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Sample records for adult swiss population

  1. New anthropometry-based age- and sex-specific reference values for urinary 24-hour creatinine excretion based on the adult Swiss population

    OpenAIRE

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Ogna, Adam; Vuistiner, Philippe; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belen; Ackermann, Daniel; Gabutti, Luca; Vakilzadeh, Nima; Mohaupt, Markus; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Guessous, Idris; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred; Bochud, Murielle; Burnier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Urinary creatinine excretion is used as a marker of completeness of timed urine collections, which are a keystone of several metabolic evaluations in clinical investigations and epidemiological surveys. METHODS: We used data from two independent Swiss cross-sectional population-based studies with standardised 24-hour urinary collection and measured anthropometric variables. Only data from adults of European descent, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.7...

  2. Prevalence of Frailty Indicators and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a Swiss Region with Universal Health Insurance Coverage: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Idris Guessous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006–2010 Bus Santé study were included (N = 2,930. Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50–65 years, 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty.

  3. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population

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    Pedro Marques-Vidal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male. In 1993–1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. In 1993–1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval −0.11 (−0.15; −0.06 vs. −0.03 (−0.08; 0.02 g/day/year for SFA and −5.2 (−7.8; −2.7 vs. −1.03 (−3.8; 1.8 mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction <0.05. Higher educated women had a greater decrease in iron intake than lower educated women: −0.03 (−0.04; −0.02 vs. −0.01 (−0.02; 0.00 mg/day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012.

  4. Attitudes towards personal genomics among older Swiss adults: An exploratory study

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    Laura Mählmann

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates a relatively positive overall attitude towards personal genomic testing among older Swiss adults, a group not typically represented in surveys about personal genomics. Genomic data of older adults can be highly relevant to late life health and maintenance of quality of life. In addition they can be an invaluable source for better understanding of longevity, health and disease. Understanding the attitudes of this population towards genomic analyses, although important, remains under-examined.

  5. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

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    Forrester-Knauss Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.

  6. New anthropometry-based age- and sex-specific reference values for urinary 24-hour creatinine excretion based on the adult Swiss population (epublish)

    OpenAIRE

    Forni Ogna V.; Ogna A.; Vuistiner P.; Pruijm M.; Ponte B.; Ackermann D.; Gabutti L.; Vakilzadeh N.; Mohaupt M; Martin P.Y.; Guessous I.; Péchère-Bertschi A.; Paccaud F.; Bochud M; Burnier M

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary creatinine excretion is used as a marker of completeness of timed urine collections, which are a keystone of several metabolic evaluations in clinical investigations and epidemiological surveys. The current reference values for 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rely on observations performed in the 1960s and 1970s in relatively small and mostly selected groups, and may thus poorly fit to the present-day general European population. The aim of this study was to establish ...

  7. New anthropometry-based age- and sex-specific reference values for urinary 24-hour creatinine excretion based on the adult Swiss population.

    OpenAIRE

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Ogna, Adam; Vuistiner, Philippe; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belen; Ackermann, Daniel; Gabutti, Luca; Vakilzadeh, Nima; Mohaupt, Markus; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Guessous, Idris; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred; Bochud, Murielle; Burnier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Urinary creatinine excretion is used as a marker of completeness of timed urine collections, which are a keystone of several metabolic evaluations in clinical investigations and epidemiological surveys. The current reference values for 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rely on observations performed in the 1960s and 1970s in relatively small and mostly selected groups, and may thus poorly fit to the present-day general European population. The aim of this study was to establ...

  8. Heritability of blood pressure in the swiss population: the family-based skipogh study

    OpenAIRE

    Alwan H.; Ehret G.; Ponte B.; Pruijm M.; Ackermann D.; Guessous I.; Pechère-Bertschi A.; Paccaud F.; Burnier M; Bochud M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Blood pressure is known to aggregate in families. Yet, heritability estimates are population-specific and no Swiss data have been published so far. Moreover, little is known on the heritability of the white-coat effect. We investigated the heritability of various blood pressure (BP) traits in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods: SKIPOGH (Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension) is a family-based multi-centre (Lausanne, Bern, Geneva) cross-sectional study that examines th...

  9. Attitudes towards personal genomics among older Swiss adults: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Röcke, Christina; Brand, Angela; Hafen, Ernst; Vayena, Effy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore attitudes of Swiss older adults towards personal genomics (PG). Methods Using an anonymized voluntary paper-and-pencil survey, data were collected from 151 men and women aged 60–89 years attending the Seniorenuniversität Zurich, Switzerland (Seniors' University). Analyses were conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results One third of the respondents were aware of PG, and more than half indicated interest in undergoing PG testing. The primary motivation provided was respondents' interest in finding out about their own disease risk, followed by willingness to contribute to scientific research. Forty-four percent were not interested in undergoing testing because results might be worrisome, or due to concerns about the validity of the results. Only a minority of respondents mentioned privacy-related concerns. Further, 66% were interested in undergoing clinic-based PG motivated by the opportunity to contribute to scientific research (78%) and 75% of all study participants indicated strong preferences to donate genomic data to public research institutions. Conclusion This study indicates a relatively positive overall attitude towards personal genomic testing among older Swiss adults, a group not typically represented in surveys about personal genomics. Genomic data of older adults can be highly relevant to late life health and maintenance of quality of life. In addition they can be an invaluable source for better understanding of longevity, health and disease. Understanding the attitudes of this population towards genomic analyses, although important, remains under-examined. PMID:27047754

  10. A high-resolution CNV map across Brown Swiss cattle populations.

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    Raphaëlle Teresa Matilde Maria Prinsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic studies and their use in selection programs are having a strong impact in dairy cattle selection (E. Liu et al., 2010. The first aim was to create a high resolution map of CNV regions (CNVRs in Brown Swiss cattle and the characterization of identified CNVs as markers for quantitative and population genetic studies. CNVs were called in a set of 164 sires with PennCNV and genoCN. PennCNV identified 2,377 CNVRs comprising 1,162 and 1,131 gain and loss events, respectively, and 84 regions of complex nature. GenoCN detected 41,519 CNVRs comprising 3,475 and 34,485 gain and loss events, respectively, and 3,559 regions of complex ones. Consensus calls between algorithms were summarized to CNVRs at the population level. GenoCN was also used to identify total allelic content in consensus CNVRs. Moreover, population haplotype frequencies were calculated. Linkage disequilibrium (LD was established between CNVs and SNPs in and around CNVRs. In this study the potential contribution of CNVs as genetic markers for genome wide association studies (GWAS has been assessed thanks to PIC and LD values. The next aim is to investigate genomic structural variation in cattle using dense SNP information in more than 1000 samples of the Italian and Swiss Brown Swiss breed genotyped on HD Bovine BeadChips. Today there is still no CNV map available across Brown Swiss populations belonging to different countries. This study therefore expands the catalogue of CNVRs in the bovine genome, delivers an international based high-resolution map of CNVRs specific to Brown Swiss dairy cattle and will lastly provide information for GEBV estimation with CNVs.

  11. Sociodemographic, behavioral and genetic determinants of allostatic load in a Swiss population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, Dusan; Pivin, Edward; Ponte, Belen; Dhayat, Nasser; Pruijm, Menno; Ehret, Georg; Ackermann, Daniel; Guessous, Idris; Younes, Sandrine Estoppey; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Mohaupt, Markus; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Paccaud, Fred; Burnier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Allostatic load (AL) is a marker of physiological dysregulation which reflects exposure to chronic stress. High AL has been related to poorer health outcomes including mortality. We examine here the association of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors with AL. Additionally, we investigate the extent to which AL is genetically determined. We included 803 participants (52% women, mean age 48±16years) from a population and family-based Swiss study. We computed an AL index aggregating 14 markers fr...

  12. Temporal association between childhood leukaemia and population growth in Swiss municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatsch, Judith E; Kreis, Christian; Zwahlen, Marcel; Niggli, Felix; Ammann, Roland A; Kuehni, Claudia E; Spycher, Ben D

    2016-08-01

    The population mixing hypothesis proposes that childhood leukaemia (CL) might be a rare complication of a yet unidentified subclinical infection. Large population influxes into previously isolated rural areas may foster localised epidemics of the postulated infection causing a subsequent increase of CL. While marked population growth after a period of stability was central to the formulation of the hypothesis and to the early studies on population mixing, there is a lack of objective criteria to define such growth patterns. We aimed to determine whether periods of marked population growth coincided with increases in the risk of CL in Swiss municipalities. We identified incident cases of CL aged 0-15 years for the period 1985-2010 from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. Annual data on population counts in Swiss municipalities were obtained for 1980-2010. As exposures, we defined (1) cumulative population growth during a 5-year moving time window centred on each year (1985-2010) and (2) periods of 'take-off growth' identified by segmented linear regression. We compared CL incidence across exposure categories using Poisson regression and tested for effect modification by degree of urbanisation. Our study included 1500 incident cases and 2561 municipalities. The incident rate ratio (IRR) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of 5-year population growth was 1.18 (95 % CI 0.96, 1.46) in all municipalities and 1.33 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.92) in rural municipalities (p value interaction 0.36). In municipalities with take-off growth, the IRR comparing the take-off period (>6 % annual population growth) with the initial period of low or negative growth (<2 %) was 2.07 (95 % CI 0.95, 4.51) overall and 2.99 (1.11, 8.05) in rural areas (p interaction 0.52). Our study provides further support for the population mixing hypothesis and underlines the need to distinguish take-off growth from other growth patterns in future research. PMID:27251152

  13. [The Swiss population and drug problems: perception of the problems and proposals for solutions].

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    Leuthold, A; Cattaneo, M; Dubois-Arber, F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which problems in relation with drug abuse are considered to be the most important by the Swiss population and which measures do they support to reduce them. Base for this study are the results of a representative telephone survey realized in october 1991 with 1004 Swiss residents. People are mostly concerned with problems related to the danger for youth and those concerning public order but also with the human condition of addicts. Drug addicts are considered as people who have lost the sense of live, as sick but also as dangerous and less truthful. Supported are overall prevention, offers for therapies, the repression of trafficking and money-laundering but not of drug users as well as measures going in the direction of harm-minimisation (shooting rooms, medical prescription of drugs). Younger people, those with higher education and the german-speaking population have a more positive view of drug addicts and support measures in the sense of harm-minimisation. Elder people and the french-speaking population have a rather negative view of drug addicts and don't favour measures for harm-minimisation. PMID:8212910

  14. [Sleep habits, sleep quality and sleep medicine use of the Swiss population result].

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    Tinguely, Gilberte; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Cajochen, Christian

    2014-11-01

    A survey in a representative sample of the Swiss population revealed an average sleep duration of 7.5 hours on workdays and of 8.5 hours on free days, which reflected a more than half an hour (38 min) shorter sleep duration than 28 years ago. The mean time in bed was between 22:41 and 06:37 on workdays and between 23:29 and 08:27 on free days. On workdays as well as on free days the bedtime was delayed by 47 minutes in comparison to a similar survey 28 years ago. By contrast, the mean rise times on workdays and free days did not change. The sleep duration required to feel refreshed was indicated with 7 hours, which was 41 minutes less than 28 years ago. Roughly 90 % of the interviewees answered that they felt healthy, and 75 % described their sleep as good or very good compared to 79 % 28 years ago. The most frequent reasons stated for bad sleep were personal problems and strain at the workplace. The effect of bad quality sleep on every day functioning was considered as essential by 65 % of the respondents compared to 69 % 28 years ago. The use of medication to improve sleep was declared by 2.8 % (2.7 % 28 years ago), most often benzodiazepines, but also Valerian products and so-called z-drugs. In comparison with similar surveys in other countries (France, Great Britain and USA), Swiss residents slept roughly half an hour longer, but these other countries alike showed a sizable shortening of their habitual sleep duration over the last decades. PMID:25377287

  15. Population Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Voriconazole is a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. The pharmacology of voriconazole is characterized by extensive interindividual variability and nonlinear pharmacokinetics. The population pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in 64 adults is described. The patient population consisted of 21 healthy volunteers, who received a range of intravenous (i.v.) and oral voriconazole regimens, and 43 patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis, who received the ...

  16. Variations in the villus cell population of intestine in the irradiated Swiss albino mouse with and without herbal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, the effects of radiations are hazardous, even in moderate doses. The damage caused by radiation is influenced by the relative radiosensitivity of the tissue. Damage to gastrointestinal tract leads to death of the animals 10 to 15 days after radiation exposure to the lethal dose. When Swiss albino mice were irradiated with 6 and 8 Gy of gamma radiation, it caused cytological, pathological and biochemical changes in the gastrointestinal tract. There was a significant decrease in the total cell population (TCP), whereas pyknotic nuclei (PN) and necrotic cells (NC) showed significant increase after irradiation. Pretreatment with Centella asiatica (CA) resulted in a significantly lesser decrease in TCP, whereas, PN and NC showed significant decrease from respective irradiated controls at each autopsy day. It was observed that CA pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced damage in the intestinal mucosa of Swiss albino mice. (author)

  17. Sociodemographic, behavioral and genetic determinants of allostatic load in a Swiss population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Dusan; Pivin, Edward; Ponte, Belen; Dhayat, Nasser; Pruijm, Menno; Ehret, Georg; Ackermann, Daniel; Guessous, Idris; Younes, Sandrine Estoppey; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Mohaupt, Markus; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Paccaud, Fred; Burnier, Michel; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    Allostatic load (AL) is a marker of physiological dysregulation which reflects exposure to chronic stress. High AL has been related to poorer health outcomes including mortality. We examine here the association of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors with AL. Additionally, we investigate the extent to which AL is genetically determined. We included 803 participants (52% women, mean age 48±16years) from a population and family-based Swiss study. We computed an AL index aggregating 14 markers from cardiovascular, metabolic, lipidic, oxidative, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and inflammatory homeostatic axes. Education and occupational position were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Marital status, stress, alcohol intake, smoking, dietary patterns and physical activity were considered as lifestyle factors. Heritability of AL was estimated by maximum likelihood. Women with a low occupational position had higher AL (low vs. high OR=3.99, 95%CI [1.22;13.05]), while the opposite was observed for men (middle vs. high OR=0.48, 95%CI [0.23;0.99]). Education tended to be inversely associated with AL in both sexes(low vs. high OR=3.54, 95%CI [1.69;7.4]/OR=1.59, 95%CI [0.88;2.90] in women/men). Heavy drinking men as well as women abstaining from alcohol had higher AL than moderate drinkers. Physical activity was protective against AL while high salt intake was related to increased AL risk. The heritability of AL was estimated to be 29.5% ±7.9%. Our results suggest that generalized physiological dysregulation, as measured by AL, is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. The genetic contribution to AL remains modest when compared to the environmental component, which explains approximately 70% of the phenotypic variance. PMID:26881833

  18. Safety and efficiency of the Ottawa Ankle Rule in a Swiss population with ankle sprains

    OpenAIRE

    Can, U; Ruckert, R; Held, U; Buchmann, P; Platz, A; Bachmann, L M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the accuracy of the Ottawa Ankle Rule (OAR) to rule out ankle and mid-foot fractures in patients presenting with acute ankle sprain and differences of accuracy between surgeons and non-surgeons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Swiss urban secondary care centre. PARTICIPANTS: Between September 2001 and October 2002 359 patients presented with a case of ankle sprain. Of these, 251 patients both met recruitment criteria and provided data for this study. A group...

  19. Hydration Status of Adult Population of Yazd

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    MH Lotfi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water is an essential nutrient for life. It comprises 75% of total body weight in infants,60% in adult males and 50% in adult females. Decrease in body water is commonly known as dehydration. Acute or chronic dehydration is a common condition in some population groups, especialy the elderly and those who participate in physical activity in warm enviroments. Potential consequences of dehydration include constipation,urinary tract and respiratory infection,urinary stone disease and there might also be an association between a low habitual fluid intake and some carcinomas,cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many indices have been investigated to establish their role as markers of dehydration status. Body mass changes,blood indices,urine indices and bioelectrical impedance analysis have been used most widely, but current evidence and opinion tend to favour urine indices as the most convenient and sensitive methods. Methods: This cross sectional study was done for estimating the prevalence of dehydration in adult population(students,nurses,officials,workersin Yazd. These persons were selected randomly. Urine samples of two hundred and thirty persons were obtained at 10-12 AM,and urine specific gravity measured by refractometer (all of the samplesand dip stick (some samples. Finding: According to this study,96.7% of our population had some degree of dehydration.69.7% of them were significantly dehydrated(urine SG>1020 and 4.8% of them were severely dehydrated (urine SG>1030 and the mean specific gravity was 1021±5/65. This study evaluated other factors that could probably indicate hydration status like urine colour, type of drink,frequency of urination and frequency of thirst per day. Conclusion: High percentage of our population were dehydrated which was not correlated to the type of drink but was correlated to urine colour, frequency of urination and frequency of thirst. So, regular monitoring of urine to keep if clear or light

  20. Haematologic changes in young adult Swiss albino mice after tritiated water administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated water (HTO) injected intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice at the rate of 370 kBq (10 μCi)/g body weight has been found to cause certain alterations in blood parameters 1, 5, 7 and 15 days post injectionem. Leukocyte count dropped significantly post treatment. Differential leukocyte counting showed lymphocytes to be most affected which were reduced by 38.29% on 5th day p.i. Erythrocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit values though showed no significant changes at early intervals, these values were significantly lower at later intervals than those of control. (author)

  1. No reduction in genetic diversity of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) in Tatra Mountains despite high fragmentation and small population size

    OpenAIRE

    Dzialuk, Artur; Chybicki, Igor; Gout, Roman; Maczka, Tomasz; Fleischer, Peter; Konrad, Heino; Alexandru Lucian CURTU; Nicolae SOFLETEA; Valadon, Alain

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, most of the alpine timberline ecotone has been altered by human activities and climate change. Hence, mountain forests are of the highest conservation interest. Here, we screened 25 populations of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the Carpathians and the Alps, using a set of ten microsatellite primers to assess the relative conservation value of populations sampled in Polish and Slovak Tatra National Parks, where potential extinction risk is the highest within the Carpathian ...

  2. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

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    Mume CO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may besimple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking isa disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; inadults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legalissues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria.Objectives: One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult populationin Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking amongthose who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 228 healthyindividuals aged 18 – 60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalencerate of sleepwalking. Results: The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants. It was10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This studyhas shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and thepotential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and promptmanagement of the condition.

  3. Usage of complementary medicine across Switzerland. Results of the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Sabine; Frei-Erb, Martin; Wolf, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: This study investigated the use among the Swiss adult population and regional dissemination of various methods of complementary medicine (CM) provided by physicians or therapists in Switzerland. METHODS: Data of the Swiss Health Survey 2007 were used, which comprised a telephone interview followed by a written questionnaire (18,760 and 14,432 respondents, respectively) and included questions about people's state of health, health insurance and usage of health servic...

  4. Vitamin D levels and associated factors: a population-based study in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Guessous, I.; Dudler, V; Glatz, N; Theler, J M; Zoller, O; Paccaud, F.; Burnier, M.; M. Bochud

    2012-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: To update the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and to identify factors associated with vitamin D status in the Swiss adult population. METHODS: Data from the 2010-2011 Swiss Study on Salt intake, a population-based study in the Swiss population, was used. Vitamin D concentration in serum was measured by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. Major factors that influence vitamin D levels were taken into account. Survey statistical procedures were used t...

  5. Effective population size of an indigenous Swiss cattle breed estimated from linkage disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective population size is an important parameter for the assessment of genetic diversity within a livestock population and its development over time. If pedigree information is not available, linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis might offer an alternative perspective for the estimation of effecti...

  6. Screening of the FcεRI-β-Gene in a Swiss Population of Asthmatic Children: No Association with E237G and Identification of New Sequence Variations

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    M. Rohrbach

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gene of the beta subunit of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI-β encoded on chromosome 11q13 has recently been identified as a candidate gene for asthma and atopy. Two coding variations, E237G and I181L have been described as being associated with asthma and atopy. Our aim was to investigate a Swiss population of atopic and asthmatic children for variations in this gene.

  7. Cultural and gender-related differences of concepts of love between Iranian and Swiss adults based on Hafez’ poetry of love

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    Hafez Bajoghli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Falling and being in love is a cross-cultural universal. The poet Khwaja Šams ud-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Širazi, or simply Hafez (14th century D.C., an important influence for both Persian and European culture, is noted for his love poetry. The first aim of the present study was to check to what extent items of a current questionnaire of love match themes of love found in Hafez‘ poetry. Then, we explored gender- and cultural differences in the importance of these themes. First, themes of Hafez‘s poems were compared with the items of Fisher‘s ―Being in Love Inventory‖. Second, a set of items was presented to Iranian and Swiss female and male adult participants (N=325; age (years: M =31.29; SD =16.28; 161 Iranian; 164 Swiss. Generally, cultural differences were weak. Female participants agreed more with the assumption of love as taking one away from reality. Swiss male participants reported an increased ambivalence towards the partner, and Iranian female participants reported an increased fear of being betrayed. Our results seem to confirm that Hafez‘s themes of love are still up-to-date, and that falling and being in love is a cross-cultural universal, though with some subtle cultural and gender-related differences.

  8. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in a Swiss rheumatology outpatient population.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll D.; Dudler J.; Lamy O.; Hans D.; So A.; Krieg M.A.; Aubry-Rozier B.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D is important for bone metabolism and neuromuscular function. While a routine dosage is often proposed in osteoporotic patients, it is not so evident in rheumatology outpatients where it has been shown that the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high. The aim of the current study was to systematically evaluate the vitamin D status in our outpatient rheumatology population to define the severity of the problem according to rheumatologic diseases. During November 2009, all patients wer...

  9. Association of calcemia and serum vitamin D with 24H-urinary calcium excretion in a swiss population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod A.; Bonny O.; Guessous I.; Suter P.M.; Conen D; Erne P.; Péchère-Bertschi A.; Paccaud F.; Burnier M; Bochud M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elevated urinary calcium excretion is associated with reduced bone mineral density. Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. We explored the association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D (including 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3) with urinary calcium excretion in men and women in a population-based study. Methods: We used data from the "Swiss Survey on Salt" conducted between 2010 and 2012 and including people aged 15 years and over. Twenty-four hou...

  10. Measurement of the exposure of the Swiss population to 50-Hz-magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generation, delivery and use of electricity produce electric and magnetic fields. We all are exposed to these fields in our daily live. In the light of the uncertainties with respect to potentially harmful effects of weak magnetic fields upon prolonged exposure, there is an interest to know the actual exposure level of the population. Therefore, this study is being performed to determine typical values of 50-Hz magnetic fields. To this end, small instruments are distributed to test-persons and the magnetic fields are measured and recorded every 10 seconds. A detailed questionnaire on possible ELF sources and a protocol on the activities during the measurement period help to evaluate the data. Preliminary results indicate, that enhanced magnetic field levels occur not only at work but often also while commuting. (orig.)

  11. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal ...

  12. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, Mette; Jacobsen, S;

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990/91 on......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  13. Dental age assessment on panoramic radiographs in a Swiss population: a validation study of two prediction models

    OpenAIRE

    Birchler, Flavia A; Kiliaridis, Stavros; Combescure, Christophe; Vazquez, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Dental age assessment methods are widely used for age estimation. This study aimed to analyse the accuracy of a meta-analysis method to estimate dental age in Swiss individuals and to detect potential limitations of the method. Precision of repeated tooth staging using Demirjian's classification on maxillary and mandibular teeth was also assessed.

  14. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Kjøller, Mette;

    1993-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of fibromyalgia have so far been based mainly on patients identified in rheumatologic settings. This paper offers the clinical findings in fibromyalgia based on a national health interview survey, in which 123 persons fulfilled preset criteria for widespread pain. Clinical......, headache, difficulty in stair-climbing, and poorer self-evaluated health with more tender points was found. Contrary to that which was expected, fibromyalgia subjects did not suffer from sleep disturbances, irritable bowels or morning stiffness. Our findings indicate that clinical characteristics of...... fibromyalgia in the general population may differ from those found in rheumatological settings....

  15. Measurement of the exposure of the Swiss population to magnetic fields of 50 Hz power frequency and 16 2/3 Hz in railways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All installations that generate, transmit, or use electric power cause electric and magnetic fields. Common to all types of sources is a strong dependence of the magnetic flux density on the distance to the source. However, this information is not sufficient to know to what degree various parts of the population are exposed to magnetic fields during the different periods of the day. For this reason a study was carried out to assess the typical exposure of the Swiss population to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz power frequency and to 16 2/3 Hz magnetic fields in railways. A method of data reduction that allows for the determination of frequency distribution and percentiles for any selection of measurements was applied. (author)

  16. Use Patterns of Leave-on Personal Care Products among Swiss-German Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Hungerbühler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to model exposure to ingredients contained in personal care products (PCPs and assess their potential risks to human health, access to reliable PCP use data, including co-use patterns, is essential. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the use patterns of eight leave-on PCP categories among the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N = 1,196; ages 0–97 years, providing for the first time in Europe PCP use data for children <12 years of age. The majority of respondents (99% reported having used at least one of the investigated PCP categories in the past year. Co-use of two or more PCP categories at the same time was common and more complex amongst adults. Regular use of face cream and body lotion was very high in the youngest group of children aged 0–4 years (more than 79% respondents who may be more vulnerable to certain adverse effects of some PCP ingredients. A comparison with previously collected information on PCP use patterns in Germany and the Netherlands indicates differences in PCP use patterns among European consumers and suggests that surrogate PCP use data from other countries must be used with caution. This work extends the existing knowledge of PCP use patterns and will be useful for new exposure assessments for ingredients contained in PCPs used by the young consumers.

  17. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: occurrence, risk factors for fecal carriage and strain traits in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years sampled at abattoir level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reist

    Full Text Available During the past decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. In this cross-sectional study fecal swabs of a geographically representative number of Swiss cattle at slaughterhouse level were sampled i to determine the occurrence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years, and ii to assess risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. In total, 48 (8.4%; 95% C.I. 6.3-11.1% independent ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected among the 571 tested animals. Species identification revealed 46 E. coli strains, one Enterobacter cloacae and one Citrobacter youngae. In view of beta-lactam antibiotics, all 48 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin and cefpodoxime. Forty-five (93.8% isolates were resistant cefuroxime; one (2.1% isolate to cefoxitin, 28 (58.3% isolates to cefotaxime, 2 (4.2% isolates to ceftazidime, and 2 (4.2% isolates to cefepime. Risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were (i age (OR 0.19 and 0.12 in age category 181 d to 1 y and 1 y to 2 y compared to ≤180 d, (ii primary production type, meaning dairy compared to beef on farm of origin (OR 5.95, and (iii more than 1 compared to less than 1 animal movement per d per 100 animals on farm of origin (OR 2.37.

  18. Interactional models for adults of two populations with maturation delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ze-rong; LI Jian-quan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with interactional models for adults of two species delayed by their mature periods. The existence and local stability of equilibria are discussed thoroughly for competitive systems, cooperative systems and predator-prey systems, respectively. For systems with interaction of competition and cooperation, it is found that the two populations are uniformly persistent if the positive equilibrium is stable. For predator-prey interaction, however, some further conditions are needed to guarantee the persistence of the systems.

  19. Felbamate in an adult population with severe refractory epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, H

    2011-04-05

    Felbamate (FBM) is efficacious in treating patients with refractory epilepsy but was withdrawn due to cases of aplastic anaemia, hepatic failure and five reported deaths. FBM is currently used in specialist centres and is only being used in one Irish centre to date. This papers aim is to review the efficacy and safety experience of FBM in Irish adult patients with refractory epilepsy. A retrospective chart review was done on patients\\' medical records. Patients were subdivided into responders and non responders based on change in seizure frequency and side effects were recorded for all. Of the 13 patients on FBM nine patients responded to FBM, four patients did not. FBM is a safe and efficacious alternative in an Irish adult population with refractory epilepsy. However close monitoring is still required given the potential fatal side effects that are possible with this anticonvulsant.

  20. Utility of telephone assessments in an older adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Ashley C; Kunik, Mark E; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Wilson, Nancy L; Stanley, Melinda A

    2007-06-01

    Telephone assessments are commonly used in mental health research and may be especially beneficial in older populations. The current study assessed the psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (T. J. Meyer, M. L. Miller, R. L. Metzger, & T. D. Borkovec, 1990) and the Beck Depression Inventory--II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), when administered over the telephone in an older adult population. Results indicate no differences in mean symptom level or internal consistency across two modes of administration. Correlations between the in-person and telephone-administered measures and diagnostic categories suggest adequate validity of the telephone-administered measures. With this demonstrated evidence, the telephone assessment method can be applied in a variety of research and clinical settings. PMID:17563195

  1. Ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity in an adult cystic fibrosis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolland, Julia P; Murphy, Bryan P; Boyle, Julie; Hall, Valerie; McKenna, Kevin E; Elborn, J Stuart

    2012-10-01

    The incidence of phototoxicity as a side effect of ciprofloxacin appears to be increased in patients with cystic fibrosis compared to the general population (approximately 2.4%). We used an interview-based questionnaire to determine the incidence of such phototoxic skin reactions in cystic fibrosis patients. Results from 105 respondents revealed the incidence of ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity in the adult cystic fibrosis population in Northern Ireland to be 48.4% with only 66% of the patients recalling being given sun care information beforehand. We concluded that the incidence of phototoxicity is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and that it is important for all to receive good sun care information prior to taking ciprofloxacin given the high risk of developing phototoxic rash. PMID:22971191

  2. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  3. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 μg/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  4. Molecular Diversity Subdivides the Adult Forebrain Neural Stem Cell Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachino, Claudio; Basak, Onur; Lugert, Sebastian; Knuckles, Philip; Obernier, Kirsten; Fiorelli, Roberto; Frank, Stephan; Raineteau, Olivier; Alvarez–Buylla, Arturo; Taylor, Verdon

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ventricular domain of the subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of rodents produce neurons throughout life while those in humans become largely inactive or may be lost during infancy. Most adult NSCs are quiescent, express glial markers, and depend on Notch signaling for their self-renewal and the generation of neurons. Using genetic markers and lineage tracing, we identified subpopulations of adult V-SVZ NSCs (type 1, 2, and 3) indicating a striking heterogeneity including activated, brain lipid binding protein (BLBP, FABP7) expressing stem cells. BLBP+ NSCs are mitotically active components of pinwheel structures in the lateral ventricle walls and persistently generate neurons in adulthood. BLBP+ NSCs express epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, proliferate in response to EGF, and are a major clonogenic population in the SVZ. We also find BLBP expressed by proliferative ventricular and sub-ventricular progenitors in the fetal and postnatal human brain. Loss of BLBP+ stem/progenitor cells correlates with reduced neurogenesis in aging rodents and postnatal humans. These findings of molecular heterogeneity and proliferative differences subdivide the NSC population and have implications for neurogenesis in the forebrain of mammals during aging. PMID:23964022

  5. Thermal discomfort with cold extremities in relation to age, gender, and body mass index in a random sample of a Swiss urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgül Selim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate the relationship of thermal discomfort with cold extremities (TDCE to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI in a Swiss urban population. Methods In a random population sample of Basel city, 2,800 subjects aged 20-40 years were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the extent of cold extremities. Values of cold extremities were based on questionnaire-derived scores. The correlation of age, gender, and BMI to TDCE was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 1,001 women (72.3% response rate and 809 men (60% response rate returned a completed questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed the following findings: Younger subjects suffered more intensely from cold extremities than the elderly, and women suffered more than men (particularly younger women. Slimmer subjects suffered significantly more often from cold extremities than subjects with higher BMIs. Conclusions Thermal discomfort with cold extremities (a relevant symptom of primary vascular dysregulation occurs at highest intensity in younger, slimmer women and at lowest intensity in elderly, stouter men.

  6. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

  7. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  8. Sonographic gallbladder wall thickness in normal adult population in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the ultrasonic gallbladder wall thickness in normal adult Nigerians so as to create standards for defining gallbladder abnormalities in Nigerians. Method. Four hundred adults comprising 228 (57% women and 172 (43% men aged 16 - 78 years, who had normal clinical history and physical findings, were recruited. The gallbladder wall thickness was obtained in the supine, prone and right anterior oblique positions. Differences in gallbladder wall thickness were determined using the chi-square test, while the relationship between the ultrasound-measured gallbladder wall thickness and the subjects’ age, sex, height and weight were analysed using the Pearson product moment correlation. Normal ranges and related statistics were estimated and tabulated according to age group and sex. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 32±13.2 years. The mean gallbladder wall thickness range was 1.8 - 2.8 mm±0.5mm. The thickness range for females was 1.7 - 2.7 mm±0.5 mm, and that for males was 1.9 - 2.9 mm±0.5 mm. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in the mean wall thickness between males and females. The mean body parameters (height, weight of males were significantly greater than those of females (p<0.047, p<0.000 respectively. There was no correlation between gallbladder wall thickness and age and height of subjects (r=0.34, p<0.09. Conclusion. Our study was able to establish population-specific ultrasonic values for gallbladder wall thickness in normal adults that can be reliably used as standard to define gallbladder abnormalities in Nigerians.

  9. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  10. Epidemiology of obesity in adult population of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing world­wide at an alarming rate and is due to changes in nutritional patterns and physical activity that adversely affect the health status. Obesity is a complex disorder with multiple interactive causes. It is associated with many chronic, debilitating diseases with important health care cost and it is basically the consequence of sedantery life style and excessive energy intake. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of obesity in adult population of Vojvodina and to describe its characteristics. Material and methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in representative sample of 2467 adults from Vojvodina (in adult population of Vojvodina aged 20 years and over. The sample size was determined based on estimated frequency, exposition to risk factors, relative risks and level of statistical significance. All those who completed household interviews attended physical examination. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 in both sexes was 58.5%. Among them, 35.5% were overweight while 23% were obese (BMI>30kg/m2. The frequency of obesity was higher among females (26% than among males (19.6% (p<0.01. It showed a steady increase to the age of 65, after which the number of obese decreased. The obesity rate was higher in rural (26.7% than urban areas (19% (p<0.01, and among people with lower level of education and socioeconomic status. Conclusion. Considering the existing situation concerning the high prevalence of obesity, urgent public action is necessary. It is essential to develop preventive strategies which would affect the whole society. Healthy lifestyle, balanced diet and increased physical activity must be promoted. However, it is not the responsibility of individuals. Health services, the community, food industry, mass media etc, have a crucial role in modifying body weight. Strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be in

  11. Parameters of lower extremities alignment view in Iranian adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Jabalameli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal axial alignment restoration in lower extremities is crucial for surgeons performing reconstructive surgeries. Since reference normal values of axial alignment are affected by age, sex, and ethical issues, we tried to scrutinize these parameters in Iranian adults and compare them with normal values in literatures. Through a cross-sectional design, standing axial alignment views of lower extremities were surveyed from 100 volunteers (50 males and 50 females aged between 15-32 years. The lower extremities alignment variables were evaluated during two separate measurements. Total average values were used for comparison among genders. Tibiofemoral mechanical angle depicted mean varus of 1.5 degrees in an Iranian population that was significantly higher in male participants. The Mean angle between anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur was 5.7 ± 1.2º. The Knee joint was shown to be medially inclined 3.6 ± 1.7º in men comparing 2 ± 2º of women with a significant difference. Joint line congruence angle was medially inclined in all of the study participants with a mean of 1 ± 1.6º. To compare with anthropometric studies of western populations, Iranian participants had more varus lower limb alignment. It seemed mainly because of larger medially inclined knee joint (knee-joint obliquity. This finding along with more compensatory ankle valgus is similar to results of other Asian studies. Such racial variation should be considered in designing appropriate systems in reconstructive surgery.

  12. Prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Çolak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is defined as a chronic orofacial pain condition, characterized symptomatically by burning pain localized to the tongue and lips or may involve the entire oral cavity. The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms reported from international studies ranges from 0.6% to 15%. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population.Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect data on demographic characteristics, medical history and drugs taken by the patients and clinical examination was performed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 (500 men and 500 women randomly selected patients who attended attending to Kırıkkale University Dental Faculty Department of Restorative Dentistry.Results: BMS was diagnosed in 12 patients with 0.12% prevalence in 2 man and 10 women, with 1:5 ratio respectively. The most common site for BMS was tongue. Para functional habits were the most common local factor. According to visual analogue scale (VAS mean (±SD level of burning intensity was 5.45 (±1.69.Conclusions: Burning Mouth Syndrome in Turkish population has low prevalence and is more frequent in females.

  13. Diabetes mellitus and its correlates in an Iranian adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Golozar

    Full Text Available The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals' body sizes at ages 15 and 30 were assessed by validated pictograms ranging from 1 (very lean to 7 in men and 9 in women. DM diagnosis was based on the self-report of a physician's diagnosis. The accuracy of self-reported DM was evaluated in a subcohort of 3811 individuals using fasting plasma glucose level and medical records. Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR's. The prevalence of self-reported DM standardized to the national and world population was 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Self-reported DM had 61.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with DM prevalence. Green tea and opium consumption increased the prevalence of DM. Obesity at all ages and extreme leanness in childhood increased diabetes prevalence. Being obese throughout life doubled DM prevalence in women (PR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4. These findings emphasize the importance of improving DM awareness, improving general living conditions, and early lifestyle modifications in diabetes prevention.

  14. Diabetes mellitus and its correlates in an Iranian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Khademi, Hooman; Kamangar, Farin; Poutschi, Hossein; Islami, Farhad; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Taylor, Philip R; Pharoah, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul J; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash

    2011-01-01

    The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals' body sizes at ages 15 and 30 were assessed by validated pictograms ranging from 1 (very lean) to 7 in men and 9 in women. DM diagnosis was based on the self-report of a physician's diagnosis. The accuracy of self-reported DM was evaluated in a subcohort of 3811 individuals using fasting plasma glucose level and medical records. Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR's). The prevalence of self-reported DM standardized to the national and world population was 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Self-reported DM had 61.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with DM prevalence. Green tea and opium consumption increased the prevalence of DM. Obesity at all ages and extreme leanness in childhood increased diabetes prevalence. Being obese throughout life doubled DM prevalence in women (PR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4). These findings emphasize the importance of improving DM awareness, improving general living conditions, and early lifestyle modifications in diabetes prevention. PMID:22053206

  15. Swiss Patent Jurisprudence 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rigamonti, Cyrill

    2013-01-01

    The new Swiss Federal Patent Court, with nationwide first-instance jurisdiction over all civil patent matters, has been operating since 1 January 2012. This article reviews and contextualizes the most important patent cases the Swiss Federal Patent Court and the Swiss Federal Supreme Court. It concludes that the revamped Swiss patent litigation system has the potential of turning Switzerland into a competitive venue for the adjudication of patent matters in Europe.

  16. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  17. Periodontal Disease Status in an Isolated Greek Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Chrysanthakopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal condition of an adult population in three isolated regions in Greece and to determine the association of periodontal disease with several demographic, behavioral and environmental factors.Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 640 individuals, aged 20to69 years from three isolated regions. The following indices were assessed: Pocket Depth (PD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL, Dental Plaque, Calculus and Bleeding on Probing (BOP. Statistical analysis was accomplished by multiple linear regression model which was used to assess the association between the mean clinical attachment loss and clinical, demographic and behavioral parameters.Results: The samples of the study showed high levels of dental plaque, dental calculus and BOP. The final multivariate model showed that age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.016 and presence of calculus (p=0.000 were associated with the mean clinical attachment loss. Age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.000 and dental plaque (p=0.027 were associated with gingival recession, while age (p=0.018 and gender (p=0.000 were associated with probing depth. Bleeding on probing, dental plaque, toothbrush frequency, level of education, tobacco consumption and reasons for dental visits were not associated with the mean clinical attachment loss.Conclusion: Periodontal disease consists of a complicated destructive condition of the Periodontal tissue with a.multi-factorial etiology. Oral hygiene instructions and a regular dental follow-up could play a significant role in the prevention of periodontal disease.Key Words: Periodontal Disease; Epidemiology; Risk Factors

  18. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  19. Clinical spectrum of thrombocytopenia in adult population of karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the etiology and clinical features of patients presenting with bleeding due to thrombocytopenia. Design: A cross sectional study. Place and duration of study:.Th study was carries out at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi during the period form 1994-1996. Subjects and Methods: A total of 500 consecutive patients of 15 years or more age with a platelet count of less than 150 x 10/sup 9/L were included in the study. Complete blood count including platelets count was carried out by using electronic counter model T-890 for each patient. Very low platelet count was also confirmed by manual method. Results: among 500 patients of thrombocytopenia the commonest cause was malaria consisting of 216 (43.2%) cases. Megaloblastic anemia was the leading hematological cause, comprising of 31 (6.2%) patients. Other miscellaneous causes like dengue hemorrhagic fever, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura aplastic anemia and leukemias were responsible for the rest of cases of thrombocytopenia. Epistaxis followed by gum bleeding was the leading clinical manifestation. Conclusion: We conclude that malaria and viral infections are common causes of transient ghtombocytopenia. Epistaxis and gum bleeding are the leading clinical manifestations in various disease processes in adult population. (author)

  20. Oral health changes in an adult Norwegian population : a cohort analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to study temporal variation in oral health in an adult population. The cohort analysis comprised 1) estimation of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and time-lag differences in caries and treatment experience of the adult population in Trøndelag from 1973 to

  1. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Degen, Kathrin; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  2. Prevalence of common ocular morbidities in adult population of Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Inaamul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of common ocular morbidities (cataract, refractive errors, glaucoma, and corneal opacities and their demographic and sociocultural correlates. Settings and Design: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice areas of the Department of Community Medicine, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh, for a period of one year, from September 2005 to August 2006. Materials and Methods: Systematic random sampling was done to select the required sample size. All adults aged 20 years and above in the selected households were interviewed and screened using a 6/9 illiterate ′E′ chart. Those who could not read the ′E′ chart were referred to the respective health training center for a complete eye examination by an ophthalmologist. Statistical Analysis: Chi- square test. Results: The prevalence of visual impairment, low vision, and blindness, based on presenting visual acuity was 13.0, 7.8, and 5.3%, respectively. The prevalence of cataract was 21.7%. Bilateral cataract was present in 16.9% of the population. Cataract was significantly associated with age, education, and fuel use. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism was 11.5, 9.8, and 3.7%, respectively. Glaucoma was diagnosed in six patients, giving a prevalence rate of 0.9%. All the six patients of glaucoma were aged above 40 years. The prevalence of corneal opacity was 4.2%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of treatable or preventable morbidities such as cataract, refractive errors, and corneal opacity.

  3. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged >50 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, S.E.; STEPTOE, A; Beeken, R. J.; Croker, H.; Wardle, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background:Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults.Methods:Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/c...

  4. Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T. Ramos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many physiologic differences between children and adults may result in age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors such as gastric pH and emptying time, intestinal transit time, immaturity of secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid among other factors determine the oral bioavailability of pediatric and adult populations. Anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics in children also affect the bioavailability of other routes of administration. Key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the pediatric population and adults are membrane permeability, plasma protein binding and total body water. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the pediatric population compared with adults both for phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Immaturity of glomerular filtration, renal tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption at birth and their maturation determine the different excretion of drugs in the pediatric population compared to adults.

  5. Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

  6. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  7. Sonographic gallbladder wall thickness in normal adult population in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, S; Tahir, A.; A Ahidjo; Z Mustapha; Franza O

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the ultrasonic gallbladder wall thickness in normal adult Nigerians so as to create standards for defining gallbladder abnormalities in Nigerians. Method. Four hundred adults comprising 228 (57%) women and 172 (43%) men aged 16 - 78 years, who had normal clinical history and physical findings, were recruited. The gallbladder wall thickness was obtained in the supine, prone and right anterior oblique positions. Differences in gallbladder wall thick...

  8. Nutrition Considerations for the Growing Population of Older Adults With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The growing older adult population and its higher incidence of diabetes are creating demands on health care providers to address the special needs of these patients. Because nutrition is essential to the proper treatment and self-management of diabetes, clinicians must develop and adopt various strategies to address some of the common nutritional, lifestyle, and self-management barriers that older adults face. Nutrition assessments of older adults with diabetes should be comprehensive, with a...

  9. [The hospitalized morbidity and mortality of adult population of the Russian Federation. Report II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepin, V O

    2014-01-01

    The two-part article presents the results of complex scientific analysis of hospitalized morbidity and mortality of adult population (18 years and older) of the Russian Federation. The main accounting statistical groups--able-bodied (18-54/59 years) and older than able-bodied age--are included. The report I (published in No2 2014) substantiates actuality of study and determines materials and methods of analysis of volume, structure, level of subject of research. The results of in-depth analysis of hospitalized morbidity and mortality of adult population of able-bodied age. The report II presents main characteristics of hospitalized morbidity and mortality of population of older than able-bodied age and results of comparative analysis of hospitalized morbidity and mortality in the mentioned above groups of adult population. The article presents indicators of morbidity of population sent to hospitalization. The significant differences are demonstrated between main groups of adult population in level of use of hospital care, structure of hospitalized morbidity and formation of hospitalization flows, outcomes of diseases, etc. All these factors are to be considered in planning of volumes and structure of hospital care, including program of state guarantees in conditions of demographic aging of country population. The results of study can be used as one of information analytical blocks in management decision making of various levels on issues of medical care rendering, protection, preservation and promotion of health of country adult population. PMID:25219033

  10. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem cel

  11. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  12. The Swiss Heroin Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Egli

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss heroin policy is compared to a theoretically derived rational drug policy. It is argued that, although being one of the most liberal policies worldwide, the Swiss policy still is too repressive. A further legalization of heroin would most probably be welfare enhancing.

  13. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Faulks Denise; Collado Valérie; Nicolas Emmanuel; Bullier Brigitte; Hennequin Martine

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental anxiety is a public health problem but no epidemiological study has been undertaken in France to evaluate its prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and associations of dental anxiety in a sample of the French adult population. Methods A convenience sample of 2725 adults (mean age = 47 years, SD16, minimum = 16, maximum = 101 years), representative of the French population with regard to age and urban distribution, completed a Fre...

  14. Modelling population effects of juvenile offshore fish displacement towards adult habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Wolfshaar, K.E.; Tulp, I.; Wennhage, H.; Støttrup, Josianne

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of fish distribution patterns highlight shifts in the spatial distributions of particular life-stages. Focus has thus far been on changes in habitat use and possible drivers for these changes. Yet, small-scale shifts in habitat use of certain life stages may have profound......, the biomass of small juveniles and adults is barely affected. Between the 2 states there is a profoundly different population response to increased fishing mortality. In the adult biomass dominated state, adult biomass is hardly affected while juvenile biomass increases until population collapse, with...... increased fishing. In the small juvenile dominated state, adult and small juvenile biomass decrease, and large juvenile biomass increases. This state persists at much higher fishing mortality than the adult biomass dominated state. This study highlights that safeguarding nursery functions in a changing...

  15. Correspondence between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the adult Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators among Brazilian adults, using data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey from 2008/2009.METHODS: We analyzed the joint relationships between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the Brazilian adult population (99,532,672 individuals, through the multiple correspondence analysis technique.RESULTS: The featured profile of the Brazilian adult population with regard to overweight was correlated with ages from 30 years of the most developed and economically social geographic regions of Brazil; however between genders, the correlation was in the opposite direction in the variables income, education, and subjective issues about life conditions related to food and nutrition security.CONCLUSION: By the joint relationship between overweight and selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators, the urgency of the development of strategies and/or preventive public health programs of health problems with overweight in the Brazilian adult population is suggested.

  16. Swiss Bank Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Martin; Döbeli, Barbara; Sauré, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We examine the origin of deposits with Swiss banks on a country-by-country basis for the period 1987-2007. We relate the volume of Swiss bank deposits for 99 countries to the taxation of personal income as well as to political governance in these countries. Our results suggest that higher taxation in origin countries is not associated with a larger volume of deposits with Swiss banks. Our results do show however that countries with weak political governance, e.g. corruption, internal conflict...

  17. Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

  18. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population: I. A prevalence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, M; Jacobsen, S;

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990/91 on......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  19. Comparison of eating habits of active adult athletes and general adult population

    OpenAIRE

    ŤUKOVÁ, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Main goal of this thesis was to evaluate differences in eating habits of people who are actively involved in power sport rowing and adult people who make some sport, but only recreationally or do not make any sport at all.

  20. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porri, Francesca; Jordaan, Tembisa; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2008-09-01

    Intertidal population dynamics are driven by a complex series of processes, including larval supply and the possibility of larval predation by benthic animals such as filter-feeders. We hypothesised that cannibalism by adults could play a major role in the population connectivity of mussel populations by removing larvae as they attempt to settle in the adult habitat. Specifically, we tested hypotheses that consumption of mussel larvae by adults removes a significant proportion of potential settlers and is influenced by both settlement intensity and tidal state (flooding or ebbing). Predation of mussel larvae by adult mussels was investigated on incoming and ebbing tides during four spring tides by analysing the gut contents of adult Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the low intertidal mussel zone between October 2005 and January 2006. Consumption rates were then compared with estimates of successful settler densities on natural beds. The results showed that mortality of competent mussel larvae through adult ingestion removes up to 77% a of potential settlers. Rates of larval consumption were highest during months of intense settlement, suggesting that mussels feed opportunistically, filtering a relatively fixed volume of water and removing particles, including larvae, in proportion to their densities in the water. Rates of larviphagy were also higher during receding than incoming tides. We suggest that this is due to changes in larval density or, more probably, in adult filtration efficiency that are related to the state of the tide. Despite significant effects of both tidal state and settlement intensity on rates of larval ingestion, neither had a significant effect on the proportion of potential settlers removed. During settlement more than half of all potential settlers are lost through cannibalism, with potentially serious consequences for population maintenance. The results highlight the paradoxical nature of the evolution of settlement

  1. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  2. Kontsevich's Swiss Cheese Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Justin D

    2010-01-01

    We prove a conjecture of Kontsevich which states that if $A$ is an $E_{d-1}$ algebra then the Hochschild cohomology object of $A$ is the universal $E_d$ algebra acting on $A$. The notion of an $E_d$ algebra acting on an $E_{d-1}$ algebra was defined by Kontsevich using the swiss cheese operad of Voronov. We prove a homotopical property of the swiss cheese operad from which the conjecture follows.

  3. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht,...

  4. Urban Residential Road Traffic Noise and Hypertension: a Cross-Sectional Study of Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Partha P Das; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18–80 years residing in close proximi...

  5. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Infection in an Adult Population in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Zhang, Qingmei Li, Jie Sun, Chunyan Wang, Qing Gu, Xiangwei Feng, Bing Du, Wei Wang, Xiaodong Shi, Siqi Zhang, Wanyu Li, Yanfang Jiang, Junyan Feng, Shumei He, Junqi Niu

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim: The prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is higher in adults than in children. We determined the seroepidemiology of HBV infection in an adult population in JiLin, China, to guide effective preventive measures.Methods: A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted throughout JiLin, China. A total of 3833 people was selected and demographic and behavioral information gathered. Serum samples were tested for HBV markers and liver enzymes.Results: The prevalence of the hepat...

  6. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Infection in an Adult Population in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Qingmei; Sun, Jie; Wang, Chunyan; Gu, Qing; Feng, Xiangwei; Du, Bing; Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Siqi; Li, Wanyu; Jiang, Yanfang; Feng, Junyan; He, Shumei; Niu, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim: The prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is higher in adults than in children. We determined the seroepidemiology of HBV infection in an adult population in JiLin, China, to guide effective preventive measures. Methods: A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted throughout JiLin, China. A total of 3833 people was selected and demographic and behavioral information gathered. Serum samples were tested for HBV markers and liver enzymes. Results: The prevalence of the hep...

  7. DETERMINATION OF SPORT ACTIVITY BY SELECTED SOCIO–CULTURAL PARAMETERS OF PRESENT CZECH ADULT POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlacek Jaromir; Sebera Martin; Michalek Josef; Balint Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    In this article are presented results from questionnaire of 5.878 adult individuals in Czech Republic. There were applied various questions regarding age, sex, sport activities, habits and problems in life, magnitude of settlement, level of education, life status etc. Totally there were 19 questions. In this contribution we try to explain determination of sport activity of adult Czech population by parameters of sex, level of education (none education - fundamental - trainee - GCE...

  8. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  9. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  10. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S; Linneberg, A; Krogfelt, K A

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  11. CRAYFISH MANAGEMENT FOR SWISS WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEFTI D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of crayfish are present in Swiss waters: three native ones (Astacus astacus, Austropotamobius pallipes, Austropotamobius torrentium and four exotic ones (Astacus leptodactylus, Orconectes limosus, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii. The occurrence of each species is known and distribution maps have been drawn at national level. Many of the non-native populations have been identified as carriers of the crayfish plague, acting as a vector for Aphanomyces astaci. Crayfish are regulated by the Swiss Fisheries Legislation. The catching of the native species is allowed but the effective fishing pressure is low. The non-native species are considered as undesirable. For that reason importation, introduction and transportation of live specimens are forbidden with the exception of Cherax sp. which may be kept in cool boxes without any contact with water until consumption. A national management plan has been developed by the Federal Office for the Environment. It aims at increasing protective measures for the native species and enhancing population control for the non-native ones. The elimination measures are targeted on the most problematic species Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii.

  12. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  13. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Kamberi Blerim; Hoxha Veton; Stavileci Miranda; Dragusha Edmond; Kuçi Astrit; Kqiku Lumnije

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite numerous studies on the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment in diverse geographical populations, there are currently no data on the prevalence of these conditions in populations of adults native to Kosovo. Therefore, little is known about how widespread these conditions are, and whether there is any correlation between root canal treatment and AP. The purpose of our research was to address this anomaly by investigating AP and endodontic...

  14. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz; J. Jaime Miranda; Jorge Rey de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demo...

  15. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in a Chinese adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Naiqing; Wang, Hao; Jie ZHANG; He, Qingfang; Su, Danting; Ming ZHAO; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying; Yu, Min; Ye, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Background Existing studies which regarding to the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are still scarce in developing countries. The major aim of this study is to estimate such association in an adult population which was drawn from an economically prosperous province of China. Methods Study population was determined by multilevel randomized sampling. Education and income were chosen as indicators of individual SES, general obesity and abdominal obesity were ...

  16. Multimorbidity Patterns in a National Representative Sample of the Spanish Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Noe Garin; Beatriz Olaya; Jaime Perales; Maria Victoria Moneta; Marta Miret; Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos; Josep Maria Haro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the context of population aging, multimorbidity has emerged as a growing concern in public health. However, little is known about multimorbidity patterns and other issues surrounding chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to examine multimorbidity patterns, the relationship between physical and mental conditions and the distribution of multimorbidity in the Spanish adult population. METHODS: Data from this cross-sectional study was collected from the COURAGE study. A total ...

  17. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  18. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (Pcitrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  19. Crohn's disease in adults: Observations in a multiracial Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ida Hilmi; YM Tan; KL Goh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the demography and clinical presentation of CD and secondly to determine any differences in the prevalence between the different ethnic groups in a multiracial Asian population.METHODS: Patients with CD who were seen in 2001-2003 in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)were enrolled in this study. Prevalence of disease was calculated for the group as a whole and by race with hospital admissions per ethnic group as the denominator.RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were diagnosed to have CD. Basic demographic data of patients; male:female 17:17; mean age 29.1 years (±13.5 years); ethnic group: Malays 5 (14.7%), Chinese 12 (35.3%) and Indians 17 (50%). Twenty-six (76.5%) were diagnosed under the age of 40 and 8 (23.5%) were diagnosed over the age of 40. Location of the disease was as follows:ileocolonic 13 (38.2%), terminal ileum only 9 (26.5%),colon only 8 (23.5%), and upper gastrointestinal 4(11.8%). Sixteen (47.1%) had penetrating disease, 9(26.5%) had stricturing disease and 9 (26.5%) had nonpenetrating and non-stricturing disease. The hospital admission prevalence of CD was 26.0 overall, Indians 52.6, Chinese 6.9, and Malays 9.3 per 105 admissions per ethnic group. The difference between Indians and Malays: [OR 5.67 (1.97, 17.53) P< 0.001] was statistically significant but not between the Indians and the Chinese [OR 1.95 (0.89, 4.35) P= 0.700]. The difference between the Chinese and the Malays was also not statistically significant. [OR 2.90 (0.95, 9.42) P= 0.063].CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of CD is similar to the Western experience. Although the overall prevalence is Iow, there appears to be a clear racial predominance among the Indians.

  20. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In…

  1. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity in an unselected population of children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Høst, Arne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    A rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic reactions to food has been reported the last decade. To estimate the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of children and adults. We investigated a cohort of 111 children <3 yr of age...

  2. Knee complaints vary with age and gender in the adult population. Population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sundén-Lundius Anne; Bergman Stefan; Paradowski Przemyslaw T; Lohmander L Stefan; Roos Ewa M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function and quality of life with age and gender in the adult population and to establish population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Methods Popula...

  3. Knee complaints vary with age and gender in the adult population. Population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemyslaw T; Bergman, Stefan; Sundén-Lundius, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function and...... quality of life with age and gender in the adult population and to establish population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)....

  4. Grundlagen zu Swiss GAAP FER

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, C.

    2008-01-01

    Den Bedürfnissen schweizerischer KMU wird mit den Swiss GAAP FER ausdrücklich Rechnung getragen. Dazu gehört auch die Sicherstellung eines vernünftigen Kosten-/ Nutzen-Verhältnisses. Der Beitrag illustriert das Konzept der Swiss GAAP FER sowie der Kern-FER (Rahmenkonzept und Swiss GAAP FER 1–6).

  5. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M;

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...... occasions 8 years apart (1990 and 1998) for the presence of antibodies against C. difficile in serum. The overall seroprevalence of C. difficile increased significantly from 19% in 1990 to 27% in 1998 (P<0.0001). The seroprevalence increased with increasing age in both 1990 and 1998, but the increase was...... about four times higher in 1998 than in 1990. In conclusion, the observed increase in seroprevalence suggests a higher exposure to C. difficile in the general Danish adult population....

  6. Intensive care for the adult population in Ireland: a multicentre study of intensive care population demographics

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Introduction This prospective observational study was conducted to describe the nature of the intensive care population across Ireland, identify adherence to international benchmarks of practice, and describe patient outcomes in critically ill patients. Methods A prospective observational multicentre study of demographics and organ failure incidence was carried out over a 10-week period in 2006 across the intensive care units (ICUs) of 14 hospitals in both the Republic and Northern Ireland. R...

  7. Swiss energy statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  11. Quantitative thoracic CT techniques in adults: can they be applied in the pediatric population?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soon Ho [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    With the rapid evolution of the multidetector row CT technique, quantitative CT has started to be used in clinical studies for revealing a heterogeneous entity of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is caused by a combination of lung parenchymal destruction and remodeling of the small airways in adults. There is growing evidence of a good correlation between quantitative CT findings and pathological findings, pulmonary function test results and other clinical parameters. This article provides an overview of current quantitative thoracic CT techniques used in adults, and how to translate these CT techniques to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  12. Tumor induction in Swiss mice by filtrable agent and Salmonella typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamazaki,Yukio

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Combined inoculation of a cell-free extract of leukotic tissue of D103 mice and Salmonella typhimurium into adult Swiss mice induced leukosis and solid tumors. The induced solid tumors were histologically multifarious, and were transplantable in Swiss mice, but not in other strains of mice.

  13. Association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with adult-onset asthma and its severity in an Indian adult population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priya Tripathi; Shally Awasthi; Rajendra Prasad; Nuzhat Husain; Subramaniam Ganesh

    2011-08-01

    ADAM33, a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) gene family, is an asthma susceptibility gene originally identified by positional cloning. In the present study, we investigated the possible association of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADAM33 (rs511898, rs528557, rs44707, rs597980 and rs2787094) with adult-onset asthma in an Indian population. The study included 175 patients with mild intermittent ($n = 44$), mild persistent ($n = 108$) or moderate persistent ($n = 23$) subgroups of asthma, and 253 nonasthmatic control individuals. SNPs were genotyped with the help of restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method, and data were analysed using chi-square test and logistic regression model. Bonferroni’s correction for multiple comparisons was applied for each hypothesis. Genotypes and allele frequencies of SNPs rs511898 and rs528557 were significantly associated with adult-onset asthma ($P = 0.010-\\lt 0.001$). A significant association of the homozygous mutant genotype and mutant alleles of SNPs rs2787094, rs44707 and rs597980 with the asthma was also observed ($P = 0.020-\\lt 0.001$). A positive association between asthma and haplotypes AGCCT, GGCCT, AGACT, GCAGT, GGACT, ACCCC and AGACC were also found ($P = 0.036-\\lt 0.001$, OR $= 2.07-8.49$). Haplotypes AGCGT, GCAGC, ACAGC, ACAGT, GGAGC and GGCGT appear to protect against asthma ($P = 0.013-\\lt 0.0001$, OR $= 0.34-0.10$). Our data suggest that ADAM33 gene polymorphisms serve as genetic risk factors for asthma in Indian adult population.

  14. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  15. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walk ability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02-1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01-1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28-2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil

  16. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  17. Seroepidemiology of dengue virus infection in the adult population in tropical Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; Cutter, J; James, L; Goh, K T

    2015-06-01

    To assess the impact of past dengue epidemics in Singapore, we undertook a national seroepidemiological study to determine the prevalence of past dengue virus (DENV) infection in the adult population in 2010 and make comparisons with the seroprevalence in 2004. The study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 years who participated in a national health survey in 2010. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56·8% (95% confidence interval 55·1-58·5) in 2010. The seroprevalence increased significantly with age. Males had significantly higher seroprevalence than females (61·5% vs. 53·2%). Among the three major ethnic groups, Malays had the lowest seroprevalence (50·2%) compared to Chinese (57·0%) and Indians (62·0%). The age-standardized seroprevalence in adults was significantly lower in 2010 (54·4%) compared to 2004 (63·1%). Older age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, permanent residency and being home-bound were independent risk factors significantly associated with seropositivity. About 43% of the Singapore adult resident population remain susceptible to DENV infection as a result of the successful implementation of a comprehensive nationwide Aedes surveillance and control programme since the 1970s. Vector suppression and concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the community remain the key strategy in the prevention and control of dengue. PMID:25245094

  18. Knowledge and Awareness about H1N1 Flu in Urban Adult Population of Vadodara, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Francis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge and awareness about H1N1 flu in urban population of 18 years and aboveof Vadodara, India.Methods: A pre-designed self-rated instrument survey was conducted among 100 adults of 18 years and abovethrough a cross-sectional study design and a descriptive analysis was performed.Results: Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate knowledge regardingcausative organism (87%, mode of spread (45% and prevention (83%. Majority of participants (96% wouldconsult doctor for management of H1N1 flu and also participants (82% believe that hand washing is most importantpreventable measure for H1N1 flu.Conclusion: Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of H1N1 fluamong urban adult population still, active interventions are required in all areas of H1N1 flu pandemic not only toimprove their knowledge and awareness regarding H1N1 flu of urban adults but also for rural adults.

  19. Population pharmacokinetics of topiramate in adult patients with epilepsy using nonlinear mixed effects modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Vučičević, Katarina; Jovanović, Marija; Vovk, Tomaž; Miljković, Branislava; Sokić, Dragoslav; Grabnar, Iztok; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop population pharmacokinetic model of topiramate (TPM) using nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach. Data were collected from 78 adult epilepsy patients on mono- or co-therapy of TPM and other antiepileptic drugs, such as carbamazepine (CBZ), valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital and pregabalin. Steady-state TPM concentrations were determined in blood samples by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A...

  20. Evaluation of Risk Factors of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the Adult Population of Zahedan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam; Farzaneh Montazerifar; Mansour Karajibani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease. It has been reported that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and arises fat accumulation in the liver. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the some biomarkers of NAFLD risk in adult general population. Materials and Methods: An analytical - descriptive study was carried out on a total of 1529 randomly selected individuals (797 male and 732 female) aged 30–88 years in Zahedan. Th...

  1. Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Regarding Dengue Fever among the Adult Population of Dengue Hit Cosmopolitan

    OpenAIRE

    Itrat, Ahmed; Khan, Abdullah; Javaid, Sunniya; Kamal, Mahwash; Khan, Hassan; Javed, Sannia; Kalia, Saira; Khan, Adil Haleem; Sethi, Muhammad Imran; JEHAN, Imtiaz

    2008-01-01

    Background The World health Organization (WHO) declares dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever to be endemic in South Asia. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evidence exists in Pakistan which reveals the awareness and practices of the country's adult population regarding dengue fever, its spread, symptoms, treatment and prevention. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue fever in people visiting tertiary care hospitals in ...

  2. Dual Sensory Impairment in Older Adults Increases the Risk of Mortality: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Bamini; Schneider, Julie; Catherine M McMahon; Burlutsky, George; Leeder, Stephen R; Mitchell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Although concurrent vision and hearing loss are common in older adults, population-based data on their relationship with mortality is limited. This cohort study investigated the association between objectively measured dual sensory impairment (DSI) with mortality risk over 10 years. 2812 Blue Mountains Eye Study participants aged 55 years and older at baseline were included for analyses. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity less than 20/40 (better eye), and hearing impairment as ave...

  3. Benefits of Health and Wellness Education in the Adult Population in México, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Hernández Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents advances in understanding the influence of Mexican education on the perceptions of the adult population regarding their health. The analysis forms part of the oecd conceptual model for understanding the connections between education and social—but not economic—outcomes. Data from the 2006 National Survey on Health and Nutrition is employed to build a logistic model. The study confirmed the idea that people tend to feel healthier as their educational level rises, regardless...

  4. Socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity in an adult chinese population in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Sabanayagam, C; A Shankar; Wong, T. Y.; Saw, S. M.; Foster, P J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies from industrialized Western countries have reported an inverse association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity. In contrast, few studies from newly industrialized countries in Asia have examined this association. In this context, we examined the association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity by gender in Chinese adults in Singapore.METHODS: A population-based cross sectional study of 942 participants (57.3% women, 40-81 years) residing in t...

  5. Estimates of complications of medical care in the adult US population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Jeremy N

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total US population estimates of complications of medical care have relied on extrapolations of state-specific estimates. Generalizability is suspect because findings are limited by geographical location or time. We describe the relationship between the annual prevalence of complications of medical care (CM and socio-demographic characteristics in the adult US population. Methods We used data from the National Health Interview Surveys, annual nationwide surveys of the resident, civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States. The main outcome of interest was self-reported conditions from CMs (ICD-9 996-999 and activity limitations that arise from such events. Univariate estimates and multivariably adjusted models accounting for selected socio-demographic characteristics and health status were derived. Results A total of 618,167 reports of conditions from 313,438 subjects 18 years and older from 1987 to 1994 were examined. In 1987, 830,386 adults reported complications of medical care, increasing by about 40% to 1,174,089 adults in 1994. Based on an extrapolation to the US adult population, rates increased by 25% from 558 to 678 per 100,000 during the same period. One-third reported onset a year prior to the interview; two-thirds visited a doctor six months prior; half experienced limitation in major activities; a quarter reported limitation in personal care activities. In the two weeks preceding the interview, complications of medical care caused an average of 1.72 days of restricted activity, 0.79 days spent in bed, and 0.58 days of work lost. Race modified the age-specific risk of these complications. Conclusions Complications of medical care impose heavier morbidity than previously considered with some indication that socio-demographic variables modify the risk for injuries.

  6. Prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adult population in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh; Dashdemberel, Sarangerel; Logii, Narantsetseg; Nakae, Kimihiro; Chigusa, Yuichi; Ohhira, Shuji; Ito, Clyde; Sagara, Hironori; Makino, Sohei

    2014-01-01

    Background Mongolia is changing lifestyle, unhealthy habits, increase of air pollution, increasing life expectancy have led to an up rise of chronic respiratory diseases. Over 10 years ago, the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Mongolia were in the lower range reported from previous studies. Objective The main aim of the survey is to know the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adult population of Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia and their risk factors. Methods T...

  7. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn; Kenneth L Brigham

    2013-01-01

    The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices...

  8. Atypical antipsychotic medications and hyponatremia in older adults: a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sonja; McArthur, Eric; Reiss, Jeffrey P.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Hackam, Daniel G.; Weir, Matthew A.; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of case reports have suggested a possible association between atypical antipsychotic medications and hyponatremia. Currently, there are no reliable estimates of hyponatremia risk from atypical antipsychotic drugs. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia in older adults dispensed an atypical antipsychotic drug relative to no antipsychotic use. Design The design of this study was a retrospective, population-ba...

  9. Prevalence and Etiology of Abnormal Liver Tests in an Adult Population in Jilin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; He, Shu Mei; Sun, Jie; Wang, Chunyan; Jiang, Yan Fang; Gu, Qing; Feng, Xiang Wei; Du, Bing; Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiao Dong; Zhang, Si Qi; Li, Wan Yu; Niu, Jun Qi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Serum biochemical liver tests (LTs) (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase) and platelet counts are often used to screen for chronic liver disease. We determined the prevalence and etiologies of abnormal LTs in an adult population in Jilin, China. Methods: A total of 3791 individuals between the ages of 18 and 79 years were interviewed and then underwent ultrasonography and blood tests. Results: The prevalence of abnormal LTs was 14.77...

  10. A comparative study on the periodontal health status of adult populations of Kenya and India.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaimenyi J; Gururaja Rao T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the oral hygiene and periodontal health status of 497 randomly selected Kenyan and Indian adult populations aged between 20 and 35 years. Oral hygiene and periodontal health status were assessed using Silness and Loe plaque Index and Russel′s Periodontal Index respectively. Results revealed that the overall mean plaque and periodontal index scores of Kenyan participants were significantly lower than those of Indians. Increase of mean Periodontal...

  11. Estimation of dietary sources and flavonoid intake in a Spanish adult population (EPIC-Spain).

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M.; Berenguer, Toni; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Sanchez, Maria J.; Navarro, Carmen; Chirlaque, Maria D.; Tormo, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have suggested associations between flavonoid intake and health benefits. Traditional Mediterranean diets consist of a high consumption of plant products rich in flavonoids. OBJECTIVE: This study estimates dietary flavonoid intake and main food sources in a Mediterranean population (Spanish adults). DESIGN: The study included 40,683 subjects aged 35 to 64 years from northern and southern regions of Spain who were included in the European Prospective Investiga...

  12. Association Between Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obesity in the US Population

    OpenAIRE

    Pagoto, S. L.; Curtin, C.; Lemon, S. C.; Bandini, L. G.; Schneider, K. L.; Bodenlos, J. S.; Ma, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder that affects approximately 2.9%–4.7% of US adults. Studies have revealed high rates of ADHD (26 – 61%) in patients seeking weight loss treatment suggesting an association between ADHD and obesity. The objective of the present study was to test the association between ADHD and overweight and obesity in the US population. Cross-sectional data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys were used. Participa...

  13. Judgement of irradiation-preserved food by the adult population in Hungary (preliminary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide survey by questionnaires was started in 1997 in the subject area of Nutrition and Health. Part of this survey was directed toward the acceptance of preserved food by irradiation treatment by the public. The results have been evaluated here and presented. The main problem was to find out the differences of various segments of the Hungarian adult population in their judgement of irradiated food, and what is the general knowledge in relation with radiopreservation technology of food. (R.P.)

  14. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins Robert B; Bischof Matthias; Burke Natasha; Tarride Jean-Eric; Goeree Linda; Campbell Kaitryn; Xie Feng; O'Reilly Daria; Goeree Ron

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of...

  15. Health supplement consumption behavior in older adults population: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Mimi M.Y. eTSE; Ka Long eCHAN; Anthony S.W. eWONG; Eric W.C. eTAM; Elaine Y.L. eFAN; Gloria P.C. eYIP

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territ...

  16. Health Supplement Consumption Behavior in the Older Adult Population: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territ...

  17. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with left ventricular mass (assessed using MRI) in an adult population (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, J; Crouse, JR; Bluemke, DA; Lima, JAC; Polak, JF; Burke, GL; Herrington, DM

    2010-01-01

    Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a measure of endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. Endothelial nitric oxide controls vascular tone and is likely to modify the ventricular muscle coupling mechanism. The association between left ventricular mass and FMD is not well understood. We assessed the association between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and FMD in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). MESA is a population-based study of 6814 adults free of clin...

  18. Relationship Between Allergic Rhinitis and Mental Health in the General Korean Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Hyun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Soo Whan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the association between AR and mental health status in the general Korean adult population and to investigate the relative burden of AR on mental health using the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed by using data from 11,154 individuals, 19 years old or older in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Univariate analysis was conducted in the h...

  19. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    OpenAIRE

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster. 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in adults. Method. A representative sample (N =4395) of the Dutch population aged 12 to 40 (overall response rate 67%), was asked about various health-compromising behaviors, such as alcohol consumption,...

  20. Prevalence and Etiology of Abnormal Liver Tests in an Adult Population in Jilin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Zhang, Shu Mei He, Jie Sun, ChunYan Wang, Yan Fang Jiang, Qing Gu, Xiang Wei Feng, Bing Du, Wei Wang, Xiao Dong Shi, Si Qi Zhang, Wan Yu Li, Jun Qi Niu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Serum biochemical liver tests (LTs) (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase) and platelet counts are often used to screen for chronic liver disease. We determined the prevalence and etiologies of abnormal LTs in an adult population in Jilin, China.Methods: A total of 3791 individuals between the ages of 18 and 79 years were interviewed and then underwent ultrasonography and blood tests.Results: The prevalence of abnormal LTs was 14.77% ...

  1. Population-level prevalence estimate and characteristics of psychiatric disability among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Du, Wei; Song, Xinming; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-11-01

    Psychiatric disability is a population health problem, and understanding its magnitude is essential to informing population health policies. This paper aims to describe the prevalence rates, causes, and severity of psychiatric disability in Chinese adults, and to explore daily activities and social functions for people with psychiatric disability. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification and classification for psychiatric disability was based on consensus manuals. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted prevalence and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were evaluated. An estimate of 8 million adults with psychiatric disability was identified. The weighted prevalence rate of psychiatric disability was 8.14 per 1000 people (95% CI, 7.95-8.33). More rural residents suffered from psychiatric disability than their urban counterparts, and more females had psychiatric disability than males. Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders accounted for more than half of the psychiatric disability in Chinese adults. People with psychiatric disability had more severe difficulties in most daily activities and social functions than in people with other disabilities. This study demonstrates psychiatric disability causes social burden to the Chinese communities. Strategies including case identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed and countermeasures are warranted for females and rural residents to reduce the burden caused by psychiatric disability. PMID:21794875

  2. Identification of a Bipotent Epithelial Progenitor Population in the Adult Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ulyanchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are critically required for T cell development, but the cellular mechanisms that maintain adult TECs are poorly understood. Here, we show that a previously unidentified subpopulation, EpCam+UEA1−Ly-51+PLET1+MHC class IIhi, which comprises <0.5% of adult TECs, contains bipotent TEC progenitors that can efficiently generate both cortical (c TECs and medullary (m TECs. No other adult TEC population tested in this study contains this activity. We demonstrate persistence of PLET1+Ly-51+ TEC-derived cells for 9 months in vivo, suggesting the presence of thymic epithelial stem cells. Additionally, we identify cTEC-restricted short-term progenitor activity but fail to detect high efficiency mTEC-restricted progenitors in the adult thymus. Our data provide a phenotypically defined adult thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cell that is able to generate both cTECs and mTECs, opening avenues for improving thymus function in patients.

  3. Swiss energy statistics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  5. Swiss energy statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  7. EVALUATION OF EDENTULISM, PROSTHETIC STATUS AND PROSTHODONTICS TREATMENT NEEDS AMONG THE ADULT POPULATION OF GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the level of edentulism among the adult population of Georgia, to assess the prosthodontics status and normative needs for prosthetic treatment. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I - 20-34, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65-74 in nine regions of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. The loss of teeth due to caries or periodontitis was observed to differing extents throughout the population. One (8.3%) or more bridges (7.6%) and removable dentures (3.2-4.7%) were more frequently observed than implants (0.1%). Metal-ceramic (12.4%) and metal crowns (6.3%) were more commonly detected than zirconia ceramic crowns (0.1%). Statistical analysis of the data demonstrates a rather high normative prosthetic need of implants and bridges and less needs for removable dentures among the population due to less severity of periodontitis and not too high values of missing teeth due to caries (despite the high caries prevalence (99%) throughout the Georgian population). Edentulism is a public problem in Georgia and needs serious attention from government or healthcare centers to prevent the complications . PMID:27249431

  8. Contact dermatitis to hair dyes in a Danish adult population: an interview-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients is a well-known entity seen both in consumers using hair dyes and among hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis. Surveys show that consumers with even severe adverse skin reactions to hair dyes only rarely contact the healthcare services....... The frequency of hair dye-induced skin reactions in the consumer population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological investigation with the aim of establishing the proportion of hair dye-induced skin reactions was performed in a population-based sample. METHODS: A representative random sample (n...... = 4000) was taken of the Danish adult population. Personal interview questions were asked regarding adverse skin reactions to hair dyes, either compatible with a classical allergic eczematous reaction with redness, scaling and itching or a severe allergic reaction with oedema of the forehead and face...

  9. Gender Differences in Mental Health among Adult Population in Vojvodina Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetlana Kvrgic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health and mental disorders are determined by multiple and interacting social, psychological and biological factors which determine the prevalence, onset and course of mental and behavioral disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in mental health status regarding gender of the adult population in the Province of Vojvodina.Methods: Research was carried out as a retrospective cross-sectional study. Data was obtained from the “National Health Survey in Serbia, 2006” database that refers to the representative adult population of Vojvodina, aged 20 and over. A specially designed questionnaire was applied as a research instrument.Results: This study included 3627 examinees, average age 49.9 years. In the month prior to the study, a half of the adult population in Vojvodina (48.4% was exposed to stress and one third had emotional problems (32.9%, while both stress and emotional problems were more prevalent in females. The average score value on the psychological distress scale (presence of negative conditions and feelings of all examinees was 64.1 (from 0 to 100 and it was statistically significantly lower in women (62.0, compared to men (66.6 (P<0.001. Statisticaly significant differences were also observed between average score values on the role-emotional and vitality scales (P<0.001.Conclusion: When mental health is considered, this research showed that female population is more vulnerable compared to males. Women are more often exposed to stressful situations and emotional problems and more often faced with negative conditions and feelings.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in adult mouse cardiac side population cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lushaj, Entela B., E-mail: lushaj@surgery.wisc.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Lozonschi, Lucian; Barnes, Maria; Anstadt, Emily; Kohmoto, Takushi [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the presence and potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations in adult cardiac stem cells. Cardiac side population (SP) cells were isolated from 12-week-old mice. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen for the presence of mtDNA deletion mutations in (a) freshly isolated SP cells and (b) SP cells cultured to passage 10. When present, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutation was analyzed in single cell colonies. The effect of different levels of deletion mutations on SP cell growth and differentiation was determined. MtDNA deletion mutations were found in both freshly isolated and cultured cells from 12-week-old mice. While there was no significant difference in the number of single cell colonies with mtDNA deletion mutations from any of the groups mentioned above, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutations was significantly higher in the cultured cells, as determined by quantitative PCR. Within a single clonal cell population, the detectable mtDNA deletion mutations were the same in all cells and unique when compared to deletions of other colonies. We also found that cells harboring high levels of mtDNA deletion mutations (i.e. where deleted mtDNA comprised more than 60% of total mtDNA) had slower proliferation rates and decreased differentiation capacities. Screening cultured adult stem cells for mtDNA deletion mutations as a routine assessment will benefit the biomedical application of adult stem cells.

  11. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  12. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  13. Secular trends in child and adult sexual violence--one decreasing and the other increasing: a population survey in Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. METHODS: National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. RESULTS: C...

  14. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of pop...

  15. Multiple physical and mental health comorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities: population-based cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    COOPER, SALLY-ANN; McLean, Gary; Guthrie, Bruce; McConnachie, Alex; Mercer, Stewart; Sullivan, Frank; Morrison, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Background Adults with intellectual disabilities have increased early mortality compared with the general population. However, their extent of multimorbidity (two or more additional conditions) compared with the general population is unknown, particularly with regards to physical ill-health, as are associations between comorbidities, neighbourhood deprivation, and age. Methods We analysed primary health-care data on 1,424,378 adults registered with 314 representative Scottish practices. Data ...

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sleep Disturbance in a Large HIV-Infected Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allavena, C; Guimard, T; Billaud, E; De la Tullaye, S; Reliquet, V; Pineau, S; Hüe, H; Supiot, C; Chennebault, J-M; Michau, C; Hitoto, H; Vatan, R; Raffi, F

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbances in French adult HIV-infected outpatients. Patients fullfilled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behavior, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), quality of life and depression; 1354 patients were enrolled. Median sleeping time was 7 h. Poor sleep quality was observed in 47 % of the patients, and moderate to serious depressive symptoms in 19.7 %. Factors significantly associated with sleep disturbances were depression, male gender, active employment, living single, tobacco-smoking, duration of HIV infection, nevirapine or efavirenz-including regimen. Prevalence of poor sleepers is high in this HIV adult outpatient population. Associated factors seem poorly specific to HIV infection and more related to social and psychological status. Taking care of these disturbances may prove to be an effective health management strategy. PMID:26271816

  17. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and violence in the population of England: does comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population. METHODS: We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007, a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders. RESULTS: ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01. Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03. Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders.

  18. Variation of adult survival drives population dynamics in a migrating forest bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorcht, Wigbert; Bontadina, Fabio; Schaub, Michael

    2009-11-01

    1. Variation of survival across time, between sex and ages strongly affect the population dynamics of long-lived species. Bats are extremely long-lived, but the variation of their survival probabilities is poorly studied with reliable methods. 2. We studied annual local survival probabilities of the migratory Leisler's bats Nyctalus leisleri based on capture-recapture data from 1119 individuals sampled in bat boxes over 20 years in eastern Germany. We assessed variation in survival between sex and age classes, estimated the temporal variance of survival and tested whether survival was affected by weather during hibernation or pregnancy. 3. Among females, our analyses revealed two groups of individuals present with different roosting occupancy, survival and/or dispersal. Local survival of locally born females increased with age [first year: 0.45 +/- 0.04 (SE); later: 0.76 +/- 0.04] and the high recapture probabilities indicate regular presence in the roosts. Recapture probabilities and local survival of foreign adult females were significantly lower, indicating less frequent presence in the roosts and stronger dispersal from the study area. 4. In adult males, locally born and foreign individuals were nearly identical regarding survival and recapture, indicating a more homogenous group. Local survival was very low in the first year (0.04 +/- 0.08), most likely caused by strong natal dispersal. It further increased with age (second year: 0.55 +/- 0.20, later: 0.69 +/- 0.07). 5. Survival probabilities of all females varied significantly and in parallel across time, suggesting that a common environmental factor was operating which affected all individuals similarly. Spring temperature and winter North Atlantic Oscillation explained maximally 9% each of the variation in first year and adult female survival. In contrast to our expectations, the temporal variance of first-year survival was lower than that of adult survival. 6. We found evidence of a complicated social

  19. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  20. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisinger Christa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65 and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65, while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73. In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01 and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03 values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a

  1. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enembe Oku Okokon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82 and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14 were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045 and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000 were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity.

  2. DETERMINATION OF SPORT ACTIVITY BY SELECTED SOCIO–CULTURAL PARAMETERS OF PRESENT CZECH ADULT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlacek Jaromir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article are presented results from questionnaire of 5.878 adult individuals in Czech Republic. There were applied various questions regarding age, sex, sport activities, habits and problems in life, magnitude of settlement, level of education, life status etc. Totally there were 19 questions. In this contribution we try to explain determination of sport activity of adult Czech population by parameters of sex, level of education (none education - fundamental - trainee - GCE exam - university and life status (single - married – divorced – widowed - registered partnership. All respondents were derived in three groups: younger (age 18 – 34 years, medium age (35 - 54 and seniors (over 55. There is proved in this article that majority of adult Czech population does not practise any sport activity (over 70%; the older people are, the less sport activity they practise. Women groups are slightly worse. Also level of education determines sport activity. Individuals with high schools and university education practise sport significantly more often like others, also in this parameter are men slightly better. Life status also influences sport practise parameter. Better results have singles, married and divorced are slightly worse, while widowed are clear the worst. This questionnaire is part of The project "Creating a research team for the purpose of determining the level of physical activity (inactivity in selected age groups of the population of men and women in the Czech Republic" (CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0044 is financed by the European Social Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic.

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  6. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  7. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Lucille E; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S

    2016-03-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

  8. Visual function and vision-related quality of life in presbyopic adult population of Northwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiru Muhammad; Alhassan, Mahmoud B; Murtala M Umar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-related quality of life (QoL) and visual function (VF) among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu local government area (LGA) of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study in Bungudu LGA of Zamfara State Nigeria was conducted in 2012. Six-hundred and fifty persons at least 40 years of age were examined using a two-stage cluster random sampling-based on probability proportional to ...

  9. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Idrees, Majdy M; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for e...

  10. Electronic Theses: Swiss Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Niederer; Ulrich Weigel; Marie-Pierre Gillieron-Garber; Karl Böhler

    2000-01-01

    To offer theses electronically to its users is something that has been discussed in Swiss university libraries for some time now. There are two main reasons that it has not yet been realized anywhere in Switzerland: On the one hand, the two large university library networks have had big library system migrations to cope with (first the „Réseau Romand” in the French speaking part moved to VTLS, then, in the last two years, the „Informationsverbund Deutschschweiz, IDS” in the German speaking pa...

  11. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.; Jakobsen, Jette; Schwarz, P.; Toft, U.; Ovesen, L.; Jørgensen, T.; Linneberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  12. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamberi Blerim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite numerous studies on the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP and endodontic treatment in diverse geographical populations, there are currently no data on the prevalence of these conditions in populations of adults native to Kosovo. Therefore, little is known about how widespread these conditions are, and whether there is any correlation between root canal treatment and AP. The purpose of our research was to address this anomaly by investigating AP and endodontic treatment in an adult Kosovar population based on radiographic examination. Methods The sample used for this study consisted of randomly selected individuals referred to the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2006-2007. Orthopantomographs of 193 patients were evaluated. The periapical status of all teeth (with the exception of third molars was examined according to Ørstavik's Periapical Index. The quality of the root canal filling was rated as 'adequate' or 'inadequate' based on whether all canals were filled, the depth of fill relative to the radiographic apex and the quality of compaction (absence/presence of voids. Data were analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test and calculation of odds ratios. Results Out of 4131 examined teeth, the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP and endodontic treatment was 12.3% and 2.3%, respectively. Of 95 endodontically-treated teeth, 46.3% were associated with AP. The prevalence of AP increased with age. The prevalence in subjects aged over 60 years old (20.2% was higher than in other age groups. A statistically significant difference was found for the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth associated with AP in the 40-49 year age group (P Conclusions The prevalence of AP and the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth with AP in this Kosovar population are higher than those found in other countries. Inadequate root canal fillings were associated with an increased prevalence of AP.

  13. The vascular health status of a population of adult Canadian Indigenous peoples from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, H J A; Bredin, S S D; Warburton, D E R

    2016-04-01

    Indigenous populations currently experience greater cardiovascular disease burdens. However, subclinical vascular structure and function among these populations is not well known. This investigation evaluated vascular structure and function among Canadian Indigenous populations. Blood pressure, body composition, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), arterial compliance and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Vascular measures were evaluated across sexes and age groups. Vascular assessments were conducted among 55 Indigenous adults (38±18 years, 29 Female), including both First Nations (N=36) and Métis (N=19) individuals. Some differences in vascular measures were found between males and females, respectively (spectral BRS: 9.6±6.8 ms mm Hg(-1) vs 16.9±10.0 ms mm Hg(-1), P=0.01; small arterial compliance: 8.9±3.7 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100 vs 6.4±2.3 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100, P=0.004), with similar measures of overall IMT (0.61±0.14 mm vs 0.57±0.08 mm, P=0.19) and central PWV (5.7±2.5 m s(-1) vs 5.1±2.3 m s(-1), P=0.58). Greater IMT, and lower BRS and arterial compliance were identified among older adults. This relatively healthy population demonstrated healthy vascular measures, with poorer measures among older individuals. PMID:26063562

  14. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  15. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  16. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  17. Growth of the human lens in the Indian adult population: Preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashik Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The eye lens grows throughout life by the addition of new cells inside the surrounding capsule. How this growth affects the properties of the lens is essential for understanding disorders such as cataract and presbyopia. Aims: To examine growth of the human lens in the Indian population and compare this with the growth in Western populations by measuring in vitro dimensions together with wet and dry weights. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the research wing of a tertiary eye care center in South India and the study design was prospective. Materials and Methods: Lenses were removed from eye bank eyes and their dimensions measured with a digital caliper. They were then carefully blotted dry and weighed before being placed in 5% buffered formalin. After 1 week fixation, the lenses were dried at 80 °C until constant weight was achieved. The constant weight was noted as the dry weight of the lens. Statistical Analysis Used: Lens parameters were analyzed as a function of age using linear and logarithmic regression methods. Results: Data were obtained for 251 lenses, aged 16-93 years, within a median postmortem time of 22 h. Both wet and dry weights increased linearly at 1.24 and 0.44 mg/year, respectively, throughout adult life. The dimensions also increased continuously throughout this time. Conclusions: Over the age range examined, lens growth in the Indian population is very similar to that in Western populations.

  18. Factor associated with tobacco use among the adult population in Sarawak, Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of tobacco in any form is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality. The World Health Organization recommends that it should be monitored regularly.  This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among the rural adult population in Sarawak and factors associated with it.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the adult population in Sarawak. Data were collected from ten villages in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Division by face to face interview using modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Non-probability sampling method was adopted to select the villages. All the households of the villages were visited and an adult member was selected randomly from each house irrespective of the sex. After missing value imputation, 1000 data were analysed using statistical software SPSS 19.0 version.Results: Analysis showed that 30.9% of the respondents were current tobacco users and 11% were past tobacco users. The mean age (SD at starting tobacco was 18.1 (6.48 years. The frequency of tobacco use was 14 times per day.  Hierarchical Logistic regression analysis revealed that age with male sex (OR=1. 064, 95% CI: 1.052, 1.076, secondary education (OR=-2.712; 95% CI: 1.122, 6.555, higher secondary and above (OR=3. 571; 95% CI: 1.641,7.774, occupation as business (OR=3. 152; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.735 and environmental exposure such as smoking at working place (OR=2. 754;95% CI: 1.895,4.002, coffee house (OR=2. 274;95% CI: 1.32,3.919 and at home (OR=1. 827;95% CI: 1.242,2.687 appeared to be  important predictors of tobacco use (p<0.05.Conclusion: A large proportion of males use tobacco products. Though tobacco use was negligible among females, but they would be potential users. Environmental exposure to tobacco appeared to be important predictors. Tobacco control campaigns should target banning of tobacco use in closed and open areas and also to intensify the monitoring of all forms

  19. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Infection in an Adult Population in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang, Qingmei Li, Jie Sun, Chunyan Wang, Qing Gu, Xiangwei Feng, Bing Du, Wei Wang, Xiaodong Shi, Siqi Zhang, Wanyu Li, Yanfang Jiang, Junyan Feng, Shumei He, Junqi Niu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV is higher in adults than in children. We determined the seroepidemiology of HBV infection in an adult population in JiLin, China, to guide effective preventive measures.Methods: A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted throughout JiLin, China. A total of 3833 people was selected and demographic and behavioral information gathered. Serum samples were tested for HBV markers and liver enzymes.Results: The prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, the antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs, the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, the antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe, and the antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc were 4.38%, 35.66%, 1.38%, 6.65%, and 40.88%, respectively. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels were significantly higher among HBsAg (+ than HBsAg (- subjects. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors for chronic HBV infection were smoking, poor sleep quality; occupation as private small-businessmen, laborers, or peasants; male gender; family history of HBV; personal history of vaccination; and older age. Independent predictors for exposure to HBV were large family size, occupation as a private small-businessman, male gender, family history of HBV, personal history of vaccination, and older age. Independent predictors for immunity by vaccination were occupation as a private small-businessman, high income, personal history of vaccination, and young age. Independent predictors for immunity by exposure were drinking, male gender, personal history of vaccination, and older age.Conclusions: The prevalence rate of HBV infection (4.38% was lower than the previous rate of general HBV vaccination. However, 44.59% of the population remained susceptible to HBV. The prevalence of HBV infection was high in young adults, private small-businessmen, peasants, those with a family history of HBV, and

  20. Estimated number of prevalent cases of metastatic bone disease in the US adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinzone JJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shuling Li1, Yi Peng1, Eric D Weinhandl1, Anne H Blaes2, Karynsa Cetin3, Victoria M Chia3, Scott Stryker3, Joseph J Pinzone4, John F Acquavella3, Thomas J Arneson11Chronic Disease Research Group, Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Center for Observational Research, 4Global Development, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USABackground: The prevalence of metastatic bone disease in the US population is not well understood. We sought to estimate the current number of US adults with metastatic bone disease using two large administrative data sets.Methods: Prevalence was estimated from a commercially insured cohort (ages 18–64 years, MarketScan database and from a fee-for-service Medicare cohort (ages ≥65 years, Medicare 5% database with coverage on December 31, 2008, representing approximately two-thirds of the US population in each age group. We searched for claims-based evidence of metastatic bone disease from January 1, 2004, using a combination of relevant diagnosis and treatment codes. The number of cases in the US adult population was extrapolated from age- and sex-specific prevalence estimated in these cohorts. Results are presented for all cancers combined and separately for primary breast, prostate, and lung cancer.Results: In the commercially insured cohort (mean age = 42.3 years [SD = 13.1], we identified 9505 patients (0.052% with metastatic bone disease. Breast cancer was the most common primary tumor type (n = 4041. In the Medicare cohort (mean age = 75.6 years [SD = 7.8], we identified 6427 (0.495% patients with metastatic bone disease. Breast (n = 1798 and prostate (n = 1862 cancers were the most common primary tumor types. We estimate that 279,679 (95% confidence interval: 274,579–284,780 US adults alive on December 31, 2008, had evidence of metastatic bone disease in the previous 5 years. Breast, prostate

  1. Cadmium levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: The BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herranz, Ana; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pollán, Marina; Calvo, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Victoria Cortes, Maria; Castaño, Argelia

    2016-09-01

    Urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) were measured in 1770 adults (aged 18-65 years) as a representative sample of the Spanish workforce. The geometric mean (GM) was 0.28 μg/l with 95% CI: 0.27-0.32 μg/l (GM: 0.20 μg/g 95% CI: 0.18-022 μg/g creatinine). The 95% percentile was 1.03 μg/l. U-Cd increased with age, with women showing higher U-Cd than men (pSpanish population studied here exhibits similar urinary cadmium levels to its European counterparts in Germany and slightly lower levels than in France, the Czech Republic, Italy and the United Kingdom. This paper provides the first baseline information concerning cadmium exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. As such, these findings will help us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, thereby enabling comparisons with other countries and contributing to the improvement of public health and environmental quality. PMID:25899448

  2. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60-120) (median [5-95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as "obese" (O) or "non-obese" (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m(2). People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered "metabolically unhealthy" (MU), while those with none were considered "metabolically healthy" (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21-1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63-2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74-0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57-0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  3. Determining the Level of the Dural Sac Tip: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binokay, F.; Akgul, E.; Bicakci, K.; Soyupak, S.; Aksungur, E.; Sertdemir, Y. [Cukurova Univ., Balcali Hospital, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Biostatistics

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the variation in the location of the dural sac (DS) in a living adult population and to correlate this position with age and sex. Material and Methods: T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 743 patients were assessed to identify the tip of the DS. This location was recorded in relation to the upper, middle, or lower third of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent intervertebral disk. Results: Frequency distribution for levels of termination of the DS on MRI demonstrated that the end of the DS was usually located at the upper one-third of S2 (25.2%). The mean level in females was also the upper one-third of S2 (26.5%) and in males the lower one-third of S2 (24.1%). The overall mean DS position was mostly at the upper one-third of S2. No significant differences in DS position were seen between male and female patients or with increasing age. Conclusion: It is important to know the possible range for the termination level of the DS when performing caudal anesthesia and craniospinal irradiation in some clinical situations. The distribution of DS location in a large adult population was shown to range from the L5-S1 intervertebral disk to the upper third of S3 vertebrae.

  4. Influences of amount of pedigree information on computing time and of model assumptions on restricted maximum-likelihood estimates of population parameters in Swiss black-brown mountain sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, C; Schneeberger, M

    1995-08-01

    Average daily gain between birth and 30 d of age of 42,644 lambs of Swiss Black-Brown Mountain Sheep were used in this analysis. The influence of amount of pedigree information on computing time and on REML estimates of population parameters was investigated on a subset of 7,848 lambs. If all available pedigree information was used, 89.4% of the lambs had at least four complete generations of known ancestors. For the reduced pedigree information, only parents and grandparents of a lamb were included. In the data set with complete pedigree information, 2,616 additional animals (without records) caused 19.4% more equations, 4.6 times the number of non-zero elements in the system of equations, and 21.2 times the computing time to reach convergence. The difference in amount of pedigree information had only a marginal influence on the estimates of direct heritability (h2), maternal heritability (m2), permanent environmental effects, and on the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effect (rAM). The complete data set of 42,644 recorded lambs was randomly split into four subsets to save computing time. In a fifth subset of 27,787 lambs (Set C) all combinations of recorded grandparents and grand-offspring were accumulated because they contain information on the covariance between direct and maternal effects (cov[AM]). Including cov(AM) in the model assumptions increased estimates of h2 and m2 in all subsets. Estimates from Set C were smallest but showed the same trend. The estimate of rAM was always strongly negative, < or = -.64.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8567455

  5. Mean active bone marrow dose to the adult population of the United States from diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates, based on an empirical model and computer program (Ellis, Healy, Shleien and Tucker, HEW publication (FDA)76-8015), have been calculated and are presented on the mean active bone marrow dose to adults from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy, and dental radiography as practiced in the United States in 1970. The annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose in 1970 to adults from the above practices is estimated to have been 103 mrad; 77 percent, 20 percent, and 3 percent from radiographic, fluoroscopic and dental examinations, respectively. Examinations of the upper and lower abdomen contribute approximately 39 percent each to the total mean active bone marrow dose for adults; those of the pelvis, 4 percent; the thorax, 12 percent; and head and neck examinations (including dental) contribute about 6 percent. The per capita mean active bone marrow dose for various age groups is discussed. Contributions to the dose within a given age group from different examinations indicate that in the 15 to 34 year age group lumbar and lumbosacral spine examinations contribute most to the mean active bone marrow dose. Thereafter upper Gi series and barium enemas are the highest contributors. Mean active bone marrow doses for children are not estimated in this presentation due to insufficient data. However, the lower rate of use of diagnostic x rays (except dental) in children would reduce the annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose for the entire population to approximately a maximum of 77 mrads. The results may be viewed relative to several surveys of radiation doses from diagnostic radiology performed in other countries which reported annual per capita mean active bone marrow doses varying from 30 to 189 mrads for their entire populations, and with natural background for which the annual per capita whole body and bone marrow dose in the United States is approximately 130 and 86 mrads, respectively

  6. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Stig

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Methods Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25–64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. Results A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index ≥ 25 kg/m2, with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11% of the females being obese (body-mass-index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9 among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9 among females. Conclusion High blood pressure is widely

  7. Premature adult mortality in urban Zambia: a repeated population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timæus, Ian M; Banda, Richard; Thankian, Kusanthan; Banda, Andrew; Lemba, Musonda; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To measure the sex-specific and community-specific mortality rates for adults in Lusaka, Zambia, and to identify potential individual-level, household-level and community-level correlates of premature mortality. We conducted 12 survey rounds of a population-based cross-sectional study between 2004 and 2011, and collected data via a structured interview with a household head. Setting Households in Lusaka District, Zambia, 2004–2011. Participants 43 064 household heads (88% female) who enumerated 123 807 adult household members aged between 15 and 60 years. Primary outcome Premature adult mortality. Results The overall mortality rate was 16.2/1000 person-years for men and 12.3/1000 person-years for women. The conditional probability of dying between age 15 and 60 (45q15) was 0.626 for men and 0.537 for women. The top three causes of death for men and women were infectious in origin (ie, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria). We observed an over twofold variation of mortality rates between communities. The mortality rate was 1.98 times higher (95% CI 1.57 to 2.51) in households where a family member required nursing care, 1.44 times higher (95% CI 1.22 to 1.71) during the cool dry season, and 1.28 times higher (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54) in communities with low-cost housing. Conclusions To meet Zambia's development goals, further investigation is needed into the factors associated with adult mortality. Mortality can potentially be reduced through focus on high-need households and communities, and improved infectious disease prevention and treatment services. PMID:26940113

  8. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Greber, Deborah; Doherr, Marcus; Drögemüller, Cord; Steiner, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders' Association. FINDINGS A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-yea...

  9. Relationship between serum Vitamin D concentration and Metabolic Syndrome among Iranian Adults Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hossein-Nezhad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study:There are increasing evidences about relationship between vitamin D metabolism and occurrence of diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D has a role in secretion and possibly the action of insulin and modulates lipolysis and might therefore contribute to the development of the metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and strength of the association between vitamin D concentration and the metabolic syndrome (MS in Iranian population. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 646 healthy population who had no history of diabetes. The MS was defined according to WHO criteria. The concentrations of vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were also measured. "nResults and major conclusion: Of the total 646 participants, the unadjusted prevalence of the MS was 18.3% (29% in men and 14.6% in women. The total prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 72.3%. Amongst the men with vitamin D deficiency the prevalence of the MS was higher than those with normal vitamin D (p=0.03. In the logistic regression model, after age and sex adjustment, vitamin D deficiency predicted independently the metabolic syndrome (p=0.001.Vitamin D deficiency and the MS have a high prevalence among Iranian adult population. The finding of this investigation revealed that vitamin D deficiency may have an important role in metabolic syndrome and its components.

  10. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  11. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  12. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting; Fu; Yin-Wei; Song; Zhi-Qi; Chen; Jun-Wen; He; Kun; Qiao; Xu-Fang; Sun; Hong; Zhang; Jun-Ming; Wang

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China.·METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length(AL), anterior chamber depth(ACD), radius of corneal curvature(K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white(WTW)distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens(IOL)-Master].·RESULTS: Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0 ±8.7y were analyzed at last.The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius(MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75 ±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77 ±0.87,22.76 ±1.06, 22.89 ±1.41, 22.92 ±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10 ±0.32,2.98 ±0.34, 2.86 ±0.36, 2.77 ±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58 ±0.25,7.54 ±0.26, 7.55 ±0.26, 7.49 ±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79 ±0.38,11.75 ±0.40, 11.72 ±0.41, 11.67 ±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD,MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight.·CONCLUSION: Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care.

  13. The Swiss National Science Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) is Switzerland's leading provider of scientific research funding.The SNSF annually supports some 7200 researchers, almost 80 percent of whom are aged 35 years or younger.

  14. Obesity and Malnutrition: Impact of Habitat and Living Conditions in Adult Urban Population in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Temporelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: malnutrition refers to imbalances (either deficit or excess in energy intake, protein and / or nutrients including underweight and obesity. The aim of this work is identify the contribution of individual factors, habits and life conditions in nutritional status. Material and methods: estimates of relative risk ratios are obtained from a multinomial logistic model using microdata from the National Survey of Risk Factors conducted in 2005 and 2009 in Argentinean‘ cities among adult population. Results: malnutrition is associated with constitutive and socioeconomic variables, while habits are also important in the obesity case. Discussion: both types of problems coexist in Argentine due to high heterogeneity in life styles, turning difficult the design of public interventions aimed to solve them. This complexity highlights the importance of a careful and specific multidimensional approach (medical, social, economical.

  15. Use of lithium in the adult populations of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Hallas, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lithium is an important drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Earlier epidemiological studies of lithium use have depended on sales statistics, clinical surveys or population surveys. The national prescription databases in Denmark, Norway and Sweden may help provide more reliable...... measures and data were collected for adults aged 18-69 at the time of prescription. RESULTS: Norway and Sweden had higher sales and more prevalent use than Denmark. In all three countries, more female than males were treated and the prevalence of use increased linearly with age. In all, 0.17, 0.21, and 0...... use prescription databases in all three Scandinavian countries to describe in detail the epidemiology of a drug's use. The analysis revealed subtle differences in the clinical use of lithium that cannot be explained by differences in the epidemiology of bipolar disorder....

  16. IgE antibodies to alpha-gal in the general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Dam Laursen, A S; Vidal, C;

    2014-01-01

    IgE was assessed by ImmunoCAP to bovine thyroglobulin. Additional assessments included a panel of skin prick test (SPT) to common aeroallergens and epidemiological factors, including the history of tick bites in the Danish series. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive (≥ 0.1 kUA /L) sIgE to alpha-gal was 5......-gal sIgE positivity was associated with atopy (SPT positivity) in both series, although it was not associated with SPT positivity to cat or dog dander. Alpha-gal sIgE positivity was strongly associated with a history of tick bites. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The prevalence of alpha-gal s......IgE antibodies in these general adult European populations is similarly low. The presence of alpha-gal sIgE antibodies is associated with a history of tick bites, atopy, and cat ownership....

  17. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B......12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate (

  18. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: A population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Lena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. Methods The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Results Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Conclusion Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also

  19. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  20. Responses of FEV6, FVC, and FET to inhaled bronchodilator in the adult general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundbäck Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of bronchodilator-induced change in forced vital capacity (FVC is dependent on forced expiratory time (FET in subjects with airflow limitation. Limited information is available on the concurrent responses of FVC, forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6, and FET in the bronchodilation test among patients with obstructive airways disease or in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in FEV6, FVC, and FET, and their relationships in a standardized bronchodilation test in the general population. Methods We studied bronchodilation response in a general adult population sample of 628 individuals (260 men, 368 women with flow-volume spirometry. The largest FVC, the corresponding FET and the largest FEV6 both at the baseline and after 0.4 mg of inhaled salbutamol were selected for analysis. Results After administration of salbutamol FEV6 decreased on average -13.4 (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5 ml or -0.2% (-0.4% to 0.0% from the baseline. The 95th percentile of change in FEV6 was 169.1 ml and 5.0%. FVC decreased on average -42.8 (-52.4 to -33.3 ml or -1.0% (-1.2% to -0.7%. Concurrently FET changed on average -0.2 (-0.4 to 0.0 seconds or 0.4% (-1.4% to 2.3%. There were four subjects with an increase of FVC over 12% and only one of these was associated with prolonged FET after salbutamol. Changes in FEV6 and FVC were more frequently positive in subjects with reduced FEV1/FVC in baseline spirometry. Conclusion In general adult population, both FEV6 and FVC tended to decrease, but FET remained almost unchanged, in the bronchodilation test. However, those subjects with signs of airflow limitation at the baseline showed frequently some increase of FEV6 and FVC in the bronchodilation test without change in FET. We suggest that FEV6 could be used in assessment of bronchodilation response in lieu of FVC removing the need for regulation of FET during bronchodilation testing.

  1. Multimorbidity patterns in a national representative sample of the Spanish adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe Garin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of population aging, multimorbidity has emerged as a growing concern in public health. However, little is known about multimorbidity patterns and other issues surrounding chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to examine multimorbidity patterns, the relationship between physical and mental conditions and the distribution of multimorbidity in the Spanish adult population. METHODS: Data from this cross-sectional study was collected from the COURAGE study. A total of 4,583 participants from Spain were included, 3,625 aged over 50. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to detect multimorbidity patterns in the population over 50 years of age. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify individual associations between physical and mental conditions. RESULTS: THREE MULTIMORBIDITY PATTERNS ROSE: 'cardio-respiratory' (angina, asthma, chronic lung disease, 'mental-arthritis' (arthritis, depression, anxiety and the 'aggregated pattern' (angina, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, cataracts, edentulism, arthritis. After adjusting for covariates, asthma, chronic lung disease, arthritis and the number of physical conditions were associated with depression. Angina and the number of physical conditions were associated with a higher risk of anxiety. With regard to multimorbidity distribution, women over 65 years suffered from the highest rate of multimorbidity (67.3%. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity prevalence occurs in a high percentage of the Spanish population, especially in the elderly. There are specific multimorbidity patterns and individual associations between physical and mental conditions, which bring new insights into the complexity of chronic patients. There is need to implement patient-centered care which involves these interactions rather than merely paying attention to individual diseases.

  2. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted. PMID:26516912

  3. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael McLean

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551: 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855: 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39; 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted.

  4. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Macronutrient and Calcium Intake in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop and validate a food frequency table (FFQ) for use in urban Pakistani population. Study Design: A validation study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to November 2008. Methodology: Healthy adult females, aged A 18 years who consented to be included in the study were inducted, while males, unhealthy females, aged below 18 years or who did not consent were excluded. The FFQ was administered once while 4, 24 hours recalls spread over a period of one year were administered as the reference method. Daily intakes for energy, protein, fat, and calcium intake were estimated for both the tools. Crude and energy adjusted correlations for nutrient intakes were computed for the FFQ and mean of 4, 24 hours recalls and serum N-telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTx). Results: The correlation coefficients for the FFQ with mean of 4, 24 hours recall ranged from 0.21 for protein to 0.36 for calcium, while the correlation for nutrient estimates from the FFQ with NTx ranged from -0.07 for calcium to 0.01 for energy. Conclusion: Highly significant correlations were found for nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ vs. those estimated from the mean of 4, 24 hours recalls but no correlations was found between nutrient estimates from the FFQ and serum NTx levels. FFQ was concluded to be a valid tool for assessing dietary intake of adult females in Pakistan. (author)

  5. Prevalence and risk correlates of hypertension among adult rural population in Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases will be prime cause of morbidity by 2020 in India. Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of hypertension in an adult rural community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine of tertiary care teaching institute of Bihar among adult population to find out the prevalence of hypertension with the sociodemographic correlates from October 2009 to September 2010. A pretested predesigned questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographics data by interview technique from 997 study participants. The blood pressure was assessed and classified using recent JNC 7 and WHO criteria to grade hypertension. Results: Majority of the study participants were Muslims (89% and in 40-49 age group (21.26%. In males and females, the overweight and obese combined were, respectively, 13%. In the dietary habit, 85.36% were non-vegetarian; 8.83% consumed salt more than 10 grams per day; 26.78% reported themselves as alcoholics; tobacco smokers were 58.28%, highest in 40-49 age group (23.58%. Overall, 11.43% were hypertensive and 16% were prehypertensive. Among hypertensive, majority were male (61%; and in 60-69 age group (27.27%, overweight and obese (56.14%, smokers (75.44%, non-vegetarian (67.54%. There was a significant linear trend between age and salt intake with prevalence of hypertension (P<0.0001. Conclusions: Hypertension in the rural population of Bihar was lower than previous estimates.

  6. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60–120) (median [5–95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as “obese” (O) or “non-obese” (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m2. People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered “metabolically unhealthy” (MU), while those with none were considered “metabolically healthy” (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21–1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63–2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74–0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57–0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  7. The long arm of parental addictions: the association with adult children's depression in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; B Katz, Robyn; T Phan, Vi; P M Liddycoat, Jessica; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2013-11-30

    Parental addictions have been associated with adult children's depression in several clinical and population-based studies. However, these studies have not examined if gender differences exist nor have they controlled for a range of potential explanatory factors. Using a regionally representative sample of 6268 adults from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (response rate=83%), we investigated the association between parental addictions and adulthood depression controlling for four clusters of variables: adverse childhood experiences, adult health behaviors, adult socioeconomic status and other stressors. After controlling for all factors, adults exposed to parental addiction had 69% higher odds of depression compared to their peers with non-addicted parents (OR=1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.28). The relationship between parental addictions and depression did not vary by gender. These findings underscore the intergenerational consequences of drug and alcohol addiction and reinforce the need to develop interventions that support healthy childhood development. PMID:23642525

  8. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  9. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  10. Depression in early adulthood: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates among young Swiss men

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Jürgen; Hofmann, Karen; Schori, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY Depression in young adults is common, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Our study gives a point prevalence estimate of depression in young Swiss men, and describes the association between depression and education, material and social resources, and job/school satisfaction. METHODS We used data from the cross-sectional Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents (ch-x) from 2010 to 2011 comprising 9,066 males aged between 18 and 25 years. Depression was assessed b...

  11. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , serve as a jumping point from which to create an unlimited number of 3D and 4D variations for imaging research. Conclusions: A population of phantoms that includes a range of anatomical variations representative of the public at large is needed to more closely mimic a clinical study or trial. The series of anatomically variable phantoms developed in this work provide a valuable resource for investigating 3D and 4D imaging devices and the effects of anatomy and motion in imaging. Combined with Monte Carlo simulation programs, the phantoms also provide a valuable tool to investigate patient-specific dose and image quality, and optimization for adults undergoing imaging procedures.

  12. Association between adult otitis media and nasopharyngeal cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the diagnosis of otitis media (OM) in adults is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Methods and materials: We selected 13,513 adult patients that had been previously diagnosed with OM between 2000 and 2005 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort, and randomly extracted the data of 135,130 participants matched by sex, age, and baseline year for the comparison cohort. The follow-up period was terminated upon developing NPC, withdrawal from the national health insurance system, or the end of 2009. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of NPC development were determined. Results: The subsequent NPC incidence rates in the OM and comparison cohorts were 6.41 and 0.58 per 10 000 person-years, respectively (adjusted HR, 11.04; 95% CI, 7.68–5.87; P < 0.0001). The NPC risk for males was significantly higher than that for females (adjusted HR = 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16–4.85). In both female and male patients, the diagnosis of OM was associated with a significantly increased risk for NPC (adjusted HR, 11.91 vs. 10.78, respectively). Among the OM cohort, 62 participants were subsequently diagnosed with NPC, with 71% of them occurring within 1 year following the diagnosis of OM. However, even after 5-year follow-up, the OM cohort still displayed a higher risk for NPC (adjusted HR = 2.50). Stratified by the frequency of OM episodes, more than one episode per year had a significantly greater risk of developing NPC, compared with the comparison cohort (HR = 29.22; 95% CI, 20.19–42.27). Conclusion: We found that adult OM is a warning sign for the development of NPC in Taiwan, with approximately an 11-fold higher risk for adult OM patients. We recommend that OM patients undergo follow-up examinations for at least 5 years. To extrapolate our findings, further studies are warranted in other

  13. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    as a jumping point from which to create an unlimited number of 3D and 4D variations for imaging research. Conclusions: A population of phantoms that includes a range of anatomical variations representative of the public at large is needed to more closely mimic a clinical study or trial. The series of anatomically variable phantoms developed in this work provide a valuable resource for investigating 3D and 4D imaging devices and the effects of anatomy and motion in imaging. Combined with Monte Carlo simulation programs, the phantoms also provide a valuable tool to investigate patient-specific dose and image quality, and optimization for adults undergoing imaging procedures.

  14. Case aggregation in young adult Hodgkin's disease. Etiologic evidence from a population experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S

    1986-04-15

    There is evidence to suggest that young adult Hodgkin's Disease (HD) may be initiated by an infectious process and that age at exposure to the etiologic infection is an important modifier of risk. There is little evidence, however, to suggest that HD is transmissible through interpersonal contact. To evaluate this hypothesis, a population-based case-control study was conducted with 103 HD cases diagnosed between January 1, 1974 and June 30, 1979 in King County, Washington. Its purpose was to determine whether cases aggregate before clinical disease through interpersonal contact in either school or employment settings to a greater degree than would be expected in the general population. One control was randomly selected for each case of the same sex, approximate age, and general socioeconomic level. Results showed no indication of case aggregation in employment settings (observed/expected = 0.77; P = 0.77). Case contact was greater than would be expected in schools (observed/expected = 1.2; P = 0.07), particularly in grade schools (observed/expected = 1.94; P = 0.009). This finding is consistent with the possibility that HD is dependent on age at exposure, has an infectious origin, and can be transmitted horizontally in select circumstances. Additional research possibilities are recommended as suggested by these data. PMID:3948131

  15. Correlation between diet and gut bacteria in a population of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga Reyes, Lino; González Vázquez, Raquel; Cruz Arroyo, Schahrasad M; Melendez Avalos, Araceli; Reyes Castillo, Pedro A; Chavaro Pérez, David A; Ramos Terrones, Idalia; Ramos Ibáñez, Norma; Rodríguez Magallanes, Magdalena M; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez Humarán, Luis; Azaola Espinosa, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Dietary habits strongly influence gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to compare and correlated the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, some representative bacteria of these phyla such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium leptum and Bifidobacterium longum as a member of Actinobacteria phylum in young adults with their food intake. Faecal samples used came from lean subjects (BMI = 19.83 ± 0.94 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI = 27.17 ± 0.51 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI = 41.33 ± 5.25 kg/m(2)). There were significant differences in total studied gut microbiota between the overweight and lean groups. Members of the Firmicutes phylum, and Bifidobacterium longum, were more abundant in the lean group. The results suggest that diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids and fibre promote an abundant population of beneficial bacteria such as B. longum and Bacteroidetes. However, it has been considered that the results may be biased due to the size of the individuals studied; therefore the results could be only valid for the studied population. PMID:27018166

  16. Reduction in pedometer-determined physical activity in the adult Danish population from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Raustorp, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To examine the development in pedometer-determined physical activity from 2007–2008 to 2011–2012 in the adult Danish population. Methods: The study population comprised two random samples of 18–75-year-old individuals who took part in cross-sectional studies in 2007–2008 (n=224) and 2011......–2012 (n=1515). Pedometer data (sealed Yamax SW 200) were obtained for seven consecutive days. Data for 1624 participants (48.2% men) were included in the analysis. An overall step-defined activity level was examined based on a graduated step index (sedentary, low active, somewhat active, active, highly...... active). The pedometer-determined outcomes were analysed using regression models. Results: A borderline significant decline (p=0.077) from 8788 to 8341 steps/day (−446 (95% confidence intervals −50, 943)) was found between 2007–2008 and 2011–2012. Furthermore, a 23.7% (95% confidence intervals −41.7%, −0...

  17. Prevalence of changes in oral mucosa in adults in the population of Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Henrique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal alterations among Brazilian adults of the Uberaba, city of Minas Gerais state of Brazil. Methods: A random sample of age, gender, and race was obtained comprising 1 006 individuals over the age of twenty years. Individuals were interviewed and examined according to the Marcucci guide1. Results: Prevalence of oral mucosal alterations in the sample was 54.4%, with 32.2% presenting oral mucosal lesions and 35.2% with normal alterations (12.6% of the individuals exhibited the two conditions. The most common lesion was gingivitis (6.6% followed by candidiasis (4.5%, fibroma (3.2%, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (3.1%, actinic cheilitis (2.4%, traumatic ulcers (1.7% mucocele (1.2%, minor aphta (1.2%, oral leukoplakia (1.2%. Sublingual varix was the most frequent (9.9% among the normality conditions, followed by Fordyce spot (6.6%, fissured tongue (3.2%, leukoedema (3.1%, geographic tongue (2.7%, torus mandibularis (2.1%, linea alba (2.1%, hairy tongue (1.4%, torus palatinus (1.0%. Biopsies were performed in 31 clinically indicated cases and no case of oral cancer was observed. Conclusion: Conditions observed among this Brazilian population were essentially the same as those that have been described in other populations around the world. Different factors increased the probability of specific oral mucosal conditions.

  18. Organ dose conversion coefficients for tube current modulated CT protocols for an adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Zhang, Yakun; Segars, William Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    In computed tomography (CT), patient-specific organ dose can be estimated using pre-calculated organ dose conversion coefficients (organ dose normalized by CTDIvol, h factor) database, taking into account patient size and scan coverage. The conversion coefficients have been previously estimated for routine body protocol classes, grouped by scan coverage, across an adult population for fixed tube current modulated CT. The coefficients, however, do not include the widely utilized tube current (mA) modulation scheme, which significantly impacts organ dose. This study aims to extend the h factors and the corresponding dose length product (DLP) to create effective dose conversion coefficients (k factor) database incorporating various tube current modulation strengths. Fifty-eight extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were included in this study representing population anatomy variation in clinical practice. Four mA profiles, representing weak to strong mA dependency on body attenuation, were generated for each phantom and protocol class. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the organ dose. The organ dose and effective dose was further normalized by CTDIvol and DLP to derive the h factors and k factors, respectively. The h factors and k factors were summarized in an exponential regression model as a function of body size. Such a population-based mathematical model can provide a comprehensive organ dose estimation given body size and CTDIvol. The model was integrated into an iPhone app XCATdose version 2, enhancing the 1st version based upon fixed tube current modulation. With the organ dose calculator, physicists, physicians, and patients can conveniently estimate organ dose.

  19. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krooks, Laura; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kanavakis, Georgios; Lähdesmäki, Raija

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of malocclusion traits and the extent of orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population. Materials and methods The study population comprised subjects (n = 1964) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 living in the city of Oulu and within 100 km of it. A clinical oral and dental examination with registration of occlusion was carried out in 2012 in connection with a 46-year follow-up survey. Data on previous orthodontic treatment were collected based on a questionnaire. Results In the clinical examination, 39.5% of the subjects had at least one malocclusion trait. The most common malocclusion traits were lateral crossbite (17.9%), overbite ≥ 6 mm (11.7%) and overjet ≥ 6 mm (9.7%). Crossbite on the left premolars, negative overjet and increased overbite were found more frequently in men. The prevalence of malocclusion traits was at the same level in treated and untreated groups. Overall, 18.6% of the subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions The most common malocclusion trait in the present study was lateral crossbite. Significant male dominance in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed, which has not been reported earlier in Finland. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion traits was more common among females in Northern Finland. This study indicates that orthodontic treatment provided in childhood was, on average, adequate in reducing malocclusion traits to the level observed in the general population. PMID:26940248

  20. Morphometric Study of Clavicular Facet of Coracoclavicular Joint in Adult Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anita; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anthropologists have used Coracoclavicular Joint (CCJ), a non-metric anatomical variant in population, as a marker for population migration from prehistoric times to present. Aim The aim of this osteological study was to determine the incidence and morphometry of articular facet of CCJ on conoid tubercle of clavicle in Indian population, as Indian studies are scanty and incomplete. Materials and Methods The study was done on 144 adult human clavicles (76 right and 68 left; 93 males and 51 females) collected from osteology museum in Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. The presence of articular facet on the conoid tubercle was determined and Maximum Antero-Posterior (MAPD) and maximum transverse diameter (MTD) was measured by digital vernier calliper. The incidence was compared on the basis of sex, side and with other osteological studies in the world. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi-Square test for nominal categorical data and student’s t-test for normally distributed continuous variables in Microsoft Excel 2007 to assess the relationship between the examined variables. Results Articular facet on conoid tubercle was found in 8 cases (5.6%). Seven (9.2%) were present on the right side and one (1.5%) on the left side. Seven cases (7.5%) were present in males and one case (2%) was found in females. The facets were generally oval, with MAPD and MTD of 12.28 and 17.17 mm respectively. A significant side variation was present with right sided facet being more common. The left sided facet was more transversely elongated than right. In males, the facets were more elongated antero-posteriorly than in females. Conclusion The Indian population showed an incidence of 5.6%, which was comparable to other ethnic groups in world population. The morphometric and side differences could be attributed to the occupational factors and range of movements associated with the CCJ. The CCJ should be borne in mind as a differential

  1. The annual number of breeding adults and the effective population size of syntopic newts (Triturus cristatus, T-marmoratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jehle, R; Arntzen, W.; Burke, T.; Krupa, A.P.; Hodl, W.

    2001-01-01

    Pond-breeding amphibians are deme-structured organisms with a population genetic structure particularly susceptible to demographic threats. We estimated the effective number of breeding adults (N-b) and the effective population size (N-e) of the European urodele amphibians Triturus cristatus (the crested newt) and T. marmoratus (the marbled newt), using temporal shifts in microsatellite allele frequencies. Eight microsatellite loci isolated from a T. cristatus library were used, five of which...

  2. DIETARY SODIUM INTAKE IN A SAMPLE OF ADULT MALE POPULATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY.Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzullo, P; Venezia, Antonella; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Russo, Ornella; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Farinaro, Eduardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Galletti, Ferruccio; Rossi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess dietary habitual sodium intake, the association between daily sodium intake and anthropometric indices, food habits and hypertension in the sample of adult male population participating in the Olivetti Heart Study. Design, Setting and Participants: The study population was composed of 940 men participating in the 2002-04 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and sodium excre...

  3. Electronic Theses: Swiss Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Niederer

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available To offer theses electronically to its users is something that has been discussed in Swiss university libraries for some time now. There are two main reasons that it has not yet been realized anywhere in Switzerland: On the one hand, the two large university library networks have had big library system migrations to cope with (first the „Réseau Romand” in the French speaking part moved to VTLS, then, in the last two years, the „Informationsverbund Deutschschweiz, IDS” in the German speaking part switched to Aleph by Ex Libris. These migrations used up all available personnel resources. On the other hand, the federalist organization of all things politic in Switzerland, including the university system, means that there are hardly any national programmes to further and finance projects on a national level (or cantonal, for that matter - in contrast to most other European countries where such programmes have proved to be a very strong incentive for developing various aspects of the digital library.

  4. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2005 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2005. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2005 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2005. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2005 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2005, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2005 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2012

  6. Swiss electricity statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2006. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2006 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2006, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2006 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2013

  7. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=-0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=-0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications. PMID:25919228

  8. Study Circles as a Method of Informing the Adult Population on Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public acceptance of the radioactive waste disposal facilities is difficult to achieve. Analysis of the reasons that underlie public rejection of radioactive waste disposal facilities shows that people are not adequately informed about the proposal. They also have a lot of prejudices due to the lack of knowledge and understanding about basic facts on radioactivity and environmental processes. ARAO has proposed that the topic of radioactivity and radioactive waste be included in the program of study circles in order to promote knowledge and understanding of these issues among the adult population in several Slovenian communities. Study circles are self-organized adult learning groups in the local community environment. Two study circles were initially proposed: one in Krsko, the community with a nuclear facility, and one in Radovljica, a community without a nuclear facility. Because of troubles with the unexpected politicization of nuclear issues, the study circle in Krsko was postponed to the later term, so that only the study circle in the community without the nuclear installation was active. The members were found by personal invitations. They worked on different issues dealing with radiation, mainly with the application of radiation and radioactive substances in medicine. Through the study circle activities the interest in radiation issues increased. The members reported that they disseminated their interest and acquired knowledge to their family members and friends. Our experience shows that self-learning in small groups, promoting discussions and the confrontation of different opinions, results in an increase in objective knowledge. Therefore, study circles can provide a good basis for confidence building in the nuclear technology.(author)

  9. Dual sensory impairment in older adults increases the risk of mortality: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available Although concurrent vision and hearing loss are common in older adults, population-based data on their relationship with mortality is limited. This cohort study investigated the association between objectively measured dual sensory impairment (DSI with mortality risk over 10 years. 2812 Blue Mountains Eye Study participants aged 55 years and older at baseline were included for analyses. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity less than 20/40 (better eye, and hearing impairment as average pure-tone air conduction threshold greater than 25 dB HL (500-4000 Hz, better ear. Ten-year all-cause mortality was confirmed using the Australian National Death Index. After ten years, 64% and 11% of participants with DSI and no sensory loss, respectively, had died. After multivariable adjustment, participants with DSI (presenting visual impairment and hearing impairment compared to those with no sensory impairment at baseline, had 62% increased risk of all-cause mortality, hazard ratio, HR, 1.62 (95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.16-2.26. This association was more marked in those with both moderate-severe hearing loss (>40 dB HL and presenting visual impairment, HR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19-2.86. Participants with either presenting visual impairment only or hearing impairment only, did not have an increased risk of mortality, HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.61-1.80 and HR 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.54, respectively. Concurrent best-corrected visual impairment and moderate-severe hearing loss was more strongly associated with mortality 10 years later, HR 2.19 (95% CI 1.20-4.03. Objectively measured DSI was an independent predictor of total mortality in older adults. DSI was associated with a risk of death greater than that of either vision loss only or hearing loss alone.

  10. Visual function and vision-related quality of life in presbyopic adult population of Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiru Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-related quality of life (QoL and visual function (VF among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu local government area (LGA of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study in Bungudu LGA of Zamfara State Nigeria was conducted in 2012. Six-hundred and fifty persons at least 40 years of age were examined using a two-stage cluster random sampling-based on probability proportional to size. Presbyopia was defined as the inability to read N8 at 40 cm in an indoor illumination using LogMAR E-chart. Demographic information comprising of age, sex, occupation, and educational level among others was obtained from a pilot tested VF-14 and modified vision-related QoL questionnaire by trained interviewer. Results: Out Of the 650 subjects enumerated 635 were examined given a response rate of 97.7%. The mean age of participants was 53.59 years (95% confidence interval:52.75%-54.43%. The crude prevalence of presbyopia was 30.4%, (95% CI: 26.8%-34.1%. The mean VF score of persons with presbyopia was 85.09, (95% CI: 83.09%-87.09% and being female was strongly associated with high VF scores (P = 0.003. The VFs most impaired were the ability to read, write, use mobile phones, and thread needles. The higher the degree of presbyopia the lower the mean VF score (P = 0.00. Conclusion: Uncorrected presbyopia is associated with functional visual impairment and reduce QoL especially in the ability to read, write, and usage of mobile cell phones among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu District.

  11. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  12. Health supplement consumption behavior in older adults population: An exploratory study

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    Mimi M.Y. eTSE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69 and old-old group (age 70 or above. The mean age is 67.93±10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational programme concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young old and old-old groups.

  13. Health supplement consumption behavior in the older adult population: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69) and old-old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young-old and old-old groups. PMID:24575397

  14. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population. PMID:27144988

  15. Organizational issues in stroke treatment: The Swiss paradigm - Stroke units

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios K Matis; Chrysou, Olga I; Birbilis, Theodossios A.

    2013-01-01

    Stroke represents the leading cause of acquired disability in adults and poses a tremendous socioeconomic burden both on patients and the society. In this sense, prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment are needed in order to radically reduce the devastating consequences of this disease. Herein the authors present the new guidelines recently adopted by the Swiss Stroke Society concerning the establishment of stroke units. Standardized treatment and allocation protocols along with an acute rehabi...

  16. Comparisons of Pollen Substitute Diets for Honey bees: Consumprion Rates by Colonies and Effects on Brood and Adult Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially available pollen substitute diets for honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were evaluated for consumption and colony growth (brood and adult populations) and compared with pollen cake and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Two trials were conducted; the first for 4 months during the fall and wi...

  17. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan; Lind, Peter; Meeusen, E.N.T.; Rasmussen, Tina; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...... inoculation or on the immune response before or after challenge inoculation could be detected. These results indicate that a significant protective memory immune response to A. suum challenge inoculation can be induced in pigs, and that this protective immunity is not significantly modulated by the presence...

  18. Suboptimal effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine in adult Korean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk Choi

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in adult Korean populations with regard to how well it could prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related complications.A retrospective case-control and retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who visited four selected hospitals from September 2011 to May 2012. The analysis included 1,130 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients. For each influenza case, one control patient was chosen at a ratio of 1:1. A control was defined as an age group-matched patient who visited the same hospital with influenza-like illness within 48 hours of symptom onset but for whom laboratory tests were negative for influenza. Age group and visit date were matched between the cases and controls. Vaccine effectiveness (VE was defined as [100 × (1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons]. The patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were followed for at least one month through reviewing the medical records and conducting a telephone interview.The VE of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI, -16.5% to 20.6%] for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, -16.1% (95% CI, -48.3 to 9.1 for influenza A and 26.2% (95% CI, -2.6 to 46.2 for influenza B. The age-specific adjusted VE was 0.3% (95% CI, -29.4 to 23.1 among participants aged 19 to 49 years, 11.9% (95% CI, -34.3 to 42.2 among those aged 50 to 64 years and -3.9% (-60.1 to 32.5 among those aged ≥65 years. The adjusted VE for preventing any influenza-related complications was -10.7% (95% CI, -41.1% to 42.2%.The 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was not effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza or influenza-related complications in adult Korean populations.

  19. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV. Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%. The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%. Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8% of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4% of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias.

  20. Swiss-Cheese operad and Drinfeld center

    OpenAIRE

    Idrissi, Najib

    2015-01-01

    We build a model in groupoids for the Swiss-Cheese operad, based on parenthesized permutations and braids, and we relate algebras over this model to the classical description of algebras over the homology of the Swiss-Cheese operad. We extend our model to a rational model for the Swiss-Cheese operad, and we compare it to the model that we would get if the operad Swiss-Cheese were formal.

  1. Estabelecimento de metodologia para alimentação de Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae em camundongos swiss e avaliação da toxicidade e do efeito residual do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae em populações de Aedes aegypti Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae, in populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemir Pereira Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se desenvolver um procedimento de alimentação de fêmeas de Aedes aegypti que não cause estresse em camundongo swiss e avaliar a toxicidade e o efeito residual do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae em populações de Aedes aegypti. Camundongos anestesiados: um observado tempo de sedação e outro colocado em gaiola para alimentação de fêmeas. Óleo essencial, diluído em acetona, foi utilizado em bioensaios para avaliação das concentrações letais em larvas de Bauru, SP e São José do Rio Preto, SP, respectivamente, sensíveis e resistentes ao temephos. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com a cepa Rockefeller-EUA. O procedimento com camundongos foi aprovado. Não houve diferença entre as populações quanto à susceptibilidade a Tagetes minuta e os ensaios demonstraram CL50 de 0,24, 0,25 e 0,21mL L-1 e CL99,9 em 0,35, 0,39 e 0,42mL L-1, respectivamente, para Rockfeller, Bauru e São José do Rio Preto. Não foi observado efeito residual da solução.The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP and São José do Rio Preto (SP that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto

  2. Factors influencing the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valodia, P; Seymour, M A; Miller, R; McFadyen, M L; Folb, P I

    1999-02-01

    The influence of various covariates (including weight, race, smoking, gender, age, mild-to-moderate alcohol intake, and body surface area) on the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa was investigated. The parameters were the maximum metabolic rate (Vm) and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) constant (Km) of phenytoin. The study population comprised 332 black and colored epileptic patients (note: "black" refers to indigenous people of South Africa, who speak one of the Bantu languages as their native language; "colored" refers to people considered to be of mixed race, classified as such by the apartheid former government of South Africa). The influence of covariates on Vm and Km estimates was determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). Parameter models describing the factors that could potentially influence Vm and Km were tested using the Michaelis-Menten parallel MM and first-order elimination models, to which 853 steady state dose-to-serum concentration pairs were fitted. The results indicated that body weight, smoking, race, and age (65 years or older), in descending order of importance, significantly influenced Vm (p influence of race in Km in the final regression model did not improve the fit of the model to the data, which indicated that the variability in Km was accounted for by Vm. The scaling factors for smoking, colored patients and age (65 years or older) in Vm were 1.16, 1.10, and 0.88, respectively. These factors should be taken into account when adjusting phenytoin dose. PMID:10051055

  3. Mortality by causes in HIV-infected adults: comparison with the general population

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    Floristan Yugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups. Methods Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain. This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR. Results There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years. About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1 and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5. The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6, drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0, suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7, cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1 and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1. Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007. Conclusions Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.

  4. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

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    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  5. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

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    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  6. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (pstudents spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to promote various forms of physical activity among students and schoolchildren. A constant decrease in physical activity observed among children and adolescents suggests that it is necessary to pay greater attention to this social group while developing health programmes. PMID:22462455

  7. Evaluation of Risk Factors of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the Adult Population of Zahedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common form of chronic liver disease. It has been reported that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and arises fat accumulation in the liver. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the some biomarkers of NAFLD risk in adult general population. Materials and Methods: An analytical - descriptive study was carried out on a total of 1529 randomly selected individuals (797 male and 732 female aged 30–88 years in Zahedan. The characteristics of socio-demographic, medical history, food habits and lifestyle factors were obtained by a validated questionnaire, liver ultrasonography and routine laboratory tests were performed with the use of standard techniques. The assessment of waist circumference (WC and waist to hip ratio (WHR was performed as central obesity indices. Results: The mean levels of WC and WHR were 92±11.7 cm and 0.91±0.06 in men, and 91.2±12.4 cm and 0.88±0.07 in women, respectively. 39.7% and 37% of subjects had hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, respectively. Ultrasonography findings demonstrated diffuse fatty liver in 40.9% subjects. Data also showed low consumption of fruits and vegetables and fish, and high consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and fast foods in the majority of obesity and NAFLD subjects compared with normal subjects. Conclusion: The results showed that a large proportion of the study population is at risk of central obesity and NAFLD. The formation of non-alcoholic fatty liver may be associated with obesity and unhealthy dietary patterns which warrants further research.

  8. Immunogenetic markers of Crohn's disease in adults population of the Moscow region

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    Stavtsev D.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study immunogenetic markers of predisposition to the development and protection for Crohn's disease in adults population of the Moscow region. Material and methods. The study included 53 samples of peripheral blood of patients with Crohn's disease in the Moscow region. The control group was represented by 1,700 samples of umbilical cord blood is healthy newborns. Revealing HLA antigens at low level performed by SSO method on DynalRELI 48 processor. The results received with ambiguous interpretation was using PCR-SSP method (Ivitrogen. Results. Were found the positive and negative associations of groups of HLA alleles with clinical form, the course of Crohn's disease and response to steroid treatment, in particular revealed that, predisposition to the development for Crohn's disease in women and with sensitivity to steroid treatment in this disease associated allele group C*12, to the characteristic restricting markers such as Crohn's disease include the В 38 and A*11 markers nonrestricting, nonpenetrating noninflammatory type groups are alleles B*56 and C*14 and C*14 is also associated with the risk of Crohn's disease in men, characteristic markers of protection to the development of the disease crown with chronic relapsing and severe clinical course are DQB1*02 and DQB1*03, respectively. Conclusion. These results demonstrate the need for studies of gene polymorphism HLA-system, not only in relation to the disease in general, but in selected patients with clinical groups.

  9. Study of risk factors for carcinoma breast in adult female general population in Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate some of the established risk factors for the breast cancer in adult female population. It was a prospective study. This study was conducted in Oncology Department, Services Hospital, Lahore, from August 1999 to August, 2000. One hundred breast cancer patients and 100 control subjects enrolled for interview and the percentage of positives was analyzed. Performa containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for breast cancer was established. All the female subjects, above 15 years of age, were subjected to the questions in this proforma. To keep uniformity medical officers were briefed for filling this proforma. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Out of established risk factors, family history of breast cancer and use of oral contraceptive pills were proved significantly positive with a value of p0.05). This study showed that there is a family tendency for breast cancer and estrogenic hormones are playing some role. More possibility of breast cancer was found in infertile and those having early menarche. (author)

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan

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    Saleem Taimur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000 and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038. 70/198 (35.3% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.

  11. Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention in a non-treatment-seeking population of adult heavy drinkers: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based interventions for heavy drinkers show promising results, but existing research is characterized by few studies in nonstudent adult populations and few comparisons with appropriate control groups.......Internet-based interventions for heavy drinkers show promising results, but existing research is characterized by few studies in nonstudent adult populations and few comparisons with appropriate control groups....

  12. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

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    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile. Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h. Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment. Conclusions. In this

  13. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

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    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  14. Children and young adults with parents with cancer: a population-based study

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    Syse A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Astri Syse1, Gjøril B Aas1, Jon H Loge2,31Cancer Registry of Norway, 2Oslo University Hospital, 3University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Today many people are choosing to have children later in life. Additionally, the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools and screening modalities has increased over recent years. Because of these factors, cancer is being diagnosed more frequently during the child-rearing years. Sociodemographic and cancer-related information on families and minor (0–18 years and young adult (YA (19–25 years children experiencing parental cancer is scarce, but this information is vital for healthcare initiatives aimed toward those potentially adversely affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe features of families and minor and YA children affected by parental cancer in a nationwide population.Methods: Complete Norwegian birth cohort data were obtained from national registries. Descriptive prevalence and incidence statistics were collected for parents and minor and YA children. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors likely to influence parental death.Results: Every year around 0.3% of all families with children under the age of 18 years encounter parental cancer, and 3.1% of minors and 8.4% of YAs have a parent who has been diagnosed with cancer. This study found skin, breast, testicular, and colorectal cancers were the most common forms of cancer diagnosed. The sociodemographic features of those affected were fairly similar to those of the general population. One in five children experienced parental death from cancer; parental death was more often paternal than maternal and was most common in parents diagnosed with leukemia or brain, colorectal, and lung tumors. Deaths are uncommon among parents without cancer.Conclusion: Adequate assistance for minor and YA children affected by parental cancer requires knowledge of their number and characteristics. Parental cancer is more common than

  15. The adult population dynamics of the Honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in citrus orchards in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Naim; ULUSOY, M. Rifat

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out at citrus orchards in Adana, Mersin and Osmaniye provinces of the Eastern Mediterranean Region in 2008–2009. In this study, it was aimed to reveal the status of Honeydew moth [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in the region by determining some criteria that are essential for the control of the pest such as trap hanging time, the emergence time of adults, adult population dynamics, peak times of population, the period for adults to be...

  16. Anxiety and depression in adults with cystic fibrosis: a comparison between patients and the general population in Sweden and three other European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Backström-Eriksson, Lena; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Bergsten-Brucefors, Agneta; Hjelte, Lena; Melin, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive life-shortening disease among Caucasians. Studies exploring the prevalence of anxiety and depression in adult CF patients are few, show inconsistent findings and rarely include comparisons with general populations. Prevalence and degree of anxiety and depression were investigated in adult CF patients in Sweden, Belgium, Germany and the UK, and compared to corresponding general population data. Methods Adult non-transplante...

  17. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg...

  18. Prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation in the Latin American adult population: the PLATINO study

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    Valdivia Gonzalo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PLATINO project was launched in 2002 in order to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Latin America. Because smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, detailed data on it were obtained. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation among middle-aged and older adults (40 years or older. Special emphasis was given to the association between smoking and schooling. Methods PLATINO is a multicenter study comprising five cross-sectional population-based surveys of approximately 1,000 individuals per site in Sao Paulo (Brazil, Santiago (Chile, Mexico City (Mexico, Montevideo (Uruguay and Caracas (Venezuela. The outcome variable was smoking status (never, former or current. Current smokers were those who reported to smoke within the previous 30 days. Former smokers were those who reported to quit smoking more than 30 days before the survey. Using information on year of birth and age of smoking onset and quitting, a retrospective cohort analysis was carried out. Smoking prevalence at each period was defined as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period plus those who were already smokers at the beginning of the period, divided by the total number of subjects. Incidence of smoking initiation was calculated as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period divided by the number of non-smokers at its beginning. The independent variables included were sex, age and schooling. Results Non-response rates ranged from 11.1% to 26.8%. The prevalence of smoking ranged from 23.9% (95%CI 21.3; 26.6 in Sao Paulo to 38.5% (95%CI 35.7; 41.2 in Santiago. Males and middle-aged adults were more likely to smoke in all sites. After adjustment for age, schooling was not associated with smoking. Using retrospective cohort analysis, it was possible to detect that the highest prevalence of smoking is found between 20–29 years, while the

  19. Time-trends in assisted and unassisted suicides completed with different methods: Swiss National Cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Steck, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The number of suicides assisted by right-to-die associations has increased in recent years in Switzerland. The aim of our study was to compare time trends in rates of assisted and unassisted suicide from 1991-2008. METHODS The Swiss National Cohort is a longitudinal study of mortality in the Swiss population; based on linkage of census data with mortality records up to 2008. The Federal Statistical Office coded suspected assisted suicides from 1998 onwards; and from 2003...

  20. Assessment of serum trace metals and body mass indices in rural and urban healthy adult population: A pilot study

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    Pavana Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited community-based data are available on the serum zinc and copper levels and factors affecting their levels in the adult healthy population of rural and urban India. Hence, the present study is conducted to evaluate and compare the serum levels of zinc and copper with body mass indices (BMI in rural and urban healthy adult population. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from the rural and urban population in the age group of 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Subjects having past medical histories of major diseases and with acute infections were excluded. Their anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, hip, and waist circumference were measured, and the BMI calculated. Venous samples collected from them were used to determine the levels of zinc and copper. Results: Both the subject groups had optimum levels of zinc, but the urban subjects were deficient in copper. The levels of serum zinc were higher in the urban population while the levels of copper were higher in the rural population. In addition, the levels of serum zinc and copper were negatively correlated with each other but were not statistically significant. Considering each of the population individually, there was no gender wise difference between the serum zinc and copper levels and were almost the same. The BMI had a strong positive correlation with the serum zinc levels in the rural population (P = 0.026. However, it did not have any correlation with the copper levels. Conclusion: Our study brought out the association between serum zinc levels and BMI and the fact that serum zinc levels were higher in the urban population and copper levels in the rural population. Emphasis on the diet rich in these trace elements can help in maintaining adequate and balanced levels of zinc and copper.

  1. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

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    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  2. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria

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    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAND LENGTH AND HEIGHT IN ADULT MALES OF NORTH INDIAN PUNJABI POPULATION

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    Maheshwar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stature of an individual is an inherent characteris tic, the estimate of which is considered to be an important a ssessment in identification of unknown human remains 12 .The stature prediction occupies relatively a central position both in anthropological research and in the identification n ecessitated by the medical jurisprudence or by medico legal experts. Estimation of stature of an individual from the skeletal material or from the mutilated or amputated limbs or parts of limbs ha s obvious significance in the personal identification in the events of the murders, accide nts or natural disasters mainly concerns with forensic identification analysis 8 . Whether this is true for the North Indian Punjabi m ale population is not known till date. AIMS: The present study was done with an aim to establish relationship between height and hand length in adult males of north Indian Punjabi population, as it is not seen in the accessible literature till date to the best of our knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Height of 150 healthy male students between 18 to 25 years of age was measured with the help of an anthropometric rod. The height of all the students was measured in anatomical position keeping all the subjects erect . The height measured was vertical distance from the vertex to floor. Hand length is the direct linear distance between the distal wrist crease and the distal ends of most anterior projecting poin t i.e., tip of the middle finger. It is also the distance between midpoint of line joining the two st ylion and Dactylion of middle finger. Result: - A positive correlation between height and hand leng th was observed and it was statistically significant. Regression equation for height estimat ion was formulated using hand length. For statistical analysis IBM ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS + Version 20 was used. The mean difference of the height was 1773.273 ± 78.832 mm and Hand length (Right and Left were 196

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population

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    Clotilde Allavena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV. Method: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behaviour, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI, quality of life (WHO QOL HIV BREF questionnaire and depression (Beck depression Inventory (BDI-II questionnaire. Socio-demographic and immunovirologic data, medical history, ARVs were collected. Results: From November 2012 to May 2013, 1354 consecutive non-selected patients were enrolled. Patients’ characteristics were: 73.5% male, median age 47 years, active employment 56.7%, France-native 83% and Africa-native 14.7%, CDC stage C 21%, hepatitis co-infection 13%, lipodystrophy 11.8%, dyslipidemia 20%, high BP 15.1%, diabetes 3%, tobacco smokers 39%, marijuana and cocaine users, 11.7% and 1.7% respectively, and excessive alcohol drinkers 9%. Median (med duration of HIV infection was 12.4 years, med CD4 count was 604/mm3; 94% of Patients were on ARVs, 87% had undetectable viral load. Median sleeping time was 7 hours. Sleep disturbances (defined as PSQI score >5 were observed in 47% of the patients, more frequently in female (56.4% than in male (43.9% (p19 in 19.7% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with sleep disturbances (p10 vs. <10 y. (OR 1.5; CI 1.1–2.0, ARV regimen containing nevirapine (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9 or efavirenz (OR 0.5; CI 0.3–0.7. Conclusions: Prevalence of sleep disturbances is high in this HIV population and roughly similar to the French population. Associated factors are rather related to social and psychological

  5. Caries prevalence and tooth loss in Hungarian adult population: results of a national survey

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    Jáhn Marianna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is basicly important for the well-being of people. Thus, it is strongly suggested to organize epidemiological surveys in order to gain representative data on oral condition of the given population. The purpose of the cross-sectional study was to determine the results on tooth loss and caries prevalence of Hungarian adults in different age groups. Methods Altogether 4606 persons (2923 women, 1683 men participated in the study who were classified into different age groups: 19 [less than or equal to], 20–24, 35–44, 45–64, 65–74, [greater than or equal to]75 year olds. Probands were selected randomly from the population attending the compulsory lung screening examinations. The participants were examined by calibrated dentists, according to the WHO (1997 criteria. In order to produce representative data, the chosen localities for these examinations covered the capital, the largest towns, the villages, and case weights were used for the statistical evaluation. Results The mean values of DMF-T were found between 11.79±5.68 and 21.90±7.61 These values were significantly higher in women compared to men (p Data showed some decrease in caries experience in 35–44 years of age between 2000 and 2004. The prevalence of persons with 21 or more teeth had been increased from 65.6% to 73.1%. This positive tendency has not been occured in prevalence of edentulousness in this age group: the prevalence of edentulous persons changed from 1.4 to 1.9%. In 65–74 year olds the level of edentulousness became lower, from 25.9 to 14.8% and the prevalence of persons with 21 or more teeth is higher (22.6% than it was in 2000 (13.0%. Conclusion Present data from Hungary show some slight decrease in caries experience between 35–44 years of age, although this positive tendency has not been occured in prevalence of edentulousness in this age group. A positive tendency could be experienced in the group of 65–74 year olds in

  6. Aetiology and severity of gingival recession in an adult population sample in Greece

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    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

  7. Creating and validating an algorithm to measure AIDS mortality in the adult population using verbal autopsy.

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    Ben A Lopman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vital registration and cause of death reporting is incomplete in the countries in which the HIV epidemic is most severe. A reliable tool that is independent of HIV status is needed for measuring the frequency of AIDS deaths and ultimately the impact of antiretroviral therapy on mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A verbal autopsy questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 381 adults of known HIV status who died between 1998 and 2003 in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. Individuals who were HIV positive and did not die in an accident or during childbirth (74%; n = 282 were considered to have died of AIDS in the gold standard. Verbal autopsies were randomly allocated to a training dataset (n = 279 to generate classification criteria or a test dataset (n = 102 to verify criteria. A rule-based algorithm created to minimise false positives had a specificity of 66% and a sensitivity of 76%. Eight predictors (weight loss, wasting, jaundice, herpes zoster, presence of abscesses or sores, oral candidiasis, acute respiratory tract infections, and vaginal tumours were included in the algorithm. In the test dataset of verbal autopsies, 69% of deaths were correctly classified as AIDS/non-AIDS, and it was not necessary to invoke a differential diagnosis of tuberculosis. Presence of any one of these criteria gave a post-test probability of AIDS death of 0.84. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of verbal autopsy data in this rural Zimbabwean population revealed a distinct pattern of signs and symptoms associated with AIDS mortality. Using these signs and symptoms, demographic surveillance data on AIDS deaths may allow for the estimation of AIDS mortality and even HIV prevalence.

  8. Road traffic noise exposure and annoyance: A cross-sectional study among adult Indian population

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    Dibyendu Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preceding research has linked noise exposure, road traffic bring the dominant community source, with annoyance, which is an indicator of more serious, chronic health conditions. This study aimed to explore the association between residential road traffic noise and self-reported annoyance from an adult Indian population, residing close to roadways. The cross-sectional study used a questionnaire survey in an urban Indian municipality along roadways, where faηade noise assessment was made manually. The survey included randomly selected subjects aged 19-59 years, residing minimum of 10 years in the area and residing within 50 m of the roadways. Association of self-reported annoyance and noise exposure was examined by binary and multiple logistic regressions. The noise exposure was classified in units of 5 dB (A from <65 dB (A to 80 dB (A. Self-reported annoyance was marked at levels above 65-70 dB (A. A 67.5 dB (AA is suggested as a threshold level. The association was statistically significant for female subjects with the adjusted odds ratio being 2.35 (95% confidence intervals: 0.99-5.58. Prevalence of annoyance was more for male subjects. Both age and period of residence were significant predictors of annoyance. Vulnerable age sub-groups were 34-40 years, followed by 50-60 years. The results of this study further suggest the association residential noise exposure near roadways and self-reported annoyance, among the study subjects.

  9. Genome-wide population-based association study of extremely overweight young adults--the GOYA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Holst, Claus; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Grarup, Niels; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan René; Hansen, Torben; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Pedersen, Oluf; Elliott, Katherine S; Kemp, John P; St Pourcain, Beate; McMahon, George; Zelenika, Diana; Hager, Jörg; Lathrop, Mark; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI) have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining,similar to 1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for...... extremely overweight individuals. We aimed to identify new loci associated with BMI and to ascertain whether using an extreme sampling design would identify the variants known to be associated with BMI in general populations. Methodology/Principal Findings: From two large Danish cohorts we selected all...... extremely overweight young men and women (n = 2,633), and equal numbers of population-based controls (n = 2,740, drawn randomly from the same populations as the extremes, representing similar to 212,000 individuals). We followed up novel (at the time of the study) association signals (p...

  10. Dynamics of a neutral delay equation for an insect population with long larval and short adult phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Kuang, Yang

    We present a global study on the stability of the equilibria in a nonlinear autonomous neutral delay differential population model formulated by Bocharov and Hadeler. This model may be suitable for describing the intriguing dynamics of an insect population with long larval and short adult phases such as the periodical cicada. We circumvent the usual difficulties associated with the study of the stability of a nonlinear neutral delay differential model by transforming it to an appropriate non-neutral nonautonomous delay differential equation with unbounded delay. In the case that no juveniles give birth, we establish the positivity and boundedness of solutions by ad hoc methods and global stability of the extinction and positive equilibria by the method of iteration. We also show that if the time adjusted instantaneous birth rate at the time of maturation is greater than 1, then the population will grow without bound, regardless of the population death process.

  11. The Impact of Demographic Characteristics and Lifestyle in the Distribution of Cystatin C Values in a Healthy Greek Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos A. Evangelopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the present study was to examine sources of variation for serum cystatin C in a healthy Greek population. Methods. Cystatin C together with basic clinical chemistry tests was measured in a total of 490 adults (46±16 yrs, 40% males who underwent an annual health check. Demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Results. Higher values of cystatin C were observed among males (P=.04, participants aged over 65 years (P<.001, current smokers (P=.001 and overweight/obese participants (P=.03. On the contrary, alcohol consumption and physical activity seemed to have no influence on cystatin C levels (P=.61; P=.95, resp.. Conclusions. In interpreting serum cystatin C values in a healthy adult population, age, gender, Body Mass Index, and cigarette smoking need to be considered, and determination of reference ranges among distinct subpopulations seem to be prudent.

  12. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  13. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths among an adult population in a war affected area, Southern Kordofan state, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Zeid Alaa Hammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains a major health problem at global and national levels, contributing to the vulnerability of the poor people in Sudan. Southern Kordofan is affected by Schistosomiasis but the disease prevalence was unknown. Methods 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. Results 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 6.9 % among the adult population. We estimated S. mansoni prevalence as 0.0 %. S. haematobium infection was focally distributed at the village level. The infection was associated with non preference of latrine use – if available, use of open water source for household affairs such as cleaning and also with the history of schistosomiasis treatment. The prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH was also reported as high at 7.8 %, and two species were identified; Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia. Conclusion Schistosomiasis is a significant health problem among the adult population in Southern Kordofan. The estimated prevalence will serve as a guide in developing a Schistosomiasis Control Program and applying treatment plans.

  14. Four major dietary patterns identified for a target-population of adults residing in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Lin; Roebothan, Barbara; Ryan, Ann; Colbourne, Jennifer; Baker, Natasha; Yan, Jing; Wang, Peizhong Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Very limited nutritional epidemiological studies conducted to explore the unique dietary exposure in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). This study aims to identify and characterize major dietary patterns in the target-population from general adult NL residents and assess the associations with selected demographic factors. Methods A total of 192 participants, aged 35–70 years, completed and returned a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and participated in a telephone interview to colle...

  15. No Effect on Body Dissatisfaction of an Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Genotype and Neuroticism in a Young Adult Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Seung-Keun; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Chee, Ik-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many studies suggest an association between the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) in healthy subjects. This study investigated the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on body dissatisfaction by neuroticism and to evaluate the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on self-esteem by body dissatisfaction in a young adult Korean population. Methods Two hundred and eighty three subjects were included in this...

  16. Association between Periodontal Status, Oral Hygiene Status and Tooth Wear among Adult Male Population in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umoh, AO; Azodo, CC

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. Aim: To determine the association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and tooth wear among the adult male population in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among 65 male drivers, aged 25-64 years, with a mean age of 48.6 (9.1) years in an organized private motor park ...

  17. U.S. population estimates and correlates of sexual abuse of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, Michael B; Manini, Todd; Spence-Almaguer, Emily; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Andresen, Elena M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the annual prevalence of sexual abuse among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. We also describe factors associated with experiencing sexual abuse. We used data from 24,343 older adults from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System pooled across 18 states. We estimated prevalence of sexual abuse, bivariate distributions, and odds ratio associations across demographic, health, and contextual factors. Our results show that 0.9% of older adults reported experiencing sexual abuse in the previous year. This represents approximately 90,289 community-dwelling older adults. We also report on factors associated with experiencing recent sexual abuse. There was a significant gender by binge drinking interaction, with a stronger association among women. There is a need for health promotion efforts targeted specifically toward older adults, encouraging them to seek services, if possible, after exposure to sexual abuse. PMID:24410194

  18. Online shopping: a comparison between Swiss and Egyptian consumers' behavior

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sadawy, Samir; Emad, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    This study is focusing on Switzerland and Egypt and is meant to analyse the trend of online shopping in both countries. The initial part of this study will analyse the evolution of the Internet and its applications over the years, it will study the penetration of computers and Internet access into households and it will also consider the trend of online shopping for both countries. Eventually a previous business idea meant to ease the online shopping experience for the Swiss population will b...

  19. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms-modeled entirely in mesh surfaces-of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo

  20. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  1. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Yong Hum; Xu, X George [Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Zhang Binquan; Zhang Juying; Caracappa, Peter F, E-mail: xug2@rpi.ed [Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms-modeled entirely in mesh surfaces-of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  2. Age-related changes in central corneal thickness in normal eyes among the adult Lithuanian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galgauskas S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saulius Galgauskas,1 Grazina Juodkaite,1 Janina Tutkuviene2 1Center of Eye Diseases, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate mean central corneal thickness (CCT and determine whether there are any correlations between CCT, age, and sex in the adult ­Lithuanian population.Methods: A total of 1,650 Caucasians of Lithuanian origin (aged 18–89 years comprising 688 (41.7% men and 962 (58.3% women were examined. Subjects were stratified by age into seven groups. CCT was measured using ultrasonic pachymetry. Correlations between CCT, age, and sex were sought.Results: Mean (± standard deviation CCT for both eyes was 544.6±30.5 µm. Mean CCT was 545.2±30.5 µm in the left eye and 544.6±30.5 µm in the right eye, and was 545.0±25.6 µm in men and 544.4±33.5 µm in women. Mean CCT was 550.8±35.7 µm in subjects aged 18–29 years, 557.5±27.6 µm in those aged 30–39 years, 551.3±31.4 µm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.0±31.4 µm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.2±31.6 µm in those aged 60–79 years, 535.1±27.8 µm in those aged 70–79 years, and 530.1±16.8 µm in those aged 80–89 years. No statistically significant difference in CCT was found between the sexes (P>0.05. However, there was a significant difference in subjects aged 18–29 years; men had higher CCT than women (P<0.05. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CCT and age (r=−0.263, P<0.05 that was stronger in men (r=−0.406, P<0.05 than in women (r=−0.118, P<0.05. Conclusion: The mean CCT in adult Lithuanians was 544.6±30.5 µm, of the left eye 545.2±30.5 µm and of the right – 544.6±30.5 µm. CCT of the right eye was equal to the CCT of both eyes. Mean CCT was 545.0±25.6 µm in men and 544.4±33.5 µm in women. Young men tended to have higher CCT than women. CCT decreases over the

  3. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viscogliosi Chantal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada: older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities, nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships. The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better

  4. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  5. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  6. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  7. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  8. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  9. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  10. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  11. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  12. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  13. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  14. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  15. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yoshiaki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Jun; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect) and ill-being (negative affect). We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI); Life Experiences Survey (LES); Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A); and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus). Results Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated that childhood abuse, particularly neglect, indirectly worsened the well-being of individuals through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable affective temperaments. An important “mediator” role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on well-being was suggested. PMID:27110116

  16. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from...

  17. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald G Carter; Ryane Logsdon; Arnold, Bryan D.; Angelica Menchaca; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed variation in contact calls recorded fr...

  18. Cell competition modifies adult stem cell and tissue population dynamics in a JAKSTAT dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J. E.; Kucinski, Iwo; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Mansour, Sarah; Simons, Benjamin D.; Piddini, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Throughout their lifetime, cells may suffer insults that reduce their fitness and disrupt their function, and it is unclear how these potentially harmful cells are managed in adult tissues. We address this question using the adult Drosophila posterior midgut as a model of homeostatic tissue and ribosomal Minute mutations to reduce fitness in groups of cells. We take a quantitative approach combining lineage tracing and biophysical modeling and address how cell competition affects stem...

  19. Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Modig, Lars; Levinsson, Anna; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Toren, Kjell; Nyberg, Fredrik; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design: Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting: The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001-2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants' residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 ...

  20. Comparison of Ultrasonography-Guided Central Venous Catheterization Between Adult and Pediatric Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the technical success and complication rates of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric patients which have not been reported previously. In a 4-year period, 859 ultrasonography-guided central vein catheterizations in 688 adult patients and 247 catheterizations in 156 pediatric patients were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age was 56.3 years (range, 18 to 95 years) for adults and 3.3 years (range, 0.1 to 16.3 years) for children. The preferred catheterization site was internal jugular vein in 97% of adults and 85% of children. The technical success rate, mean number of punctures, and rate of single wall puncture were 99.4%, 1.04 (range, 1-3), and 83% for adults and 90.3%, 1.25 (range, 1-5), and 49% for children, respectively. All the differences were statistically significant (p 0.05). Major complications such as pneumothorax and hemothorax were not seen in any group. In conclusion, ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization has a high technical success rate, lower puncture attempt rate, and higher single wall puncture rate in adults compared to children. Complication rates are comparable in the two groups

  1. ''Swiss cheese'' models with pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local spherically symmetric inhomogeneities are matched to a spatially flat Robertson-Walker background with pressure. In the cases in which the background evolves to an Einstein--de Sitter dust universe, the interior metrics tend with time either to the vacuum Schwarzschild solution or to the spatially flat Tolman dust metrics. The whole construction may be interpreted as the history of the dust-filled ''Swiss cheese'' models

  2. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  3. Juvenile resilience and adult longevity explain residual populations of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanín, María José; Anthelme, Fabien; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bernal, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m(2) in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology. PMID:24194823

  4. Juvenile resilience and adult longevity explain residual populations of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Sanín

    Full Text Available Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1 adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2 adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m(2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology.

  5. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  6. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %). PMID:23695063

  7. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  8. Reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an adult population of Rosario, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Zapata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary assessment of nutrients and food groups by food frequency questionnaire needs to be validated in each population. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire among adults of Rosario, Argentina.Material and Methods: Two food frequency questionnaires and four 24-hour dietary recalls were applied in a sample of 88 adults. Reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire was estimated by correlation coefficients, and validity was assessed comparing the second food frequency questionnaire and the average of the 24-hour dietary recalls using cross-classification and Bland–Altman analyses.Results: Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients showed higher correlation for food groups than for energy and nutrients. More than 65% of the subjects were classified into the same quintile or into the adjacent quintile by both food frequency questionnaires. Bland–Altman plots showed reasonably acceptable agreement between the second food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls, especially for the main Argentinian foods groups (meat, cereal, dairy products, vegetables and fruits.Conclusions: Overall, food frequency questionnaire showed acceptable reproducibility and relative validity for assessment main food groups and nutrient intakes for adult population in Rosario.

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Iranian Adult Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkalali, Bahareh; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Sharifi, Farshad; Kelishadi, Roya; Zamani, Farhad; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samavat, Tahereh; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Context: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of most non-communicable diseases; gathering information about its prevalence can be very effective in formulating preventive strategies for metabolic diseases. There are many different studies about the prevalence of MetS in Iran, but the results and the study populations of these studies are very different; therefore, it is very important to have an overall estimation of its prevalence in Iran. Objectives: This study systematically reviewed the findings of all available studies on MetS in the adult Iranian population and estimated the overall prevalence of MetS in this population. Data Sources: International databases (Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and PubMed) were searched for papers published from January, 2000 to December, 2013 using medical subject headings (MeSH), Emtree, and related keywords (metabolic syndrome, dysmetabolic syndrome, cardiovascular syndrome, and insulin resistance syndrome) combined with the words “prevalence” and “Iran.” The Farsi equivalent of these terms and all probable combinations were used to search Persian national databases (IranMedex, Magiran, SID, and Irandoc). Study Selection: All population-based studies and national surveys that reported the prevalence of MetS in healthy Iranian adults were included. Data Extraction: After quality assessment, data were extracted according to a standard protocol. Because of between-study heterogeneity, data were analyzed by the random effect method. Results: We recruited the data of 27 local studies and one national study. The overall estimation of MetS prevalence was 36.9% (95% CI: 32.7 - 41.2%) based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria, 34.6% (95% CI: 31.7 - 37.6%) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and 41.5% (95% CI: 29.8 - 53.2%) based on the Joint Interim Societies (JIS) criteria. The prevalence of MetS determined by JIS was significantly higher than those determined by ATP III and IDF. The

  10. Differential effectiveness of two anxiety induction procedures in youth and older adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Montorio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested in older and younger adults the efficacy of two well-known procedures to experimentally induce anxiety: a Velten self-statements combined with music; b film scenes. We extended the previous findings in this field to the understudied area of mood induction in older adults. Fifty-seven older adults and 94 college students were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions or to a control group. Results indicated that both procedures were effective, according to a series of ANOVAs for several self-report, physiological, and behavioral measures. Likewise, the highest effect sizes were observed for the Velten procedure (g = .81 vs. g = .71, and the effects were significantly higher in younger (g = 1.0 in the Velten condition than in older adults (g = .62, Q = 4.25, χ2(1, P = .0392. Both procedures were effective to induce inducting anxiety in both age groups, especially the Velten procedure in younger adults. Therefore, Velten self-statements combined with music may be very useful anxiety induction procedure for further research in controlled situations of emotions across the life-span.

  11. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  12. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanai Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kanai,1,2 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,3 Masahiko Ichiki,1 Mitsuhiko Sato,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Jun Ishikawa,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Hajime Tanabe,4 Ichiro Kusumi,3 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, 2Department of Palliative Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, 4Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect and ill-being (negative affect. We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods: A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI; Life Experiences Survey (LES; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS. The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus. Results: Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations: The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not

  13. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  14. Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher J; Dhillon, Preet K.; Subramanian, SV; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among adult men and women in India consuming different types of vegetarian diets compared with those consuming non-vegetarian diets. Methods: We used cross-sectional data of 156,317 adults aged 20–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey (2005–06). Association between types of vegetarian diet (vegan, lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian) and...

  15. Geographic coupling of juvenile and adult habitat shapes spatial population dynamics of a coral reef fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelekerken, I.; Debrot, A.O.; Jongejans, E.

    2013-01-01

    Marine spatial population dynamics are often addressed with a focus on larval dispersal, without taking into account movement behavior of individuals in later life stages. Processes occurring during demersal life stages may also drive spatial population dynamics if habitat quality is perceived diffe

  16. Multilineage Potential and Self-Renewal Define an Epithelial Progenitor Cell Population in the Adult Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlia Wong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are critical for T cell development and self-tolerance but are gradually lost with age. The existence of thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPCs in the postnatal thymus has been inferred, but their identity has remained enigmatic. Here, we assessed the entire adult TEC compartment in order to reveal progenitor capacity is retained exclusively within a subset of immature thymic epithelium displaying several hallmark features of stem/progenitor function. These adult TEPCs generate mature cortical and medullary lineages in a stepwise fashion, including Aire+ TEC, within fetal thymus reaggregate grafts. Although relatively quiescent in vivo, adult TEPCs demonstrate significant in vitro colony formation and self-renewal. Importantly, 3D-cultured TEPCs retain their capacity to differentiate into cortical and medullary TEC lineages when returned to an in vivo thymic microenvironment. No other postnatal TEC subset exhibits this combination of properties. The characterization of adult TEPC will enable progress in understanding TEC biology in aging and regeneration.

  17. Daily microhabitat shifting of solitarious-phase Desert locust adults: implications for meaningful population monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Koutaro Ould; Ould Ely, Sidi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Abdellaoui, Khemais; Cissé, Sory; Jaavar, Mohamed El Hacen; Ould Mohamed, Sid'Ahmed; Atheimine, Mohamed; Ould Babah, Mohamed Abdallahi

    2016-01-01

    The Desert locust Schistocerca gregaria is a major world pest that causes substantial agricultural and economic damage. Effective pest control relies on effective monitoring, which requires knowledge of locust microhabitat selection. Yet little is known about microhabitat selection of solitarious adult locusts in the field. We conducted field surveys to investigate fine-scale diel temporal and spatial distributions of solitarious adults in the Sahara Desert in Mauritania, a major breeding and recession area. We found that solitarious adults moved among different, specific microhabitats throughout the 24-h period in a cyclical manner. At night, they roosted in trees, moved to the ground to feed shortly after dawn, sheltered in low vegetation during the hot midday, and returned to the ground in the late afternoon. Hence, they switched microhabitats and plant species throughout each day. These cyclical daily movements among diverse microhabitats and specific plant species were correlated with time of day, light intensity, temperature, humidity, and specific plant species, and may relate to anti-predator defence, thermoregulation, and feeding. The present study suggests that locust monitoring should be adjusted, based on time of day, locust age, phase state and relative abundance of specific plant species. For example, we recommend surveying ground after morning and trees at night, for solitarious adults, when at low density. PMID:26877905

  18. Sex-Ratio and Gender Differences in Depression in an Unselected Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, E. P.; Oliver, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Neither sex-ratio nor gender differences in depression were found in adult sample, similar to pattern found among university students. No demographic variable was correlated significantly with depression. Suggests results may be due to the elimination of face-to-face interviews, which expose males to greater negative repercussions for exhibiting…

  19. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of bo...

  20. Problem gambling severity and the incidence of Axis I psychopathology among older adults in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Pilver, Corey E.; Libby, Daniel J.; Hoff, Rani A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the longitudinal relationship between past-year problem-gambling severity and incident Axis I psychopathology among older adults (aged 55 to 90), analyses were conducted on data from the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). This nationally-representative population-based survey was conducted in two waves (Wave 1, 2000-2001; and Wave 2, 2004-2005). Past-year problem-gambling severity at Wave 1 and incident Axis I psychopathology at Wave 2 were eva...

  1. Experiences with use of phytotherapy in the adult´s population in Pilsen and South Bohemian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    HRABOVSKÁ, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this Thesis was find out if adult population has experience with the use of medicinal plants, if people prefer local herbs to exotic plants, what is their knowledge in the preparation of herbal products and if they ever know what the herbs are and what is the meaning of the term Phytotherapy. Another aim was the creation of electronic manual of the most used herbs, which would include information on sellected medicinal plants and their effects on human body. In this thesis there ar...

  2. Lumbar spine spondylolysis in the adult population: using computed tomography to evaluate the possibility of adult onset lumbar spondylosis as a cause of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if new onset of low back pain in adults could be secondary to lumbar spondylolysis by establishing the age-related prevalence in the general population by examining patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) for reasons unrelated to back pain. The records of 2,555 patients who had undergone abdominal and pelvic CT in 2008 were reviewed electronically. In order to determine a true representation of the general population, we reviewed all indications for CT, excluding patients with a primary complaint of low back pain as the primary indication for imaging. Equal numbers of patients were separated into age groups by decade to ensure an even distribution of ages for statistical analysis. Patients older than 70 years were grouped together to provide case numbers comparable to those of the other decades. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the significance of the results. Three board-certified radiologists, including two musculoskeletal fellows and a radiology resident, retrospectively evaluated CT scans for lumbar spondylolysis, including unilateral and bilateral defects. Of the 2,555 cases evaluated, there were 203 positive cases of defects of the lumbar pars interarticularis. This corresponded to an overall prevalence of 8.0%. Prevalence per decade was fairly evenly distributed and ranged from 7.0%(ages 30-39 years) to 9.2% (ages 70 years and above). Prevalence of ages 20-49 years was 7.9%, and that of ages 50 years and older was 8.0%. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Logistic regression showed no significant increase in spondylolysis based on age. No significant increase in the prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis was demonstrated in patients older than 20 years. This suggests that the development of symptomatic lumbar pars defects do not occur in this population and should not be considered as a rare but potentially treatable cause of new onset low back pain in adults. This study demonstrated an overall prevalence of pars defects of 8

  3. Determination of adult population development of Tomato Leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] in tomato growing areas in Şanlıurfa province

    OpenAIRE

    mamay, mehmet; YANIK, Ertan

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed in tomato growing areas of Çamlıdere, Göktepe and Yığınak location in Şanlıurfa during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. In the study, we intended to determine some critical time points (such as first adult emergence, maximum adult flight, number of generations per year and flight activity in nature) in the population dynamics of Tomato Leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] in Şanlıurfa. Adult population dynamic of Tomato Leafminer was monito...

  4. Prevalence of diminished kidney function in a representative sample of middle and older age adults in the Irish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browne Gemma M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD using available estimating equations with the Republic of Ireland is unknown. Methods A randomly selected population based cross-sectional study of 1,098 adults aged 45 years and older was conducted using data from the 2007 Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR was calculated from a single IDMS aligned serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI and the MDRD equations, and albumin to creatinine ratio was based on a single random urine sample. Results The sample clinical characteristics and demography was similar to middle and older age adults in the general Irish population, though with an underrepresentation of subjects >75 years and of males. All results are based on subjects with available blood and urine samples. Applying weighting to obtain survey based population estimates, using Irish population census data, the estimated weighted prevalence of CKD-EPI eGFR2 was 11.6%, (95% confidence interval; 9.0, 14.2%, 12.0% ( 9.0, 14.2% of men and 11.2% (7.3, 15.2% of women. Unweighted prevalence estimates were similar at 11.8% (9.9, 13.8%. Albuminuria increased with lower CKD-EPI eGFR category. 10.1% of all subjects had albuminuria and an eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 giving an overall weighted estimated prevalence of National Kidney Foundation (NKF defined CKD 21.3% (18.0, 24.6%, with the unadjusted estimate of 21.9% (19.5, 24.4%. MDRD related estimates for eGFR 2, and NFK defined CKD were higher than CKD-EPI and differences were greater in younger and female subjects. Conclusions CKD is highly prevalent in middle and older aged adults within the Republic of Ireland. In this population, there is poor agreement between CKD-EPI and MDRD equations especially at higher GFRs. CKD is associated with lower educational status and poor self rated health.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sannapaneni Krishnaiah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sannapaneni Krishnaiah1,2,3, Marmamula Srinivas1,2,3, Rohit C Khanna1,2, Gullapalli N Rao1,2,31L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 2International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 3Vision CRC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293 for this study.Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ≥40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < −0.5 D 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1, high-myopia (SE < −5.0 D 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2, hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7, astigmatism (cylinder < −0.5 D 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2, and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1. The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001. There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001. Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95 and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49. The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia.Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously

  6. The Dimensional Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Adapted for Children (SPQ-C-D: An Evaluation in the Dutch Population and a Comparison to Adult Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie van Rijn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in dimensional approaches towards schizophrenia spectrum pathology calls for instruments that can be used to study developmental markers conveying risk for psychopathology prior to onset of the disorder. In this study we evaluated the Dutch child version (SPQ-C-D of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ developed by Raine, in terms of reliability and factorial structure in comparison to SPQ data from two studies with adults. The 74-item SPQ-C-D was completed by 219 children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years. Internal consistency was assessed and the factorial structure was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA and confirmatory factor analysis. Results showed that most of the subscales had high Cronbach’s alphas, indicating good internal consistency. PCA resulted in three components, similar to the adult studies: Cognitive-Perceptual, Interpersonal, and Disorganization. The pattern of individual subscales loading on each of the components was identical to the original Raine study, except for one additional subscale loading on the Disorganization component. In addition, forcing Raine’s factorial structure on our data with confirmatory factor analysis resulted in an overall adequate model fit. In conclusion, the SPQ-C-D appears to be a suitable dimensional measure of schizotypal traits in populations aged 9 to 18 years.

  7. Vitamin D in the General Population of Young Adults with Autism in the Faroe Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovská, Eva; Andorsdóttir, Guðrið; Weihe, Pál; Halling, Jónrit; Fernell, Elisabeth; Stóra, Tormóður; Biskupstø, Rannvá; Gillberg, I. Carina; Shea, Robyn; Billstedt, Eva; Bourgeron, Thomas; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a possible risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels were examined in a cross-sectional population-based study in the Faroe Islands. The case group consisting of a total population cohort of 40 individuals with ASD (aged 15-24 years) had significantly…

  8. Profile of sudden death in an adult population (1999-2008).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Downes, M R

    2010-06-01

    Sudden death is the sudden and unexpected death of an individual within 24 hours of symptom onset. The vast majority of these cases are found, at autopsy, to be due to underlying ischaemic cardiac disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adult post mortems performed at Beaumont Hospital over a decade (1999-2008). Our aim was to identify all sudden death cases (natural and accidental) and subclassify them according to age profile and organ system involved. We identified 1230 sudden death cases in the review period with 775 (63%) deaths attributable to ischaemic heart disease. The rate of sudden death remained constant over the decade with 663 (54%) deaths occurring in the first five years. Our negative autopsy rate was 2.8% corresponding to 35 cases. This is the first Irish study to retrospectively review all adult sudden deaths within a defined catchment area and analyse them as outlined above.

  9. Prevalence of incidental paranasal sinus opacification in an adult dental population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sinus opacification among adult dental patients. Five hundred and sixty-four Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of dental patients over the age of 18 were reviewed for sinus opacification. Opacification was graded as clear, mild, moderate or severe. Patients with any sinus-related signs or symptoms were excluded. Sinus opacification in one or more sinuses was found in 59.2% of the patients. The sinus opacification was mild in 49.8%, moderate in 8.3%, and severe in 1.1%. The maxillary (37.7%) and ethmoid (37.4%) sinuses were most frequently affected. The prevalence was higher in the older age group and showed a male predomination (p<0.05). Sinus opacification in asymptomatic adults is very common and emphasizes the importance of clinical correlation before deciding on the final diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Absence of osteoporosis in an adult population undergoing combined immunosuppressive therapy for chronic active hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty adult patients who had received 1-20 years of combined immunosuppressive therapy (CIT) for chronic active hepatitis (CAH) underwent dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of L-2 through L-4 CIT consisted of azathioprine and prednisone supplemented and calcium and vitamin D. Osteoporosis is known to occur in patients with CAH, and in other clinical settings prednisone therapy has been shown to induce osteoporosis. For these 30 adult CAH patients undergoing CIT, absorptiometric measurements did not differ significantly from those in age- and sex-matched normal controls. CIT therapy for CAH may have arrested the long-term loss of bone mineral often produced by CAH. The authors' hypothesize that a combined azathioprine and prednisone regimen with reduced corticosteroid requirements was responsible for this favorable outcome

  11. Prevalence of incidental paranasal sinus opacification in an adult dental population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sinus opacification among adult dental patients. Five hundred and sixty-four Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of dental patients over the age of 18 were reviewed for sinus opacification. Opacification was graded as clear, mild, moderate or severe. Patients with any sinus-related signs or symptoms were excluded. Sinus opacification in one or more sinuses was found in 59.2% of the patients. The sinus opacification was mild in 49.8%, moderate in 8.3%, and severe in 1.1%. The maxillary (37.7%) and ethmoid (37.4%) sinuses were most frequently affected. The prevalence was higher in the older age group and showed a male predomination (p<0.05). Sinus opacification in asymptomatic adults is very common and emphasizes the importance of clinical correlation before deciding on the final diagnosis and treatment.

  12. A Distinct Population of Microglia Supports Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Xavier, Anna L.; Kress, Benjamin T.; Goldman, Steven A.;

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are involved in synaptic pruning both in development and in the mature CNS. In this study, we investigated whether microglia might further contribute to circuit plasticity by modulating neuronal recruitment from the neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mouse striatum. We...... expression of purinoceptors and lack of ATP-elicitable chemotaxis. Furthermore, the in vivo depletion of these microglia hampered the survival and migration of newly generated neuroblasts through the RMS to the olfactory bulb. SVZ and RMS microglia thus appear to comprise a functionally distinct class that...... is selectively adapted to the support and direction of neuronal integration into the olfactory circuitry. Therefore, this unique microglial subpopulation may serve as a novel target with which to modulate cellular addition from endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells of the adult brain...

  13. Physical and psychological violence perpetration and violent victimisation in the German adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Schlack, Robert; Rüdel, J.; Karger, A; Hölling, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Violence is of considerable relevance to Public Health. It was the aim of the violence screening implemented as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) to assess data on physical and psychological violence in various social environments (partnership, family, workplace, public space). For the first time as part of a nationally representative health survey, the data were collected from the perspective of victim and perpetrator both among women and men. The ...

  14. A population study of adult onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, J R; Emery, A E

    1985-01-01

    Complete ascertainment of adult onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in the Lothian Region of Scotland was attempted. Ten index cases were identified giving a prevalence of 1.3 per 100 000 (0.9 per 100 000 for cases where the diagnosis of muscular dystrophy was supported by both electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings). In these 10 sibships there had been 11 affected subjects, significantly less than the 16.5 cases expected for autosomal recessive inheritance. Excluding cases suspected o...

  15. Insomnia medication use and the probability of an accidental event in an older adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Y Avidan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alon Y Avidan1, Liisa A Palmer2, Justin F Doan3, Robert W Baran31UCLA Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Thomson Reuters, Washington, DC, USA; 3Takeda Global Research and Development Center, Deerfield, IL, USAObjective: This study examined the risk of accidental events in older adults prescribed a sedating antidepressant, long-acting benzodiazepine, short-acting benzodiazepine, and nonbenzodiazepine, relative to a reference group (selective melatonin receptor agonist.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of older adults (≥65 years with newly initiated pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Data were collected from the Thomson MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2006. Probit models were used to evaluate the probability of an accidental event.Results: Data were analyzed for 445,329 patients. Patients taking a long-acting benzodiazepine (1.21 odds ratio [OR], short-acting benzodiazepine (1.16 OR, or nonbenzodiazepine (1.12 OR had a significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event during the first month following treatment initiation compared with patients taking the reference medication (P < 0.05 for all. A significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event was also observed during the 3-month period following the initiation of treatment (1.62 long-acting benzodiazepine, 1.60 short-acting benzodiazepine, 1.48 nonbenzodiazepine, and 1.56 sedating antidepressant; P < 0.05.Conclusions: Older adults taking an SAD or any of the benzodiazepine receptor agonists appear to have a greater risk of an accidental event compared with a reference group taking an MR.Keywords: insomnia, accidental events, benzodiazepine receptor agonist, melatonin receptor agonist, older adults

  16. Immunity to diphtheria in a sample of the Canadian adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Louise; Duclos, Philippe; Gill, Peter; Deforest, Adamedia

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess immunity to diphtheria in a sample of Canadian adults.DESIGN: A seroprevalence study of a group of plasmapheresis donors was performed over a four-month period in 1996. A convenience sample of 1619 sera was collected to obtain a good distribution by age groups and centres. The determination of diphtheria antitoxin concentrations was performed by neutralization of diphtheria toxin in cell culture.SUBJECTS: A total of 1619 plasmapheresis donors from Halifax, Quebec City, Lo...

  17. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study

    OpenAIRE

    Milla S Linna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. Methods FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionna...

  18. Analyzing dendritic growth in a population of immature neurons in the adult dentate gyrus using laminar quantification of disjointed dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShiraRosenzweig

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, new granule neurons are continuously produced throughout adult life. A prerequisite for the successful synaptic integration of these neurons is the sprouting and extension of dendrites into the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Thus, studies aimed at investigating the developmental stages of adult neurogenesis often use dendritic growth as an important indicator of neuronal health and maturity. Based on the known topography of the dentate gyrus, characterized by distinct laminar arrangement of granule neurons and their extensions, we have developed a new method for analysis of dendritic growth in immature adult-born granule neurons. The method is comprised of laminar quantification of cell bodies, primary, secondary and tertiary dendrites separately and independently from each other. In contrast to most existing methods, laminar quantification of dendrites does not require the use of exogenous markers and does not involve arbitrary selection of individual neurons. The new method relies on immonuhistochemical detection of endogenous markers such as doublecortin to perform a comprehensive analysis of a sub-population of immature neurons. Disjointed, “orphan” dendrites that often appear in the thin histological sections are taken into account. Using several experimental groups of rats and mice, we demonstrate here the suitable techniques for quantifying neurons and dendrites, and explain how the ratios between the quantified values can be used in a comparative analysis to indicate variations in dendritic growth and complexity.

  19. The mean active bone marrow dose to the adult population of the United States from diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on an empirical dosimetry model, estimates have been calculated and are presented on the mean active bone marrow dose to adults from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy, and dental radiography, as practiced in the United States in 1970. The annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose to adults in 1970 from the above practices is estimated to have been 103 mrad: 77, 20 and 3% form radiographic, fluoroscopic and dental examinations respectively. The per capita mean active bone marrow dose for various age groups is discussed. Contributions to the dose within a given age group from different examinations indicate that in the 15-34-yr age group, lumbar and lumbosacral spine examinations contribute most to the mean active bone marrow dose; thereafter, upper GI series and barium enemas are the highest contributors. Mean active bone marrow doses for children have not been estimated because of insufficient data. However, the lower rate of use of diagnostic X-rays (except dental) in children would reduce the annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose for the entire population to a maximum of approximately 77 mrad. In 1964 the annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose to adults is estimated to have been 83 mrad. A comparison of the results with surveys of radiation doses from diagnostic radiology performed in other countries and with natural radiation background is described. (author)

  20. THE RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDENTULISM AND PROSTHETIC STATUS OF THE ADULT POPULATION IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the level of edentulism and prosthetic status of the adult population in different regions of Georgia and to assess the influencing risk- factors. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I- (20-34), II-(35-44), III-(45-64), IV- (65-74) in nine regions of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Statistically reliable data received showed the different extent of teeth loss in various regions of Georgia. ≤10 teeth loss were characteristic for Mtskheta (60.2%) and Samtskhe-Javakheti (50.7%),whilst ≥20 teeth lost were noticed more in Achara(2.9%), Samtskhe-Javakheti(2.6%), Shida Qartli (2,5%). Therefore, prosthetic status was mostly presented with one or more bridges or artificial crowns, removable dentures were seen less. Differences in prosthetic status is generally related to low medical education background in all regions, though lack of money was considered as essential obstacle for dental visit for Mtskheta, Imereti and Samtskhe-Javakheti population. Education and family income dictate attitudes towards prosthetic dental care and choice of crown types. On the other hand, material disparity represents the main obstacle to prosthetic procedures, especially implants. PMID:27249432

  1. Why Are Native Hawaiians Underrepresented in Hawai‘i's Older Adult Population? Exploring Social and Behavioral Factors of Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Sue Ka‘opua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Native Hawaiians comprise 24.3% of Hawai‘i's population, but only 12.6% of the state's older adults. Few published studies have compared health indicators across ethnicities for the state's older adult population or focused on disparities of Native Hawaiian elders. The current study examines data from two state surveillance programs, with attention to cause of death and social-behavioral factors relevant to elders. Findings reveal that Native Hawaiians have the largest years of productive life lost and the lowest life expectancy, when compared to the state's other major ethnic groups. Heart disease and cancer are leading causes of premature mortality. Native Hawaiian elders are more likely to report behavioral health risks such as smoking and obesity, live within/below 100–199% of the poverty level, and find cost a barrier to seeking care. Indicated is the need for affordable care across the lifespan and health services continuum. Future research might explain behavioral factors as influenced by social determinants, including historical trauma on Native Hawaiian longevity.

  2. A population-based cohort study of late mortality in adult autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lesley J; Le Marsney, Renate E; Dodds, Anthony J; Nivison-Smith, Ian; Wilcox, Leonie; O'Brien, Tracey A; Vajdic, Claire M

    2014-07-01

    We assessed overall and cause-specific mortality and risk factors for late mortality in a nation-wide population-based cohort of 4547 adult cancer patients who survived 2 or more years after receiving an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Australia between 1992 and 2005. Deaths after HSCT were identified from the Australasian Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Registry and through data linkage with the National Death Index. Overall, the survival probability was 56% at 10 years from HSCT, ranging from 34% for patients with multiple myeloma to 90% for patients with testicular cancer. Mortality rates moved closer to rates observed in the age- and sex-matched Australian general population over time but remained significantly increased 11 or more years from HSCT (standardized mortality ratio, 5.9). Although the proportion of deaths from nonrelapse causes increased over time, relapse remained the most frequent cause of death for all diagnoses, 10 or more years after autologous HSCT. Our findings show that prevention of disease recurrence remains 1 of the greatest challenges for autologous HSCT recipients, while the increasing rates of nonrelapse deaths due to the emergence of second cancers, circulatory diseases, and respiratory diseases highlight the long-term health issues faced by adult survivors of autologous HSCT. PMID:24631736

  3. Oral Alimentation in Neonatal and Adult Populations Requiring High-Flow Oxygen via Nasal Cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Siner, Jonathan M; Bizzarro, Matthew J; McGinley, Brian M; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Use of high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula (HFO2-NC) is increasingly common in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Despite the critical interface between respiration and swallowing, and the high acuity of patients in ICUs, the impact of HFO2-NC on feeding and swallowing is unknown. The present prospective, single-center, cohort study investigated the impact of HFO2-NC use on oral alimentation in neonatal and adult ICU patients. Oral alimentation status was evaluated in 100 consecutive ICU inpatients (50 neonatal and 50 adult) requiring HFO2-NC. Participant characteristics, respiratory support, successful initiation of oral feeding in neonates, and successful resumption of oral feeding in adults were recorded. Seventeen of 50 (34 %) neonates requiring HFO2-NC were deemed developmentally and medically appropriate by the neonatologist and nursing to begin oral alimentation. All 17 (100 %) were successful with initiation of oral feedings. Thirty-three of 50 (66 %) continued nil per os due to prematurity or medical conditions precluding oral alimentation at time of data collection. Thirty-nine of 50 (78 %) adults requiring HFO2-NC were deemed medically appropriate by the intensivist and nursing to resume oral alimentation (n = 34) or with a functional swallow without aspiration on FEES (n = 5). All 39 (100 %) resumed oral alimentation successfully. Eleven of 50 (22 %) continued nil per os due to severe respiratory issues precluding both swallow testing and oral alimentation at time of data collection. All developmentally and medically appropriate neonatal and adult patients requiring HFO2-NC were successful with either the introduction or resumption of oral alimentation. Patients requiring HFO2-NC who are identified as having feeding or swallowing issues should be referred for swallowing evaluations using the same criteria as patients who do not require HFO2-NC, as it is not the use of HFO2-NC but rather patient-specific determinants of feeding and swallowing

  4. Swiss popular initiative for a single health insurer… once again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo; Crivelli, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The article describes a recent Swiss popular initiative, aiming to replace the current system of statutory health insurance run by 61 competing private insurers with a new system run by a single public insurer. Despite the rejection of the initiative by 62% of voters in late September 2014, the campaign and ballot results are interesting because they show the importance of (effective) public communication in shaping the outcome of a popular ballot. The relevance of the Swiss case goes beyond the peculiarities of its federalism and direct democracy and might be useful for other countries debating the pros and cons of national unitary health insurance systems versus models using multiple insurers. After this electoral ballot, the project to establish a public sickness fund in Switzerland seems definitely stopped, at least for the next decade. Insurers, who opposed the initiative, have effectively fed the "fear of change" of the population and have stressed the good outcomes of the Swiss healthcare system. However, the political pressure favoured by the popular initiative opened a "windows of opportunity" and led the federal Parliament to pass a stricter regulation of health insurers, improving in this way the current system. PMID:26004844

  5. Trends in obesity and abdominal obesity in the older adult population of Spain (2000-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis; León-Muñoz, Luz María; Regidor, Enrique; Banegas, José R.; Rodriguez Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work examines the trend in obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish population aged 60 years and over during the first decade of the 21st century. Methods: We analyze data from a representative study of the Spanish population aged 60 years and older conducted in 2000-2001 and from the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) conducted in 2008-2010. Results: In men, the distribution of BMI did not vary in the period 2000-2010. In contrast, in women there...

  6. Diets and selected lifestyle practices of self-defined adult vegetarians from a population-based sample suggest they are more 'health conscious'

    OpenAIRE

    Barr Susan I; Bedford Jennifer L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Few population-based studies of vegetarians have been published. Thus we compared self-reported vegetarians to non-vegetarians in a representative sample of British Columbia (BC) adults, weighted to reflect the BC population. Methods Questionnaires, 24-hr recalls and anthropometric measures were completed during in-person interviews with 1817 community-dwelling residents, 19–84 years, recruited using a population-based health registry. Vegetarian status was self-defined. A...

  7. Polygenic Risk of Schizophrenia and Cognition in a Population-Based Survey of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebers, David T; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Seiffudin, Fayaz; Musliner, Katherine L; Zandi, Peter P; Goes, Fernando S

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common feature of the major psychotic disorders, with deficits often present in at risk individuals and unaffected first-degree relatives. Previous studies have suggested that polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia (SCZ) are associated with cognitive deficits, but there has been little examination of this association in longitudinal datasets, or comparison with other disorders. We used mixed models to study the association between PRS for 4 adult onset psychiatric disorders with cross-sectional cognitive performance and longitudinal cognitive decline in 8616 older adults from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), followed for an average of 10 years. PRS were computed for SCZ, bipolar disorder (BD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Alzheimer's disease (ALZ). SCZ PRS associated with decreased cognitive function (z = -3.00, P = .001, ΔR (2) = 0.04%), which was largely driven by an association with impaired attention and orientation (z = -3.33, P = 4.3×10(-4), ΔR (2) = 0.08%). We found no effect of BD or MDD PRS on cognition, in contrast to a robust effect of the APOE4/TOMM40 locus (z = -5.05, P = 2.2×10(-7), ΔR (2) = 0.36%), which was primarily associated with impaired verbal memory (z = -5.15, P = 1.3×10(-7), ΔR (2) = 0.21%). APOE4/TOMM40 locus and the ALZ PRS, but not the PRS for SCZ, were associated with greater cognitive decline. In summary, using a large, representative sample of older adults, we found evidence for different degrees of association between polygenic risk for SCZ and genetic risk factors for ALZ on cognitive function and decline, highlighting potential differences in the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits seen in SCZ and ALZ. PMID:26873889

  8. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  9. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post......-settling mortality may be due to a reduced benthic predation in habitats with high complexity. In a field experiment, the larval settling of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, was recorded on an artificial substrate 0.25, 1 and 2 m above the bottom during six periods in spring 1999. The experiment was conducted at four...

  10. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Grenzgänger: adult bone marrow cells populate the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priller, Josef

    2003-08-01

    While the brain has traditionally been considered a rather secluded site, recent studies suggest that adult bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells can generate glia and neurons in rodents and humans. Macrophages and microglia are the first to appear in the murine brain after transplantation of genetically marked BM cells. Within weeks after transplantation, some authors have found astrocytes and cells expressing neuronal antigens. We detected cerebellar Purkinje neurons and interneurons, such as basket cells, expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) 10-15 months after transplantation of GFP-labeled BM cells. The results push the boundaries of our classic view of lineage restriction. PMID:12898276

  11. Applying the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to Adults in an Asian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Joshua Kin-man; Hinz, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment is the foundation for conceptualizing effective interventions. Due to their nonverbal nature, art therapy assessments have an advantage over traditional verbal assessments in some populations and potentially across cultures. This pilot study provides preliminary reliability data to support the cross-cultural use of the Formal Elements…

  12. Traffic-related air pollution and risk for leukaemia of an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution causes lung cancer, but associations with other cancers have not been established. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the risk of the general population for leukaemia. We identified 1,967 people in whom leukaemia was diagnosed in 1992-2010 from a nation-wide cancer registry and selected 3,381 control people at random, matched on sex and year of birth, from the entire Danish population. Residential addresses since 1971 were traced in a population registry, and outdoor concentrations of NOx and NO2 , as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, were calculated at each address in a dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk for leukaemia after adjustment for income, educational level, cohabitation status and co-morbidity. In linear analyses, we found odds ratios for acute myeloid leukaemia of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38) per 20 µg/m(3) increase in NOx and 1.31 (1.02-1.68) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2 , calculated as time-weighted average exposure at all addresses since 1971. We found no association with chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. This study indicates an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myeloid leukaemia in the general population, but not for other subtypes of leukaemia. PMID:26415047

  13. Characteristics of a Danish population of adults with acquired deafblindness receiving rehabilitation services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the characteristics of a population of 916 individuals with acquired deafblindness receiving national Danish counselling and rehabilitation services. Age, gender, prevalence, social status, and communication mode are some of the data included in this study. R...

  14. An Empirical Investigation of Group Treatment for a Clinical Population of Adult Female Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Brenda J.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Empirically assesses the effectiveness of a group treatment program on intrapersonal symptomatology and interpersonal difficulties in a clinical population of women with a history of incest. Results indicate that a time-limited group, which focuses on the original trauma, is effective in reducing intrapersonal symptomatology for women with a…

  15. Family and Friend Relationships of Only Children: A Study of Adult Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gary

    If personal networks of only children differ from those of children with siblings, then study of the different patterns of personal association is especially relevant to the understanding of social change in China, where the population of children without siblings is rapidly increasing. A study of these differential social networks used data…

  16. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic patterns of chronic non-communicable disease among the older adult population in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Minicuci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ghana, the older adult population is projected to increase from 5.3% of the total population in 2015 to 8.9% by 2050. National and local governments will need information about non-communicable diseases (NCDs in this population in order to allocate health system resources and respond to the health needs of older adults. Design: The 2007/08 Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 in Ghana used face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus years. Individual respondents were asked about their overall health, diagnosis of 10 chronic non-communicable conditions, and common health risk factors. A number of anthropometric and health measurements were also taken in all respondents, including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure (BP. Results: This paper includes 4,724 adults aged 50-plus years. The highest prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was for hypertension [14.2% (95% CI 12.8–15.6] and osteoarthritis [13.8%, (95% CI 11.7–15.9]. The figure for hypertension reached 51.1% (95% CI 48.9–53.4 when based on BP measurement. The prevalence of current smokers was 8.1% (95% CI 7.0–9.2, while 2.0 (95% CI 1.5–2.5 were infrequent/frequent heavy drinkers, 67.9% (95% CI 65.2–70.5 consume insufficient fruits and vegetables, and 25.7% (95% CI 23.1–28.3 had a low level of physical activity. Almost 10% (95% CI 8.3–11.1 of adults were obese and 77.6% (95% CI 76.0–79.2 had a high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR. Risks from tobacco and alcohol consumption continued into older age, while insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity and obesity increased with increasing age. The patterns of risk factors varied by income quintile, with higher prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in wealthier respondents, and higher prevalence of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and smoking in lower-income respondents. The multivariate

  17. Population genetic analyses of Helicobacter pylori isolates from Gambian adults and children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousman Secka

    Full Text Available The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is one of the most genetically diverse of bacterial species. Much of its diversity stems from frequent mutation and recombination, preferential transmission within families and local communities, and selection during persistent gastric mucosal infection. MLST of seven housekeeping genes had identified multiple distinct H. pylori populations, including three from Africa: hpNEAfrica, hpAfrica1 and hpAfrica2, which consists of three subpopulations (hspWAfrica, hspCAfrica and hspSAfrica. Most detailed H. pylori population analyses have used strains from non-African countries, despite Africa's high importance in the emergence and evolution of humans and their pathogens. Our concatenated sequences from seven H. pylori housekeeping genes from 44 Gambian patients (MLST identified 42 distinct sequence types (or haplotypes, and no clustering with age or disease. STRUCTURE analysis of the sequence data indicated that Gambian H. pylori strains belong to the hspWAfrica subpopulation of hpAfrica1, in accord with Gambia's West African location. Despite Gambia's history of invasion and colonisation by Europeans and North Africans during the last millennium, no traces of Ancestral Europe1 (AE1 population carried by those people were found. Instead, admixture of 17% from Ancestral Europe2 (AE2 was detected in Gambian strains; this population predominates in Nilo-Saharan speakers of North-East Africa, and might have been derived from admixture of hpNEAfrica strains these people carried when they migrated across the Sahara during the Holocene humid period 6,000-9,000 years ago. Alternatively, shared AE2 ancestry might have resulted from shared ancestral polymorphisms already present in the common ancestor of sister populations hpAfrica1 and hpNEAfrica.

  18. Application of PACE Principles for Population Health Management of Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Reich, Shelley; Casiano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    To determine which practices would have the most impact on reducing hospital and emergency department admissions and nursing home placement among older adults with multiple comorbid conditions, a literature search and survey were conducted to identify and prioritize comprehensive care principles as practiced in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE medical directors and members of the PACE interdisciplinary team (IDT) were surveyed to gain their insights on the most impactful practices, which were identified as: End-of-Life Management, Caregiver Support, Management of Red Flags, Medication Management, Participant and Caregiver Health Care System Literacy, and Care Coordination. In addition, this research evaluated measures that could be used to assess an organization's level of success with regard to each of the 6 PACE practices identified. The results reported in this article, found through a survey with PACE medical directors and IDT members concerning effective interventions, can be viewed as strategies to improve care for older adults, enabling them to maintain their independence in the community, avoid the expense of facility-based care, and enhance their quality of life. PMID:25647691

  19. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist–hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.

  20. Prevalence and social burden of active chronic low back pain in the adult Portuguese population: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of active chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the adult Portuguese population; to compare the active CLBP population with the population without CLBP; and to explore factors associated with active CLBP. The present study was conducted under the scope of EpiReumaPt a population-based study. Active CLBP was self-reported and considered if present on the day of the interview and for ≥90 days. Prevalence estimates were calculated. Association of active CLBP with quality of life, functional ability and healthcare consumption were evaluated. Factors associated with active CLBP were identified through logistic regression. Among 10.661 EpiReumaPt subjects, 1487 self-reported active CLBP. The prevalence of active CLBP was 10.4 % (95 % CI 9.6; 11.9 %). After adjustment, active CLBP subjects had a higher likelihood for anxiety symptoms (OR 2.77), early retirement due to disease (OR 1.88) and more physician visits (β = 2.65). Factors significantly and independently associated with the presence of active CLBP were: female gender (OR 1.34), overweight/obesity (OR 1.27), presence of self-reported rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) (OR 2.93), anxiety symptoms (OR 2.67), age (OR 1.02) and higher number of self-reported comorbidities (OR 1.12). Active CLBP is highly prevalent in the Portuguese population and is associated with disability and with a high consumption of healthcare resources. Female gender, older age, anxiety symptoms, overweight/obesity, the presence of other RMD and the number of comorbidities were independently associated with the presence of active CLBP. These factors should be taken into account when new cohort prospective studies will be developed. PMID:26661091

  1. Dietary intake of metals by the young adult population of Eastern Poland: Results from a market basket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Karim, Md Rezaul; Marzec, Zbigniew; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-05-01

    Dietary intake of macro-, trace and toxic elements was determined among the young adult population of Eastern Poland. The study was performed in 2011-2013 and involved 583 participants living in Lublin and its province. Dietary intakes of metals were determined using a 24h dietary recall technique and a market basket method. The analytical quantification of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn was performed using ICP-MS technique, whereas the content of mercury was determined using the Mercury Analyzer. Performed investigations revealed that daily dietary intakes of the majority of the study elements (macro- and trace) and toxic elements such as As, Pb or Hg are within the range of reference values. However, high consumption of Na and improper Na/K ratio combined with low intake of Mg may be harmful to the health of the population. Moreover, obtained data suggest that the risk of developing diseases among population in Eastern Poland related to high exposure to Ni and Cd absorbed from foodstuffs was high. PMID:27049125

  2. What do young adults know about the HIV/AIDS epidemic? Findings from a population based study in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Eva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIVAIDS is spreading globally, hitting the younger generations. In Pakistan, the prevalence of HIV in high-risk subpopulations is five per cent or higher. This poses a serious threat of a generalised epidemic especially among the younger population. In the wake of HIVAIDS epidemic this is worrying as a well informed younger generation is crucial in restricting the spread of this epidemic. This study investigated Pakistani young adults' (male and female knowledge and awareness of the HIV/AIDS disease. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1,650 male and female adults aged 17–21 years living in Karachi was conducted using a structured questionnaire. A multi-stage cluster sampling design was used to collect data representative of the general population in an urban area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed separately for males and females. Results Of 1,650 subjects, 24 per cent (n = 390 reported that they had not heard of HIV/AIDS. Among the males, those with a poor knowledge were younger (AOR = 2.20; 95 per cent CI, 1.38, 3.49, with less than six years of schooling (AOR = 2.46; 1.29 4.68 and no computer at home (AOR = 1.88; 1.06 3.34. Among the females, the risk factors for poor knowledge were young age (AOR = 1.74; 1.22, 2.50, low socio-economic status (AOR = 1.54; 1.06, 2.22, lack of enrolment at school/college (AOR = 1.61; 1.09, 2.39 and being unmarried (AOR = 1.85; 1.05, 3.26. Conclusion Alarming gaps in knowledge relating to HIV/AIDS were detected. The study emphasises the need to educate young adults and equip them with the appropriate information and skills to enable them to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. However, taboos surrounding public discussions of sexuality remain a key constraint to preventive activities.

  3. Dietary sodium intake and the risk of airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population.

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, J.; Pavord, I; Richards, K; Knox, A; Wisniewski, A; Weiss, S.; Tattersfield, A

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--High dietary sodium intake has been identified as a potential cause of asthma and airway hyperreactivity. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is an independent determinant of the risk of hyperreactivity in the general population, and to assess the role of atopy in the association between these factors. METHODS--Airway reactivity to methacholine, atopy, 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, and self-reported smoking and symptom history were measure...

  4. Impulsivity and symptoms of nicotine dependence in a young adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Henry W.; Hogarth, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Impulsivity is widely regarded as a risk factor for drug dependence. However, its relationship with the symptomatology of nicotine dependence is poorly understood. Methods: To examine the nature of these relationships, we recruited 404 daily and occasional smokers from a predominantly student population and assessed the association between impulsivity, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and several self-reported measures of smoking rate and nicot...

  5. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: A population-based questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Edén Lena; Andersson Ingemar H; Axelsson Lars; Ejlertsson Göran

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the r...

  6. MULTI-CHANNEL VOLUME SPHYGMOGRAPHY IN CARDIOANGIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF THE ADULT POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Khokhlov; N. I. Ostroushko; A. E. Gaydashev; D. V. Kirsanov; N. M. Akhmedzhanov

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To study the possibilities of using multi-channel volume sphygmography (MCVS) in prophylactic medical examination of the population.Material and methods. Simultaneous examination of 522 individuals older than 18 years was performed. Along with standard procedures provided by the prophylactic medical examination program synchronous registration of blood pressure (BP) on four extremities by MCVS was performed. At that a difference in systolic BP between arms (ΔSBParm) and legs (ΔSBPleg) an...

  7. Relationship between serum Vitamin D concentration and Metabolic Syndrome among Iranian Adults Population

    OpenAIRE

    A Hossein-nezhad; Nikoo Khoshniat; M. Maghbooli; Z. Karimi; Mirzaei, F.; Hosseini, A; Larijani, B.

    2010-01-01

    "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study:There are increasing evidences about relationship between vitamin D metabolism and occurrence of diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D has a role in secretion and possibly the action of insulin and modulates lipolysis and might therefore contribute to the development of the metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and strength of the association between vitamin D concentration and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in Iranian popul...

  8. A community based study of NCD risk factors among adult population in Dehradun, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Agarwal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Non-Communicable disease (NCD is one which is non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. NCDs account for leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. To decrease the burden of NCDs experts stress on the importance of prevention and control with respect to modifiable risk factors. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs.(1  Aims & Objectives: 1. To know the prevalence of risk factors leading to NCDs in the study population. 2. To know the socio-demographic correlates associated with risk factors of NCDs. 3. To suggest appropriate recommendations regarding modifiable risk factors of NCDs in study population. Material & Methods: A Cross-sectional study, Community-based study among 18+ population in field practice areas of Community Medicine Department, SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun. Sample Size: 300 each in urban and rural, total 60. Results: The prevalence of Smoking was 11.3%, Smokeless tobacco use 10.5%, Alcohol use 13.2%, Unhealthy diet 99.5%, Low physical activity 0.8%, High BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2 51.2%, above normal waist-hip ratio 57.0%, Raised blood pressure 58.5% and raised blood sugar 25.2%. Conclusion: Smoking is significantly associated with age, sex and occupation. Raised blood pressure is significantly associated with age, sex and social class.

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular administration of tulathromycin in adult desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, M E; Lamberski, N; Wack, R; Foster, R; Neely, M; Tell, L; Gehring, R

    2014-10-01

    Tulathromycin, a long acting macrolide antibiotic, has demonstrated efficacy against respiratory pathogens including Mycoplasma bovis and M. hyopneumoniae. A pharmacokinetic study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of tulathromycin in desert tortoises following a single intramuscular dose of 5 mg/kg. A single blood sample was collected from 110 different desert tortoises at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 240 h following drug administration. Plasma concentrations of the parent form of tulathromycin were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As each tortoise was only bled once, pharmacokinetic parameters were initially estimated using a naïve pooled data approach. Given the variability in the data, population-based compartmental modeling was also performed. Using nonparametric population compartmental modeling, a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best fit the data. An observed Cmax of 36.2 ± 29.7 μg/mL was detected at 0.25 h (observed Tmax ). The elimination half-life (T½el ) was long (77.1 h) resulting in detectable plasma concentrations 240 h postadministration. This study represents a preliminary step in evaluating the utility of tulathromycin in chelonian species and demonstrates that population data modeling offers advantages for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters where sparse data sampling occurs and there is substantial variability in the data. PMID:24611596

  10. Periodontal inflammation in relation to cognitive function in an older adult danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamer, Angela R; Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul;

    2012-01-01

    missing teeth. The effect of PI/tooth loss on cognitive function [measured by Digit Symbol (DST) and Block Design (BDT) tests] was assessed in 70-year old Danish subjects. We found: 1) subjects with PI obtained lower mean DST scores compared to subjects without PI (p ...Inflammation plays a significant role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Studies have shown that systemic, peripheral infections affect AD patients. Cognitive dysfunction is a consistent finding in AD and periodontal disease is a chronic, peripheral infection often resulting in tooth loss....... We hypothesized that older adults with periodontal inflammation (PI) or many missing teeth would show impaired cognition compared to subjects without PI or with few missing teeth, and among subjects with PI, those with many missing teeth would show impaired cognition compared to those with few...

  11. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS.

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    Afshin Vafaei

    Full Text Available To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression.International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967. Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions.Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16 were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93. In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated.Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.

  12. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

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    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  13. Vitamin-D status in a Population of Healthy Adults in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its predictors in healthy adult Pakistanis. This study was conducted at various hospitals in Karachi from April 2007 to September 2007. Methodology: In this study 244 healthy adults 16-62 years of age, visited hospital as an attendant of the patients and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria has been enrolled. After taking written consent a questionnaire regarding age, gender, occupation, duration of sun exposure, area of skin exposed, type of residence used, clothing and dietary habits were recorded. Serum 25-OH Vitamin D3 levels were determined by electro chemiluminescence method and Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a level <20 mu g/ml. serum calcium. Phosphorus and Alkaline Phosphatase were also measured in all of these subjects. Results: Among 244 subjects ranging from 16-62 years, 193(79%) were female. Subjects were predominantly married (72%), mostly residing in apartments (47.5%) and most of them (41.8%)only exposed their face and hands while outdoor. Duration of sun exposure in majority was 1-2 hour /day (42%). Majority used clothes of variable colour (72%) and fabric (41%). One hundred and eighty six (76.2%) subjects had deficiency of Vitamin D and significantly correlated with duration of sunlight exposure, large area of skin exposed, vitamin D in diet consumed and colour of clothes worn. Vitamin D was significantly correlated negatively with serum Phosphorus and Alkaline Phosphatase whereas serum calcium correlated positively. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among healthy Pakistanis is high and duration of sun exposure is the most common predictor of hypovitaminosis D. (author)

  14. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

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    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Melku, Mulugeta; Terefe, Betelihem; Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin; Shiferaw, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted ...

  16. Femoral neck anteversion, acetabular anteversion and combined anteversion in the normal Indian adult population: A computed tomographic study

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    Maheshwari Aditya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal femoral neck anteversion (FNA and/or acetabulum anteversion (AA have long been implicated in the etiogenesis of hip osteoarthritis (OA, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and impingement, instability and wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA. Since studies on the Indian population are sparse on this topic, the purpose of this study was to report the normal values of FNA, AA and the combined anteversion (CA= FNA+ AA in Indian adults. Materials and Methods: FNA, AA and CA were prospectively measured in 172 normal hips in 86 Indian adults using standardized computed tomographic (CT methods and this data was compared with the established Western values. Results: The median values and interquartile ranges were 8 o (6.5-10.0 o for FNA, 19 o (16.0-22.0 o for AA and 27 o (23.5-30.0 o for CA. AA and CA values were significantly (P< 0.05 lower in males, and there was also a trend towards lower FNA in males. Although a negative correlation was observed between the FNA and AA, this was not strong and may not be clinically relevant. Conclusion: When compared with the Western data, the FNA values were 3-12 o lower and the CA values were 3-5 o lower in Indian adults. The AA values were comparable, but were skewed towards the higher side. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical relevance of our basic science data in pathogenesis of OA, and to validate it in relation to hip surgeries like corrective osteotomies and THA.

  17. Working memory capacity and psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eZiermans

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM impairment is a common feature in individuals with schizophrenia and high-risk for psychosis and a promising target for early intervention strategies. However, it is unclear to what extent WM impairment parallels specific behavioral symptoms along the psychosis continuum. To address this issue, the current study investigated the relation of WM capacity with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs in a large Swedish population sample (N = 1012 of adolescents and young adults (M = 24.4 years, range 12-35. WM was assessed with two online computer tasks: A task where participants had to identify and remember the location of an odd shape and a task of remembering and following instructions. PLE scores were derived from a translated symptom questionnaire (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences; CAPE, which includes positive, negative and depressive symptom scales. Positive and negative symptom scales were further subdivided into symptom clusters based on factor analyses. The results showed that low WM capacity was modestly associated with increased reports of bizarre experiences and depressive symptoms, after controlling for age, gender, and global symptom scores. Interestingly, when analyses were repeated for separate age groups, low WM was exclusively associated with a higher frequency of bizarre experiences for young adults (20 - 27 years and with depressive symptoms for older adults (28 - 35 years. These findings suggest that specific PLEs can be indicative of reduced WM capacity in early adulthood, which in turn may reflect an increased risk for psychosis and a greater need for targeted intervention. In contrast, during adolescence individual differences in cognitive development may influence the strength of the relationships and thereby mask potential vulnerabilities for psychopathology.

  18. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

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    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  19. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. METHODS In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. RESULTS Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. CONCLUSION The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error. PMID:27588277

  20. A psychotherapeutic approach to treatment of a population at high risk for alcoholism: adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, S I

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that there are between 25 and 28 million children of alcoholic parent(s) in the United States today. These individuals are at high risk for development of intrapsychic, interpersonal, and behavioural disorder, ie, developing alcoholism (40-60 per cent), becoming involved with an alcoholic (co-alcoholism), feeling a consistent sense of personal inadequacy or an inability to develop satisfying mutually supportive relationships. Major cognitive and emotional deficits appear to exist. Adult children of alcoholics who often experience many years of less-than-fruitful therapy report better results when alcoholic family issues have been adequately addressed. Developmental, existential and systems approaches may be well utilized, as well as non-verbal modalities, in treatment of adult children of alcoholics. Assessment, diagnosis and treatment issues particular to this population will be discussed as well as methods of working with specific barriers exhibited by children of alcoholics in the therapy setting. Implications of treatment will be discussed in relation to primary alcoholism prevention, relapse prevention and the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment programme staff. PMID:2509840

  1. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with educational inequalities among Brazilian adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Gronner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS according to the criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and analyzed the contribution of social factors in an adult urban population in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The sample plan was based on multistage probability sampling according to family head income and educational level. A random sample of 1116 subjects aged 30 to 79 years was studied. Participants answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and medical history. Fasting capillary glucose (FCG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides were determined and all non-diabetic subjects were submitted to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m², waist circumference and blood pressure (BP were determined. Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of MS was 35.9 and 43.2% according to NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. Substantial agreement was found between NCEP-ATPIII and IDF definitions. Low HDL-C levels and high BP were the most prevalent MS components according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria (76.3 and 59.2%, respectively. Considering the diagnostic criteria adopted, 13.5% of the subjects had diabetes and 9.7% had FCG ≥100 mg/dL. MS prevalence was significantly associated with age, skin color, BMI, and educational level. This cross-sectional population-based study in the Southeastern region of Brazil indicates that MS is highly prevalent and associated with an important social indicator, i.e., educational level. This result suggests that in developing countries health policy planning to reduce the risk of MS, in particular, should consider improvement in education.

  3. The incidence of endoscopic celiac (gluten) disease in the Erzurum area in an adult population

    OpenAIRE

    UYANIKOĞLU, Ahmet; , Muharrem COŞKUN; Doğan Nasır BİNİCİ; Öztürk, Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims:Celiac disease develops due to the effect of the gliadin fraction of wheat gluten, barley and rye proteins. Glutensensitive enteropathy is an autoimmune and familial illness that develops after malabsorption, which is due to dietary intake of some grain products. It can occur at any age (1–80 years of age). The prevalences have been reported as 0,05-0,2% in the general population in Europe, and 0,5-1% in the world. In this study, the incidence of gluten disease i...

  4. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population: II. A study of clinical features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Kjøller, M;

    1993-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of fibromyalgia have so far been based mainly on patients identified in rheumatologic settings. This paper offers the clinical findings in fibromyalgia based on a national health interview survey, in which 123 persons fulfilled preset criteria for widespread pain. Clinical......, headache, difficulty in stair-climbing, and poorer self-evaluated health with more tender points was found. Contrary to that which was expected, fibromyalgia subjects did not suffer from sleep disturbances, irritable bowels or morning stiffness. Our findings indicate that clinical characteristics of...... fibromyalgia in the general population may differ from those found in rheumatological settings....

  5. Analysis of epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the adult population of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a disease that presents a global medical problem. It is necessary to implement an in-depth analysis of the epidemiological situation of type 2 diabetes mellitus for planning and organizing specialized medical help to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.AimTo rate the basic epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in actual clinical practice using the informational database of national registry of diabetic patients.Materials and methodsEpidemiological analyses were performed in two administrative districts of Moscow. From 1999 to 2011 48978 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were aged 18 years and older were registered. We used methods of clinical, analytical and statistical epidemiology with elements of descriptive research.ResultsThe prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 1590 per hundred thousand, most patients were in the 60–64 and 70–74 age groups, and approximately 80% of patients were older than 55 years. The morbidity rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 138,72 per hundred thousand and was found to be higher in women at 1,89. The mortality rate of adult patients with diabetes mellitus was 0,83, mostly in men of all ages. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most of the registered cases of deaths (34,4%. The average life expectancy appeared to be 75,24±0,45 years, although women lived 6 years longer than men. The average duration of the disease was 10,04±0,34 years. A total of 0,4% of patients underwent hospital treatment and the average length of treatment was 17–18 days. The total number of days of disablement was an average of 307,33±30,13 days (80% of patients were older than 55 years. In the study group, a mean grade of НbА1c <7% was observed in 56,6% of patients. The prevalence rate of detected chronic complications was considerably lower compared to other epidemiological studies.ConclusionsOur epidemiological analyses revealed a number of features and consistent

  6. Maxillary anterior tooth dimensions and proportions in an Irish young adult population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condon, M

    2011-07-01

    This study was undertaken in a young Irish population to determine the dimensions and ratios of the six maxillary anterior teeth. One hundred and nine Irish subjects (age 18-25 inclusive) had irreversible hydrocolloid impressions made of their maxillary dentition poured in type V stone. Clinical crown dimensions were measured with a digital calliper. The stone casts were digitally photographed in a standardised manner enabling calculation of various ratios between the maxillary anterior teeth. Sexual dimorphism existed for various tooth dimensions; most notably canine teeth were in the region of 0·8 mm longer and 0·6 mm wider in males. Central and lateral incisors were found to be 0·5 mm wider in males. It is, therefore, recommended that dimensional tooth guidelines should be given for each of the sexes and not on a population basis. With regard to tooth proportion ratios, no significant differences were found between genders or the left and right sides for any of the measurements or ratios measured. The digitally recorded tooth proportions were similar for both sexes, and the Golden Proportion guidelines could only be applied to the lateral incisor\\/central incisor widths (0·618). Identified width proportions for the canine\\/central incisor were 0·58 and for canine\\/lateral incisor 0·89.

  7. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered

  8. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...

  9. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed

  10. Sonography of common carotid arteries′ intima: Media thickness in the normal adult population in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Z Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carotid ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic tool for assessing carotid disease. It is highly reliable, has no radiation risk, and has no risks when compared to conventional angiography. Aim: The study was to determine the common carotid artery (CCA intima-media thickness (IMT in the normal adult Sudanese so as to create standards for defining abnormalities. Materials and Methods: In 440 participants, the intima-media thickness was obtained sonographically in the supine position at the point of 1 cm section distal to the carotid bulb. Due to ethnic variations, participants were divided into a five ethnic groups according to their geographic distribution in Sudan. Results: The ranges of IMT found in the study were from 0.04 cm to 0.07 cm in carotids. Ethnically, males and females from West and East of Sudan show the highest IMT (0.070 ± 0.00 cm and 0.065 ± 0.01 cm for CCA while males and females from the South of Sudan show the lowest IMT (0.055 ± 0.01 cm and 0.058 ± 0.004 cm. Conclusion: Mean carotids′ IMT was slightly higher in females compared to males. No significant differences were found between IMT and different ethnics but significance was noted among participants′ age and IMT of both sexes.

  11. Imaging Features of Superficial and Deep Fibromatoses in the Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Walker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fibromatoses are a group of benign fibroblastic proliferations that vary from benign to intermediate in biological behavior. This article will discuss imaging characteristics and patient demographics of the adult type superficial (fascial and deep (musculoaponeurotic fibromatoses. The imaging appearance of these lesions can be characteristic (particularly when using magnetic resonance imaging. Palmar fibromatosis demonstrates multiple nodular or band-like soft tissue masses arising from the proximal palmar aponeurosis and extending along the subcutaneous tissues of the finger in parallel to the flexor tendons. T1 and T2-weighted signal intensity can vary from low (higher collagen to intermediate (higher cellularity, similar to the other fibromatoses. Plantar fibromatosis manifests as superficial lesions along the deep plantar aponeurosis, which typically blend with the adjacent plantar musculature. Linear tails of extension (“fascial tail sign” along the aponeurosis are frequent. Extraabdominal and abdominal wall fibromatosis often appear as a heterogeneous lesion with low signal intensity bands on all pulse sequences and linear fascial extensions (“fascial tail” sign with MR imaging. Mesenteric fibromatosis usually demonstrates a soft tissue density on CT with radiating strands projecting into the adjacent mesenteric fat. When imaging is combined with patient demographics, a diagnosis can frequently be obtained.

  12. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    models were used to examine the association between birth weight and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and age-related decline in these variables. Analyses were conducted stepwise including sex, age, adult height, abdominal circumference, birth height, mother...... population. METHODS: The Danish Inter99 study is a population-based intervention study in adults aged 30-60 years, providing information on birth weight and lung function on 4428 participants. Of these, 2931 participants performed spirometry at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression...

  13. Oil prices and the Swiss economy

    OpenAIRE

    Atukeren, Erdal

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the macroeconomic effects of an oil price shock in a small open industrial economy without oil resources, namely, Switzerland. First, we test whether oil price shocks Granger-cause Swiss macroeconomic variables, and use a medium-scale macroeconometric model to track the effects of an oil price shock. Our estimates show that large increases in oil prices lead to a rather small decline in Swiss real GDP. Furthermore, there is no permanent pass-through effect via core inflati...

  14. Life Cycle Portfolio Choice: A Swiss Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Zainhofer

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the Swiss Labor Force Survey to estimate age-earnings profiles as well as transitory and permanent income shock variances for investor groups distinguished by gender, education and activity rate. Estimation results are then used to stylize several different Swiss investor types. Finally, we determine optimal life cycle consumption, savings and risky asset share for these investor types using a recent computational life cycle model of portfolio choice suggested by Cocco ...

  15. Swiss Contracting: Forum for energy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Contracting organisation is presented. The aims of the organisation - the promotion of contracting solutions for energy supply and energy saving installations - are described and the chances and risks in connection with the opening of the electricity market considered. The necessity for increased information and training both for customers and the heating installation trade is emphasised and the services provided by Swiss Contracting are described. Switzerland's potential for the contracting of energy services is discussed

  16. Insider Trading in the Swiss Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Zingg; Sebastian Lang; Daniela Wyttenbach

    2007-01-01

    Many studies on insider trading are based on data of the U.S. market and conclude that insiders can earn abnormal profits. This paper examines for the Swiss stock market whether insiders can earn abnormal profits and whether outsiders can make abnormal profits by mimicking the transactions of insiders. We find significant abnormal returns for insider trading, as well as some evidence for profitable mimicking strategies. We can reject the strong form Efficient Market Hypothesis for the Swiss s...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  19. Adult Mouse Basal Forebrain Harbors Two Distinct Cholinergic Populations Defined By Their Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge P Golowasch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed whole-cell recordings from basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of choline acetyltransferase promoter. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons can be differentiated into two electrophysiologically identifiable subtypes: early and late firing neurons. Early firing neurons (70% are more excitable, show prominent spike frequency adaptation and more susceptible to depolarization blockade, a phenomenon characterized by complete silencing of the neuron following initial action potentials. Late firing neurons (30%, albeit being less excitable, could maintain a tonic discharge at low frequencies. In voltage clamp analysis, we have shown that early firing neurons have a higher density of low voltage activated calcium currents. These two cholinergic cell populations might be involved in distinct functions: the early firing group being more suitable for phasic changes in cortical acetylcholine release associated with attention while the late firing neurons could support general arousal by maintaining tonic acetylcholine level.

  20. [Prevalence and alcohol user profile in adult population in a south Brazilian city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Traebert, Jefferson; Loguercio, Alessandro; Kehrig, Ruth Terezinha

    2010-05-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional survey which included 707 individuals from a south Brazilian city (Joaçaba, in Santa Catarina State) aiming to know the alcohol user prevalence as well as the profile of the user. The results showed that 45.5% (322) of that population consume alcohol on regular basis and had used it at least once in the last month. The regular alcohol consumption occurs predominantly on males (p education (p currency (p <0.001). The regular alcohol consumption was greater on those who classified his health status as regular, good or very good (p <0.006), also this relation happen to those people who haven't been under hospital internment in the last year (p <0.013). The depression levels scored by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) showed low levels to those who regularly consume alcohol (p <0.047). PMID:20464180

  1. Estimated percentage of typhoid fever in adult pakistani population (TAP) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typhoid fever is a serious infection with high morbidity and mortality in untreated cases. It is one of the very common infections in developing countries due to various factors involving hygiene and sanitation. Objective: To determine the estimated percentage of typhoid fever in Pakistani population and to find the commonly prescribed antibiotics for the disease. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 1036 patients, selected from forty five general practitioner clinics, between June to October 2010. Patients of > 18 years of age with > 3 days history of fever (> 100 degree F) and high index of suspicion for typhoid fever were tested for typhoid fever using Typhidot kits and positive cases were recruited for monitoring response to treatment. The febrile patients with clear cut history of urinary or respiratory infect-ion, hypovolemic shock or hepatobiliary disease were excluded and not tested by typhidot kit. The antibiotics prescribed to study population by various general practitioners were noted. Data was analysed on SPSS. Results were expressed in percentages and proportions. Results: Total 1036 patients were recruited. Typhoidot test was negative in 63.9% and positive in 36.1% patients with highest percentages of positive cases in Karachi, Rawalpindi and Hyderabad. The maximum number of cases were reported in summer season especially from June to August. Most of the patients were between ages of 19 - 39 years. The commonest anti-biotics prescribed were Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin. Conclusion: Typhoid fever is very common infection in Pakistan caused by Salmonella typhi which is transmitted among humans through faecooral route. Disease can be controlled not only by antibiotics like fluoroquinolones but by patient education, improvement in hygiene and sanitation, safe supply of clean drinking water and prophylactic vaccination as well. However, timely diagnosis and appropriate management with proper antibiotics is the key

  2. Amplitude of Accommodation and Add Power in An Adult Population of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khabazkhoob

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine add power (AP and amplitude of accommodation (AA in a sample of Iranian population and its relationship with refractive errorsMethods: This cross-sectional study enrolled people of 35-70 years old by simple random sampling. Exclusion criteria were myopia or hyperopia over 6 diopter (D and astigmatism more than 0.75 D. Those with a history of eye disorders and taking certain medicines that affect on vision were excluded. After correcting refractive errors, distance and near visual acuity (VA and APs were determined considering subject’s age and AA at a distance of 33 cm. The AA was measured using a Royal Air Force (RAF rule with push up method.Results: Of 422 participants, 205 (48.6% were males with a mean age of 50.2±8.8 years old, mean AP of 1.57±0.82 D, and average AA of 3.48±2.5 D. For each year of age, AP raised 0.1 D and AA decreased to 0.23 D (p<0.001. The need for AP occurs when AA was less than 6 D. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the distributions of AP and AA in a sample of Iranian population. The AA in this study was mid-range in comparison with other studies. It was found that females became presbyopic earlier than males and hyperopes became presbyopic earlier than emmetropes and myopes. These results pointed out that decreasing in AA less than 6 D requires AP.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding gemstone therapeutics in a selected adult population in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidwai Waris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gemstones have been in use as part of alternative and complementary medicine for years. However, our understanding of the perceived healing powers of gemstones is limited. An extensive literature search revealed that there is a dearth of validated information on this subject. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the various aspects of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the public towards gemstone therapeutics. Methods A survey was performed in the Community Health Centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 18–75 years of age approached prior to their appointments at the Community Health Centre. Results The survey response rate was 86% (400/465. More than half (63% of the study population was aware of the use of gemstone therapy. One hundred fifty-six individuals believed that gemstone use impacts health. Of this group, 39% believed that gemstone use increases physical strength. 62% believed that gemstone use is based on superstitious beliefs, whereas 28% opined that it is based on religious beliefs. 38% had used gemstones therapeutics formerly, while 24% were current users. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age status and education status were significant (p Conclusion More than half of our sample population is aware of the use of the gemstones for their various effects. Willingness to use gemstones is associated with the beliefs about the impact of gemstone therapy on health. Friends and family seem to be the major role players influencing people's willingness to use gemstones. CAM modalities should be recognized and considered as an important therapeutic option. We feel that gemstone therapy is a relatively unexplored area and more studies should, therefore, be conducted to gather more validated information on the subject.

  4. Adult plasticity of cold tolerance in a continental-temperate population of Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobs, Ruth; Gariepy, Tara D; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a worldwide emerging pest of soft fruits, but its cold tolerance has not been thoroughly explored. We determined the cold tolerance strategy, low temperature thermal limits, and plasticity of cold tolerance in both male and female adult D. suzukii. We reared flies under common conditions (long days, 21°C; control) and induced plasticity by rapid cold-hardening (RCH, 1h at 0°C followed by 1h recovery), cold acclimation (CA, 5 days at 6°C) or acclimation under fluctuating temperatures (FA). D. suzukii had supercooling points (SCPs) between -16 and -23°C, and were chill-susceptible. 80% of control flies were killed after 1h at -7.2°C (males) or -7.5°C (females); CA and FA improved survival of this temperature in both sexes, but RCH did not. 80% of control flies were killed after 70 h (male) or 92 h (female) at 0°C, and FA shifted this to 112 h (males) and 165 h (females). FA flies entered chill coma (CTmin) at approximately -1.7°C, which was ca. 0.5°C colder than control flies; RCH and CA increased the CTmin compared to controls. Control and RCH flies exposed to 0°C for 8h took 30-40 min to recover movement, but this was reduced to suzukii to overwinter in temperate habitats, and suggest that flies could overwinter in association with built structures, or that there may be additional cold tolerance imparted by developmental plasticity. PMID:25982520

  5. Association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes, and prehypertension in the Croatian adult population - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučak Jasna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between hyperuricemia, hypertension, and diabetes has been proved to have strong association with the risk for cardiovascular diseases, but it is not clear whether hyperuricemia is related to the early stages of hypertension and diabetes. Therefore, in this study we investigated the association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes, and prehypertension in Croatian adults, as well as that between purine-rich diet and hyperuricemia, prediabetes, or prehypertension. Methods A stratified random representative sample of 64 general practitioners (GP was selected. Each GP systematically chose participants aged ≥ 40 year (up to 55 subjects . Recruitment occurred between May and September 2008. The medical history, anthropometric, and laboratory measures were obtained for each participant. Results 59 physicians agreed to participate and recruited 2485 subjects (response rate 77%; average age (± standard deviation 59.2 ±10.6; 61.9% women. In bivariate analysis we found a positive association between hyperuricemia and prediabetes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.09–2.53, but not for prehypertension (OR 1.68, 95% CI 0.76–3.72. After controlling for known confounders for cardiovascular disease (age, gender, body mass index, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity, waist to hip ratio, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, in multivariate analysis HU ceased to be an independent predictor(OR 1.33, CI 0.98–1.82, p = 0.069 for PreDM. An association between purine-rich food and hyperuricemia was found (p Conclusion Hyperuricemia seems to be associated with prediabetes but not with prehypertension. Both, hyperuricemia and prediabetes were associated with purine-rich food and patients need to be advised on appropriate diet. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31857696

  6. Imaging-based assessment of rectus abdominis muscle thickness in an adult population: evaluating possible anthropometric relationships

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    Ogugua Augustine Egwu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Very little attention has been paid to muscle architecture in the Sub-Saharan African environment, and the rectus abdominis muscle, being a stabilising agent in the trunk, should not be left out. Considering the incidence of trunk musculoskeletal discomfort, it is necessary to assess the rectus abdominis muscle. Aim of the research: To assess the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle in an apparently healthy adult population using ultrasound and to evaluate its possible relationship with important anthropometric variables. Material and methods : A total of 120 healthy subjects made up of 60 males and 60 females, who gave their written consent, were recruited for this study. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess the rectus abdominis muscle. Anthropometric variables were also assessed. Results: The results show that the rectus abdominis thickness (RAT was 14.68 ±2.92 mm and 14.37 ±2.74 mm for the right (RRAT and left (LRAT sides, respectively. The males had significantly thicker muscles than the females (p = 0.004 and the RAT correlated positively with age, weight, height, body mass index, body surface area, waist circumference, and conicity index. Conclusions: These results show robust myoanthropometric relationships that will assist surgeons in reconstructive procedures involving the muscle. They will also serve as a guidepost in the biomechanical assessment of the muscle in lifting sports for an African population, in the study of muscle flaps, and in the general evaluation of trunk mass.

  7. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3-3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9-14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5-2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7-7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China. PMID:26932265

  8. Low FEV1, smoking history, and obesity are factors associated with oxygen saturation decrease in an adult population cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vold ML

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monica Linea Vold,1,3 Ulf Aasebø,1,2 Hasse Melbye3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway Background: Worsening of pulmonary diseases is associated with a decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO2. Such a decrease in SpO2 and associated factors has not been previously evaluated in a general adult population. Aim: We sought to describe SpO2 in a sample of adults, at baseline and after 6.3 years, to determine whether factors predicting low SpO2 in a cross-sectional study were also associated with a decrease in SpO2 in this cohort. Methods: As part of the Tromsø Study, 2,822 participants were examined with pulse oximetry in Tromsø 5 (2001/2002 and Tromsø 6 (2007/2008. Low SpO2 by pulse oximetry was defined as an SpO2 ≤95%, and SpO2 decrease was defined as a ≥2% decrease from baseline to below 96%. Results: A total of 139 (4.9% subjects had a decrease in SpO2. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 <50% of the predicted value and current smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years were the baseline characteristics most strongly associated with an SpO2 decrease in multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio 3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.60–7.89] and 2.48 [95% CI 1.48–4.15], respectively. Male sex, age, former smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, and C-reactive protein ≥5 mg/L were also significantly associated with an SpO2 decrease. A significant decrease in FEV1 and a new diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the observation period most strongly predicted a fall in SpO2. A lower SpO2 decrease was observed in those who quit smoking and those who lost weight, but these tendencies were not statistically significant. Conclusion: A decrease in SpO2 was most strongly associated with severe airflow limitation and a history of

  9. Economic Impact of Adverse Drug Events – A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study of 4970 Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Hakkarainen, Katja M.; Hägg, Staffan; Carlsten, Anders; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to estimate the direct costs caused by ADEs, including costs for dispensed drugs, primary care, other outpatient care, and inpatient care, and to relate the direct costs caused by ADEs to the societal COI (direct and indirect costs), for patients with ADEs and for the entire study population. Methods We conducted a population-based observational retrospective cohort study of ADEs identified from medical records. From a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council, 4970 were included in the analyses. During a three-month study period in 2008, direct and indirect costs were estimated from resource use identified in the medical records and from register data on costs for resource use. Results Among 596 patients with ADEs, the average direct costs per patient caused by ADEs were USD 444.9 [95% CI: 264.4 to 625.3], corresponding to USD 21 million per 100 000 adult inhabitants per year. Inpatient care accounted for 53.9% of all direct costs caused by ADEs. For patients with ADEs, the average societal cost of illness was USD 6235.0 [5442.8 to 7027.2], of which direct costs were USD 2830.1 [2260.7 to 3399.4] (45%), and indirect costs USD 3404.9 [2899.3 to 3910.4] (55%). The societal cost of illness was higher for patients with ADEs compared to other patients. ADEs caused 9.5% of all direct healthcare costs in the study population. Conclusions Healthcare costs for patients with ADEs are substantial across different settings; in primary care, other outpatient care and inpatient care. Hence the economic impact of ADEs will be underestimated in studies focusing on inpatient ADEs alone. Moreover, the high proportion of indirect costs in the societal COI for patients with ADEs suggests that the observed costs caused by ADEs would be even higher if including indirect costs. Additional studies are needed to identify interventions to prevent and manage ADEs. PMID:24637879

  10. Excessive daytime sleepiness and body composition: a population-based study of adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie C Hayley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is often associated with increased adiposity, particularly when assessed in the context of samples of sleep-disordered patients; however, it is unclear if this relationship is sustained among non-clinical, population-based cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between EDS and a number of body composition markers among a population-based sample of men and women. METHODS: This study assessed 1066 women aged 21-94 yr (median = 51 yr, IQR 35-66, and 911 men aged 24-92 yr (median = 60 yr, IQR 46-73 who participated in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS between the years 2001 and 2008. Total body fat mass was determined from whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and anthropometric parameters (weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Lifestyle and health information was collected via self-report. Sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. Scores of ≥ 10 were considered indicative of EDS. RESULTS: Women: After adjusting for age, alcohol intake, antidepressant medication use and physical activity, EDS was associated with greater waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. EDS was also associated with 1.5-1.6-fold increased odds of being overweight or obese. Men: After adjusting for age, alcohol use, physical activity and smoking status, EDS was associated with greater BMI. These findings were not explained by the use of sedative or antidepressant medication. EDS was also associated with 1.5-fold increased likelihood of being obese, independent of these factors. No differences in lean mass, %body fat, or %lean mass were detected between those with and without EDS for men or women. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that EDS is associated with several anthropometric adiposity profiles, independent of associated lifestyle and health factors. Among women, symptoms of EDS are pervasive at both overweight and obese BMI classifications

  11. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in adult population: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests that fruit and vegetable intake (FVI plays a protective role against major diseases. Despite this protective role and the obesity pandemic context, populations in Western countries usually eat far less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. In order to increase the efficiency of interventions, they should be tailored to the most important determinants or mediators of FVI. The objective was to systematically review social cognitive theory-based studies of FVI and to identify its main psychosocial determinants. Methods Published papers were systematically sought using Current Contents (2007-2009 and Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Proquest and Thesis, as well as Cinhal (1980-2009. Additional studies were identified by a manual search in the bibliographies. Search terms included fruit, vegetable, behaviour, intention, as well as names of specific theories. Only studies predicting FVI or intention to eat fruits and vegetables in the general population and using a social cognitive theory were included. Independent extraction of information was carried out by two persons using predefined data fields, including study quality criteria. Results A total of 23 studies were identified and included, 15 studying only the determinants of FVI, seven studying the determinants of FVI and intention and one studying only the determinants of intention. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. The random-effect R2 observed for the prediction of FVI was 0.23 and it was 0.34 for the prediction of intention. Multicomponent theoretical frameworks and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB were most often used. A number of methodological moderators influenced the efficacy of prediction of FVI. The most consistent variables predicting behaviour were habit, motivation and goals, beliefs about capabilities, knowledge and taste; those explaining intention were beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about

  12. Interstitial cells of the adult neocortical white matter are the remnant of the early generated subplate neuron population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The postnatal fate of the first-generated neurons of the cat cerebral cortex was examined. These neurons can be identified uniquely by 3H-thymidine exposure during the week preceding the neurogenesis of cortical layer 6. Previous studies in which 3H-thymidine birthdating at embryonic day 27 (E27) was combined with immunohistochemistry have shown that these neurons are present in large numbers during fetal and early postnatal life within the subplate (future white matter), that they are immunoreactive for the neuron-specific protein MAP2 and for the putative neurotransmitters GABA, NPY, SRIF, and CCK. Here, the same techniques were used to follow the postnatal location and disappearance of the early generated subplate neuron population. At birth (P0), subplate neurons showing immunoreactivity for GABA, NPY, SRIF, or CCK are present in large numbers and at high density within the white matter throughout the neocortex, and the entire population can be observed as a dense MAP2-immunoreactive band situated beneath cortical layer 6. Between P0 and P401 (adulthood), the MAP2-immunostained band disappears so that comparatively few MAP2-immunoreactive neurons remain within the white matter. There is a corresponding decrease in the number and density of neurons stained with antibodies against neurotransmitters. In each instance, these neurons could be double-labeled by the administration of 3H-thymidine at E27, indicating that they are the remnants of the early generated subplate neuron population. The major period of decrease occurs during the first 4 postnatal weeks, and adult values are attained by 5 months. Within the white matter of the lateral gyrus (visual cortex), the density of immunostained neurons decreases dramatically: MAP2, 82%, SRIF, 81%, and NPY, 96%

  13. Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adult Patients with Asthma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chun Shen

    Full Text Available There are several publications reported that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA was associated with asthma. However, large-scaled, population-based cohort study has been limited. We aimed to examine the risk of OSA among adult patients with asthma in an Asian population.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI of Taiwan. The asthma cohort included 38,840 newly diagnosed patients between 2000 and 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. Each patient was randomly matched with four people without asthma according to gender, age, and the index year as the comparison cohort. The occurrence of OSA was followed up until the end of 2011. The risk of OSA was estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for gender, age, and comorbidities.The overall incidence of OSA was 2.51-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (12.1 versus 4.84 per 1000 person-years. Compared to non-asthma subjects, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR of OSA increased to 1.78 for asthma patients with one or less annual emergency room (ER visit, and 23.8 for those who visited ER more than once per year. In addition, aHR in patients with inhaled steroid treatment compared to those without steroid treatment was 1.33 (95% CI = 1.01-1.76.Patients with asthma have a significantly higher risk of developing OSA than the general population. The results suggest that the risk of OSA is proportional to asthma control and patients with inhaled steroid treatment have a higher risk for OSA than those without steroid treatment.

  14. Statistical distribution of foveal transverse chromatic aberration, pupil centration, and angle psi in a population of young adult eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Maurice; Lidkea, Bruce; Chisholm, William; Thibos, Larry N.

    1995-10-01

    Subjective transverse chromatic aberration (sTCA) manifest at the fovea was determined for a population of 85 young adults (19-38 years old) by means of a two-dimensional, two-color, vernier alignment technique. The statistical distribution of sTCA was well fitted by a bivariate Gaussian function with mean values that were not significantly different from zero in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. We conclude from this result that a hypothetical, average eye representing the population mean of human eyes with medium-sized pupils is free of foveal sTCA. However, the absolute magnitude of sTCA for any given individual was often significantly greater than zero and ranged from 0.05 to 2.67 arcmin for the red and the blue lights of a computer monitor (mean wavelengths, 605 and 497 nm, respectively). The statistical distribution of the absolute magnitude of sTCA was well described by a Rayleigh probability distribution with a mean of 0.8 arcmin. A simple device useful for population screening in a clinical setting was also tested and gave concordant results. Assuming that sTCA at the fovea is due to decentering of the pupil with respect to the visual axis, we infer from these results that the pupil is, on average, well centered in human eyes. The average magnitude of pupil decentration in individual eyes is less than 0.5 mm, which corresponds to psi =3 deg for the angle between the achromatic and the visual axes of the eye.

  15. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population. PMID:26233738

  16. Prevalence and causes of ocular morbidity seen among rural adult population of Osun State, southwest Nigeria

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    Michaeline A Isawumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: World Glaucoma and Kidney Days were planned for community eye/health screening. Aims: To assess the prevalence and causes of common eye disorders and visual impairment (VI in two rural communities of Osun State. Settings and Design: Descriptive cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained. Serial recruitment of all consenting adults presenting at Alajue and Ibokun communities over 2 days was done. Sociodemographic data were obtained. Visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment examinations were done. Refraction was done as necessary. Intraocular pressures (IOPs were checked for cup:disc ratio >0.6 and perimetry done at base hospital for glaucoma suspects. VI was classified according to the World Health Organization ICD.10. Descriptive analysis was carried out. Chi-square with P-values and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to test for significance. Results: In all, 259 subjects-100 males (38.6% and 159 females (61.4%-participated. Mean age was 39.73 years (standard deviation [SD] 16.6. The commonest eye disorders were cataract 67 (25.9% CI: 20.5-31.2, refractive error 66 (25.5% CI: 20.2-30.8, glaucoma 17 (6.6% CI: 3.5-9.6, pterygium 14 (5.4%, conjunctivitis 11 (4.2%, hypertensive retinopathies 10 (3.9%, 95% CI 1.5-6.2, cornea opacities 3 (1.2%, and di glaucoma was abetic retinopathy 2 (0.8%. Glaucoma and IOPs were significantly correlated (P = 0.039. CVF changes and glaucoma was significantly associated (P < 0.001. Prevalence of moderate VI was 73 (28.2%, CI: 22.7-33.7, severe VI 9 (3.5%, CI: 1.2-5.7, and blindness 5 (1.9%, CI: 0.2-3.6. Conclusions: There is need to establish community eye-outreach centres to identify cases for cost-effective cataract, refractive error, and glaucoma services. This could reduce the occurrence of these vision and life-threatening disorders.

  17. Daily dietary intake of trace elements of radiological and nutritional importance by the adult Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of eleven elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, I, K, Se, Sr, Th and Zn were determined in total diet samples and also in individual food materials which constitute the typical Indian diet. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) were employed for the analysis. Whereas the elements Fe, Co, Cr, Se and Zn are important from the view point of their role in nutrition, the elements Cs, K, Sr and Th are of importance in radiation protection, and Ca and I have dual importance: both in nutrition as well as in radiation protection. Based on the analysis of twenty total diet samples, prepared as per the data on the dietary intake pattern of four provinces of India and the data on intake pattern of an average adult Indian, the geometric mean (GM) intake of various elements was estimated to be 0.33 g (0.2-0.67) for Ca, 16.5 μg (8.3-31.1) for Co, 52.3μg (35.1-131) for Cr, 4.7μg (2.79-11.8) for Cs, 94.6μg (60.6-201) for I, 1.90 g (1.25-3.54) for K, 1.13 mg (0.78-2.97) for Sr, 0.76μg (0.45-1.66) for Th, 15.9 mg (10.2-34.3) for Fe, 56.3μg (27.6-105.3) for Se and 8.6 mg (5.1-16.7) for Zn. Some of the important individual food materials, such as cereals, pulses, milk, vegetables etc., were also analysed for these elements to observe the contributions of the individual food materials to their daily dietary intake. The results of the analysis showed that in the case of Cs, K, Sr, Th, Fe, Zn and Co, almost 50% of the daily dietary intake of the above stated elements is contributed by cereals and pulses. In the case of Ca however, significant amount is amount is contributed by milk and in case of I, iodised salt could make significant contribution. The data collected so far, for Se and Cr, was not sufficient to draw any definite conclusion. (author)

  18. ADHD-related symptoms among adults in out-patient psychiatry and female prison inmates as compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Edvinsson, Dan; Bingefors, Kerstin; Lindström, Eva; Lewander, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of symptoms consistent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related problems in adults in the general population, out-patient psychiatry (where females are in majority), and female convicts. Method A questionnaire based on the DSM-IV criteria of ADHD, reported childhood symptoms, reading and spelling problems, difficulties and suffering, and general assessment of functioning (GAF) was distributed to samples of the general population, ope...

  19. Attitudes and behaviour of adult pakistani diabetic population towards their disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the variations in attitudes and behaviour towards the disease process and interaction with the social environment of the diabetic persons due to long standing disease. Methods: This cross sectional study included four hundred participants of both gender, with confirmed type II diabetes for at least 5 years. A pre-validated questionnaire was used to evaluate the effects of the disease sufferings on the attitudes and behaviours towards social environment and disease. Frequency analysis was used to analyze the data using SPSS version 16.0. Results: 31.07% of diabetic population never noticed the change in their behaviour while 43.93% and 25% sometimes and always acknowledged the change in their behaviour, respectively. Less than one third consult their physicians regularly to manage their disease. 47.5% have no hope for their cure and 40% think that they have become a liability to their co-workers. Only 25.5% realize the importance of exercise in disease management. 27.5% of people undergo depression due to diabetes. More than half of the participants had to change their lifestyles after being diagnosed for diabetes. Significantly, less people (5%) believe that their disease has affected their married life. Conclusion: Sufferings of the diabetic individuals alter their behaviour towards their social environment along with their attitude. The study provides a substantial preliminary data to evaluate the effects of disease process on one's personality which may help to manage the disease more effectively. (author)

  20. Survival of Root-filled Teeth in the Swedish Adult Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Helena; Dawson, Victoria S; Frisk, Fredrik;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to assess survival in the Swedish population of teeth treated by nonsurgical root canal treatment during 2009. METHODS: Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess cumulative tooth survival during a period of 5-6 years of...... all teeth that were root-filled during 2009. RESULTS: In 2009, 248,299 teeth were reported as root-filled. The average age of the patients at the time of the root filling was 55 years (range, 20-102 years). The teeth most frequently root-filled were the maxillary and mandibular first molars. During...... the 5- to 6-year period 25,228 of the root-filled teeth (10.2%) were reported to have been extracted; thus 223,071 teeth (89.8%) survived. Tooth survival was highest in the youngest age group (93.2%). The highest survival (93.0%) was for the mandibular premolars, and the lowest (87.5%) was for the...

  1. Predictors of changes in physical activity in a prospective cohort study of the Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate predictors of changes in physical activity, in a prospective population-based study. METHODS: Data were from the Danish Health Interview Surveys in 1994 and 2000, and included persons between 16 and 64 years of age who answered the questions on physical activity and various...... interval (CI) 1.24-3.48, and OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.34-3.71), poor self-rated health (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.25-3.58, and OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.80), and believing that one's own effort has no effect on health (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.20-2.88, and OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.00-2.65). For men, further predictors for physical...... inactivity were obesity as compared to normal weight (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11-3.98), and being unmarried as compared to being married (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.40-3.51). The only predictor for becoming physically active among initially sedentary respondents was meeting often with family (p=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Our...

  2. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  3. Birth by Caesarean Section and the Risk of Adult Psychosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sinéad M; Curran, Eileen A; Dalman, Christina; Kenny, Louise C; Kearney, Patricia M; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Khashan, Ali S

    2016-05-01

    Despite the biological plausibility of an association between obstetric mode of delivery and psychosis in later life, studies to date have been inconclusive. We assessed the association between mode of delivery and later onset of psychosis in the offspring. A population-based cohort including data from the Swedish National Registers was used. All singleton live births between 1982 and 1995 were identified (n= 1,345,210) and followed-up to diagnosis at age 16 or later. Mode of delivery was categorized as: unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective Caesarean section (CS) (before onset of labor), and emergency CS (after onset of labor). Outcomes included any psychosis; nonaffective psychoses (including schizophrenia only) and affective psychoses (including bipolar disorder only and depression with psychosis only). Cox regression analysis was used reporting partially and fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sibling-matched Cox regression was performed to adjust for familial confounding factors. In the fully adjusted analyses, elective CS was significantly associated with any psychosis (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24). Similar findings were found for nonaffective psychoses (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99, 1.29) and affective psychoses (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31) (χ(2)for heterogeneityP= .69). In the sibling-matched Cox regression, this association disappeared (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78, 1.37). No association was found between assisted VD or emergency CS and psychosis. This study found that elective CS is associated with an increase in offspring psychosis. However, the association did not persist in the sibling-matched analysis, implying the association is likely due to familial confounding by unmeasured factors such as genetics or environment. PMID:26615187

  4. MULTI-CHANNEL VOLUME SPHYGMOGRAPHY IN CARDIOANGIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF THE ADULT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the possibilities of using multi-channel volume sphygmography (MCVS in prophylactic medical examination of the population.Material and methods. Simultaneous examination of 522 individuals older than 18 years was performed. Along with standard procedures provided by the prophylactic medical examination program synchronous registration of blood pressure (BP on four extremities by MCVS was performed. At that a difference in systolic BP between arms (ΔSBParm and legs (ΔSBPleg and ankle-brachial index (ABI were automatically calculated. Values of │ΔSBParm│ or │ΔSBPleg│≥15 mm Hg or ABI≤0.9 were considered as markers of atherosclerotic vascular disease.Results. Signs of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic lesions among patients ≥40 years old were found in 14.7% of the cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.7-18.4. Relative risks of atherosclerotic lesions in arteries increase 1.71-fold (95% CI 1.06-2.74 in arterial hypertension, 1.70-fold (95% CI 1.08-2.68 – in obesity, 1.91 fold (95% CI 1.17-3.12 – in diabetes, as well as with the increasing levels of cardiovascular risk. In patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of cerebral stroke MCVS can detect signs of multifocal atherosclerosis in 21% (95% CI 14-32 and 22% (95% CI 9-46 of the cases, respectively.Conclusion. MCVS with the determination of ΔSBParm, ΔSBPleg and ABI may be regarded as the basis for low-cost and efficient system of cardioangiological screening.

  5. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  6. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders. PMID:25909960

  7. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. PMID:26726759

  8. Reaction to political and socioeconomic transition and self-perceived health status in the adult population of Gjilan region, Kosovo

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    Musa Qazimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of our study was to assess the association of reaction to political and socioeconomic transition with self-perceived general health status in adult men and women in a region of Kosovo, a post-war country in the Western Balkans which has proclaimed independence in 2008. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Gjilan region of Kosovo in 2014, including a representative sample of 867 primary health care users aged ≥35 years (419 men aged 54.3±10.9 years and 448 women aged 54.0±10.1 years; overall response rate: 87%. Reaction to political and socioeconomic aspects of transition was assessed by a three-item scale (trichotomized in the analysis into positive attitude, intermediate attitude, and negative attitude towards transition, which was previously used in the neighbouring Albania. Self-reported health status was measured on a 5-point scale which was dichotomized in the analysis into “good” vs. “poor” health. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of reaction to transition with self-rated health status. Results: In crude/unadjusted models, negative attitude to transition was a “strong” predictor of poor self-perceived health (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.7-3.8. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic factors and socioeconomic characteristics, the association was attenuated and was only borderline statistically significant (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.6, P=0.07. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important association between reaction to transition and self-perceived health status in the adult population of the newly independent Kosovo. Policymakers and decision-makers in post-war countries such as Kosovo should be aware of the health effects of attitudes towards political and socioeconomic aspects of transition, which is seemingly an important psychosocial factor.

  9. Prevalence, nature and potential preventability of adverse drug events – a population-based medical record study of 4970 adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Katja M; Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate the 3 month prevalence of adverse drug events (ADEs), categories of ADEs and preventable ADEs, and the preventability of ADEs among adults in Sweden. Further, to identify drug classes and organ systems associated with ADEs and estimate their seriousness. Methods A random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council in 2008 was drawn from the Total Population Register. All their medical records in 29 inpatient care departments in three hospitals, 110 specialized outpatient clinics and 51 primary care units were reviewed retrospectively in a stepwise manner, and complemented with register data on dispensed drugs. ADEs, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), sub-therapeutic effects of drug therapy (STEs), drug dependence and abuse, drug intoxications from overdose, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indication, were detected during a 3 month study period, and assessed for preventability. Results Among 4970 included individuals, the prevalence of ADEs was 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1, 12.9%), and preventable ADEs 5.6% (95% CI 5.0, 6.2%). ADRs (6.9%; 95% CI 6.2, 7.6%) and STEs (6.4%; 95% CI 5.8, 7.1%) were more prevalent than the other ADEs. Of the ADEs, 38.8% (95% CI 35.8–41.9%) was preventable, varying by ADE category and seriousness. ADEs were frequently associated with nervous system and cardiovascular drugs, but the associated drugs and affected organs varied by ADE category. Conclusions The considerable burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from commonly used drugs across care settings warrants large-scale efforts to redesign safer, higher quality healthcare systems. The heterogeneous nature of the ADE categories should be considered in research and clinical practice for preventing, detecting and mitigating ADEs. PMID:24372506

  10. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an adult population in a rural community of Haryana, India

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    Anindo Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly becoming prevalent in the Indian population, knowledge regarding the burden and risk factors of NAFLD is limited, more so from rural areas. This study was thus conducted to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD among adults in a rural community of Haryana, India and to measure the association of diet, physical activity, and other selected risk factors with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in a rural community of Haryana, India among resident adults ≥35 years of age. Eight out of 28 villages were selected by probability proportion to size sampling. The number of eligible and consenting participants randomly selected from each village was 27. Out of 216 participants thus recruited, 184 participants reported for undergoing ultrasonography (USG of the liver, anthropometry, blood pressure recording, and blood sample collection. Finally, 176 participants were analyzed. Results: Prevalence of NAFLD was 30.7%. There was no significant difference in the calorie intake and average total physical activity between participants with and without NAFLD. On multivariate analysis, hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (OR: 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-5.0, P 0.03] and an increased waist circumference (adjusted OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.5-7.0, P < 0.001 were independently associated with NAFLD. A normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL level was protective against NAFLD (adjusted OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8, P 0.001. Conclusions: The high prevalence of NAFLD is already a public health problem, even in the rural parts of India. Urgent public health interventions are required to prevent its development by controlling the cardiometabolic risk factors associated with it.

  11. [Hepatitis E virus epidemiology in adult population in Edirne province, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Alper; Tansel, Ozlem; Kunduracilar, Hakan; Tokuç, Burcu; Yuluğkural, Zerrin; Yüksel, Pelin

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) clinical presentations range from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis which is frequently seen in pregnant women. Epidemics due to HEV mostly originate from contaminated water and the virus is transmitted by fecal oral way. Its frequency is closely related to the socioeconomical status of the community. The aim of this first community-based study performed in Edirne province (located at Trace region of Turkey) was to determine the seroprevalence of HEV and the risk factors in the city center. Five hundred eighty two people (273 men, 309 women) over age 15 years, representing the population of Edirne city center were included in the study. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were investigated in the serum samples by ELISA method. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in a total of 14 cases (11 women, 3 men) and HEV infection prevalence was found to be 2.4%. The mean age of seropositive people was 50.86 +/- 16.76 years while it was 40.7 +/- 16.9 years in seronegative people (p = 0.027). This result was attributed to the better water supply and sanitation conditions in Edirne province in comparison to other parts of Turkey and shift of HEV seropositivity in older ages. No statistically significant difference was detected between seropositive and seronegative cases in terms of socioeconomical conditions, both groups being in high socioeconomical level. The analysis of the risk factors revealed that the rate of people living in houses built with materials other than reinforced concrete (p = 0.044), dealing with stockbreeding (p = 0.046) and consuming fruits and vegetables without proper washing (p = 0.015) were significantly higher in the seropositive group. No statistically significant difference was detected for the other risk factors such as the number of household, presence of city water supply and sewage system in the house, location of the water closet outside house, lack of hand-washing habits, sharing utensils, consumption of raw vegetables

  12. Gender dysphoria - prevalence and co-morbidities in an Irish adult population

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    Ciaran eJudge

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender dysphoria is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender Identity Disorder was officially renamed ‘Gender Dysphoria’ (GD in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and have not been well documented in Ireland.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment during the study period.Results: The prevalence of gender dysphoria in the Irish population was 1:10,154 MTF and 1:27,668 FTM, similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were male-to-female (MTF and 59 were female-to-male (FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6y (MTF and 32.2y (FTM. 22 patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on hormonal therapy, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS. Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%.Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals

  13. Gender Dysphoria – Prevalence and Co-Morbidities in an Irish Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Ciaran; O’Donovan, Claire; Callaghan, Grainne; Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; O’Shea, Donal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender identity disorder was officially renamed “gender dysphoria” in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and has not been well-documented in Ireland. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy (HT) between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment during the study period. Results: The prevalence of GD in the Irish population was 1:10,154 male-to-female (MTF) and 1:27,668 female-to-male (FTM), similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were MTF and 59 were FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort, respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6 years (MTF) and 32.2 years (FTM). 22 of the patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on HT, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS). Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%). Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health, and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals is

  14. The prevalence and distribution of dental caries in four early medieval non-adult populations of different socioeconomic status from Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Poláček, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 62-76. ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : bioarchaeology * early medieval population * Great Moravia * non-adult individuals * dental caries * socio-economic status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2014

  15. Systematic review of validated case definitions for diabetes in ICD-9-coded and ICD-10-coded data in adult populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Bushra; Jette, Nathalie; Metcalfe, Amy; Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Butalia, Sonia; Rabi, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With steady increases in ‘big data’ and data analytics over the past two decades, administrative health databases have become more accessible and are now used regularly for diabetes surveillance. The objective of this study is to systematically review validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based case definitions for diabetes in the adult population. Setting, participants and outcome measures Electronic databases, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched for validation studies where an administrative case definition (using ICD codes) for diabetes in adults was validated against a reference and statistical measures of the performance reported. Results The search yielded 2895 abstracts, and of the 193 potentially relevant studies, 16 met criteria. Diabetes definition for adults varied by data source, including physician claims (sensitivity ranged from 26.9% to 97%, specificity ranged from 94.3% to 99.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 71.4% to 96.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 95% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.8 to 0.9), hospital discharge data (sensitivity ranged from 59.1% to 92.6%, specificity ranged from 95.5% to 99%, PPV ranged from 62.5% to 96%, NPV ranged from 90.8% to 99% and κ ranged from 0.6 to 0.9) and a combination of both (sensitivity ranged from 57% to 95.6%, specificity ranged from 88% to 98.5%, PPV ranged from 54% to 80%, NPV ranged from 98% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.7 to 0.8). Conclusions Overall, administrative health databases are useful for undertaking diabetes surveillance, but an awareness of the variation in performance being affected by case definition is essential. The performance characteristics of these case definitions depend on the variations in the definition of primary diagnosis in ICD-coded discharge data and/or the methodology adopted by the healthcare facility to extract information from patient records. PMID:27496226

  16. Estimation of the adult male population of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) at its low-density period on Kikai Island in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We estimated the entire adult male population of C. formicarius at its low-density period on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Pref., Japan. The population of adult males at the high-density period in September was about 5 times larger than that at its low-density period in May, both of which were estimated by Yamamura's method. Using this calculation in combination with an estimate of the maximal population size (4 x 10E6) by Sugimoto et al. in 1994, the total number of male weevils at their low-density period can be assumed to be less than 8 x 10E5

  17. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

  18. Remission from Depression among Adults with Arthritis: A 12-Year Followup of a Population-Based Study

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    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with arthritis are vulnerable to depression. In this study, we calculated time to remission from depression in a representative community-based sample of depressed Canadians with arthritis who were followed for 12 years. We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal panel study, the National Population Health Survey, which was begun in 1994/95 and has included biennial assessment of depression since that time. Our analysis focused on a total of 216 respondents with arthritis who were depressed at baseline. The mean time to remission from depression was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier procedure and compared across categories of each of the potential predictors. The percentage of those no longer screening positive for depression was calculated at two years after baseline. At two years after baseline, 71% of the sample had achieved remission from depression. Time to remission was significantly longer for those depressed adults who were under the age of 55, those who reported more chronic pain at baseline, those with comorbid migraine, and those who experienced childhood physical abuse or parental addictions. These findings highlight the importance of screening for these factors to improve the targeting of interventions to depressed patients with arthritis.

  19. Prevalence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders: associated factors in a population sample of young adults in southern Brazil

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    Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez Molina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate factors associated with the presence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders in young adults aged 18 to 24 years, from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used to assess mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of mental disorders in the sample (n = 1,561 was of 26.8% of which 9.7% had comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of comorbidities on mood and anxiety disorders is almost three times higher among women than men (p < 0.001. Lower education levels, socioeconomic status (p < 0.001 and a history of divorced parents (p < 0.050 was associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The main conclusion is that social factors are highly associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. Prevention strategies on mental health should focus particularly on women in vulnerable social conditions.

  20. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

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    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  1. 30 day mortality in adult palliative radiotherapy – A retrospective population based study of 14,972 treatment episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: 30-day mortality (30DM) has been suggested as a clinical indicator of the avoidance of harm in palliative radiotherapy within the NHS, but no large-scale population-based studies exist. This large retrospective cohort study aims to investigate the factors that influence 30DM following palliative radiotherapy and consider its value as a clinical indicator. Methods: All radiotherapy episodes delivered in a large UK cancer centre between January 2004 and April 2011 were analysed. Patterns of palliative radiotherapy, 30DM and the variables affecting 30DM were assessed. The impact of these variables was assessed using logistic regression. Results: 14,972 palliative episodes were analysed. 6334 (42.3%) treatments were delivered to bone metastases, 2356 (15 7%) to the chest for lung cancer and 915 (5.7%) to the brain. Median treatment time was 1 day (IQR 1–7). Overall 30DM was 12.3%. Factors having a significant impact upon 30DM were sex, primary diagnosis, treatment site and fractionation schedule (p < 0.01). Conclusion: This is the first large-scale description of 30-day mortality for unselected adult palliative radiotherapy treatments. The observed differences in early mortality by fractionation support the use of this measure in assessing clinical decision making in palliative radiotherapy and require further study in other centres and health care systems

  2. Influenza Vaccination: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among the Lebanese Adult Population

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    Ghada El Khoury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza is a common preventable infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Vaccination is the most cost-effective measure to prevent influenza, yet the vaccine uptake is known to be low. No previous studies have assessed the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination use among the Lebanese population, nor examined the knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 30 pharmacies randomly selected across Lebanon. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record influenza vaccination status, knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine among the Lebanese general population. Results: The survey response rate was 93%. Among the 640 study participants, the overall 2014-2015 seasonal influenza vaccination rate was 27.6%. The majority of participants (72.4% reported irregular uptake of the vaccine. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that elderly people (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.08–4.71, with higher education (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.09–1.84, higher physical activity (OR significantly higher than 1 for all categories, and chronic respiratory disease (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.58–6.62 were more regularly vaccinated, while those who visit the doctor “only when needed” (OR = 0.55, CI = 0.34–0.88 and those who consume more than seven drinks/week (OR = 0.24, CI = 0.09–0.65 were less regularly vaccinated. When introducing knowledge and attitude variables to the model, “thinking that the vaccine was not needed” was the only correlate that demonstrated a significant inverse association with regular influenza vaccination (OR = 0.15; p = 0.017. Conclusions: Suboptimal vaccination rates exist among the Lebanese ambulatory adult population. Clear misinformation on the importance of regular influenza immunization is also highlighted. This evidence underscores a compelling need to raise public awareness regarding the efficacy of the influenza vaccine.

  3. The 1999 SWISS-2DPAGE database update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, C; Sanchez, J C; Tonella, L; Binz, P A; Bairoch, A; Hochstrasser, D F; Appel, R D

    2000-01-01

    SWISS-2DPAGE (http://www.expasy.ch/ch2d/ ) is an annotated two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (2-DE) database established in 1993. The current release contains 24 reference maps from human and mouse biological samples, as well as from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Dictyostelium discoideum origin. These reference maps have now 2824 identified spots, corresponding to 614 separate protein entries in the database, in addition to virtual entries for each SWISS-PROT sequence or any user-entered amino acids sequence. Last year improvements in the SWISS-2DPAGE database are as follows: three new maps have been created and several others have been updated; cross-references to newly built federated 2-DE databases have been added; new functions to access the data have been provided through the ExPASy proteomics server. PMID:10592248

  4. Verification of the utility of the social responsiveness scale for adults in non-clinical and clinical adult populations in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takei, Reiko; Matsuo, Junko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Tokio; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Kamio, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently great attention has been paid to the still unmet clinical needs of most adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who live in the community, an increasing number of whom visit psychiatric clinics to seek accurate diagnosis and treatment of concurrent psychiatric symptoms. However, different from the case of children diagnosed with ASD in childhood, it is difficult in adults to identify the ASD symptoms underlying psychopathology and to differentiate ASD from other psychia...

  5. Swiss Cheese and a Cheesy CMB

    OpenAIRE

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, ...

  6. Cross-sectional study of physical activity of adult population in South-Moravian area of the Czech republic

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    Jiří Nykodým

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA was defined in a worldwide scientific community as one of the most important factors in dealing with issues of prevention and public health. Regular PA has the undeniable positive effects on health, quality of life and renewal of an active old age. Improved conditions for active leisure time activities and active transport at the regional level can lead to the improvement of the regular participation in the PA AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze physical activity of adult population of the Southern Moravia area of the Czech Republic (Jihomoravský and Zlínský region and to observe differences in selected demographic aspects of active transport depending on environmental conditions. METHODS: To estimate the weekly level of PA we used randomized data in 1110 respondents in Southtern Moravia region (487 men and 623 women aged 41.67 ± 8.87 years. All respondents were asked face to face by trained distributors (university students to participate in a research study using the Czech administrative version of the ANEWS questionnaire. Data collection was carried out regularly in Spring (March-May and Fall (September-November from 2005 to 2009. Health enhancing PA is characterized in accordance with the general recommendations. Adults should do at least 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably it should be spread throughout the week (USDHHS, 2008. RESULTS: The total weekly PA did not affect either participation in organized PA or body mass index. Respondents who met the recommendations for PA reported significantly higher total PA and transport PA. People who have easy walking distances to many sites directly from home indicate higher transport PA. The most commonly performed

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure assessment by multivariate statistical analysis of serum congener profiles in an adult Native American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaprio, Anthony P; Johnson, Glenn W; Tarbell, Alice M; Carpenter, David O; Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R; Morse, Gayle S; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Schymura, Maria J

    2005-07-01

    The major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden include the source and route of exposure and the toxicokinetic processes occurring after uptake. However, the relative importance of each factor for individual subjects cannot currently be determined. The present study characterizes levels and patterns of PCB congeners in a large cohort of adult Akwesasne Mohawks with historical PCB exposure. Total serum PCB ranged from 0.29 to 48.32 ng/g and was higher in adult men than in women (median of 3.81 vs. 2.94 ng/g). The mean serum congener profile for the full cohort was dominated by persistent penta- to hepta-chlorinated biphenyls; several labile congeners were also prominent. In order to provide additional information on individual body burden determinants, multivariate exploratory data analysis techniques were applied to the congener-specific serum PCB data. A self-training receptor model, polytopic vector analysis (PVA), was employed to determine the number, composition, and relative proportions of independent congener patterns that contributed to the overall serum PCB profile for each Mohawk subject. PVA identified five such patterns, each of which was characterized by a unique mix of congeners. One pattern observed in a limited number of Mohawks was similar to those reported for air sampled near contaminated sediment deposits at Akwesasne and for volatilized Aroclor 1248 and is hypothesized to reflect recent inhalation exposure in these subjects. A second pattern was consistent with unaltered Aroclor 1254. A third pattern, resembling Aroclor 1262 but without labile congeners, was correlated with age and is interpreted as representing a lifetime PCB accumulation profile. The final two patterns were dominated by subsets of major persistent congeners and are hypothesized to reflect intermediate bioaccumulation profiles and/or differences in individual toxicokinetics. The results confirm the utility of a multivariate exploratory analysis

  8. Social inequalities and correlates of psychotropic drug use among young adults: a population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of psychotropic drugs is widespread in Europe, and is markedly more common in France than elsewhere. Young adults often fare less well than adolescents on health indicators (injury, homicide, and substance use. This population-based study assessed disparities in psychotropic drug use among people aged 18–29 from different socio-occupational groups and determined whether they were mediated by educational level, health status, income, health-related behaviours, family support, personality traits, or disability. Methods A total of 1,257 people aged 18–29, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering sex, date of birth, height, weight, educational level, occupation, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, income, health-status, diseases, reported disabilities, self-reported personality traits, family support, and frequent psychotropic medication for tiredness, nervousness/anxiety or insomnia. The data were analyzed using the adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Use of psychotropic drugs was common (33.2%. Compared with upper/intermediate professionals, markedly high odds ratios adjusted for sex were found for manual workers (2.57, 95% CI 1.02–6.44, employees (2.58, 1.11–5.98, farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen (4.97, 1.13–21.8, students (2.40, 1.06–5.40, and housewives (3.82, 1.39–10.5. Adjusting for all the confounders considered reduced the estimates to a pronounced degree for manual workers (adjusted OR 1.49, non-significant but only slightly for the other socio-occupational groups. The odds ratio for unemployed people did not reach statistical significance. The significant confounders were: sex, not-good health status, musculoskeletal disorders and other diseases, being worried, nervous or sad, and lack of family support (adjusted odds ratios between 1.60 and 2.50. Conclusion There were marked disparities among young adults from different socio

  9. Hospital care for children and young adults in the last year of life: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiGiuseppe David L

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To help design population-based pediatric palliative care services, we sought to describe the hospital care received in the last year of life by children and young adults who died. We also determined the proportion with complex chronic conditions (CCCs and tested whether the use of hospital services increased as the date of death drew nearer. Methods For all deaths occurring under 25 years of age from 1990 to 1996 in Washington State, USA, we linked death certificate information to hospital utilization records and analyzed the timing and duration of hospitalizations and the nature of hospital procedures during the year prior to death. Results Of the 8 893 deaths, 25 % had CCCs. Among infants with CCCs, 84 % were hospitalized at the time of death and 50 % had been mechanically ventilated during their terminal admission. Among the 458 CCC neonates dying under a week of age, 92% of all days of life were spent in the hospital; among the 172 CCC neonates dying during the second to fourth weeks of life, 85 % of all days of life were spent hospitalized; among the 286 CCC infants dying during the second to twelfth month of life, 41 % of all days of life were spent hospitalized. Among children and young adults with CCCs, 55 % were hospitalized at the time of death, and 19 % had been mechanically ventilated during their terminal admission. For these older patients, the median number of days spent in the hospital during the year preceding death was 18, yet less than a third of this group was hospitalized at any point in time until the last week of their lives. The rate of hospital use increased as death drew near. For subjects who had received hospital care, 44 % had governmental insurance as the source of primary payment. Conclusions Infants who died spent a substantial proportion of their lives in hospitals, whereas children and adolescents who died from CCCs predominantly lived outside of the hospital during the last year of life. To

  10. Prevalence and Related Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among the Adult Population in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region

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    Josep L. Coll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of overweight (OW and obesity (OB by BMI and abdominal obesity (AO by waist-to-height ratio, (WHtR among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Methods: Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (2009-2010. A random sample (n = 1,081 of young (18-35 years and middle-aged adults (36-55 years were interviewed and anthropometrically measured. OW (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and OB (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were defined according to WHO criteria. AO was defined as WHtR ≥ 0.5. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants were considered. Results: The overall prevalence of OW/OB and AO was 29.4% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 26.9-32.3%, 11.2% (95% CI 9.5-13.2% and 33.1% (95% CI 30.4-36.0%, respectively. Men showed higher prevalence of OW (35.9%, 95% CI 31.6-40.5% and AO (37.9%, 95% CI 33.6-42.5% than women (OW 24.9%, 95% CI 21.7-28.4%; AO 29.7%, 95%CI 26.2-33.4%. Overall prevalence of OB was 11.8% (95% CI 9.1-15.1% in men and 10.8% (95% CI 8.6-13.5% in women. Age and no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA were main risk factors associated with OW/OB and AO. Living with at least one child at home and to be married in men as well as to be unemployed, to be born in South America, and a low level of education in women were associated with AO. Conclusions: Men showed higher prevalence of OW and AO than women. In both sexes, age is the main risk factor associated with OW/OB and AO; in men also the absence of LTPA plays a significant role.

  11. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18-93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15), using cannabis (AOR = 2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR = 2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions. PMID:25496189

  12. OBAYA (obesity and adverse health outcomes in young adults: feasibility of a population-based multiethnic cohort study using electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebnick Corinna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, we have only limited knowledge of the magnitude of these associations in young adults. A multiethnic cohort of young adults was established to close current knowledge gaps; cohort demographics, cohort retention, and the potential influence of migration bias were investigated. Methods For this population-based cross-sectional study, demographics, and measured weight and height were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,929,470 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California from 2007 to 2009. Results The cohort included about 84.4% of Kaiser Permanente California members in this age group who had a medical encounter during the study period and represented about 18.2% of the underlying population in the same age group in California. The age distribution of the cohort was relatively comparable to the underlying population in California Census 2010 population, but the proportion of women and ethnic/racial minorities was slightly higher. The three-year retention rate was 68.4%. Conclusion These data suggest the feasibility of our study for medium-term follow-up based on sufficient membership retention rates. While nationwide 6% of young adults are extremely obese, we know little to adequately quantify the health burden attributable to obesity, especially extreme obesity, in this age group. This cohort of young adults provides a unique opportunity to investigate associations of obesity-related factors and risk of cancer in a large multiethnic population.

  13. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an early biomarker for acute kidney injury in an adult ICU population

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Dinna N.; de Cal, Massimo; Garzotto, Francesco; Perazella, Mark A.; Lentini, Paolo; Corradi, Valentina; Piccinni, Pasquale; Ronco, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a useful marker for acute kidney injury (AKI), particularly when the timing of renal insult is known. However, its performance in an adult critical care setting has not been well described. We performed this study to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of plasma NGAL for early detection of AKI and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in an adult intensive care unit (ICU). Methods We enrolled 307 consecutive adult patients admitted ...

  14. Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe - northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2013-09-01

    European leopard sites in Europe demonstrate Early/Middle Pleistocene out of Africa lowland, and Late Pleistocene Asian alpine migrations being driven by climatic changes. Four different European Pleistocene subspecies are known. The final European Late Pleistocene “Ice Age leopard” Panthera pardus spelaea (Bächler, 1936) is validated taxonomically. The skull shows heavy signs of sexual dimorphism with closest cranial characters to the Caucasian Panthera pardus ciscaucasica (Persian leopard). Late Pleistocene leopards were distributed northernmost, up to S-England with the youngest stratigraphic records by skeletons and cave art in the MIS 2/3 (about 32,000-26,000 BP). The oldest leopard painting left by Late Palaeolithics (Aurignacians/Gravettians) in the Chauvet Cave (S-France) allows the reconstruction of the Ice Age leopard fur spot pattern being close to the snow or Caucasian leopards. The last Ice Age glacial leopard habitat was the mountain/alpine boreal forest (not mammoth steppe lowland), where those hunted even larger prey such as alpine game (Ibex, Chamois). Into some lairs, those imported their prey by short-term cave dwelling (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Harz Mountains, Germany). Only Eurasian Ice Age leopards specialized, similar as other Late Pleistocene large felids (steppe lions), on cave bear predation/scavenging partly very deep in caves. In Vjetrenica Cave (Dinarid Mountains, Bosnia Herzegovina), four adult leopards (two males/two females) of the MIS 3 were found about two km deep from the entrance in a cave bear den, near to one cave bear skeleton, that remained articulated in its nest. Leopards died there, partly being trapped by raising water levels of an active ponor stream, but seem to have been killed possibly either, similar as for lions known, in battles with cave bears in several cave bear den sites of Europe (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Wildkirchli Cave, Vjetrenica Cave). At other large cave sites, with overlap of hyena, wolf and dhole dens at

  15. Sodium intake may promote weight gain: results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Navia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in sodium may predispose to the development of obesity, either directly, or be associated with the consumption of foods that promote weight gain. Objetive: The aims of this study were to analyze the association between urinary sodium and the presence of excess of weight. Additionally, the study investigated the relationships between salt intake and dietary habits, as a high salt intake may be associated with inadequate eating habits and a high incidence of obesity. Methods: This study involved 418 adults (196 men and 222 women aged 18 to 60 years old. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured, and we calculated, BMI and waist/height ratio. Dietary intake was estimated using a "24 h recalls", for two consecutive days, and sodium content was determined from 24 h urine sample. Results: The 34.4% of the population had overweight and 13.6% had obesity. A positive association was seen between BMI and urinary sodium concentration. Urine sodium values were also positively associated with others adiposity indicators such as waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist/height ratio were higher in the group of individuals with a urinary sodium excretion > 154 mmol/l (Percentile 50 (P50. Additionally, individuals placed in this group presented a higher caloric intake and total food intake, in particular, more meat, processed food and snacks. Adjusting by energy intake, a higher sodium intake was a risk factor of being overweight or obese (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p < 0.01. Conclusions: Salt intake was associated with obesity; since people with higher sodium intake consumed more energy and presented worse eating habits. Additionally, sodium intake itself appears to be related to obesity.

  16. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  17. Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in an adult type 2 diabetes Spanish population between 2003 and 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen de Burgos-Lunar

    Full Text Available In patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of hypertension is higher than in non-diabetic subjects. Despite the high cardiovascular risk involving hypertension in these patients, its prevalence and control are not well known. The aims of this study were: to estimate the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes attended in Primary Care; and to analyse its time trend from 2003 to 2009. A serial cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2009 was performed in 21 Primary Care Centres in Madrid. The study population comprised all patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in their computerised medical history. Overall annual prevalence during the period 2003-2009 was calculated from and according to sex and age groups. Linear trend tests, regression lines and coefficients of determination were used. In 2003 89.78% (CI 87.92-91.64 of patients with type 2 diabetes suffered hypertension and 94.76% (CI: 92.85-96.67 in 2009. This percentage was greater for women and for patients over 65 years old. 30% of patients suffered previously undiagnosed hypertension in 2003 and 23.1% in 2009. 97% of diagnosed patients received pharmacological treatment and 28.79% reached the blood pressure objective in 2009. The average number of antihypertensive drugs taken was 2.72 in 2003 and 3.27 in 2009. Only 5.2% of patients with type 2 diabetes show blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg. Although significant improvements have been achieved in the diagnosis and control of hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes, these continue to remain far from optimum.

  18. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in adults aged 30 years and above in a rural population in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncorrected refractive errors are a leading cause of visual disability globally. This population-based study was done to estimate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in adults aged 30 years and above of village Pawakah, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey in which 1000 individuals were included randomly. All the individuals were screened for uncorrected refractive errors and those whose visual acuity (VA) was found to be less than 6/6 were refracted. In whom refraction was found to be unsatisfactory (i.e., a best corrected visual acuity of <6/6) further examination was done to establish the cause for the subnormal vision. Results: A total of 917 subjects participated in the survey (response rate 92%). The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors was found to be 23.97% among males and 20% among females. The prevalence of visually disabling refractive errors was 6.89% in males and 5.71% in females. The prevalence was seen to increase with age, with maximum prevalence in 51-60 years age group. Hypermetropia (10.14%) was found to be the commonest refractive error followed by Myopia (6.00%) and Astigmatism (5.6%). The prevalence of Presbyopia was 57.5% (60.45% in males and 55.23% in females). Poor affordability was the commonest barrier to the use of spectacles, followed by unawareness. Cataract was the commonest reason for impaired vision after refractive correction. The prevalence of blindness was 1.96% (1.53% in males and 2.28% in females) in this community with cataract as the commonest cause. Conclusions: Despite being the most easily avoidable cause of subnormal vision uncorrected refractive errors still account for a major proportion of the burden of decreased vision in this area. Effective measures for the screening and affordable correction of uncorrected refractive errors need to be incorporated into the health care delivery system. (author)

  19. Coeliac disease: clinical features in adult populations Enfermedad celiaca: formas de presentación en el adulto

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    A. Fernández

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: coeliac disease (CD is a chronic disease of the small intestine, which is caused by gluten intolerance, producing malabsorption of nutrients and vitamins. Clinical manifestations of CD in adults are highly variable, including intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. The disease may also occur in individuals who are asymptomatic. Objective: our objective is to describe the incidence and clinical manifestations of CD in adults. Material and methods: a retrospective study was carried out in patients diagnosed of CD between January 1990 and December 2008. Diagnosis was based on serologic tests and duodenal biopsy, which were compatible with CD in all of them. Results: sixty eight adult patients were diagnosed of CD in this period. Mean age was 33 (18-65 years and 50 (74% were women. The clinical manifestations were diarrhoea in 38 (55%, abdominal pain in 27 (40%, loss of weight in 15 (22%, dyspepsia in 13 (19%. Analytical results showed a slight increase of transaminases in 26 (38%, ferropenic anaemia in 33 (48.5% cases, sub-clinical hypothyroidism in 3 (4.5% patients, and folic acid deficiency in 16 (23.5% cases. Almost all patients were diagnosed between 2000 and 2008: 60 (87%. Population-based incidence of CD in adults had increased from 0.7-2/100,000 per year in the nineties to 3.5-10.3/100,000 in the last years. Conclusions: CD can appear at any age and with a wide manifestation spectrum, which can be atypical in some cases. Patients with ferropenic anaemia and a negative response to treatment or those with an unexplained increase in transaminases should be screening for CD. Atypical manifestations and low suspect index can delay diagnosis even during years. There is a marked increase in the incidence-rates of CD in adults over time.Introducción: la enfermedad celiaca (EC es una enfermedad crónica que afecta al intestino delgado, causada por intolerancia al gluten cuyas manifestaciones clínicas son muy variables incluyendo s

  20. The 'Swiss cheese' instability of bacterial biofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel pattern that results in bacterial biofilms as a result of the competition between hydrodynamic forces and adhesion forces. After the passage of an air plug, the break up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a Swiss cheese pattern of holes is left in the residual biofilm.

  1. Lateglacial environmental variability from Swiss tree rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, Matthias; Büntgen, Ulf; Kaiser, Klaus Felix; Kromer, Bernd; Talamo, Sahra; Andersen, Katrine Krogh; Rasmussen, Sune Olander

    1050 years. Regional curve standardization (RCS) was applied to preserve low-frequency information. Growth behavior of the fossil trees was compared with a recent composite pine data set from the central Swiss Alps and reveals distinct differences. The new Allerød RCS chronology reveals major...

  2. EU and Swiss regulatory action on Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Dannie

    2012-01-01

    Dannie Jost lectured on EU and Swiss regulatory action on nanomaterials as one of 16 speakers at the interdisciplinary seminar for young scientists was aimed at doctoral students from NRP 62 "Smart Materials" and NRP 64 "Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials".

  3. Cern reaches for new frontiers (SWISS MADE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Beaumont, Adam

    2006-01-01

    "For more than 50 ears scientists at CERN, the world's largest particle physics lboratory, have been unravelling the secrets of the universe, But what is life like inside the European Organization for Nuclear Research of the Swiss-French border? Two young scientists share their experiences with swissinfo."

  4. A comparative study of adults with and without self-reported learning disabilities in six English-speaking populations: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susan A; Holt, Janet K

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adults with and without self-reported learning disabilities (SRLD and NSRLD) from six English-speaking populations including: English-speaking Canada, Great Britain, The Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, and the United States. These six populations were selected because they were all English-speaking populations, participated in the first administration of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), and included the optional questions regarding the presence of a disability. In this study, we compared the groups on prevalence by population, percentage of each group by age and gender, awareness of learning disabilities and problems in school, document and quantitative literacy proficiency, educational attainment, reasons for dropping out of school, and employment, occupational and financial status. Findings were reported among these six populations within an historical perspective including differences in awareness and definition of learning disabilities, public policy, special education services, reading pedagogy, and teacher preparation. Recommendations are made for improving literacy and long-term outcomes for those with learning disabilities in all nations as well as future research directions. PMID:14672510

  5. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Noe Ontiveros; López-Gallardo, Jesús A.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administer...

  6. Knowledge of General Nutrition, Soy Nutrition, and Consumption of Soy Products: Assessment of a Sample Adult Population in Montgomery County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lida Catherine

    1999-01-01

    KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL NUTRITION, SOY NUTRITION, AND CONSUMPTION OF SOY PRODUCTS: ASSESSMENT OF A SAMPLE ADULT POPULATION IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY, VIRGINIA Lida Catherine Johnson (ABSTRACT) Nutrition education programs in the prevention of chronic diseases has flourished over the last 15 years. Investigators continue to demonstrate that soy consumption plays a role in decreasing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and problems regarding menopause....

  7. Psychosocial determinants of dental service utilization among adults: Results from a population-based survey (Urban HEART-2) in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahramian, Hoda; Mohebbi, Simin Z.; Khami, Mohammad R; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Shamshiri, Ahmad R.; Hessari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the association between dental service utilization and mental health in an adult population in the context of the socioeconomic status of the participants. Subjects and Methods: Multi-stage cluster random sampling was performed in Tehran, Iran, in 2011. Data were collected on dental service utilization, barriers of dental visit, self-perceived oral health, mental health, age, gender, education, and wealth status. The complex sample analysis method in SPSS and the surve...

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of tobramycin administered thrice daily and once daily in children and adults with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Knox, A J; Smyth, A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobramycin pharmacokinetics have not been evaluated previously in a large series of data collected in children and adults with CF receiving once (OD) or three times daily (TD) tobramycin. METHODS: Therapeutic drug monitoring data in children and adults with CF who participated in a rando

  9. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study or risk factors (prospective study for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD quality score (out of 15 for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0. TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point, 0.5–51.4% (7-day, 1.4–34.8% (1-month, 4.8–7.0% (3-month, 3.5–34.8% (1-year and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime. TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0

  10. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  11. Study on Fungal Flora in the Midgut of the Larva and Adult of the Different Populations of the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Tajedin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Many microorganisms in midgut of mosquito challenge with their host and also other pathogens pre­sent in midgut. The aim of this study was presence of non-pathogens microorganisms like fungal flora which may be cru­cial on interaction between vectors and pathogens."nMethods: Different populations of Anopheles stephensi were reared in insectary and objected to determine fungal flora in their midguts. The midgut paunch of mosquito adults and larvae as well as breading water and larval food sam­ples transferred on Subaru-dextrose agar, in order to detect the environment fungus."nResults: Although four fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Geotrichum and Sacharomyces were found in the food and wa­ter, but only Aspiragilus observed in the midgut of larvae. No fungus was found in the midgut of adults. This is the first report on fungal flora in the midgut of the adults and larvae of An. stephensi and possible stadial transmission of fungi from immature stages to adults."nConclusion: The midgut environment of adults is not compatible for survivorship of fungi but the larval midgut may con­tain few fungi as a host or even pathogen.

  12. How neighbours of the first large Swiss wind farm perceive the wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a study on the way the neighbours of the first large Swiss wind farm react on this particular neighbourhood. A survey involving 421 people showed that, as a general rule, the wind turbines are well accepted. However, it also showed that a transparent negotiation with the population during wind turbine project developpement is absolutely needed. Public acceptance also depends on the way the turbine arrays are aesthetically integrated in the landscape. The report is rounded up by recommendations for companies in charge of wind energy projects in order to minimize troubles with the concerned population. For example, financial compensation could be a suitable means when dealing with farmers

  13. Sustainable regional development: Reconciling global and local dynamics and stakes in the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Rosmarie; Wallner, Astrid; Wiesmann, Urs Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how global and local dynamics and stakes can be brought together when trying to combine conservation and regional development. For this purpose we analyse a series of studies carried out in the area of the Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch World Heritage Site (WHS). The approaches used in these studies to analyse the diversity and development of the region included data collection and evaluation of indicators such as population development, number of working places, occupation...

  14. Income level and chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions in adults: a multicity population-based study in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forastiere Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A relationship between quality of primary health care and preventable hospitalizations has been described in the US, especially among the elderly. In Europe, there has been a recent increase in the evaluation of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC as an indicator of health care quality, but evidence is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether income level is associated with higher hospitalization rates for ACSC in adults in a country with universal health care coverage. Methods From the hospital registries in four Italian cities (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Rome, we identified 9384 hospital admissions for six chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma among 20-64 year-olds in 2000. Case definition was based on the ICD-9-CM coding algorithm suggested by the Agency for Health Research and Quality - Prevention Quality Indicators. An area-based (census block income index was used for each individual. All hospitalization rates were directly standardised for gender and age using the Italian population. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between income level (quintiles and hospitalization rates (RR, 95% CI separately for the selected conditions controlling for age, gender and city of residence. Results Overall, the ACSC age-standardized rate was 26.1 per 10.000 inhabitants. All conditions showed a statistically significant socioeconomic gradient, with low income people being more likely to be hospitalized than their well off counterparts. The association was particularly strong for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (level V low income vs. level I high income RR = 4.23 95%CI 3.37-5.31 and for congestive heart failure (RR = 3.78, 95% CI = 3.09-4.62. With the exception of asthma, males were more vulnerable to ACSC hospitalizations than females. The risks were higher among 45-64 year

  15. Comparison of Anthropometric and Atherogenic Indices as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome in the Kazakh Adult Population in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Hui; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-Zhong; Ma, Jiao-Long; Wang, Kui; Ma, Ru-Lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-Ti; Ding, Yu-Song; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Liu, Jia-Ming; Li, Shu-Gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Shu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the screening ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic indices for Metabolic syndrome (MetS) using three common criteria and to evaluate the validity of suitable parameters in combination for the screening of MetS among a Kazakh population in Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 3752 individuals were selected using the stratified cluster random sampling method from nomadic Kazakhs (≥18 years old) in Xinyuan county, Xinjiang, China, which is approximately 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and cut-offs of each index for the screening of MetS were calculated. Results: According to the IDF, ATP III and JIS criteria, 18.61%, 10.51%, and 24.83% of males and 23.25%, 14.88%, and 25.33% of females had MetS. According to the IDF criteria, the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was the index that most accurately identified individuals with and without MetS both in males (AUC = 0.872) and females (AUC = 0.804), with the optimal cut-offs of 0.53 and 0.52, respectively. According to both the ATP III and JIS criteria, the lipid accumulation product (LAP) was the best index to discriminate between individuals with and without MetS in males (AUC = 0.856 and 0.816, respectively) and females (AUC = 0.832 and 0.788, respectively), with optimal cut-offs of 41.21 and 34.76 in males and 28.16 and 26.49 in females, respectively. On the basis of the IDF standard, Youden’s indices of WHtR and LAP serial tests for the screening of MetS were 0.590 and 0.455 in males and females, respectively, and those of WHtR and LAP parallel tests were 0.608 and 0.479, accordingly. Conclusion: According to the IDF, ATP III and JIS

  16. Drop-Outs from Swiss Universities: An Empirical Analysis of Data on All Students between 1975 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Stefan C.; Diem, Andrea; Messer, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This study presents in-depth empirical analyses of drop-outs from all Swiss universities for the entire student population between 1975 and 2008. The results show that most identifiable factors associated with a greater or lesser probability of dropping out are identical to those found in a recent Systematic Review (Larsen et?al., 2013). The main…

  17. Changes among male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a large adult Norwegian population from 1997 to 2008 (The HUNT studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinsbekk Aslak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to investigate changes in the prevalence and characteristics of male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in a large adult population from 1997 to 2008. Methods Two cross sectional adult total population health surveys from Central Norwegian (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In 1997 42,277 and in 2008 50,713 respondents were included. Variables included demographics (age, education, working status, lifestyle (daily smoker, did hard physical activities, health status (self-rated health status, recent complaints, chronic complaints, psychiatric complaints, a range of diseases and health care use (visit general practitioner, chiropractor. A test of difference between the results of multivariable logistic regression models for each year, including all variables, was used to analyse changes from 1997 to 2008. Results In 1997 9.4% (95%CI 9.1-9.6 of the population had visited a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months and this increased to 12.6% (12.3-12.9 in 2008 (p Conclusion The increase in visits was mainly among younger people of both genders with more limited complaints. A larger proportion of the more healthy part of the population is increasing their visits to CAM practitioners.

  18. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  19. Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity

    OpenAIRE

    Plikus, Maksim V; Widelitz, Randall B; Maxson, Rob; Chuong, Cheng-ming

    2009-01-01

    The control of hair growth in the adult mammalian coat is a fascinating topic which has just begun to be explored with molecular genetic tools. Complex hair cycle domains and regenerative hair waves are present in normal adult (> 2 month) mice, but more apparent in mutants with cyclic alopecia phenotypes. Each hair cycle domain consists of initiation site(s), a propagating wave and boundaries. By analyzing the dynamics of hair growth, time required for regeneration after plucking, in situ hyb...

  20. Hygiene Behaviors Associated with Influenza-Like Illness among Adults in Beijing, China: A Large, Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shuangsheng; Ma, Chunna; Yang, Zuyao; Yang, Peng; Chu, Yanhui; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Hongjun; Hua, Weiyu; Tang, Yaqing; Li, Chao; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible hygiene behaviors associated with the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing. In January 2011, we conducted a multi-stage sampling, cross-sectional survey of adults living in Beijing using self-administered anonymous questionnaires. The main outcome variable was self-reported ILI within the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with self-reported ILI. A total of 13003 participants completed th...

  1. A Preliminary Exploration of the Effects of a 6-week Interactive Video Dance Exercise Program in an Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia-Downs, Anne; Fruth, Stacie J; Clifford, Anne; Hine, Stephanie; Huckstep, Jeremy; Merkel, Heidi; Wilkinson, Hilary; Yoder, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 6-week interactive video dance game (IVDG) program on adult participants’ cardiorespiratory status and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Twenty-seven healthy adult participants attended IVDG sessions over a 6-week period. Participants completed pre- and post-testing consisting of a submaximal VO2 treadmill test, assessment of resting heart rate (RHR) and blood pressure (BP), BMI, and general health questionnaires. Data were an...

  2. The Dimensional Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Adapted for Children (SPQ-C-D): An Evaluation in the Dutch Population and a Comparison to Adult Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie van Rijn; Pieter Kroonenberg; Tim Ziermans; Hanna Swaab

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in dimensional approaches towards schizophrenia spectrum pathology calls for instruments that can be used to study developmental markers conveying risk for psychopathology prior to onset of the disorder. In this study we evaluated the Dutch child version (SPQ-C-D) of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) developed by Raine, in terms of reliability and factorial structure in comparison to SPQ data from two studies with adults. The 74-item SPQ-C-D was completed...

  3. Lower virus infections in Varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Emsen

    Full Text Available A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, Kashmir bee virus (KBV, acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV and sac brood virus (SBV in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera from colonies selected for high (HMP and low (LMP Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection.

  4. Lower virus infections in Varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsen, Berna; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Goodwin, Paul H; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sac brood virus (SBV) in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (HMP) and low (LMP) Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection. PMID:25723540

  5. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  6. Status of Swiss waste disposal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For almost 10 years now, Swiss work on planning and implementing of radioactive waste disposal has been heavily influenced by political and legislative requirements. In the years 1978-1979, continued use of expansion of nuclear power was made dependent upon the provision of projects demonstrating the technical feasibility an the long-term safety of disposal of all types of radioactive waste in Switzerland. This led in January 1985 to the submission to the Swiss Government of the extensive documentation on Project Gewahr 1985, as has been summarized at an earlier Waste Management conference. (Since the english translation Guarantee of the word Gewahr does not convey the full meaning of the german word, the original project denomination is used in this paper)

  7. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described. PMID:27577769

  8. Swiss Cheese and a Cheesy CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if the voids have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller voids, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small voids can still mimic Dark Energy, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical voids considered in this paper.

  9. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper

  10. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  11. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Receptive Multilingualism in the Swiss Army

    OpenAIRE

    Berthele, Raphael; Wittlin, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a particular context where receptive multilingualism at work can be observed is discussed. The Swiss armed forces underwent a series of quite dramatic downsizing measures, which lead to a situation with increased amount of mixed groups and linguistically mixed situations regarding the first/native language of officers and the first/native languages of the recruits. Although there are some minimal dispositions in the official documents regarding the right of recruits to benefit f...

  13. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Emmanuel; Lieberherr, Damien; Tognolli, Michael; Schneider, Michel; Bairoch, Amos

    2007-01-01

    The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), and the Protein Information Resource (PIR) form the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) consortium. Its main goal is to provide the scientific community with a central resource for protein sequences and functional information. The UniProt consortium maintains the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB) and several supplementary databases including the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) and the UniProt Archive (UniParc). (1) UniProtKB is a comprehensive protein sequence knowledgebase that consists of two sections: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, which contains manually annotated entries, and UniProtKB/TrEMBL, which contains computer-annotated entries. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries contain information curated by biologists and provide users with cross-links to about 100 external databases and with access to additional information or tools. (2) The UniRef databases (UniRef100, UniRef90, and UniRef50) define clusters of protein sequences that share 100, 90, or 50% identity. (3) The UniParc database stores and maps all publicly available protein sequence data, including obsolete data excluded from UniProtKB. The UniProt databases can be accessed online (http://www.uniprot.org/) or downloaded in several formats (ftp://ftp.uniprot.org/pub). New releases are published every 2 weeks. The purpose of this chapter is to present a guided tour of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry, paying particular attention to the specificities of plant protein annotation. We will also present some of the tools and databases that are linked to each entry. PMID:18287689

  14. Climate Change Mitigation in Swiss Agricultural Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Simone L. Karrer; Dominique Barjolle

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates farmers’ response to climate change mitigation strategies in Swiss agriculture. It reports the results of a discriminant analysis carried out using data from a survey (n = 1’909) among farmers in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Thereby, the main focus lies on the role of risk perception and barriers to adoption within a conceptual model of decision- making based on the protection motivation theory.

  15. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaitre-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons' trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  16. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  17. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaître-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons’ trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  18. The Swiss nuclear installations annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the safety of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992. Surveillance of these installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). In Switzerland five nuclear power plants are operational: Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basle. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration in Switzerland of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The present report first deals with the nuclear power plants and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK (chapters 1-4). In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for the research installations. Chapter 6 on radwaste disposal is dedicated to the waste treatment, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by the NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' vicinity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into some general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations, and in particular covers important events in nuclear installations abroad. In all, the operation of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992 is rated safe by HSK. (author) 7 figs., 13 tabs

  19. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Assessment of dietary background exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs particularly taking into account additional exposure due to the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident

    OpenAIRE

    Tlustos, Christina L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Irish monitoring data on PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and Marker PCBs were collated and combined with Irish Adult Food Consumption Data, to estimate dietary background exposure of Irish adults to dioxins and PCBs. Furthermore, all available information on the 2008 Irish pork dioxin food contamination incident was collated and analysed with a view to evaluate any potential impact the incident may have had on general dioxin and PCB background exposure levels estimated for the adult population in Ireland. T...