphere assay, we isolated tripotent ABCG2-expressing neural stem cells from embryonic mouse brain. This transgenic line is a powerful tool for studying the expression of ABCG2 in many tissues and for performing functional studies in different experimental settings.

  9. Generation of an ABCG2{sup GFPn-puro} transgenic line - A tool to study ABCG2 expression in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orford, Michael; Mean, Richard; Lapathitis, George; Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena; Panayi, Helen [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios 2370, Nicosia (Cyprus); Malas, Stavros, E-mail: smalas@cing.ac.cy [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios 2370, Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2009-06-26

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter 2 (ABCG2) is expressed by stem cells in many organs and in stem cells of solid tumors. These cells are isolated based on the side population (SP) phenotype, a Hoechst 3342 dye efflux property believed to be conferred by ABCG2. Because of the limitations of this approach we generated transgenic mice that express Nuclear GFP (GFPn) coupled to the Puromycin-resistance gene, under the control of ABCG2 promoter/enhancer sequences. We show that ABCG2 is expressed in neural progenitors of the developing forebrain and spinal cord and in embryonic and adult endothelial cells of the brain. Using the neurosphere assay, we isolated tripotent ABCG2-expressing neural stem cells from embryonic mouse brain. This transgenic line is a powerful tool for studying the expression of ABCG2 in many tissues and for performing functional studies in different experimental settings.

  10. Expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase in mature granule cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohira, Koji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New granule cells are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. During granule cell maturation, the mechanisms that differentiate new cells not only describe the degree of cell differentiation, but also crucially regulate the progression of cell differentiation. Here, we describe a gene, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO, whose expression distinguishes stem cells from more differentiated cells among the granule cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus. The use of markers for proliferation, neural progenitors, and immature and mature granule cells indicated that TDO was expressed in mature cells and in some immature cells. In mice heterozygous for the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, in which dentate gyrus granule cells fail to mature normally, TDO immunoreactivity was substantially downregulated in the dentate gyrus granule cells. Moreover, a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling experiment revealed that new neurons began to express TDO between 2 and 4 wk after the neurons were generated, when the axons and dendrites of the granule cells developed and synaptogenesis occurred. These findings indicate that TDO might be required at a late-stage of granule cell development, such as during axonal and dendritic growth, synaptogenesis and its maturation.

  11. Expression of the Argonaute protein PiwiL2 and piRNAs in adult mouse mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiuling; Ma, Qi; Shehadeh, Lina A.; Wilson, Amber; Xia, Linghui; Yu, Hong [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Vascular Biology Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Webster, Keith A., E-mail: kwebster@med.miami.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Vascular Biology Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Piwi (P-element-induced wimpy testis) first discovered in Drosophila is a member of the Argonaute family of micro-RNA binding proteins with essential roles in germ-cell development. The murine homologue of PiwiL2, also known as Mili is selectively expressed in the testes, and mice bearing targeted mutations of the PiwiL2 gene are male-sterile. PiwiL2 proteins are thought to protect the germ line genome by suppressing retrotransposons, stabilizing heterochromatin structure, and regulating target genes during meiosis and mitosis. Here, we report that PiwiL2 and associated piRNAs (piRs) may play similar roles in adult mouse mesenchymal stem cells. We found that PiwiL2 is expressed in the cytoplasm of metaphase mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow of adult and aged mice. Knockdown of PiwiL2 with a specific siRNA enhanced cell proliferation, significantly increased the number of cells in G1/S and G2/M cell cycle phases and was associated with increased expression of cell cycle genes CCND1, CDK8, microtubule regulation genes, and decreased expression of tumor suppressors Cables 1, LATS, and Cxxc4. The results suggest broader roles for Piwi in genome surveillance beyond the germ line and a possible role in regulating the cell cycle of mesenchymal stem cells.

  12. Expression of the Argonaute protein PiwiL2 and piRNAs in adult mouse mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiuling; Ma, Qi; Shehadeh, Lina A.; Wilson, Amber; Xia, Linghui; Yu, Hong; Webster, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Piwi (P-element-induced wimpy testis) first discovered in Drosophila is a member of the Argonaute family of micro-RNA binding proteins with essential roles in germ-cell development. The murine homologue of PiwiL2, also known as Mili is selectively expressed in the testes, and mice bearing targeted mutations of the PiwiL2 gene are male-sterile. PiwiL2 proteins are thought to protect the germ line genome by suppressing retrotransposons, stabilizing heterochromatin structure, and regulating target genes during meiosis and mitosis. Here, we report that PiwiL2 and associated piRNAs (piRs) may play similar roles in adult mouse mesenchymal stem cells. We found that PiwiL2 is expressed in the cytoplasm of metaphase mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow of adult and aged mice. Knockdown of PiwiL2 with a specific siRNA enhanced cell proliferation, significantly increased the number of cells in G1/S and G2/M cell cycle phases and was associated with increased expression of cell cycle genes CCND1, CDK8, microtubule regulation genes, and decreased expression of tumor suppressors Cables 1, LATS, and Cxxc4. The results suggest broader roles for Piwi in genome surveillance beyond the germ line and a possible role in regulating the cell cycle of mesenchymal stem cells.

  13. Genistein exposure inhibits growth and alters steroidogenesis in adult mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shreya, E-mail: Shreya.patel214@gmail.com [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: Jackye.peretz@gmail.com [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Pan, Yuan-Xiang, E-mail: yxpan@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 905 S. Goodwin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Helferich, William G., E-mail: helferic@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 905 S. Goodwin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) for 18–96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36 μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96 h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18 h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Genistein exposure alters expression of cell cycle regulators. • Genistein exposure alters sex steroid hormones. • Genistein exposure alters expression of steroidogenic enzymes.

  14. Genistein exposure inhibits growth and alters steroidogenesis in adult mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shreya; Peretz, Jackye; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Helferich, William G.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) for 18–96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36 μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96 h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18 h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Genistein exposure alters expression of cell cycle regulators. • Genistein exposure alters sex steroid hormones. • Genistein exposure alters expression of steroidogenic enzymes.

  15. Molecular properties of adult mouse gastric and intestinal epithelial progenitors in their niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannakis, Marios; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Mills, Jason C

    2006-01-01

    pathways. Wnt/beta-catenin, phosphoinositide-3/Akt kinase, insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor signaling cascades, plus glycerolipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolic pathways are among those prominently represented in adult...

  16. The familial dysautonomia disease gene IKBKAP is required in the developing and adult mouse central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Chaverra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs are a genetically and clinically diverse group of disorders defined by peripheral nervous system (PNS dysfunction. HSAN type III, known as familial dysautonomia (FD, results from a single base mutation in the gene IKBKAP that encodes a scaffolding unit (ELP1 for a multi-subunit complex known as Elongator. Since mutations in other Elongator subunits (ELP2 to ELP4 are associated with central nervous system (CNS disorders, the goal of this study was to investigate a potential requirement for Ikbkap in the CNS of mice. The sensory and autonomic pathophysiology of FD is fatal, with the majority of patients dying by age 40. While signs and pathology of FD have been noted in the CNS, the clinical and research focus has been on the sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and no genetic model studies have investigated the requirement for Ikbkap in the CNS. Here, we report, using a novel mouse line in which Ikbkap is deleted solely in the nervous system, that not only is Ikbkap widely expressed in the embryonic and adult CNS, but its deletion perturbs both the development of cortical neurons and their survival in adulthood. Primary cilia in embryonic cortical apical progenitors and motile cilia in adult ependymal cells are reduced in number and disorganized. Furthermore, we report that, in the adult CNS, both autonomic and non-autonomic neuronal populations require Ikbkap for survival, including spinal motor and cortical neurons. In addition, the mice developed kyphoscoliosis, an FD hallmark, indicating its neuropathic etiology. Ultimately, these perturbations manifest in a developmental and progressive neurodegenerative condition that includes impairments in learning and memory. Collectively, these data reveal an essential function for Ikbkap that extends beyond the peripheral nervous system to CNS development and function. With the identification of discrete CNS cell types and structures that depend on

  17. Olfactory discrimination training up-regulates and reorganizes expression of microRNAs in adult mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Lugli, Giovanni; Lenon, Angela L; Davis, John M; Torvik, Vetle I; Larson, John

    2010-02-26

    Adult male mice (strain C57Bl/6J) were trained to execute nose-poke responses for water reinforcement; then they were randomly assigned to either of two groups: olfactory discrimination training (exposed to two odours with reward contingent upon correctly responding to one odour) or pseudo-training (exposed to two odours with reward not contingent upon response). These were run in yoked fashion and killed when the discrimination-trained mouse reached a learning criterion of 70% correct responses in 20 trials, occurring after three sessions (a total of approximately 40 min of training). The hippocampus was dissected bilaterally from each mouse (N = 7 in each group) and profiling of 585 miRNAs (microRNAs) was carried out using multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) plates. A significant global up-regulation of miRNA expression was observed in the discrimination training versus pseudo-training comparison; when tested individually, 29 miRNAs achieved significance at P = 0.05. miR-10a showed a 2.7-fold increase with training, and is predicted to target several learning-related mRNAs including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), CAMK2b (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ), CREB1 (cAMP-response-element-binding protein 1) and ELAVL2 [ELAV (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila)-like; Hu B]. Analysis of miRNA pairwise correlations revealed the existence of several miRNA co-expression modules that were specific to the training group. These in vivo results indicate that significant, dynamic and co-ordinated changes in miRNA expression accompany early stages of learning.

  18. Olfactory Discrimination Training Up-Regulates and Reorganizes Expression of MicroRNAs in Adult Mouse Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Smalheiser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice (strain C57Bl/6J were trained to execute nose-poke responses for water reinforcement; then they were randomly assigned to either of two groups: Olfactory discrimination training (exposed to two odours with reward contingent upon correctly responding to one odour or pseudo-training (exposed to two odours with reward not contingent upon response. These were run in yoked fashion and killed when the discrimination-trained mouse reached a learning criterion of 70% correct responses in 20 trials, occurring after three sessions (a total of ~40 min of training. The hippocampus was dissected bilaterally from each mouse (N=7 in each group and profiling of 585 miRNAs (microRNAs was carried out using multiplex RT–PCR (reverse transcription–PCR plates. A significant global up-regulation of miRNA expression was observed in the discrimination training versus pseudo-training comparison; when tested individually, 29 miRNAs achieved significance at P=0.05. miR-10a showed a 2.7-fold increase with training, and is predicted to target several learning-related mRNAs including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, CAMK2b (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ, CREB1 (cAMP-response-element-binding protein 1 and ELAVL2 [ELAV (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like; Hu B]. Analysis of miRNA pairwise correlations revealed the existence of several miRNA co-expression modules that were specific to the training group. These in vivo results indicate that significant, dynamic and co-ordinated changes in miRNA expression accompany early stages of learning.

  19. 1H-MR spectroscopy in evaluating the effect of neural stem cell transplantation on Alzheimer's disease in an APP-PS1 transgenic mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuangqing; Cai Qing; Shen Yuying; Li Minghua; Zhang Wei; Wang Peijun; Zang Fengchao; Teng Gaojun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of 1 H-MRS on the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation in an APP-PS1 double transgenic (tg) AD mouse model. Methods: NSCs from C57BL/6 mice were cultured and amplified.APP-PS1 tg mice (n =30) aged 12 months were used as the study group, and mild-type mice (n=15) were used as the control group. Animals in the study group were randomized into two subgroups, the AD mice in one subgroup received NSCs transplantation (NSCs group) and in another subgroup received phosphate buffer saline (PBS, PBS group)in bilateral hippocampal CA1. Animals in the control group were not treated. Using a 7.0 T high-field strength MR imager, 1 H-MRS was performed before and 6 weeks after transplantation to measure the area under the peak of n-acetyl aspartate (NAA),glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) in the hippocampal area, NAA/Cr, Glu/Cr, mI/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio were calculated and compared with histopathological results (including Nissl's staining and electron microscope examination). Comparisons among NSCs, PBS and control groups were conducted by one-way ANOVA. Results: NSCs from C57BL/6 mice were cultured successfully. Before transplantation,the mean NAA/Cr, Glu/Cr and mI/Cr in NSCs, PBS and control groups were 0.89 ± 0.05, 0.88 ± 0.04 and 1.15 ± 0.05, 0.40 ± 0.03, 0.39 ± 0.03 and 0.45 ± 0.05, 0.67 ± 0.05, 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.52 ± 0.04, respectively, and differences were statistically significant (F =148.918,7.529,59.468,P<0.01). There were no significant differences in NAA/Cr,mI/Cr and Glu/Cr ratios between NSCs and PBS groups before transplantation (t=0.147, 0.096, 0.207, P>0.05), but the differences were significant compared with the control group (t=0.255, 0.467, 0.171 and t=0.269, 0.527, 0.151, P<0.05). Six weeks after transplantation,the mean NAA/Cr, Glu/Cr and mI/Cr in three groups were 1.13 ±0.07, 0.86 ±0.05 and 1.14 ±0.05, 0.45 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0

  20. Transmitter release in the neuromuscular synapse of the protein kinase C theta-deficient adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalduch, Núria; Santafé, Manel M; Garcia, Neus; Gonzalez, Carmen; Tomás, Marta; Tomás, Josep; Lanuza, Maria A

    2011-04-01

    We studied structural and functional features of the neuromuscular junction in adult mice (P30) genetically deficient in the protein kinase C (PKC) theta isoform. Confocal and electron microscopy shows that there are no differences in the general morphology of the endplates between PKC theta-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice. Specifically, there is no difference in the density of the synaptic vesicles. However, the myelin sheath is not as thick in the intramuscular nerve fibers of the PKC theta-deficient mice. We found a significant reduction in the size of evoked endplate potentials and in the frequency of spontaneous, asynchronous, miniature endplate potentials in the PKC theta-deficient neuromuscular preparations in comparison with the WT, but the mean amplitude of the spontaneous potentials is not different. These changes indicate that PKC theta has a presynaptic role in the function of adult neuromuscular synapses. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Adult neurogenesis and specific replacement of interneuron subtypes in the mouse main olfactory bulb

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    LaRocca Greg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New neurons are generated in the adult brain from stem cells found in the subventricular zone (SVZ. These cells proliferate in the SVZ, generating neuroblasts which then migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB, ending their migration in the glomerular layer (GLL and the granule cell layer (GCL of the MOB. Neuronal populations in these layers undergo turnover throughout life, but whether all neuronal subtypes found in these areas are replaced and when neurons begin to express subtype-specific markers is not known. Results Here we use BrdU injections and immunohistochemistry against (calretinin, calbindin, N-copein, tyrosine hydroxylase and GABA and show that adult-generated neurons express markers of all major subtypes of neurons in the GLL and GCL. Moreover, the fractions of new neurons that express subtype-specific markers at 40 and 75 days post BrdU injection are very similar to the fractions of all neurons expressing these markers. We also show that many neurons in the glomerular layer do not express NeuN, but are readily and specifically labeled by the fluorescent nissl stain Neurotrace. Conclusion The expression of neuronal subtype-specific markers by new neurons in the GLL and GCL changes rapidly during the period from 14–40 days after BrdU injection before reaching adult levels. This period may represent a critical window for cell fate specification similar to that observed for neuronal survival.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in adult mouse cardiac side population cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushaj, Entela B.; Lozonschi, Lucian; Barnes, Maria; Anstadt, Emily; Kohmoto, Takushi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence and potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations in adult cardiac stem cells. Cardiac side population (SP) cells were isolated from 12-week-old mice. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen for the presence of mtDNA deletion mutations in (a) freshly isolated SP cells and (b) SP cells cultured to passage 10. When present, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutation was analyzed in single cell colonies. The effect of different levels of deletion mutations on SP cell growth and differentiation was determined. MtDNA deletion mutations were found in both freshly isolated and cultured cells from 12-week-old mice. While there was no significant difference in the number of single cell colonies with mtDNA deletion mutations from any of the groups mentioned above, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutations was significantly higher in the cultured cells, as determined by quantitative PCR. Within a single clonal cell population, the detectable mtDNA deletion mutations were the same in all cells and unique when compared to deletions of other colonies. We also found that cells harboring high levels of mtDNA deletion mutations (i.e. where deleted mtDNA comprised more than 60% of total mtDNA) had slower proliferation rates and decreased differentiation capacities. Screening cultured adult stem cells for mtDNA deletion mutations as a routine assessment will benefit the biomedical application of adult stem cells.

  3. An Efficient Method for Generation of Transgenic Rats Avoiding Embryo Manipulation

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    Bhola Shankar Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rats are preferred over mice as an animal model, transgenic animals are generated predominantly using mouse embryos. There are limitations in the generation of transgenic rat by embryo manipulation. Unlike mouse embryos, most of the rat embryos do not survive after male pronuclear DNA injection which reduces the efficiency of generation of transgenic rat by this method. More importantly, this method requires hundreds of eggs collected by killing several females for insertion of transgene to generate transgenic rat. To this end, we developed a noninvasive and deathless technique for generation of transgenic rats by integrating transgene into the genome of the spermatogonial cells by testicular injection of DNA followed by electroporation. After standardization of this technique using EGFP as a transgene, a transgenic disease model displaying alpha thalassemia was successfully generated using rats. This efficient method will ease the generation of transgenic rats without killing the lives of rats while simultaneously reducing the number of rats used for generation of transgenic animal.

  4. Geminin Participates in Differentiation Decisions of Adult Neural Stem Cells Transplanted in the Hemiparkinsonian Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taouki, Ioanna; Tasiudi, Eve; Lalioti, Maria-Eleni; Kyrousi, Christina; Skavatsou, Eleni; Kaplani, Konstantina; Lygerou, Zoi; Kouvelas, Elias D; Mitsacos, Adamantia; Giompres, Panagiotis; Taraviras, Stavros

    2017-08-15

    Neural stem cells have been considered as a source of stem cells that can be used for cell replacement therapies in neurodegenerative diseases, as they can be isolated and expanded in vitro and can be used for autologous grafting. However, due to low percentages of survival and varying patterns of differentiation, strategies that will enhance the efficacy of transplantation are under scrutiny. In this article, we have examined whether alterations in Geminin's expression, a protein that coordinates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, can improve the properties of stem cells transplanted in 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian mouse model. Our results indicate that, in the absence of Geminin, grafted cells differentiating into dopaminergic neurons were decreased, while an increased number of oligodendrocytes were detected. The number of proliferating multipotent cells was not modified by the absence of Geminin. These findings encourage research related to the impact of Geminin on transplantations for neurodegenerative disorders, as an important molecule in influencing differentiation decisions of the cells composing the graft.

  5. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R P Elmore

    Full Text Available Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg or phosphate buffered saline (PBS was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function

  6. Decreasing maternal myostatin programs adult offspring bone strength in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Arin K; Kamp, William M; McCray, Marcus G; Carleton, Stephanie M; Karasseva, Natalia; Lenz, Kristin L; Jeong, Youngjae; Daghlas, Salah A; Yao, Xiaomei; Wang, Yong; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Ellersieck, Mark R; Schulz, Laura C; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2016-11-22

    During fetal development, the uterine environment can have effects on offspring bone architecture and integrity that persist into adulthood; however, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass. Parental myostatin deficiency (Mstn tm1Sjl/+ ) increases muscle mass in wild-type offspring, suggesting an intrauterine programming effect. Here, we hypothesized that Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams would also confer increased bone strength. In wild-type offspring, maternal myostatin deficiency altered fetal growth and calvarial collagen content of newborn mice and conferred a lasting impact on bone geometry and biomechanical integrity of offspring at 4 mo of age, the age of peak bone mass. Second, we sought to apply maternal myostatin deficiency to a mouse model with osteogenesis imperfecta (Col1a2 oim ), a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by abnormalities in the structure and/or synthesis of type I collagen. Femora of male Col1a2 oim/+ offspring from natural mating of Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams to Col1a2 oim/+ sires had a 15% increase in torsional ultimate strength, a 29% increase in tensile strength, and a 24% increase in energy to failure compared with age, sex, and genotype-matched offspring from natural mating of Col1a2 oim/+ dams to Col1a2 oim/+ sires. Finally, increased bone biomechanical strength of Col1a2 oim/+ offspring that had been transferred into Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams as blastocysts demonstrated that the effects of maternal myostatin deficiency were conferred by the postimplantation environment. Thus, targeting the gestational environment, and specifically prenatal myostatin pathways, provides a potential therapeutic window and an approach for treating osteogenesis imperfecta.

  7. Morphological analysis of activity-reduced adult-born neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Dahlen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life in rodents. While many factors have been identified as regulating the survival and integration of adult-born neurons (ABNs into existing circuitry, the understanding of how these factors affect ABN morphology and connectivity is limited. Here we compare how cell intrinsic (siRNA knock down of voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.1-1.3 and circuit level (naris occlusion reductions in activity affect ABN morphology during integration into the OB. We found that both manipulations reduce the number of dendritic spines (and thus likely the number of reciprocal synaptic connections formed with the surrounding circuitry and inhibited dendritic ramification of ABNs. Further, we identified regions of ABN apical dendrites where the largest and most significant decreases occur following siRNA knock down or naris occlusion. In siRNA knock down cells, reduction of spines is observed in proximal regions of the apical dendrite. This suggests that distal regions of the dendrite may remain active independent of NaV1.1-1.3 channel expression, perhaps facilitated by activation of T-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors. By contrast, circuit level reduction of activity by naris occlusion resulted in a global depression of spine number. Together, these results indicate that ABNs retain the ability to develop their typical overall morphological features regardless of experienced activity, and activity modulates the number and location of formed connections.

  8. Virtual Transgenics: Using a Molecular Biology Simulation to Impact Student Academic Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach.…

  9. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun; Kim, Hyoun Geun; Kim, Joo Youn; Kim, Seong Yun; Cho, Kyung-Ok

    2018-02-01

    Versatile biological activities of Hericium erinaceus (HE) have been reported in many brain diseases. However, roles of HE in major psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety remain to be investigated. Therefore, we evaluated whether HE could reduce anxiety and depressive behaviors in the adult mouse and its underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered HE (20 or 60 mg/kg, p.o.) or saline once a day for 4 weeks. Open field and tail suspension tests were performed 30 min after the last administration of HE, followed by forced swim test 2 days later. We found that chronic administration of HE showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. To elucidate possible mechanisms, proliferative activity of the hippocampal progenitor cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. Moreover, to evaluate neuronal survival in the dentate gyrus, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at the first day of HE administration, followed by isolation of the brains 4 weeks later. HE (60 mg/kg) increased the number of PCNA- and Ki67-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, indicating increased proliferation of hippocampal progenitors. In addition, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly increased when treated with HE (60 mg/kg) compared with the saline-treated group, demonstrating enhanced neurogenesis by HE treatment. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic HE administration can exert anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, possibly by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  10. Induced Neural Stem Cells Achieve Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration in the Adult Mouse Brain

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    Kathrin Hemmer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]. iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.

  11. EMMPRIN (basigin/CD147) expression is not correlated with MMP activity during adult mouse mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowska, Malgorzata; Hendry, Kay A K; Robinson, Claire; Kolb, Andreas F

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/basigin/CD147) is a cell surface protein, which has been associated with the induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes during cancer metastasis. EMMPRIN plays a role in a variety of physiological processes as is evident by the diverse deficiencies detectable in EMMPRIN knockout mice. We have analysed the role of EMMPRIN in the induction of MMP genes during mammary gland differentiation and involution. Co-transfection studies showed that EMMPRIN has diverse effects on MMP promoter activity in different mammary and non-mammary cell lines. Expression of EMMPRIN mRNA is enhanced markedly by insulin in a mammary gland cell line but appears to have no direct effect on MMP gene expression in these cells. Microarray analysis and quantitative PCR show that EMMPRIN is expressed throughout mammary gland differentiation in the mouse. Its expression decreases during early pregnancy and briefly after induction of mammary gland involution by litter removal. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that EMMPRIN expression is limited to the stromal compartment during pregnancy, whereas it is strongly expressed in the epithelium during lactation. In summary the data argue against a causal role for EMMPRIN for the induction of MMP gene expression during adult mammary gland development. These data therefore support a physiological role for EMMPRIN other than MMP induction in mammary gland biology. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Induced neural stem cells achieve long-term survival and functional integration in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Kathrin; Zhang, Mingyue; van Wüllen, Thea; Sakalem, Marna; Tapia, Natalia; Baumuratov, Aidos; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Schöler, Hans R; Zhang, Weiqi; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2014-09-09

    Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]). iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of ELOVL4 in the Developing and Adult Mouse Brain

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    David M. Sherry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids (ELOVL-4 is essential for the synthesis of very long chain-fatty acids (fatty acids with chain lengths ≥ 28 carbons. The functions of ELOVL4 and its very long-chain fatty acid products are poorly understood at present. However, mutations in ELOVL4 cause neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases that vary according to the mutation and inheritance pattern. Heterozygous inheritance of different ELOVL4 mutations causes Stargardt-like Macular Dystrophy or Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 34. Homozygous inheritance of ELOVL4 mutations causes more severe disease characterized by seizures, intellectual disability, ichthyosis, and premature death. To better understand ELOVL4 and very long chain fatty acid function in the brain, we examined ELOVL4 expression in the mouse brain between embryonic day 18 and postnatal day 60 by immunolabeling using ELOVL4 and other marker antibodies. ELOVL4 was widely expressed in a region- and cell type-specific manner, and was restricted to cell bodies, consistent with its known localization to endoplasmic reticulum. ELOVL4 labeling was most prominent in gray matter, although labeling also was present in some cells located in white matter. ELOVL4 was widely expressed in the developing brain by embryonic day 18 and was especially pronounced in regions underlying the lateral ventricles and other neurogenic regions. The basal ganglia in particular showed intense ELOVL4 labeling at this stage. In the postnatal brain, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla all showed prominent ELOVL4 labeling, although ELOVL4 distribution was not uniform across all cells or subnuclei within these regions. In contrast, the basal ganglia showed little ELOVL4 labeling in the postnatal brain. Double labeling studies showed that ELOVL4 was primarily expressed by neurons, although presumptive oligodendrocytes located in white matter tracts also showed

  14. PPARs Expression in Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cells: Modulation of PPARs during Astroglial Differentiaton of NSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cimini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PPAR isotypes are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, death, and differentiation, with different roles and mechanisms depending on the specific isotype and ligand and on the differentiated, undifferentiated, or transformed status of the cell. Differentiation stimuli are integrated by key transcription factors which regulate specific sets of specialized genes to allow proliferative cells to exit the cell cycle and acquire specialized functions. The main differentiation programs known to be controlled by PPARs both during development and in the adult are placental differentiation, adipogenesis, osteoblast differentiation, skin differentiation, and gut differentiation. PPARs may also be involved in the differentiation of macrophages, brain, and breast. However, their functions in this cell type and organs still awaits further elucidation. PPARs may be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation processes of neural stem cells (NSC. To this aim, in this work the expression of the three PPAR isotypes and RXRs in NSC has been investigated.

  15. Potassium Bromate-induced Changes in the Adult Mouse Cerebellum Are Ameliorated by Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Hajer; Driss, Dorra; Jaballi, Imen; Ghozzi, Hanen; Boudawara, Ons; Droguet, Michael; Magné, Christian; Nasri, Monsef; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Hakim, Ahmed; Ben Amara, Ibtissem

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of vanillin on behavioral changes, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes induced by potassium bromate (KBrO3), an environmental pollutant, in the cerebellum of adult mice. The animals were divided into four groups: group 1 served as a control, group 2 received KBrO3, group 3 received KBrO3 and vanillin, and group 4 received only vanillin. We then measured behavioral changes, oxidative stress, and molecular and histological changes in the cerebellum. We observed significant behavioral changes in KBrO3-exposed mice. When investigating redox homeostasis in the cerebellum, we found that mice treated with KBrO3 had increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in the cerebellum. These effects were accompanied by decreased Na+-K+ and Mg2+ ATPase activity and antioxidant enzyme gene expression when compared to the control group. Additionally, there was a significant increase in cytokine gene expression in KBrO3-treated mice. Microscopy revealed that KBrO3 intoxication resulted in numerous degenerative changes in the cerebellum that were substantially ameliorated by vanillin supplementation. Co-administration of vanillin blocked the biochemical and molecular anomalies induced by KBrO3. Our results demonstrate that vanillin is a potential therapeutic agent for oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. An ex vivo spinal cord injury model to study ependymal cells in adult mouse tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zafra, Teresa; Codeluppi, Simone; Uhlén, Per

    2017-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an initial cell loss that is followed by a concerted cellular response in an attempt to restore the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, little is known about the signaling mechanisms governing the cellular response to injury. Here, we have established an adult ex vivo system that exhibits multiple hallmarks of spinal cord injury and allows the study of complex processes that are difficult to address using animal models. We have characterized the ependymal cell response to injury in this model system and found that ependymal cells can become activated, proliferate, migrate out of the central canal lining and differentiate in a manner resembling the in vivo situation. Moreover, we show that these cells respond to external adenosine triphosphate and exhibit spontaneous Ca 2+ activity, processes that may play a significant role in the regulation of their response to spinal cord injury. This model provides an attractive tool to deepen our understanding of the ependymal cell response after spinal cord injury, which may contribute to the development of new treatment options for spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The electrocorticograms of the aged mouse x-irradiated at juvenile or young adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisawa, Takeru; Sasaki, Shunsaku.

    1984-01-01

    The electrocorticograms (ECoGs) of the (C57BL/6 x C3H)F 1 mice irradiated at juvenile or young adult were studied when they attained the age of 24-26 months. One group of mice was irradiated 35 days post partum (35-DPP) and another 105 days (105-DPP). All the animals were irradiated with 300 R of X-rays to whole body. The ECoGs were recorded from the freely moving animals with the permanently implanted electrodes fixed over the visual cortical surface. The resulted ECoGs were divided into 3 patterns: wakefulness (W), slow wave sleep (SWS), and paradoxical sleep (PS). Six parameters of the 3 patterns were compared among the 2 irradiated groups and the non-irradiated control group. The mean SWS- and PS-cycle times, and mean SWS length were significantly longer in the 35-DPP group than in the control group. Changes in the ECoGs were less profound in the 105-DPP group than those in the 35-DPP group: only a significant change due to irradiation at 105-DPP was a decrease in the ratio of the total PS time to the total sleep time (TST = total SWS time + total PS time). There was no difference in the body weight and brain weight among the 2 irradiated groups and the control group. (author)

  18. Mash1-expressing cells could differentiate to type III cells in adult mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroki; Seta, Yuji; Kataoka, Shinji; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Toyono, Takashi; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2018-03-10

    The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system. We found that the cells expressing type III cell markers-aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25)-were significantly reduced in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. However, gustducin and phospholipase C beta2 (PLC beta2)-markers of type II taste bud cells-were not significantly changed in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. These results suggest that Mash1-positive cells could be differentiated to type III cells, not type II cells in the taste buds.

  19. in transgenic cucumber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... College of Horticulture, South China Agriculture University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong ... The pattern of expression vector pBI-PacPAP. ..... Disease scale ... These transgenic T0 plants were self-pollinated and the.

  20. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  1. Differential gene expression in ADAM10 and mutant ADAM10 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postina Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD, cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP by the α-secretase ADAM10 prevented amyloid plaque formation, and alleviated cognitive deficits. Furthermore, ADAM10 overexpression increased the cortical synaptogenesis. These results suggest that upregulation of ADAM10 in the brain has beneficial effects on AD pathology. Results To assess the influence of ADAM10 on the gene expression profile in the brain, we performed a microarray analysis using RNA isolated from brains of five months old mice overexpressing either the α-secretase ADAM10, or a dominant-negative mutant (dn of this enzyme. As compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice, in ADAM10 transgenic mice 355 genes, and in dnADAM10 mice 143 genes were found to be differentially expressed. A higher number of genes was differentially regulated in double-transgenic mouse strains additionally expressing the human APP[V717I] mutant. Overexpression of proteolytically active ADAM10 affected several physiological pathways, such as cell communication, nervous system development, neuron projection as well as synaptic transmission. Although ADAM10 has been implicated in Notch and β-catenin signaling, no significant changes in the respective target genes were observed in adult ADAM10 transgenic mice. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed a downregulation of genes coding for the inflammation-associated proteins S100a8 and S100a9 induced by moderate ADAM10 overexpression. Overexpression of the dominant-negative form dnADAM10 led to a significant increase in the expression of the fatty acid-binding protein Fabp7, which also has been found in higher amounts in brains of Down syndrome patients. Conclusion In general, there was only a moderate alteration of gene expression in ADAM10 overexpressing mice. Genes coding for pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic proteins were not over-represented among differentially regulated genes. Even a decrease of

  2. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman

    2011-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer is expanding in clinical use, thus we have searched for an emergency procedure to stop transgene expression in case of serious adverse events. Calcium is cytotoxic at high intracellular levels, so we tested effects of calcium electrotransfer on transgene expression in muscle....... A clinical grade calcium solution (20 μl, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both...... voltage pulses of 1000 V/cm. Using these parameters, in vivo imaging showed that transgene expression significantly decreased 4 hr after Ca(2+) electrotransfer and was eliminated within 24 hr. Similarly, serum erythropoietin was reduced by 46% at 4 hr and to control levels at 2 days. Histological analyses...

  3. Expression of extracellular matrix components is disrupted in the immature and adult estrogen receptor β-null mouse ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Zalewski

    Full Text Available Within the ovary, Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ is localized to the granulosa cells of growing follicles. 17β-estradiol (E2 acting via ERβ augments the actions of follicle stimulating hormone in granulosa cells, leading to granulosa cell differentiation and formation of a preovulatory follicle. Adult ERβ-null females are subfertile and possess ovaries with reduced numbers of growing follicles and corpora lutea. Because the majority of E2 production by granulosa cells occurs once puberty is reached, a role for ERβ in the ovary prior to puberty has not been well examined. We now provide evidence that lack of ERβ disrupts gene expression as early as post-natal day (PND 13, and in particular, we identify a number of genes of the extracellular matrix (ECM that are significantly higher in ERβ-null follicles than in wildtype (WT follicles. Considerable changes occur to the ECM occur during normal folliculogenesis to allow for the dramatic growth, cellular differentiation, and reorganization of the follicle from the primary to preovulatory stage. Using quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence, we now show that several ECM genes are aberrantly overexpressed in ERβ-null follicles. We find that Collagen11a1, a protein highly expressed in cartilage, is significantly higher in ERβ-null follicles than WT follicles as early as PND 13, and this heightened expression continues through PND 23-29 into adulthood. Similarly, Nidogen 2, a highly conserved basement membrane glycoprotein, is elevated in ERβ-null follicles at PND 13 into adulthood, and is elevated specifically in the ERβ-null focimatrix, a basal lamina-like matrix located between granulosa cells. Focimatrix laminin and Collagen IV expression were also higher in ERβ-null ovaries than in WT ovaries at various ages. Our findings suggest two novel observations: a that ERβ regulates granulosa cell gene expression ovary prior to puberty, and b that ERβ regulates expression of ECM components in the

  4. Deep-brain magnetic stimulation promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviates stress-related behaviors in mouse models for neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)/ Deep-brain Magnetic Stimulation (DMS) is an effective therapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression disorder. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impacts of rTMS/DMS on the brain are not yet fully understood. Results Here we studied the effects of deep-brain magnetic stimulation to brain on the molecular and cellular level. We examined the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal synaptic plasticity of rodent under stress conditions with deep-brain magnetic stimulation treatment. We found that DMS promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis significantly and facilitates the development of adult new-born neurons. Remarkably, DMS exerts anti-depression effects in the learned helplessness mouse model and rescues hippocampal long-term plasticity impaired by restraint stress in rats. Moreover, DMS alleviates the stress response in a mouse model for Rett syndrome and prolongs the life span of these animals dramatically. Conclusions Deep-brain magnetic stimulation greatly facilitates adult hippocampal neurogenesis and maturation, also alleviates depression and stress-related responses in animal models. PMID:24512669

  5. Purification of oogonial stem cells from adult mouse and human ovaries: an assessment of the literature and a view toward the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dori C; White, Yvonne A R; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary claims that mitotically active female germ line or oogonial stem cells (OSCs) exist and support oogenesis during postnatal life in mammals have been debated in the field of reproductive biology since March 2004, when a mouse study posed the first serious challenge to the dogma of a fixed pool of oocytes being endowed at birth in more than 50 years. Other studies have since been put forth that further question the validity of this dogma, including the isolation of OSCs from neonatal and adult mouse ovaries by 4 independent groups using multiple strategies. Two of these groups also reported that isolated mouse OSCs, once transplanted back into ovaries of adult female mice, differentiate into fully functional eggs that ovulate, fertilize, and produce healthy embryos and offspring. Arguably, one of the most significant advances in this emerging field was provided by a new research study published this year, which reported the successful isolation and functional characterization of OSCs from ovaries of reproductive age women. Two commentaries on this latest work, one cautiously supportive and one highly skeptical, were published soon afterward. This article evaluates the current literature regarding postnatal oogenesis in mammals and discusses important next steps for future work on OSC biology and function.

  6. Effects of Neurotrophic Support and Amyloid-Targeted Combined Therapy on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Morrone

    Full Text Available Although it is recognized that multi-drug therapies may be necessary to combat AD, there is a paucity of preclinical proof of concept studies. We present a combination treatment paradigm, which temporally affects different aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD-like pathology, specifically Aβ-toxicity and neurogenesis. At early stages of AD-like pathology, in TgCRND8 mice, we found that combating Aβ pathology with scyllo-inositol ameliorated deficits in neurogenesis. Older TgCRND8 mice with established amyloid load had decreased progenitor cell proliferation and survival compared to non-transgenic mice, regardless of scyllo-inositol treatment. The prolonged exposure to Aβ-pathology leads to deficits in the neurogenic niche, thus targeting Aβ alone is insufficient to rescue neurogenesis. To support the neurogenic niche, we combined scyllo-inositol treatment with leteprinim potassium (neotrofin, the latter of which stimulates neurotrophin expression. We show that the combination treatment of scyllo-inositol and neotrofin enhances neuronal survival and differentiation. We propose this proof of concept combination therapy of targeting Aβ-pathology and neurotrophin deficits as a potential treatment for AD.

  7. Defining POMC neurons using transgenic reagents: impact of transient Pomc expression in diverse immature neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Stephanie L; Reef, Daniel; Zeltser, Lori M

    2012-03-01

    Melanocortin signaling plays a central role in the regulation of phenotypes related to body weight and energy homeostasis. To specifically target and study the function of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, Pomc promoter elements have been utilized to generate reporter and Cre recombinase transgenic reagents. Across gestation, we find that Pomc is dynamically expressed in many sites in the developing mouse forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, spinal cord, and retina. Although Pomc expression in most embryonic brain regions is transient, it is sufficient to direct Cre-mediated recombination of floxed alleles. We visualize the populations affected by this transgene by crossing Pomc-Cre mice to ROSA reporter strains and identify 62 sites of recombination throughout the adult brain, including several nuclei implicated in energy homeostasis regulation. To compare the relationship between acute Pomc promoter activity and Pomc-Cre-mediated recombination at the single cell level, we crossed Pomc-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and Pomc-Cre;ROSA-tdTomato lines. We detect the highest concentration of Pomc-eGFP+ cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and dentate gyrus but also observe smaller populations of labeled cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract, periventricular zone of the third ventricle, and cerebellum. Consistent with the dynamic nature of Pomc expression in the embryo, the vast majority of neurons marked with the tdTomato reporter do not express eGFP in the adult. Thus, recombination in off-target sites could contribute to physiological phenotypes using Pomc-Cre transgenics. For example, we find that approximately 83% of the cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus immunoreactive for leptin-induced phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 are marked with Pomc-Cre;ROSA-tdTomato; only 13% of these are eGFP+ POMC neurons.

  8. Assessing the use of immersive virtual reality, mouse and touchscreen in pointing and dragging-and-dropping tasks among young, middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayin; Or, Calvin

    2017-11-01

    This study assessed the use of an immersive virtual reality (VR), a mouse and a touchscreen for one-directional pointing, multi-directional pointing, and dragging-and-dropping tasks involving targets of smaller and larger widths by young (n = 18; 18-30 years), middle-aged (n = 18; 40-55 years) and older adults (n = 18; 65-75 years). A three-way, mixed-factorial design was used for data collection. The dependent variables were the movement time required and the error rate. Our main findings were that the participants took more time and made more errors in using the VR input interface than in using the mouse or the touchscreen. This pattern applied in all three age groups in all tasks, except for multi-directional pointing with a larger target width among the older group. Overall, older adults took longer to complete the tasks and made more errors than young or middle-aged adults. Larger target widths yielded shorter movement times and lower error rates in pointing tasks, but larger targets yielded higher rates of error in dragging-and-dropping tasks. Our study indicated that any other virtual environments that are similar to those we tested may be more suitable for displaying scenes than for manipulating objects that are small and require fine control. Although interacting with VR is relatively difficult, especially for older adults, there is still potential for older adults to adapt to that interface. Furthermore, adjusting the width of objects according to the type of manipulation required might be an effective way to promote performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of C4.4A, a structural uPAR homolog, reflects squamous epithelial differentiation in the adult mouse and during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Hald, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    by a comprehensive immunohistochemical mapping. This task was accomplished by staining paraffin-embedded tissues with a specific rabbit polyclonal anti-C4.4A antibody. In the adult mouse, C4.4A was predominantly expressed in the suprabasal layers of the squamous epithelia of the oral cavity, esophagus, non...... expression first appears in the developing squamous epithelium at embryonic day 13.5. This anatomical location of C4.4A is thus concordant with a possible functional role in early differentiation of stratified squamous epithelia....

  10. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Induced by Fanconi Anemia E Mutation in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chun; Begum, Khurshida; Overbeek, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    In most cases of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), the cause of the depletion of ovarian follicles is unknown. Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins are known to play important roles in follicular development. Using random insertional mutagenesis with a lentiviral transgene, we identified a family with reduced fertility in the homozygous transgenic mice. We identified the integration site and found that the lentivirus had integrated into intron 8 of the Fanconi E gene (Fance). By RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, we found that Fance transcript levels were significantly reduced. The Fance homozygous mutant mice were assayed for changes in ovarian development, follicle numbers and estrous cycle. Ovarian dysplasias and a severe lack of follicles were seen in the mutant mice. In addition, the estrous cycle was disrupted in adult females. Our results suggest that POI has been induced by the Fance mutation in this new mouse model.

  11. Transgenics in Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Transgenics in Agriculture. D Rex Arunraj B Gajendra Babu. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 83-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0083-0092 ...

  12. ZyFISH: a simple, rapid and reliable zygosity assay for transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal McHugh

    Full Text Available Microinjection of DNA constructs into fertilized mouse oocytes typically results in random transgene integration at a single genomic locus. The resulting transgenic founders can be used to establish hemizygous transgenic mouse lines. However, practical and experimental reasons often require that such lines be bred to homozygosity. Transgene zygosity can be determined by progeny testing assays which are expensive and time-consuming, by quantitative Southern blotting which is labor-intensive, or by quantitative PCR (qPCR which requires transgene-specific design. Here, we describe a zygosity assessment procedure based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (zyFISH. The zyFISH protocol entails the detection of transgenic loci by FISH and the concomitant assignment of homozygosity using a concise and unbiased scoring system. The method requires small volumes of blood, is scalable to at least 40 determinations per assay, and produces results entirely consistent with the progeny testing assay. This combination of reliability, simplicity and cost-effectiveness makes zyFISH a method of choice for transgenic mouse zygosity determinations.

  13. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Ping Yao

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal antibody (mAb C, is reactive to a surface antigen on sperm of all tested species including pig, mouse, chicken, cow, goat, sheep, and human. mAb C is a basic protein that binds to DNA through ionic interaction allowing exogenous DNA to be linked specifically to sperm. After fertilization of the egg, the DNA is shown to be successfully integrated into the genome of viable pig and mouse offspring with germ-line transfer to the F1 generation at a highly efficient rate: 37.5% of pigs and 33% of mice. The integration is demonstrated again by FISH analysis and F2 transmission in pigs. Furthermore, expression of the transgene is demonstrated in 61% (35/57 of transgenic pigs (F0 generation. Conclusions Our data suggests that LB-SMGT could be used to generate transgenic animals efficiently in many different species.

  14. Transgenic nonhuman primates for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models that represent human diseases constitute an important tool in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases, and in developing effective therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders involving neuropathologic and psychiatric alterations. Although transgenic and knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD have been created, limited representation in clinical aspects has been recognized and the rodent models lack true neurodegeneration. Chemical induction of HD and PD in nonhuman primates (NHP has been reported, however, the role of intrinsic genetic factors in the development of the diseases is indeterminable. Nonhuman primates closely parallel humans with regard to genetic, neuroanatomic, and cognitive/behavioral characteristics. Accordingly, the development of NHP models for neurodegenerative diseases holds greater promise for success in the discovery of diagnoses, treatments, and cures than approaches using other animal species. Therefore, a transgenic NHP carrying a mutant gene similar to that of patients will help to clarify our understanding of disease onset and progression. Additionally, monitoring disease onset and development in the transgenic NHP by high resolution brain imaging technology such as MRI, and behavioral and cognitive testing can all be carried out simultaneously in the NHP but not in other animal models. Moreover, because of the similarity in motor repertoire between NHPs and humans, it will also be possible to compare the neurologic syndrome observed in the NHP model to that in patients. Understanding the correlation between genetic defects and physiologic changes (e.g. oxidative damage will lead to a better understanding of disease progression and the development of patient treatments, medications and preventive approaches for high risk individuals. The impact of the transgenic NHP model in understanding the role which

  15. Direct visualization of membrane architecture of myelinating cells in transgenic mice expressing membrane-anchored EGFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaqi; Kim, BongWoo; He, Xuelian; Kim, Sunja; Lu, Changqing; Wang, Haibo; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Hou, Yiping; Li, Jianrong; Zhao, Xianghui; Lu, Q Richard

    2014-04-01

    Myelinogenesis is a complex process that involves substantial and dynamic changes in plasma membrane architecture and myelin interaction with axons. Highly ramified processes of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) make axonal contact and then extrapolate to wrap around axons and form multilayer compact myelin sheathes. Currently, the mechanisms governing myelin sheath assembly and axon selection by myelinating cells are not fully understood. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing the membrane-anchored green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) in myelinating cells, which allow live imaging of details of myelinogenesis and cellular behaviors in the nervous systems. mEGFP expression is driven by the promoter of 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) that is expressed in the myelinating cell lineage. Robust mEGFP signals appear in the membrane processes of oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), wherein mEGFP expression defines the inner layers of myelin sheaths and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures in adult sciatic nerves. In addition, mEGFP expression can be used to track the extent of remyelination after demyelinating injury in a toxin-induced demyelination animal model. Taken together, the membrane-anchored mEGFP expression in the new transgenic line would facilitate direct visualization of dynamic myelin membrane formation and assembly during development and process remodeling during remyelination after various demyelinating injuries.

  16. H3 and H4 Lysine Acetylation Correlates with Developmental and Experimentally Induced Adult Experience-Dependent Plasticity in the Mouse Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vierci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone posttranslational modifications play a fundamental role in orchestrating gene expression. In this work, we analyzed the acetylation of H3 and H4 histones (AcH3-AcH4 and its modulation by visual experience in the mouse visual cortex (VC during normal development and in two experimental conditions that restore juvenile-like plasticity levels in adults (fluoxetine treatment and enriched environment. We found that AcH3-AcH4 declines with age and is upregulated by treatments restoring plasticity in the adult. We also found that visual experience modulates AcH3-AcH4 in young and adult plasticity-restored mice but not in untreated ones. Finally, we showed that the transporter vGAT is downregulated in adult plasticity-restored models. In summary, we identified a dynamic regulation of AcH3-AcH4, which is associated with high plasticity levels and enhanced by visual experience. These data, along with recent ones, indicate H3-H4 acetylation as a central hub in the control of experience-dependent plasticity in the VC.

  17. Oral treatment with Cu(II)(atsm) increases mutant SOD1 in vivo but protects motor neurons and improves the phenotype of a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Blaine R; Lim, Nastasia K H; McAllum, Erin J; Donnelly, Paul S; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip A; Turner, Bradley J; Price, Katherine A; Lim, Sin Chun; Paterson, Brett M; Hickey, James L; Rhoads, Timothy W; Williams, Jared R; Kanninen, Katja M; Hung, Lin W; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Grubman, Alexandra; Monty, Jean-Francois; Llanos, Roxana M; Kramer, David R; Mercer, Julian F B; Bush, Ashley I; Masters, Colin L; Duce, James A; Li, Qiao-Xin; Beckman, Joseph S; Barnham, Kevin J; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J

    2014-06-04

    Mutations in the metallo-protein Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans and an expression level-dependent phenotype in transgenic rodents. We show that oral treatment with the therapeutic agent diacetyl-bis(4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) [Cu(II)(atsm)] increased the concentration of mutant SOD1 (SOD1G37R) in ALS model mice, but paradoxically improved locomotor function and survival of the mice. To determine why the mice with increased levels of mutant SOD1 had an improved phenotype, we analyzed tissues by mass spectrometry. These analyses revealed most SOD1 in the spinal cord tissue of the SOD1G37R mice was Cu deficient. Treating with Cu(II)(atsm) decreased the pool of Cu-deficient SOD1 and increased the pool of fully metallated (holo) SOD1. Tracking isotopically enriched (65)Cu(II)(atsm) confirmed the increase in holo-SOD1 involved transfer of Cu from Cu(II)(atsm) to SOD1, suggesting the improved locomotor function and survival of the Cu(II)(atsm)-treated SOD1G37R mice involved, at least in part, the ability of the compound to improve the Cu content of the mutant SOD1. This was supported by improved survival of SOD1G37R mice that expressed the human gene for the Cu uptake protein CTR1. Improving the metal content of mutant SOD1 in vivo with Cu(II)(atsm) did not decrease levels of misfolded SOD1. These outcomes indicate the metal content of SOD1 may be a greater determinant of the toxicity of the protein in mutant SOD1-associated forms of ALS than the mutations themselves. Improving the metal content of SOD1 therefore represents a valid therapeutic strategy for treating ALS caused by SOD1. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348021-11$15.00/0.

  18. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  19. Lentiviral-Mediated Transgene Expression Can Potentiate Intestinal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Aimee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal-epithelial signaling is essential for the development of many organs and is often disrupted in disease. In this study, we demonstrate the use of lentiviral-mediated transgene delivery as an effective approach for ectopic transgene expression and an alternative to generation of transgenic animals. One benefit to this approach is that it can be used independently or in conjunction with established transgenic or knockout animals for studying modulation of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. To display the power of this approach, we explored ectopic expression of a Wnt ligand in the mouse intestinal mesenchyme and demonstrate its functional influence on the adjacent epithelium. Our findings highlight the efficient use of lentiviral-mediated transgene expression for modulating mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in vivo.

  20. Lentiviral-Mediated Transgene Expression Can Potentiate Intestinal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dismuke Adria D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal-epithelial signaling is essential for the development of many organs and is often disrupted in disease. In this study, we demonstrate the use of lentiviral-mediated transgene delivery as an effective approach for ectopic transgene expression and an alternative to generation of transgenic animals. One benefit to this approach is that it can be used independently or in conjunction with established transgenic or knockout animals for studying modulation of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. To display the power of this approach, we explored ectopic expression of a Wnt ligand in the mouse intestinal mesenchyme and demonstrate its functional influence on the adjacent epithelium. Our findings highlight the efficient use of lentiviral-mediated transgene expression for modulating mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in vivo.

  1. Protease-activated receptor-1 negatively regulates proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells derived from the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tanaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thrombin-activated protease-activated receptor (PAR-1 regulates the proliferation of neural cells following brain injury. To elucidate the involvement of PAR-1 in the neurogenesis that occurs in the adult hippocampus, we examined whether PAR-1 regulated the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs derived from the murine hippocampal dentate gyrus. NPC cultures expressed PAR-1 protein and mRNA encoding all subtypes of PAR. Direct exposure of the cells to thrombin dramatically attenuated the cell proliferation without causing cell damage. This thrombin-induced attenuation was almost completely abolished by the PAR antagonist RWJ 56110, as well as by dabigatran and 4-(2-aminoethylbenzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF, which are selective and non-selective thrombin inhibitors, respectively. Expectedly, the PAR-1 agonist peptide (AP SFLLR-NH2 also attenuated the cell proliferation. The cell proliferation was not affected by the PAR-1 negative control peptide RLLFT-NH2, which is an inactive peptide for PAR-1. Independently, we determined the effect of in vivo treatment with AEBSF or AP on hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. The administration of AEBSF, but not that of AP, significantly increased the number of newly-generated cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone. These data suggest that PAR-1 negatively regulated adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus by inhibiting the proliferative activity of the NPCs.

  2. Maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy, but not during suckling, induced altered expression of an increasing number of hepatic genes in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-04-01

    Indirect effects of a high-protein maternal diet are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed short-term and sustainable effects of a prenatal versus early postnatal maternal high-protein diet on growth and hepatic gene expression in mouse offspring. Dams were exposed to an isoenergetic high-protein (HP, 40 % w/w) diet during pregnancy or lactation. Growth and hepatic expression profiles of male offspring were evaluated directly after weaning and 150 days after birth. Offspring from two dietary groups, high-protein diet during pregnancy and control diet during lactation (HPC), and control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation (CHP), were compared with offspring (CC) from control-fed dams. Maternal CHP treatment was associated with sustained offspring growth retardation, but decreased numbers of affected hepatic genes in adults compared to weanlings. In contrast, offspring of the HPC group did not show persistent effects on growth parameters, but the number of affected hepatic genes was even increased at adult age. In both dietary groups, however, only a small subset of genes was affected in weanlings as well as in adults. We conclude that (1) prenatal and early postnatal maternal HP diet caused persistent, but (2) different effects and partially complementary trends on growth characteristics and on the hepatic transcriptome and associated pathways and that (3) only a small number of genes and associated upstream regulators might be involved in passing early diet-induced imprints to adulthood.

  3. Complex genomic rearrangement in CCS-LacZ transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Dina Myers; Darrow, Bruce J; Kim, Sang Do; Zhang, Jie; Jongbloed, Monique R M; Rentschler, Stacey; Moskowitz, Ivan P G; Seidman, Jonathan; Fishman, Glenn I

    2007-02-01

    The cardiac conduction system (CCS)-lacZ insertional mouse mutant strain genetically labels the developing and mature CCS. This pattern of expression is presumed to reflect the site of transgene integration rather than regulatory elements within the transgene proper. We sought to characterize the genomic structure of the integration locus and identify nearby gene(s) that might potentially confer the observed CCS-specific transcription. We found rearrangement of chromosome 7 between regions D1 and E1 with altered transcription of multiple genes in the D1 region. Several lines of evidence suggested that regulatory elements from at least one gene, Slco3A1, influenced CCS-restricted reporter gene expression. In embryonic hearts, Slco3A1 was expressed in a spatial pattern similar to the CCS-lacZ transgene and was similarly neuregulin-responsive. At later stages, however, expression patterns of the transgene and Slco3A1 diverged, suggesting that the Slco3A1 locus may be necessary, but not sufficient to confer CCS-specific transgene expression in the CCS-lacZ line. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Identification of Secretory Odontoblasts Using DMP1-GFP Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Mina, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla is a long process involving several intermediate steps and changes in the transcriptional profile and expression of proteins secreted by cells in the odontoblast lineage. Transgenic mouse lines in which GFP expression is under the control of tissue-and stage specific promoters have provided powerful experimental tools for identification and isolation of cells at specific stages of differentiation along a lineage. Our previous studies showed utilization of pOBCol3.6GFP and pOBCol2.3GFP animals for identification of odontoblasts at early and late stages of polarization respectively. In the present study we used the DMP1-GFP transgenic animal as an experimental model to examine its expression during the differentiation of odontoblasts from progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Our observations showed that DMP1-GFP transgene is first activated in secretory/functional odontoblasts engaged in secretion of predentin and then transiently expressed at high levels in newly differentiated odontoblasts. Expression of DMP1-GFP was down-regulated in highly differentiated odontoblasts. The temporal and spatial pattern of expression of DMP1-GFP transgene closely mimics the expression of endogenous DMP1. This transgenic animal will facilitate studies of gene expression and biological functions in secretory/functional odontoblasts. PMID:21172466

  5. R/L, a double reporter mouse line that expresses luciferase gene upon Cre-mediated excision, followed by inactivation of mRFP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junshuang; Lin, Xiaolin; Lin, Xia; Lin, Taoyan; Chen, Bangzhu; Hao, Weichao; Cheng, Yushuang; Liu, Yu; Dian, Meijuan; Yao, Kaitai; Xiao, Dong; Gu, Weiwang

    2016-10-01

    The Cre/loxP system has become an important tool for the conditional gene knockout and conditional gene expression in genetically engineered mice. The applications of this system depend on transgenic reporter mouse lines that provide Cre recombinase activity with a defined cell type-, tissue-, or developmental stage-specificity. To develop a sensitive assay for monitoring Cre-mediated DNA excisions in mice, we generated Cre-mediated excision reporter mice, designated R/L mice (R/L: mRFP(monomeric red fluorescent protein)/luciferase), express mRFP throughout embryonic development and adult stages, while Cre-mediated excision deletes a loxP-flanked mRFP reporter gene and STOP sequence, thereby activating the expression of the second reporter gene luciferase, as assayed by in vivo and ex vivo bioluminescence imaging. After germ line deletion of the floxed mRFP and STOP sequence in R/L mice by EIIa-Cre mice, the resulting luciferase transgenic mice in which the loxP-mRFP-STOP-loxP cassette is excised from all cells express luciferase in all tissues and organs examined. The expression of luciferase transgene was activated in liver of RL/Alb-Cre double transgenic mice and in brain of RL/Nestin-Cre double transgenic mice when R/L reporter mice were mated with Alb-Cre mice and Nestin-Cre mice, respectively. Our findings reveal that the double reporter R/L mouse line is able to indicate the occurrence of Cre-mediated excision from early embryonic to adult lineages. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the R/L mice serve as a sensitive reporter for Cre-mediated DNA excision both in living animals and in organs, tissues, and cells following necropsy.

  6. Adult mouse motor units develop almost all of their force in the subprimary range: a new all-or-none strategy for force recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Marin; Heckman, C J

    2011-10-19

    Classical studies of the mammalian neuromuscular system have shown an impressive adaptation match between the intrinsic properties of motoneurons and the contractile properties of their motor units. In these studies, the rate at which motoneurons start to fire repetitively corresponds to the rate at which individual twitches start to sum, and the firing rate increases linearly with the amount of excitation ("primary range") up to the point where the motor unit develops its maximal force. This allows for the gradation of the force produced by a motor unit by rate modulation. In adult mouse motoneurons, however, we recently described a regime of firing ("subprimary range") that appears at lower excitation than what is required for the primary range, a finding that might challenge the classical conception. To investigate the force production of mouse motor units, we simultaneously recorded, for the first time, the motoneuron discharge elicited by intracellular ramps of current and the force developed by its motor unit. We showed that the motor unit developed nearly its maximal force during the subprimary range. This was found to be the case regardless of the input resistance of the motoneuron, the contraction speed, or the tetanic force of the motor unit. Our work suggests that force modulation in small mammals mainly relies on the number of motor units that are recruited rather than on rate modulation of individual motor units.

  7. Alteration of Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Histone Methylation in Free Radical Scavenging Networks in Adult Mouse Hippocampus following Fetal Alcohol Exposure.

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    Eric J Chater-Diehl

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD is poorly understood; however, epigenetic and gene expression changes have been implicated. We have developed a mouse model of FASD characterized by learning and memory impairment and persistent gene expression changes. Epigenetic marks may maintain expression changes over a mouse's lifetime, an area few have explored. Here, mice were injected with saline or ethanol on postnatal days four and seven. At 70 days of age gene expression microarray, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray were performed. Following extensive pathway analysis of the affected genes, we identified the top affected gene expression pathway as "Free radical scavenging". We confirmed six of these changes by droplet digital PCR including the caspase Casp3 and Wnt transcription factor Tcf7l2. The top pathway for all methylation-affected genes was "Peroxisome biogenesis"; we confirmed differential DNA methylation in the Acca1 thiolase promoter. Altered methylation and gene expression in oxidative stress pathways in the adult hippocampus suggests a novel interface between epigenetic and oxidative stress mechanisms in FASD.

  8. Alteration of Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Histone Methylation in Free Radical Scavenging Networks in Adult Mouse Hippocampus following Fetal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater-Diehl, Eric J; Laufer, Benjamin I; Castellani, Christina A; Alberry, Bonnie L; Singh, Shiva M

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is poorly understood; however, epigenetic and gene expression changes have been implicated. We have developed a mouse model of FASD characterized by learning and memory impairment and persistent gene expression changes. Epigenetic marks may maintain expression changes over a mouse's lifetime, an area few have explored. Here, mice were injected with saline or ethanol on postnatal days four and seven. At 70 days of age gene expression microarray, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray were performed. Following extensive pathway analysis of the affected genes, we identified the top affected gene expression pathway as "Free radical scavenging". We confirmed six of these changes by droplet digital PCR including the caspase Casp3 and Wnt transcription factor Tcf7l2. The top pathway for all methylation-affected genes was "Peroxisome biogenesis"; we confirmed differential DNA methylation in the Acca1 thiolase promoter. Altered methylation and gene expression in oxidative stress pathways in the adult hippocampus suggests a novel interface between epigenetic and oxidative stress mechanisms in FASD.

  9. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  10. Regional localization of activin-βA, activin-βC, follistatin, proliferation, and apoptosis in adult and developing mouse prostate ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Elspeth; Zellhuber-McMillan, Sylvia; Risbridger, Gail; Marino, Francesco Elia

    2017-01-01

    Activins and inhibins, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are growth and differentiation factors involved in the regulation of several biological processes, including reproduction, development, and fertility. Previous studies have shown that the activin-β A subunit plays a pivotal role in prostate development. Activin-A inhibits branching morphogenesis in the developing prostate, and its expression is associated with increased apoptosis in the adult prostate. Follistatin, a structurally unrelated protein to activins, is an antagonist of activin-A. A balance between endogenous activin-A and follistatin is required to maintain prostatic branching morphogenesis. Deregulation of this balance leads to branching inhibition or excessive branching and increased maturation of the stroma surrounding the differentiating epithelial ducts. Recent work identified another member of the TGF-β superfamily, the activin-β C subunit, as a novel antagonist of activin-A. Over-expression of activin-C (β C -β C ) alters prostate homeostasis, by interfering with the activin-A signaling. The current study characterized the spatiotemporal localization of activin-A, activin-C and follistatin in the adult and developing mouse prostate using immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed activin-C and follistatin are differentially expressed during prostate development and suggested that the antagonistic property of follistatin is secondary to the action of activin-C. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence to support a role of activin-C in prostate development and provides new insights in the spatiotemporal localization of activins and their antagonists during mouse prostate development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates anabolic response to sclerostin antibody treatment with increased bone mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, B P; White, L E; Salemi, J D; Ominsky, M S; Caird, M S; Marini, J C; Kozloff, K M

    2014-08-01

    Treatments to reduce fracture rates in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta are limited. Sclerostin antibody, developed for treating osteoporosis, has not been explored in adults with OI. This study demonstrates that treatment of adult OI mice respond favorably to sclerostin antibody therapy despite retention of the OI-causing defect. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk. Although OI fracture risk is greatest before puberty, adults with OI remain at risk of fracture. Antiresorptive bisphosphonates are commonly used to treat adult OI, but have shown mixed efficacy. New treatments which consistently improve bone mass throughout the skeleton may improve patient outcomes. Neutralizing antibodies to sclerostin (Scl-Ab) are a novel anabolic therapy that have shown efficacy in preclinical studies by stimulating bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Scl-Ab in an adult 6 month old Brtl/+ model of OI that harbors a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly > Cys substitution on Col1a1. Six-month-old WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated with Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg, 2×/week) or Veh for 5 weeks. OCN and TRACP5b serum assays, dynamic histomorphometry, microCT and mechanical testing were performed. Adult Brtl/+ mice demonstrated a strong anabolic response to Scl-Ab with increased serum osteocalcin and bone formation rate. This anabolic response led to improved trabecular and cortical bone mass in the femur. Mechanical testing revealed Scl-Ab increased Brtl/+ femoral stiffness and strength. Scl-Ab was successfully anabolic in an adult Brtl/+ model of OI.

  12. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  13. Tet2 Rescues Age-Related Regenerative Decline and Enhances Cognitive Function in the Adult Mouse Brain

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    Geraldine Gontier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoring adult stem cell function provides an exciting approach for rejuvenating the aging brain. However, molecular mechanisms mediating neurogenic rejuvenation remain elusive. Here we report that the enzyme ten eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2, which catalyzes the production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC, rescues age-related decline in adult neurogenesis and enhances cognition in mice. We detected a decrease in Tet2 expression and 5hmC levels in the aged hippocampus associated with adult neurogenesis. Mimicking an aged condition in young adults by abrogating Tet2 expression within the hippocampal neurogenic niche, or adult neural stem cells, decreased neurogenesis and impaired learning and memory. In a heterochronic parabiosis rejuvenation model, hippocampal Tet2 expression was restored. Overexpressing Tet2 in the hippocampal neurogenic niche of mature adults increased 5hmC associated with neurogenic processes, offset the precipitous age-related decline in neurogenesis, and enhanced learning and memory. Our data identify Tet2 as a key molecular mediator of neurogenic rejuvenation.

  14. Adult-Onset Fluoxetine Treatment Does Not Improve Behavioral Impairments and May Have Adverse Effects on the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

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    Markus Heinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is caused by triplication of chromosome 21 and is associated with neurocognitive phenotypes ranging from severe intellectual disability to various patterns of more selective neuropsychological deficits, including memory impairments. In the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome, excessive GABAergic neurotransmission results in local over-inhibition of hippocampal circuits, which dampens hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contributes to cognitive impairments. Treatments with several GABAA receptor antagonists result in increased plasticity and improved memory deficits in Ts65Dn mice. These GABAA receptor antagonists are, however, not suitable for clinical applications. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, in contrast, is a widely prescribed antidepressant that can also enhance plasticity in the adult rodent brain by lowering GABAergic inhibition. For these reasons, we wondered if an adult-onset 4-week oral fluoxetine treatment restores spatial learning and memory impairments in Ts65Dn mice. Fluoxetine did not measurably improve behavioral impairments of Ts65Dn mice. On the contrary, we observed seizures and mortality in fluoxetine-treated Ts65Dn mice, raising the possibility of a drug × genotype interaction with respect to these adverse treatment outcomes. Future studies should re-address this in larger animal cohorts and determine if fluoxetine treatment is associated with adverse treatment effects in individuals with Down syndrome.

  15. Selective Deletion of Sodium Salt Taste during Development Leads to Expanded Terminal Fields of Gustatory Nerves in the Adult Mouse Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengsan; Hummler, Edith; Hill, David L

    2017-01-18

    Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development. We used this model to test the hypothesis that the lack of activity elicited by sodium salt taste impacts the terminal field organization of nerves that carry taste information from taste buds to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the medulla. The glossopharyngeal, chorda tympani, and greater superficial petrosal nerves were labeled to examine their terminal fields in adult control mice and in adult mice in which the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel was conditionally deleted in taste buds (αENaC knockout). The terminal fields of all three nerves in the NST were up to 2.7 times greater in αENaC knock-out mice compared with the respective field volumes in control mice. The shapes of the fields were similar between the two groups; however, the density and spread of labels were greater in αENaC knock-out mice. Overall, our results show that disruption of the afferent taste signal to sodium salts disrupts the normal age-dependent "pruning" of all terminal fields, which could lead to alterations in sensory coding and taste-related behaviors. Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. To date, there has been no direct test of whether taste-elicited neural activity has a role in shaping central gustatory circuits. However, recently developed genetic tools now allow an assessment of how specific taste stimuli, in this case sodium salt taste, play a role

  16. The role of long-term label-retaining cells in the regeneration of adult mouse kidney after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangchun; Liu, Haiying; Sun, Lina; Chen, Zhixin; Nie, Huibin; Sun, Aili; Liu, Gang; Guan, Guangju

    2016-04-30

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been recognized as rare stem and progenitor-like cells, but their complex biological features in renal repair at the cellular level have never been reported. This study was conducted to evaluate whether LRCs in kidney are indeed renal stem/progenitor cells and to delineate their potential role in kidney regeneration. We utilized a long-term pulse chase of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in C57BL/6J mice to identify renal LRCs. We tracked the precise morphological characteristics and locations of BrdU(+)LRCs by both immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. To examine whether these BrdU(+)LRCs contribute to the repair of acute kidney injury, we analyzed biological characteristics of BrdU(+)LRCs in mice after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The findings revealed that the nuclei of BrdU(+) LRCs exhibited different morphological characteristics in normal adult kidneys, including nuclei in pairs or scattered, fragmented or intact, strongly or weakly positive. Only 24.3 ± 1.5 % of BrdU(+) LRCs co-expressed with Ki67 and 9.1 ± 1.4 % of BrdU(+) LRCs were positive for TUNEL following renal I/R injury. Interestingly, we found that newly regenerated cells formed a niche-like structure and LRCs in pairs tended to locate in this structure, but the number of those LRCs was very low. We found a few scattered LRCs co-expressed Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) in the early phase of injury, suggesting differentiation of those LRCs in mouse kidney. Our findings suggest that LRCs are not a simple type of slow-cycling cells in adult kidneys, indicating a limited role of these cells in the regeneration of I/R injured kidney. Thus, LRCs cannot reliably be considered stem/progenitor cells in the regeneration of adult mouse kidney. When researchers use this technique to study the cellular basis of renal repair, these complex features of renal LRCs and the purity of real stem cells among renal LRCs should be considered.

  17. The impact of long-term exposure to space environment on adult mammalian organisms: a study on mouse thyroid and testis.

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    Maria Angela Masini

    Full Text Available Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis.In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10(-7M and 10(-8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains.In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3β- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1β were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3β and 17β steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 β expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. -90% vs. laboratory and ground controls, indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules.Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis

  18. Amplification of R-spondin1 signaling induces granulosa cell fate defects and cancers in mouse adult ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Cian, M-C; Pauper, E.; Bandiera, R.; Vidal, V. P. I.; Sacco, S.; Gregoire, E. P.; Chassot, A-A; Panzolini, C.; WILHELM, D; Pailhoux, E.; Youssef, Sameh A.; de Bruin, A.; Teerds, K.; Schedl, A.; Gillot, I.; Chaboissier, M-C

    2017-01-01

    R-spondin1 is a secreted regulator of WNT signaling, involved in both embryonic development and homeostasis of adult organs. It can have a dual role, acting either as a mitogen or as a tumor suppressor. During ovarian development, Rspo1 is a key factor required for sex determination and

  19. Dose of Phenobarbital and Age of Treatment at Early Life are Two Key Factors for the Persistent Induction of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Adult Mouse Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Yun-Chen; Liu, Ke; Pope, Chad; Wang, Pengcheng; Ma, Xiaochao; Zhong, Xiao-bo

    2015-12-01

    Drug treatment of neonates and infants and its long-term consequences on drug responses have emerged in recent years as a major challenge for health care professionals. In the current study, we use phenobarbital as a model drug and mouse as an in vivo model to demonstrate that the dose of phenobarbital and age of treatment are two key factors for the persistent induction of gene expression and consequential increases of enzyme activities of Cyp2b, Cyp2c, and Cyp3a in adult livers. We show that phenobarbital treatment at early life of day 5 after birth with a low dose (phenobarbital treatment with a high dose (>200 mg/kg) significantly increases expression and enzyme activities of these P450s in adult liver. We also demonstrate that phenobarbital treatment before day 10 after birth, but not at later ages, significantly increases mRNAs, proteins, and enzyme activities of the tested P450s. Such persistent induction of P450 gene expression and enzyme activities in adult livers by phenobarbital treatment only occurs within a sensitive age window early in life. The persistent induction in gene expression and enzyme activities is higher in female mice than in male mice for Cyp2b10 but not for Cyp2c29 and Cyp3a11. These results will stimulate studies to evaluate the long-term impacts of drug treatment with different doses at neonatal and infant ages on drug metabolism, therapeutic efficacy, and drug-induced toxicity throughout the rest of life. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Lead induces similar gene expression changes in brains of gestationally exposed adult mice and in neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells.

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    Francisco Javier Sánchez-Martín

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental toxicants during embryonic life causes changes in the expression of developmental genes that may last for a lifetime and adversely affect the exposed individual. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causes deficits in cognitive functions and IQ, behavioral effects, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Long-term effects observed after early life exposure to Pb include reduction of gray matter, alteration of myelin structure, and increment of criminal behavior in adults. Despite growing research interest, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of lead in the central nervous system are still largely unknown. To study the molecular changes due to Pb exposure during neurodevelopment, we exposed mice to Pb in utero and examined the expression of neural markers, neurotrophins, transcription factors and glutamate-related genes in hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus at postnatal day 60. We found that hippocampus was the area where gene expression changes due to Pb exposure were more pronounced. To recapitulate gestational Pb exposure in vitro, we differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC into neurons and treated ESC-derived neurons with Pb for the length of the differentiation process. These neurons expressed the characteristic neuronal markers Tubb3, Syp, Gap43, Hud, Ngn1, Vglut1 (a marker of glutamatergic neurons, and all the glutamate receptor subunits, but not the glial marker Gafp. Importantly, several of the changes observed in Pb-exposed mouse brains in vivo were also observed in Pb-treated ESC-derived neurons, including those affecting expression of Ngn1, Bdnf exon IV, Grin1, Grin2D, Grik5, Gria4, and Grm6. We conclude that our ESC-derived model of toxicant exposure during neural differentiation promises to be a useful model to analyze mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by Pb and other environmental agents.

  1. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα−, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

  2. Sex-comparative study of mouse cerebellum physiology under adult-onset hypothyroidism: The significance of GC-MS metabolomic data normalization in meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga-Nteve, Christoniki; Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Margarity, Marigoula; Klapa, Maria I

    2017-01-15

    A systematic data quality validation and normalization strategy is an important component of the omic profile meta-analysis, ensuring comparability of the profiles and exclusion of experimental biases from the derived biological conclusions. In this study, we present the normalization methodology applied on the sets of cerebellum gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic profiles of 124days old male and female animals in an adult-onset-hypothyroidism (AOH) mouse model before combining them into a sex-comparative analysis. The employed AOH model concerns the monitoring of the brain physiology of Balb/cJ mice after eight-week administration of 1%w/v KClO 4 in the drinking water, initiated on the 60th day of their life. While originating from the same animal study, the tissues of the two sexes were processed and their profiles acquired and analyzed at different time periods. Hence, the previously published profile set of male mice was first re-annotated based on the presently available resources. Then, after being validated as acquired under the same analytical conditions, both profiles sets were corrected for derivatization biases and filtered for low-confidence measurements based on the same criteria. The final normalized 73-metabolite profiles contribute to the currently few available omic datasets of the AOH effect on brain molecular physiology, especially with respect to sex differentiation. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated one (unknown) and three (succinate, benzoate, myristate) metabolites with significantly higher and lower, respectively, cerebellum concentration in the hypothyroid compared to the euthyroid female mice. The respective numbers for the males were two and 24. Comparison of the euthyroid cerebellum metabolic profiles between the two sexes indicated 36 metabolites, including glucose, myo- and scyllo-inositol, with significantly lower concentration in the females versus the males. This implies that the female mouse cerebellum has

  3. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

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    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  4. High-fidelity Glucagon-CreER mouse line generated by CRISPR-Cas9 assisted gene targeting

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    Amanda M. Ackermann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: α-cells are the second most prominent cell type in pancreatic islets and are responsible for producing glucagon to increase plasma glucose levels in times of fasting. α-cell dysfunction and inappropriate glucagon secretion occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, there is growing interest in studying both normal function and pathophysiology of α-cells. However, tools to target gene ablation or activation specifically of α-cells have been limited, compared to those available for β-cells. Previous Glucagon-Cre and Glucagon-CreER transgenic mouse lines have suffered from transgene silencing, and the only available Glucagon-CreER “knock-in” mouse line results in glucagon haploinsufficiency, which can confound the interpretation of gene deletion analyses. Therefore, we sought to develop a Glucagon-CreERT2 mouse line that would maintain normal glucagon expression and would be less susceptible to transgene silencing. Methods: We utilized CRISPR-Cas9 technology to insert an IRES-CreERT2 sequence into the 3′ UTR of the Glucagon (Gcg locus in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Targeted ESC clones were then injected into mouse blastocysts to obtain Gcg-CreERT2 mice. Recombination efficiency in GCG+ pancreatic α-cells and glucagon-like peptide 1 positive (GLP1+ enteroendocrine L-cells was measured in Gcg-CreERT2;Rosa26-LSL-YFP mice injected with tamoxifen during fetal development and adulthood. Results: Tamoxifen injection of Gcg-CreERT2;Rosa26-LSL-YFP mice induced high recombination efficiency of the Rosa26-LSL-YFP locus in perinatal and adult α-cells (88% and 95%, respectively, as well as in first-wave fetal α-cells (36% and adult enteroendocrine L-cells (33%. Mice homozygous for the Gcg-CreERT2 allele were phenotypically normal. Conclusions: We successfully derived a Gcg-CreERT2 mouse line that expresses CreERT2 in pancreatic α-cells and enteroendocrine L-cells without disrupting preproglucagon gene expression. These mice

  5. Radiation arteriopathy in the transgenic arteriovenous fistula model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Michael T; Arnold, Christine M; Kim, Yung J; Bogarin, Ernesto A; Stewart, Campbell L; Wulfstat, Amanda A; Derugin, Nikita; Deen, Dennis; Young, William L

    2008-05-01

    The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model, surgically constructed with transgenic mouse aorta interposed in common carotid artery-to-external jugular vein fistulae in nude rats, has a 4-month experimental window because patency and transgenic phenotype are lost over time. We adapted this model to investigate occlusive arteriopathy in brain arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery by radiating grafted aorta before insertion in the fistula. We hypothesized that high-dose radiation would reproduce the arteriopathy observed clinically within the experimental time window and that deletions of endoglin (ENG) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes would modify the radiation response. Radiation arteriopathy in the common carotid arteries of 171 wild-type mice was examined with doses of 25, 80, 120, or 200 Gy (Experiment 1). Radiation arteriopathy in 68 wild-type arteriovenous fistulae was examined histologically and morphometrically with preoperative radiation doses of 0, 25, or 200 Gy (Experiment 2). Radiation arteriopathy in 51 transgenic arteriovenous fistulae (36 ENG and 15 eNOS knock-out fistulae) was examined using preoperative radiation doses of 0, 25, or 200 Gy (Experiment 3). High-dose radiation (200 Gy) of mouse common carotid arteries induced only mild arteriopathy (mean score, 0.66) without intimal hyperplasia and with high mortality (68%). Radiation arteriopathy in wild-type arteriovenous fistulae was severe (mean score, 3.5 at 200 Gy), with intimal hyperplasia and medial disruption at 3 months, decreasing luminal areas with increasing dose, and no mortality. Arteriopathy was robust in transgenic arteriovenous fistulae with ENG +/- and with eNOS +/-, with thick intimal hyperplasia in the former and distinct smooth muscle cell proliferation in the latter. The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model can be adapted to rapidly reproduce radiation arteriopathy observed in resected brain arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery. High

  6. Adult Mouse DRG Explant and Dissociated Cell Models to Investigate Neuroplasticity and Responses to Environmental Insults Including Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Sharthiya, Harsh; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2018-03-09

    This protocol describes an ex vivo model of mouse-derived dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant and in vitro DRG-derived co-culture of dissociated sensory neurons and glial satellite cells. These are useful and versatile models to investigate a variety of biological responses associated with physiological and pathological conditions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ranging from neuron-glial interaction, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation, and viral infection. The usage of DRG explant is scientifically advantageous compared to simplistic single cells models for multiple reasons. For instance, as an organotypic culture, the DRG explant allows ex vivo transfer of an entire neuronal network including the extracellular microenvironment that play a significant role in all the neuronal and glial functions. Further, DRG explants can also be maintained ex vivo for several days and the culture conditions can be perturbed as desired. In addition, the harvested DRG can be further dissociated into an in vitro co-culture of primary sensory neurons and satellite glial cells to investigate neuronal-glial interaction, neuritogenesis, axonal cone interaction with the extracellular microenvironment, and more general, any aspect associated with the neuronal metabolism. Therefore, the DRG-explant system offers a great deal of flexibility to study a wide array of events related to biological, physiological, and pathological conditions in a cost-effective manner.

  7. Compensatory axon sprouting for very slow axonal die-back in a transgenic model of spinal muscular atrophy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udina, Esther; Putman, Charles T; Harris, Luke R; Tyreman, Neil; Cook, Victoria E; Gordon, Tessa

    2017-03-01

    Smn +/- transgenic mouse is a model of the mildest form of spinal muscular atrophy. Although there is a loss of spinal motoneurons in 11-month-old animals, muscular force is maintained. This maintained muscular force is mediated by reinnervation of the denervated fibres by surviving motoneurons. The spinal motoneurons in these animals do not show an increased susceptibility to death after nerve injury and they retain their regenerative capacity. We conclude that the hypothesized immaturity of the neuromuscular system in this model cannot explain the loss of motoneurons by systematic die-back. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive disorder in humans and is the leading genetic cause of infantile death. Patients lack the SMN1 gene with the severity of the disease depending on the number of copies of the highly homologous SMN2 gene. Although motoneuron death in the Smn +/- transgenic mouse model of the mildest form of SMA, SMA type III, has been reported, we have used retrograde tracing of sciatic and femoral motoneurons in the hindlimb with recording of muscle and motor unit isometric forces to count the number of motoneurons with intact neuromuscular connections. Thereby, we investigated whether incomplete maturation of the neuromuscular system induced by survival motoneuron protein (SMN) defects is responsible for die-back of axons relative to survival of motoneurons. First, a reduction of ∼30% of backlabelled motoneurons began relatively late, at 11 months of age, with a significant loss of 19% at 7 months. Motor axon die-back was affirmed by motor unit number estimation. Loss of functional motor units was fully compensated by axonal sprouting to retain normal contractile force in four hindlimb muscles (three fast-twitch and one slow-twitch) innervated by branches of the sciatic nerve. Second, our evaluation of whether axotomy of motoneurons in the adult Smn +/- transgenic mouse increases their susceptibility to cell death demonstrated

  8. Pathogenesis of axonal dystrophy and demyelination in alphaA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, A. van; Sweers, M.A.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Bloemendal, H.

    2003-01-01

    We recently described a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing hamster alphaA-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, under direction of the hamster vimentin promoter. As a result myelin was degraded and axonal dystrophy in both central nervous system (especially spinal cord) and peripheral nervous

  9. Antibody mediated albuminuria and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in Thy- 1.1 transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.

    2006-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the hallmark of the glomerular lesion that is characteristically observed in failing kidneys. FSGS is one of the leading causes of renal insufficiency. In this thesis the Thy-1.1 transgenic mouse model was used as a model of FSGS. We particularly

  10. Late gestational hypoxia and a postnatal high salt diet programs endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sarah L; Singh, Reetu R; Tan, Tiffany; Paravicini, Tamara M; Moritz, Karen M

    2016-03-01

    Gestational hypoxia and high dietary salt intake have both been associated with impaired vascular function in adulthood. Using a mouse model of prenatal hypoxia, we examined whether a chronic high salt diet had an additive effect in promoting vascular dysfunction in offspring. Pregnant CD1 dams were placed in a hypoxic chamber (12% O2) or housed under normal conditions (21% O2) from embryonic day 14.5 until birth. Gestational hypoxia resulted in a reduced body weight for both male and female offspring at birth. This restriction in body weight persisted until weaning, after which the animals underwent catch-up growth. At 10 weeks of age, a subset of offspring was placed on a high salt diet (5% NaCl). Pressurized myography of mesenteric resistance arteries at 12 months of age showed that both male and female offspring exposed to maternal hypoxia had significantly impaired endothelial function, as demonstrated by impaired vasodilatation to ACh but not sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial dysfunction caused by prenatal hypoxia was not exacerbated by postnatal consumption of a high salt diet. Prenatal hypoxia increased microvascular stiffness in male offspring. The combination of prenatal hypoxia and a postnatal high salt diet caused a leftward shift in the stress-strain relationship in both sexes. Histopathological analysis of aortic sections revealed a loss of elastin integrity and increased collagen, consistent with increased vascular stiffness. These results demonstrate that prenatal hypoxia programs endothelial dysfunction in both sexes. A chronic high salt diet in postnatal life had an additive deleterious effect on vascular mechanics and structural characteristics in both sexes. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  11. Transgene teknikker erstatter problematisk avl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder.......Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder....

  12. Maternal Active Mastication during Prenatal Stress Ameliorates Prenatal Stress-Induced Lower Bone Mass in Adult Mouse Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Ogura, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Suzuki, Ayumi; Hayashi, Sakurako; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuated the reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption, improved the lower trabecular bone volume and bone microstructural deterioration induced by prenatal stress in the offspring. These findings indicate that maternal active mastication during prenatal stress can ameliorate prenatal stress-induced lower bone mass of the vertebra and femur in adult offspring. Active mastication during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent lower bone mass in their offspring.

  13. Effects of perinatal daidzein exposure on subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α expression in the adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjun; Tai, Fadao; Zeng, Shuangyan; Zhang, Xia

    2013-06-03

    Daidzein is one of the most important isoflavones present in soy and it is unique as it can be further metabolized to equol, a compound with greater estrogenic activity than other isoflavones. The potential role of daidzein in the prevention of some chronic diseases has drawn public attention and increased its consumption in human, including in pregnant women and adolescent. It is unclear whether perinatal exposure to daidzein through maternal diets affects subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in male adults. Following developmental exposure to daidzein through maternal diets during perinatal period, subsequent anxiety-like behavior, social behavior, spatial learning and memory of male mice at adulthood were assessed using a series of tests. The levels of central ER α expression were also examined using immunocytochemistry. Compared with the controls, adult male mice exposed to daidzein during the perinatal period showed significantly less exploration, higher levels of anxiety and aggression. They also displayed more social investigation for females and a tendency to improve spatial learning and memory. The mice with this early daidzein treatment demonstrated significantly higher levels of ERα expression in several brain regions such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and central amygdaloid mucleus, but decreased it in the lateral septum. Our results indicated that perinatal exposure to daidzein enhanced masculinization on male behaviors which is assocciated with alterations in ERα expression levels led by perinatal daidzein exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide reduces A-type K+ currents and caspase activity in cultured adult mouse olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Lucero, M T

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide has been shown to reduce apoptosis in neonatal cerebellar and olfactory receptor neurons, however the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide have not been examined in adult tissues. To study the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on neurons in apoptosis, we measured caspase activation in adult olfactory receptor neurons in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the protective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide were related to the absence of a 4-aminopyridine (IC50=144 microM) sensitive rapidly inactivating potassium current often referred to as A-type current. In the presence of 40 nM pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38, both A-type current and activated caspases were significantly reduced. A-type current reduction by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide was blocked by inhibiting the phospholipase C pathway, but not the adenylyl cyclase pathway. Our observation that 5 mM 4-aminopyridine mimicked the caspase inhibiting effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide indicates that A-type current is involved in apoptosis. This work contributes to our growing understanding that potassium currents are involved with the activation of caspases to affect the balance between cell life and death.

  15. Molecular fingerprint of neuropeptide S-producing neurons in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaobin; Zeng, Joanne; Zhou, Anni

    2011-01-01

    /EGFP-transgenic mice show anatomically correct and overlapping expression of both NPS and EGFP. A total number of ~500 NPS/EGFP-positive neurons are present in the mouse brain, located in the pericoerulear region and the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus. NPS and transgene expression is first detectable around E14, indicating...

  16. Stable Skin-specific Overexpression of Human CTLA4-Ig in Transgenic Mice through Seven Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong WANG; Yong NI; Hong WEI; Feng-Chao WANG; Liang-Peng GE; Xiang GAO

    2006-01-01

    Skin graft rejection is a typical cellular immune response, mainly mediated by T cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4-immunoglobin (CTLA4-Ig) extends graft survival by blocking the T cell co-stimulation pathway and inhibiting T cell activation. To investigate the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig in prolonging skin graft survival, human CTLA4-Ig (hCTLA4-Ig) was engineered to overexpress in mouse skin by transgenesis using the K14 promoter. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay indicated that the expression of CTLA4-Ig remained skin-specific and relatively constant compared to the internal control protein, AKT, through seven generations. The presence and concentration of the hCTLA4-Ig protein in transgenic mouse sera was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the results indicated that the serum CTLA4-Ig concentration also remained constant through generations. Survival of transgenic mouse skins grafted onto rat wounds was remarkably prolonged compared to that of wild-type skins from the same mouse strain, and remained comparable among all seven generations. This suggested that the bioactive hCTLA4-Ig protein was stably expressed in transgenical mice through at least seven generations, which was consistent with the stable skin-specific CTLA4-Ig expression.The results demonstrated that the transgenic expression of hCTLA4-Ig in skin driven by the K14 promoter remained constant through generations, and a transgenic line can be established to provide transgenic skin with extended survival reproducibly.

  17. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs from fish oil enhance resting state brain glucose utilization and reduce anxiety in an adult nonhuman primate, the grey mouse lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Fabien; Dorieux, Olène; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Croteau, Etienne; Masson, Marie; Guillermier, Martine; Van Camp, Nadja; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen; Dhenain, Marc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2015-08-01

    Decreased brain content of DHA, the most abundant long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) in the brain, is accompanied by severe neurosensorial impairments linked to impaired neurotransmission and impaired brain glucose utilization. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing n-3 LCPUFA intake at an early age may help to prevent or correct the glucose hypometabolism observed during aging and age-related cognitive decline. The effects of 12 months' supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA on brain glucose utilization assessed by positron emission tomography was tested in young adult mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Cognitive function was tested in parallel in the same animals. Lemurs supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA had higher brain glucose uptake and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose compared with controls in all brain regions. The n-3 LCPUFA-supplemented animals also had higher exploratory activity in an open-field task and lower evidence of anxiety in the Barnes maze. Our results demonstrate for the first time in a nonhuman primate that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increases brain glucose uptake and metabolism and concomitantly reduces anxiety. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Variations in DNA synthesis and mitotic indices in hepatocytes and sinusoid litoral cells of adult intact male mouse along a circadian time span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surur, J M; Moreno, F R; Badrán, A F; Llanos, J M

    1985-01-01

    Variations of DNA synthesis (DNAS) and mitotic indices along a circadian time span are described in the hepatocyte and sinusoid litoral cell populations of adult intact male mouse liver. Standardized (light from 0600 to 1800) mice were killed in groups of six to nine animals, every 2-4 hr along a circadian time span. Hepatocytes show significant peaks in the synthesis of DNA and the mitotic activity at 0200 and 1400, respectively. These results correspond to those previously described by us in young immature liver, regenerating liver and hepatomas. The phase differences between these peaks and the differences between their absolute values are discussed. Also considered are the practical consequences of our findings for experimental design. The curve of DNA synthesis of sinusoid litoral cells show a peak at 0200. The mitotic index show a bimodal waveform with peaks at 0800 and 2000. The existence of four different cell populations composing the so called sinusoid litoral cells and also the migration into and out of the liver of some macrophages considered as litoral (Kupffer) cells in our counts, makes interpretation of the curves somewhat complicated and deserves further analysis.

  19. The lncRNA Malat1 Is Dispensable for Mouse Development but Its Transcription Plays a cis-Regulatory Role in the Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide studies have identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs lacking protein-coding capacity. However, most lncRNAs are expressed at a very low level, and in most cases there is no genetic evidence to support their in vivo function. Malat1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 is among the most abundant and highly conserved lncRNAs, and it exhibits an uncommon 3′-end processing mechanism. In addition, its specific nuclear localization, developmental regulation, and dysregulation in cancer are suggestive of it having a critical biological function. We have characterized a Malat1 loss-of-function genetic model that indicates that Malat1 is not essential for mouse pre- and postnatal development. Furthermore, depletion of Malat1 does not affect global gene expression, splicing factor level and phosphorylation status, or alternative pre-mRNA splicing. However, among a small number of genes that were dysregulated in adult Malat1 knockout mice, many were Malat1 neighboring genes, thus indicating a potential cis-regulatory role of Malat1 gene transcription.

  20. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Arbogast

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a crucial regulator of gene expression in the developing and adult retina. Here we sought to map sites of thyroid hormone signaling at the cellular level using the transgenic FINDT3 reporter mouse model in which neurons express β-galactosidase (β-gal under the control of a hybrid Gal4-TRα receptor when triiodothyronine (T3 and cofactors of thyroid receptor signaling are present. In the adult retina, nearly all neurons of the ganglion cell layer (GCL, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells showed strong β-gal labeling. In the inner nuclear layer (INL, a minority of glycineric and GABAergic amacrine cells showed β-gal labeling, whereas the majority of amacrine cells were unlabeled. At the level of amacrine types, β-gal labeling was found in a large proportion of the glycinergic AII amacrines, but only in a small proportion of the cholinergic/GABAergic 'starburst' amacrines. At postnatal day 10, there also was a high density of strongly β-gal-labeled neurons in the GCL, but only few amacrine cells were labeled in the INL. There was no labeling of bipolar cells, horizontal cells and Müller glia cells at both stages. Most surprisingly, the photoreceptor somata in the outer nuclear layer also showed no β-gal label, although thyroid hormone is known to control cone opsin expression. This is the first record of thyroid hormone signaling in the inner retina of an adult mammal. We hypothesize that T3 levels in photoreceptors are below the detection threshold of the reporter system. The topographical distribution of β-gal-positive cells in the GCL follows the overall neuron distribution in that layer, with more T3-signaling cells in the ventral than the dorsal half-retina.

  1. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the t