WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult stress interplay

  1. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eHoeijmakers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  2. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Lianne eHoeijmakers; Paul eLucassen; Aniko eKorosi

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endo...

  3. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while

  4. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  5. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults. PMID:27159187

  6. Heat Stress in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Heat Stress in Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... What You Can Do for Someone With Heat Stress If you see any signs of severe heat ...

  7. Interplay between shear stress and adhesion on neutrophil locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee A; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Haun, Jered B; Hammer, Daniel A

    2007-01-15

    Leukocyte locomotion over the lumen of inflamed endothelial cells is a critical step, following firm adhesion, in the inflammatory response. Once firmly adherent, the cell will spread and will either undergo diapedesis through individual vascular endothelial cells or will migrate to tight junctions before extravasating to the site of injury or infection. Little is known about the mechanisms of neutrophil spreading or locomotion, or how motility is affected by the physical environment. We performed a systematic study to investigate the effect of the type of adhesive ligand and shear stress on neutrophil motility by employing a parallel-plate flow chamber with reconstituted protein surfaces of E-selectin, E-selectin/PECAM-1, and E-selectin/ICAM-1. We find that the level and type of adhesive ligand and the shear rate are intertwined in affecting several metrics of migration, such as the migration velocity, random motility, index of migration, and the percentage of cells moving in the direction of flow. On surfaces with high levels of PECAM-1, there is a near doubling in random motility at a shear rate of 180 s(-1) compared to the motility in the absence of flow. On surfaces with ICAM-1, neutrophil random motility exhibits a weaker response to shear rate, decreasing slightly when shear rate is increased from static conditions to 180 s(-1), and is only slightly higher at 1000 s(-1) than in the absence of flow. The random motility increases with increasing surface concentrations of E-selectin and PECAM-1 under static and flow conditions. Our findings illustrate that the endothelium may regulate neutrophil migration in postcapillary venules through the presentation of various adhesion ligands at sites of inflammation. PMID:17071667

  8. Bidirectional Interplay between Vimentin Intermediate Filaments and Contractile Actin Stress Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaming Jiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic intermediate filaments contribute to cell migration and morphogenesis, but the interplay between these two central cytoskeletal elements has remained elusive. Here, we find that specific actin stress fiber structures, transverse arcs, interact with vimentin intermediate filaments and promote their retrograde flow. Consequently, myosin-II-containing arcs are important for perinuclear localization of the vimentin network in cells. The vimentin network reciprocally restricts retrograde movement of arcs and hence controls the width of flat lamellum at the leading edge of the cell. Depletion of plectin recapitulates the vimentin organization phenotype of arc-deficient cells without affecting the integrity of vimentin filaments or stress fibers, demonstrating that this cytoskeletal cross-linker is required for productive interactions between vimentin and arcs. Collectively, our results reveal that plectin-mediated interplay between contractile actomyosin arcs and vimentin intermediate filaments controls the localization and dynamics of these two cytoskeletal systems and is consequently important for cell morphogenesis.

  9. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Oxidative Stress Interplay: Implications in Tumorigenesis and Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and oxidative stress/Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) both have pivotal roles in health and disease. In this review we are analyzing the interplay between TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. They have contradictory roles in cancer progression since both can have antitumor effects, through the induction of cell death, senescence and cell cycle arrest, and protumor effects by contributing to cancer cell spreading, proliferation, survival, ...

  10. Inductive interactions mediated by interplay of asymmetric signalling underlie development of adult haematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souilhol, Céline; Gonneau, Christèle; Lendinez, Javier G; Batsivari, Antoniana; Rybtsov, Stanislav; Wilson, Heather; Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Hills, David; Taoudi, Samir; Antonchuk, Jennifer; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge preferentially in the ventral domain of the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Several signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt, Shh and RA are implicated in this process, yet how these interact to regulate the emergence of HSCs has not previously been described in mammals. Using a combination of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we report here that stage-specific reciprocal dorso-ventral inductive interactions and lateral input from the urogenital ridges are required to drive HSC development in the aorta. Our study strongly suggests that these inductive interactions in the AGM region are mediated by the interplay between spatially polarized signalling pathways. Specifically, Shh produced in the dorsal region of the AGM, stem cell factor in the ventral and lateral regions, and BMP inhibitory signals in the ventral tissue are integral parts of the regulatory system involved in the development of HSCs. PMID:26952187

  11. Adult Neurogenesis, Chronic Stress and Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Lucassen; C.A. Oomen; M. Schouten; J.M. Encinas; C.P. Fitzsimons

    2016-01-01

    A major risk factor for depression in vulnerable individuals is exposure to stress during critical periods. Stress affects mood and cognition and is also one of the best known inhibitors of adult neurogenesis that has been associated with hippocampal changes and atrophy, common findings in major dep

  12. Alzheimer's Proteins, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Interplay in a Neuronal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobba, Antonella; Petragallo, Vito A.; Marra, Ersilia; Atlante, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the interplay between beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, Tau fragments, oxidative stress, and mitochondria in the neuronal model of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) in which the molecular events reminiscent of AD are activated. The identification of the death route and the cause/effect relationships between the events leading to death could be helpful to manage the progression of apoptosis in neurodegeneration and to define antiapoptotic treatments acting on precocious steps of the death process. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the earliest events linked to AD and might play a causative role in disease onset and progression. Recent studies on CGNs have shown that adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) impairment, due to interaction with toxic N-ter Tau fragment, contributes in a significant manner to bioenergetic failure and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings open a window for new therapeutic strategies aimed at preserving and/or improving mitochondrial function. PMID:20862336

  13. Alzheimer's Proteins, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Interplay in a Neuronal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bobba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the interplay between beta-amyloid (A peptide, Tau fragments, oxidative stress, and mitochondria in the neuronal model of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs in which the molecular events reminiscent of AD are activated. The identification of the death route and the cause/effect relationships between the events leading to death could be helpful to manage the progression of apoptosis in neurodegeneration and to define antiapoptotic treatments acting on precocious steps of the death process. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the earliest events linked to AD and might play a causative role in disease onset and progression. Recent studies on CGNs have shown that adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT impairment, due to interaction with toxic N-ter Tau fragment, contributes in a significant manner to bioenergetic failure and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings open a window for new therapeutic strategies aimed at preserving and/or improving mitochondrial function.

  14. Chronic stress among adults in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Bode, Liv; Schlack, Robert; Busch, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) was conducted from 2008–2011 and comprised interviews, examinations and tests. The target population was the resident population of Germany aged 18–79 years. A total of 8,152 persons participated. Chronic stress was assessed to examine its effects on health and mental wellbeing. The Screening Scale of the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress was used to assess stress burden among participants up to the age o...

  15. Molecular mechanisms in the regulation of adult neurogenesis during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Martin; Zunszain, Patricia A; Pariante, Carmine M

    2015-04-01

    Coping with stress is fundamental for mental health, but understanding of the molecular neurobiology of stress is still in its infancy. Adult neurogenesis is well known to be regulated by stress, and conversely adult neurogenesis regulates stress responses. Recent studies in neurogenic cells indicate that molecular pathways activated by glucocorticoids, the main stress hormones, are modulated by crosstalk with other stress-relevant mechanisms, including inflammatory mediators, neurotrophic factors and morphogen signalling pathways. This Review discusses the pathways that are involved in this crosstalk and thus regulate this complex relationship between adult neurogenesis and stress. PMID:25790864

  16. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  17. The Interplay of Perceived Stress, Self-Determination and School Engagement in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Kittler, Frieder; Braun, Sarah R.; Lätsch, Alexander; Wilkinson, R. Poppy; Hoferichter, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many societies are placing a greater onus on academic achievement--resulting in higher levels of stress being observed among adolescent students. Stress can have detrimental repercussions on adolescents' health and is also associated with anxiety and depression. However, since less is known about how high stress levels affect…

  18. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Fear Generalization, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar

    2016-01-01

    The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal-cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726

  19. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  20. Antagonistic interplay between hypocretin and leptin in the lateral hypothalamus regulates stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnavion, Patricia; Jackson, Alexander C; Carter, Matthew E; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functions to coordinate behavioural and physiological responses to stress in a manner that depends on the behavioural state of the organism. However, the mechanisms through which arousal and metabolic states influence the HPA axis are poorly understood. Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. Interestingly, we found that Hcrt neuronal activity and Hcrt-mediated stress responses were inhibited by the satiety hormone leptin, which acts, in part, through a network of leptin-sensitive neurons in the LHA. These data demonstrate how peripheral metabolic signals interact with hypothalamic neurons to coordinate stress and arousal and suggest one mechanism through which hyperarousal or altered metabolic states may be linked with abnormal stress responses. PMID:25695914

  1. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  2. Current Understanding of the Interplay between Phytohormones and Photosynthesis under Environmental Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mayank Anand Gururani; Tapan Kumar Mohanta; Hanhong Bae

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress accounts for huge crop losses every year across the globe. In plants, the photosynthetic machinery gets severely damaged at various levels due to adverse environmental conditions. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a result of stress further promote the photosynthetic damage by inhibiting the repair system of photosystem II. Earlier studies have suggested that phytohormones are not only required for plant growth and development, but they also play a pivot...

  3. Interplay between pleiotropy and secondary selection determines rise and fall of mutators in stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyoung Heo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutators are clones whose mutation rate is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than the rate of wild-type clones and their roles in adaptive evolution of asexual populations have been controversial. Here we address this problem by using an ab initio microscopic model of living cells, which combines population genetics with a physically realistic presentation of protein stability and protein-protein interactions. The genome of model organisms encodes replication controlling genes (RCGs and genes modeling the mismatch repair (MMR complexes. The genotype-phenotype relationship posits that the replication rate of an organism is proportional to protein copy numbers of RCGs in their functional form and there is a production cost penalty for protein overexpression. The mutation rate depends linearly on the concentration of homodimers of MMR proteins. By simulating multiple runs of evolution of populations under various environmental stresses--stationary phase, starvation or temperature-jump--we find that adaptation most often occurs through transient fixation of a mutator phenotype, regardless of the nature of stress. By contrast, the fixation mechanism does depend on the nature of stress. In temperature jump stress, mutators take over the population due to loss of stability of MMR complexes. In contrast, in starvation and stationary phase stresses, a small number of mutators are supplied to the population via epigenetic stochastic noise in production of MMR proteins (a pleiotropic effect, and their net supply is higher due to reduced genetic drift in slowly growing populations under stressful environments. Subsequently, mutators in stationary phase or starvation hitchhike to fixation with a beneficial mutation in the RCGs, (second order selection and finally a mutation stabilizing the MMR complex arrives, returning the population to a non-mutator phenotype. Our results provide microscopic insights into the rise and fall of mutators in

  4. The Interplay of International Students' Acculturative Stress, Social Support, and Acculturation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Christopher; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation modes (assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization), social support, and acculturative stress in undergraduate and graduate international students (N=104) at a medium-sized public university in the Midwestern United States. The study found that international students with…

  5. Medical undergraduates and pathological internet use: Interplay of stressful life events and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Amrita Chakraborti; Prasenjit Ray; Mehboob U Islam; Asim Kumar Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Being in the age of technological advancement, the human mind is under constant risk of being engulfed by social media leading to pathological internet use. Cyberworld serves as a buffer under stress by means of satisfying various needs of an individual in the form of entertainment, access to information, gaining recognition and maintaining relationships. Conversely, the morbid preoccupation of the internet was found to be averted by positive coping resilience and sense of self-ef...

  6. Antagonistic interplay between hypocretin and leptin in the lateral hypothalamus regulates stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnavion, Patricia; Jackson, Alexander C.; Carter, Matthew E.; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functions to coordinate behavioural and physiological responses to stress in a manner that depends on the behavioural state of the organism. However, the mechanisms through which arousal and metabolic states influence the HPA axis are poorly understood. Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behavio...

  7. Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Matthew J.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Muller, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultraso...

  8. Type 2 Diabetes and Breast Cancer: The Interplay between Impaired Glucose Metabolism and Oxidant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Patrizia; Riondino, Silvia; Buonomo, Oreste; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Guadagni, Fiorella; Roselli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders, especially type 2 diabetes and its associated complications, represent a growing public health problem. Epidemiological findings indicate a close relationship between diabetes and many types of cancer (including breast cancer risk), which regards not only the dysmetabolic condition, but also its underlying risk factors and therapeutic interventions. This review discusses the advances in understanding of the mechanisms linking metabolic disorders and breast cancer. Among the proposed mechanisms to explain such an association, a major role is played by the dysregulated glucose metabolism, which concurs with a chronic proinflammatory condition and an associated oxidative stress to promote tumour initiation and progression. As regards the altered glucose metabolism, hyperinsulinaemia, both endogenous due to insulin-resistance and drug-induced, appears to promote tumour cell growth through the involvement of innate immune activation, platelet activation, increased reactive oxygen species, exposure to protumorigenic and proangiogenic cytokines, and increased substrate availability to neoplastic cells. In this context, understanding the relationship between metabolic disorders and cancer is becoming imperative, and an accurate analysis of these associations could be used to identify biomarkers able to predict disease risk and/or prognosis and to help in the choice of proper evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. PMID:26171112

  9. Self-organization in Pd/W(110): interplay between surface structure and stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been shown that submonolayer Pd on W(110) forms highly ordered linear mesoscopic stripes at high temperatures. The stripes display an internal Pd superstructure with a nano-scale periodicity along the direction perpendicular to the periodicity of the stripes. The same type of superstructure is also observed in a wide range of temperatures below the stripe formation temperature. We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of this superstructure of Pd on W(110) and investigate its influence on the appearance of the linear mesoscopic stripes. By means of low-energy electron diffraction and low-energy electron microscopy we show that it has a far more peculiar dependence on temperature and coverage than expected from a regular surface reconstruction. Using density-functional theory, we model the Pd superstructures as periodic vacancy-line type configurations and investigate their energetics and elastic properties. From our calculated surface stresses and anisotropies for the vacancy-line configurations, and based on the continuum elasticity theory, we demonstrate quantitatively that the vacancy-line type of structure is a prerequisite for the formation of the linear mesoscopic stripes. Moreover, we show that the physics driving the formation of the internal superstructure is very similar to the one at play in forming the mesoscopic stripes themselves. (paper)

  10. Childhood Maltreatment, Perceived Stress, and Stress-Related Coping in Recently Abstinent Cocaine Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Scott M.; Paliwal, Prashni; Sinha, Rajita

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined associations between a personal history of childhood maltreatment and the perceived stress and stress-coping styles of recently abstinent and treatment-engaged cocaine dependent adults. Fifty men and 41 women at an inpatient treatment and research facility were administered the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (D. P. Bernstein & L. Fink, 1998; D. P. Bernstein et al., 2003), the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983), and the ...

  11. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, stress and aging: Identifying the complex interplay of genetic pathways following the treatment with humic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eMenzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Low concentrations of the dissolved leonardite humic acid HuminFeed® (HF prolonged the lifespan and enhanced the thermal stress resistance of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. However, growth was impaired and reproduction delayed, effects which have also been identified in response to other polyphenolic monomers, including Tannic acid, Rosmarinic acid, and Caffeic acid. Moreover, a chemical modification of HF, which increases its phenolic/quinonoid moieties, magnified the biological impact on C. elegans. To gain a deep insight into the molecular basis of these effects, we performed global transcriptomics on young adult (3 d and old adult (11 d nematodes exposed to two different concentrations of HF. We also studied several C. elegans mutant strains in respect to HF derived longevity and compared all results with data obtained for the chemically modified HF. The gene expression pattern of young HF treated nematodes displayed a significant overlap to other conditions known to provoke longevity, including various plant polyphenol monomers. Besides the regulation of parts of the metabolism, TGF- signaling and Insulin-like signaling, lysosomal activities seem to contribute most to HF’s and modified HF’s lifespan prolonging action. These results support the notion that the phenolic/quinonoid moieties of humic substances are major building blocks that drive the physiological effects observed in C. elegans.

  12. The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Stress and Aging: Identifying the Complex Interplay of Genetic Pathways Following the Treatment with Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Ralph; Menzel, Stefanie; Swain, Suresh C; Pietsch, Kerstin; Tiedt, Sophie; Witczak, Jördis; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of the dissolved leonardite humic acid HuminFeed(®) (HF) prolonged the lifespan and enhanced the thermal stress resistance of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. However, growth was impaired and reproduction delayed, effects which have also been identified in response to other polyphenolic monomers, including Tannic acid, Rosmarinic acid, and Caffeic acid. Moreover, a chemical modification of HF, which increases its phenolic/quinonoid moieties, magnified the biological impact on C. elegans. To gain a deep insight into the molecular basis of these effects, we performed global transcriptomics on young adult (3 days) and old adult (11 days) nematodes exposed to two different concentrations of HF. We also studied several C. elegans mutant strains in respect to HF derived longevity and compared all results with data obtained for the chemically modified HF. The gene expression pattern of young HF-treated nematodes displayed a significant overlap to other conditions known to provoke longevity, including various plant polyphenol monomers. Besides the regulation of parts of the metabolism, transforming growth factor-beta signaling, and Insulin-like signaling, lysosomal activities seem to contribute most to HF's and modified HF's lifespan prolonging action. These results support the notion that the phenolic/quinonoid moieties of humic substances are major building blocks that drive the physiological effects observed in C. elegans. PMID:22529848

  13. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  14. Prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder among adults in flood district

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Shuidong; Liu Aizhong; Tan Hongzhuan; Huang Peng; Chen Mengshi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Flood is one of the most common and severe forms of natural disasters. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common disorder among victims of various disasters including flood. Early prediction for PTSD could benefit the prevention and treatment of PTSD. This study aimed to establish a prediction model for the occurrence of PTSD among adults in flood districts. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2000 among individuals who were affected by the 1998 floo...

  15. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not aff...

  16. Interplay between intrinsic point defects and low-angle grain boundary in bcc tungsten: effects of local stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used molecular statics in conjunction with an embedded atom method to explore the interplay between native point defects (vacancies and self-interstitials (SIAs)) and a low-angle grain boundary (GB) in bcc tungsten. The low-angle GB has biased absorption of SIAs over vacancies. We emphasize the significance of phenomena such as vacancy delocalization and SIA instant absorption around the GB dislocation cores in stabilizing the defect structures. Interstitial loading into the GB can dramatically enhance the interaction strength between the point defects and the GB due to SIA clustering (SIA cloud formation) or SIA vacancy recombination. We propose that the ‘maximum atom displacement’ can complement the ‘vacancy formation energy’ in evaluating unstable vacancy sites. Calculations of point defect migration barriers in the vicinity of GB dislocation cores show that vacancies and SIAs preferentially migrate along the pathways in the planes immediately above and below the core, respectively. (paper)

  17. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  18. Risk factors for the development of asthma in adults: adiposity, metabolic syndrome, mental distress and their interplay

    OpenAIRE

    Brumpton, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that involves a wide variety of cells and cellular elements. Symptoms of asthma include temporary episodes of breathlessness, wheezing, coughing, and tightness of the chest, which may occur more frequently at night or in the early morning. While there is a growing understanding of the inflammatory processes and the onset of symptoms in people with asthma, the causes of asthma development are not well understood, particularly in adults.T...

  19. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  20. The Interplay between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…

  1. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, stress and aging: Identifying the complex interplay of genetic pathways following the treatment with humic substances

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph eMenzel; Stefanie eMenzel; Swain, Suresh C.; Kerstin ePietsch; Sophie eTiedt; Jördis eWitczak; Sturzenbaum, Stephen R.; Steinberg, Christian E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of the dissolved leonardite humic acid HuminFeed® (HF) prolonged the lifespan and enhanced the thermal stress resistance of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. However, growth was impaired and reproduction delayed, effects which have also been identified in response to other polyphenolic monomers, including Tannic acid, Rosmarinic acid, and Caffeic acid. Moreover, a chemical modification of HF, which increases its phenolic/quinonoid moieties, magnified the biolo...

  2. The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Stress and Aging: Identifying the Complex Interplay of Genetic Pathways Following the Treatment with Humic Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Menzel, Ralph; Menzel, Stefanie; Swain, Suresh C.; Pietsch, Kerstin; Tiedt, Sophie; Witczak, Jördis; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Steinberg, Christian E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of the dissolved leonardite humic acid HuminFeed® (HF) prolonged the lifespan and enhanced the thermal stress resistance of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. However, growth was impaired and reproduction delayed, effects which have also been identified in response to other polyphenolic monomers, including Tannic acid, Rosmarinic acid, and Caffeic acid. Moreover, a chemical modification of HF, which increases its phenolic/quinonoid moieties, magnified the biological...

  3. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels. PMID:26251011

  4. The interplay of variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and social stress in relation to birth size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokhi Ali Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=5369. Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years, low maternal education (<11 years, and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95%CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95%CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95%CI -0.15, -0.02 and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95%CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95%CI -0.20, -0.05. The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1 magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more

  5. Social instability stress differentially affects amygdalar neuron adaptations and memory performance in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Feng Tsai; Chia-Yuan Chang; Lung Yu; Yu-Min Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old) and adult (8-week-old) rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the a...

  6. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan a...

  7. Interplay of microbiological corrosion and alloy microstructure in stress corrosion cracking of weldments of advanced stainless steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Singh Raman

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of duplex stainless steels and their weldments in marine environments and the potential role of microbial activity in inducing SCC susceptibility. As a precursor to the topic the paper also reviews the performance of the traditional corrosion-resistant alloys and their weldments and the necessity of using duplex stainless steels (DSS), in order to alleviate corrosion problems in marine environments. Given that the performance of weldments of such steels is often unsatisfactory, this review also assesses the research needs in this area. In this context the paper also discusses the recent reports on the role of microorganisms in inducing hydrogen embrittlements and corrosion fatigue.

  8. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent...

  9. Gravity-driven instabilities: interplay between state-and-velocity dependent frictional sliding and stress corrosion damage cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Faillettaz, Jerome; Funk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We model the progressive maturation of a heterogeneous mass towards a gravity-driven instability, characterized by the competition between frictional sliding and tension cracking, using array of slider blocks on an inclined basal surface, which interact via elastic-brittle springs. A realistic state- and rate-dependent friction law describes the block-surface interaction. The inner material damage occurs via stress corrosion. Three regimes, controlling the mass instability and its precursory behavior, are classified as a function of the ratio $T_c/T_f$ of two characteristic time scales associated with internal damage/creep and with frictional sliding. For $T_c/T_f \\gg 1$, the whole mass undergoes a series of internal stick and slip events, associated with an initial slow average downward motion of the whole mass, and progressively accelerates until a global coherent runaway is observed. For $T_c/T_f \\ll 1$, creep/damage occurs sufficiently fast compared with nucleation of sliding, causing bonds to break, and ...

  10. Effects of X-radiation on lung cancer cells: the interplay between oxidative stress and P53 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fernando; Sales, Tiago; Domingues, Cátia; Schugk, Susann; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Teixo, Ricardo; Silva, Rita; Casalta-Lopes, João; Rocha, Clara; Laranjo, Mafalda; Simões, Paulo César; Ribeiro, Ana Bela Sarmento; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Rosa, Manuel Santos

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer (LC) ranks as the most prevalent and deadliest cause of cancer death worldwide. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, depending on LC staging, without specific highlight. The aim was to evaluate the effects of X-radiation in three LC cell lines. H69, A549 and H1299 cell lines were cultured and irradiated with 0.5-60 Gy of X-radiation. Cell survival was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Cell death and the role of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, BAX, BCL-2 and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. Total and phosphorylated P53 were assessed by western blotting. Ionizing radiation decreases cell proliferation and viability in a dose-, time- and cell line-dependent manner, inducing cell death preferentially by apoptosis with cell cycle arrest. These results may be related to differences in P53 expression and oxidative stress response. The results obtained indicate that sensibility and/or resistance to radiation may be dependent on molecular LC characteristics which could influence response to radiotherapy and treatment success. PMID:26582337

  11. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-05-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan and Shaver's (1987) Adult Attachment Style measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Parent Stress Inventory; observations of parenting data were made from 10-minute free play interactions. Consistently avoidant mothers were less sensitive with their infants than consistently secure mothers; however, this effect was limited to avoidant mothers who experienced elevated levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that the association between insecure adult attachment style and insensitive parenting behavior is moderated by concurrent psychosocial stress. Clinical implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:24855326

  12. Perceived Stress Is Differentially Related to Hippocampal Subfield Volumes among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic exposure to stress has been shown to impact a wide range of health-related outcomes in older adults. Despite extensive animal literature revealing deleterious effects of biological markers of stress on the dentate gyrus subfield of the hippocampus, links between hippocampal subfields and psychological stress have not been studied in humans. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and hippocampal subfield volumes among racially/ethnically diverse olde...

  13. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  14. The Prevalence of Perceived Stress among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Manrui Zhang; Simon, Melissa A.; Xinqi Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perceived stress is an important indicator of well-being. However, we have limited understanding of the experience of stress in minority aging populations. Methods: This study aims to identify the stress level among U.S. Chinese older adults. Results: Our findings indicated that 74% of PINE participants have experienced some level of daily stress. Of the 10-items in the stress scale, the prevalence of individual items ranged from 11.4% to 31.8%. Higher levels of perceived stress w...

  15. Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lighthall, Nichole R.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J.; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentiv...

  16. Stress effects on cognitive function in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Calvo, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we are constantly exposed to different sources of stress, specifically psychological or social. Our reaction to stress is an adaptive response due to its role in facilitating survival. However, stress can also have immediate and delayed damaging consequences for health, and it is considered one of the most significant health problems of the 21st century, according to the World Health Organization (2001). The impact of stress extends to most of the physiological systems (i.e. ...

  17. Psychological and cortisol reactivity to experimentally induced stress in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Sivan; Leykin, Dmitry

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with ADHD suffer from increased vulnerability to environmental and mental stressors and may be at increased risk for chronic stress in everyday life. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical physiological system that mediates responses to stress. The present study seeks to examine test performance, test anxiety, self-reported psychological stress and cortisol reactivity to mental-cognitive stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Stress was induced by an arithmetic ability test. Psychological stress was assessed repeatedly throughout the experimental session. Salivary cortisol, an indicator of the HPA axis function, was evaluated immediately upon arrival, as well as 1 min and 20 min post-test completion. Results revealed higher levels of test anxiety and poorer performance on the test in the ADHD group. The ADHD and control groups showed no difference in base-line levels of subjective stress and in subjective stress levels 20 min after the test. In contrast, individuals with ADHD reported significantly higher levels of stress at the test anticipation phase and 1 min post-test completion. Cortisol response to stress differed according to group: in the ADHD group, 20 min post-test cortisol levels were significantly higher than base-line cortisol levels. This was not evident in the control group. These results suggest greater activation of the HPA axis in response to stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Adults with ADHD do not differ from controls in basal levels of subjective stress and cortisol, but do have stronger psychophysiological reactions in response to stressful challenges. The present findings are among the first to demonstrate significant alterations in cortisol reactivity to stress in adults with ADHD. PMID:26107579

  18. Early life stress differentially modulates distinct forms of brain plasticity in young and adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Herpfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. CONCLUSION: Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood.

  19. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  20. The influence of postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Horvath, KM; Nagy, GM; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Environmental stimuli during early stages of life can influence the development of an organism and may result in permanent changes in adult behaviour and physiology. In the present study we investigated the influence of early postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress reactivi

  1. Acculturative Stress, Perceived Discrimination, and Vulnerability to Suicide Attempts among Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the…

  2. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  3. Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study on Serum Vitamin D and Its Interplay With Glucose Homeostasis in Dutch Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Veld, P.H. In 't; Wins, S.; Swart, K.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Ham, A.C. van der; Dijk, S.C. van; Schoor, N.M. van; Velde, N. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Steegenga, W.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, L.C. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPA

  4. Cognitive performance: A cross-sectional study on serum vitamin D and its interplay with glucose homeostasis in Dutch older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Veld, P.H. in 't; Wins, S.; Swart, K.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; Ham, A.C.; Dijk, S.C. van; Schoor, N.M. van; Velde, N. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Steegenga, W.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de

    2015-01-01

    Objectives First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. Design, Setting, and Participan

  5. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (pGreeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (pGreek young adults might have been suppressed and their HPA-axis down-regulated after living in a stressful environment with economic and social pressure. PMID:24066077

  6. Rise Time Perception and Detection of Syllable Stress in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Victoria; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perception of syllable stress has not been widely studied in developmental dyslexia, despite strong evidence for auditory rhythmic perceptual difficulties. Here we investigate the hypothesis that perception of sound rise time is related to the perception of syllable stress in adults with developmental dyslexia. Methods: A…

  7. An Investigation of Adult Attachment and Coping with Exam-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Kingswell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Students differ in how they cope with and manage stress associated with university life. This study investigates associations between adult attachment and coping strategies for exam-related stress. Fifty-seven students at a university in the north of England completed online questionnaires to assess attachment anxiety and avoidance, helpful and…

  8. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  9. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. PMID:25277497

  10. Age, stress, and isolation in older adults living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Webel, Allison R; Longenecker, Chris T.; Gripshover, Barbara; Hanson, Jan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Salata, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have increasingly longer life spans. This age group faces different challenges than younger PLWH, which may include increased stress and social isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine if the age and sex of PLWH is associated with measures of physiologic stress, perceived stress and social isolation. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 102 PLWH equally into four groups divided by age ( 50 years) and gender. Participants completed well-va...

  11. Personality-Related Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress among Adult Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    We employed a diary design to study personality-related risk and resilience factors in adult cancer patients coping with daily stress. We focused on individuals’ self-concept incoherence (SCI) as a personality-related risk factor and on psychological well-being (PWB) at baseline and daily beliefs of control as resilience factors. Reactivity to daily stress was assessed in terms of negative daily mood. Multilevel modeling analyses yielded significant main effects of daily stress, PWB at baseli...

  12. Daily stress interacts with trait dissociation to predict sleep-related experiences in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2011-08-01

    Building on the previously documented effects of stress and dissociation on sleep and dreaming, we examined their interactive role in general sleep-related experiences (GSEs; e.g., nightmares, falling dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations; see Watson, 2001). Stress, sleep quality, and GSEs were assessed daily for 14 days among young adults. Baseline assessment included life stress, sleep quality, psychopathology, dissociation, and related dimensions. Multilevel analyses indicated that daily stress brings about GSEs among highly dissociative young adults. Additionally, baseline trait dissociation predicted within-subject elevation in GSEs when daily stress was high. Flawed sleep-wake transitions, previously linked to dissociation and sleep-related experiences, might account for this effect. PMID:21443286

  13. Mechanisms linking early life stress to adult health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating stress to health has progressed from anecdotal evidence in the 1930s and 1940s to complex multivariate models that identify underlying longitudinal mechanisms. Enduring questions that have guided our research are: How does the early life environment affect health outcomes into adulthood? How is the latent damage stored and what processes are set into motion that link early life stress to health disorders in the later years? An emerging perspective focuses on the accumulation...

  14. Response patterns in adult forest trees to chronic ozone stress: identification of variations and consistencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsiveness of adult beech and spruce trees to chronic O3 stress was studied at a free-air O3 exposure experiment in Freising/Germany. Over three growing seasons, gas exchange characteristics, biochemical parameters, macroscopic O3 injury and the phenology of leaf organs were investigated, along with assessments of branch and stem growth as indications of tree performance. To assess response pattern to chronic O3 stress in adult forest trees, we introduce a new evaluation approach, which provides a comprehensive, readily accomplishable overview across several tree-internal scaling levels, different canopy regions and growing seasons. This new approach, based on a three-grade colour coding, combines statistical analysis and the proficient ability of the 'human eye' in pattern recognition. - Responses of adult forest trees to chronic O3 stress can be visualized in a survey table applying a three-grade colour coding to each investigated parameter

  15. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Methods: Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 comb...

  16. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Whyne, Erum

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of sel...

  17. The relationship between adult attachment style and post-traumatic stress symptoms: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, S.; Ayers, S; Field, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N = 9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρ =-.27), and a medium...

  18. Perceived Stress and Social Networks among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Gerds, Thomas Alexander;

    Individuals reporting high stress are engaging in social interactions more frequently via calls and text messages, and they appear to spend shorter time in social interactions meeting face-to-face with fellow students. This pattern is also reflected in the self-reported social interactions where ...

  19. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...... induces depression-like behavior, without significantly changing neurogenesis, the total number of neurons or the volume of the hippocampus. Further, electroconvulsive stimulation prevents stress-induced depression-like behavior and increases neurogenesis. The total number of neurons and the granule cell...

  20. Metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shenouda, Sylvia K.; Varner, Kurt J.; Carvalho, Felix; Lucchesi, Pamela A.

    2009-01-01

    Repeated administration of MDMA (ecstasy) produces eccentric left ventricular (LV) dilation and diastolic dysfunction. While the mechanism(s) underlying this toxicity are unknown; oxidative stress plays an important role. MDMA is metabolized into redox cycling metabolites that produce superoxide. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Metabolites of MDMA used in this study included: al...

  1. Maternal antioxidant blocks programmed cardiovascular and behavioural stress responses in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Roghair, Robert D.; Wemmie, John A.; Volk, Kenneth A.; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.; Jeffrey L. Segar

    2011-01-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction is an independent risk factor for adult psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases. In humans, intra-uterine growth restriction is associated with increased placental and fetal oxidative stress, as well as down-regulation of placental 11β-HSD (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Decreased placental 11β-HSD activity increases fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, further increasing fetal oxidative stress. To explore the developmental origins of co-morbid hype...

  2. Effects of early life stress on adult male aggression and hypothalamic vasopressin and serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Veenema, Alexa H.; Blume, Annegret; Niederle, Daniela; Buwalda, Bauke; Neumann, Inga D.

    2006-01-01

    Early life stress in humans enhances the risk for psychopathologies, including excessive aggression and violence. In rodents, maternal separation is a potent early life stressor inducing long-lasting changes in emotional and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, associated with depression- and anxiety-like symptoms. However, effects of maternal separation on adult male aggression and underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maternal se...

  3. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected emp...

  4. Subchondral stress fracture of femoral head in a healthy adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subchondral fracture of the femoral head is an uncommon entity and usually occurs as an insufficiency fracture associated with poor bone quality or as a fatigue fracture in young military recruits. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hip pain in young patients along with transient osteoporosis and avascular necrosis of the hip. We report a case of acute onset hip pain in an asymptomatic healthy adult in which the diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and the patient responded well to conservative treatment.

  5. Inborn Stress Reactivity Shapes Adult Behavioral Consequences of Early-Life Maternal Separation Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C.; Jackson, Nateka; Clinton, Sarah M.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life experience strongly impacts neurodevelopment and stress susceptibility in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS), an established model of early-life adversity, has been shown to negatively impact behavioral and endocrine responses to stress in adulthood. However, the impact of MS in rats with heightened inborn stress susceptibility has not been fully explored. To address this issue we conducted MS in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of comorbid depression and anxiety, and Wist...

  6. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  7. Gender Effect According to Item Directionality on the Perceived Stress Scale for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitchel, W. Dent; Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is critical to rehabilitation practice and research, and self-reports are a commonly used form of assessment. This study examines a gender effect according to item wording on the "Perceived Stress Scale" for adults with multiple sclerosis. Past studies have demonstrated two-factor solutions on this scale and other scales measuring…

  8. Perceived stress and risk of adult-onset asthma and other atopic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, N H; Kristensen, T S; Lange, Peter; Prescott, E; Diderichsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    of adult-onset asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma/bronchitis medication. METHODS: Participants (n = 9785) from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, free of atopic disorders at baseline in 1981-1983 were asked questions on stress intensity and frequency. They were followed...

  9. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  10. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  11. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats ...

  12. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Faresjö

    Full Text Available The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124 and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112 participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001, had experienced more serious life events (p = 0.002, had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001, and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001 and anxiety (p<0.0001 than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001 than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001, after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might

  13. Perceived Stress Is Differentially Related to Hippocampal Subfield Volumes among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Michael L.; Brickman, Adam M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic exposure to stress has been shown to impact a wide range of health-related outcomes in older adults. Despite extensive animal literature revealing deleterious effects of biological markers of stress on the dentate gyrus subfield of the hippocampus, links between hippocampal subfields and psychological stress have not been studied in humans. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and hippocampal subfield volumes among racially/ethnically diverse older adults. Methods and Materials Between July 2011 and March 2014, 116 nondemented participants were consecutively drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, an ongoing community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in Bronx, New York. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and underwent 3.0 T MRI. FreeSurfer was used to derive total hippocampal volume, hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2/CA3, CA4/Dentate Gyrus (CA4/DG), and subiculum), entorhinal cortex volume, whole brain volume, and total intracranial volume. Results Linear regression analyses revealed that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with smaller total hippocampal volume (β = -0.20, t = -2.40, p = 0.02), smaller CA2/CA3 volumes (β = -0.18, t = -2.24, p = 0.03) and smaller CA4/DG volumes (β = -0.19, t = -2.28, p = 0.03) after controlling for total intracranial volume, age, gender, and race. These findings remained unchanged after removal of individuals with clinically significant symptoms of depression. Discussion Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between a direct indicator of psychological stress and specific hippocampal subfield volumes in elderly individuals. These results highlight the importance of clinical screening for chronic stress in otherwise healthy older adults. PMID:27144832

  14. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. PMID:25962561

  15. Trauma, stress, health, and mental health issues among ethnically diverse older adult prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugebrook, Sabrina; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Brown, Derek

    2010-07-01

    The United States' older adult prison population is growing rapidly. This study identifies and describes important psychosocial characteristics, particularly trauma, life-event stressors, health, mental health, and substance abuse, among older adults in prison. Data were collected using case record reviews of 114 prisoners aged 55 or older in the New Jersey Department of Corrections. Findings revealed that the study participants are a diverse group with varied psychosocial issues and needs, including trauma and stress histories, substance use, and health and mental health issues. Most had childhood or adult trauma, such as physical or sexual abuse. Family problems were common in childhood and adulthood. Understanding the problems and needs of older adult prisoners may help improve practice, promote advocacy, and prompt research that can enhance the quality of life of this population. PMID:20472867

  16. Comparison of Femoral Neck Stress Fractures in Pediatric versus Young Adult Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Benton E.; Quinn, Bridget; Ehrlichman, Lauren; Bixby, Sarah; Ackerman, Kathryn; Yen, Yi-Meng; Boyle, Matthew John; Kim, Young-Jo; Millis, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the demographics, metabolic bone health, radiologic features, treatment approaches and recurrence rates of pediatric versus young adult athletes with femoral neck stress fractures. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all patients <45 years-old who were diagnosed with a femoral neck stress fracture at a single tertiary-care referral center from 2003-2015. Patients who had undergone previous hip surgery or had primary bone disorders/lesions were excluded. Variables analyzed included demographics, presenting symptoms, metabolic bone health (laboratory results, Dexa scores, menstrual history, eating disorder history), imaging, treatment approach and clinical course. Results: Forty-nine patients (mean age 21.4 years, range 5-44, 78% females) met study inclusion criteria, including 28 pediatric patients (mean age 14.4 years, range 5-19 years, 71% females) and 21 young adults (mean age 30.8 years, range 20-44 years, 86% females). A higher percentage of females was seen with each increasing decade of age, with 50% of pediatric patients under 11 years-old being male. Mean BMI was lower (p=0.04) in the pediatric group (20.6 kg/m2 +/-3.42) than the adult group (21.8 kg/m2 +/-2.04). Pain was the presenting complaint in all patients, with pain localized to the groin in 80% of cases. Participation in running sports was higher for the young adult cohort (86%) than the pediatric cohort (50%), while multiple sports were played more by pediatric patients (29%) than young adults (5%). History of previous acute fractures (2%) and previous stress fractures (14%) was identical between groups. Delayed menarche was recorded in 6% of pediatric patients, and menstrual irregularity was reported in 29% and 33% of pediatric and adult females, respectively. The base of the femoral neck was most common location for fracture in both pediatric (67%) and adult (81%) groups, while transcervical fractures were more likely to occur in pediatric (29%) than adult

  17. Stress "Deafness" Reveals Absence of Lexical Marking of Stress or Tone in the Adult Grammar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rahmani

    Full Text Available A Sequence Recall Task with disyllabic stimuli contrasting either for the location of prosodic prominence or for the medial consonant was administered to 150 subjects equally divided over five language groups. Scores showed a significant interaction between type of contrast and language group, such that groups did not differ on their performance on the consonant contrast, while two language groups, Dutch and Japanese, significantly outperformed the three other language groups (French, Indonesian and Persian on the prosodic contrast. Since only Dutch and Japanese words have unpredictable stress or accent locations, the results are interpreted to mean that stress "deafness" is a property of speakers of languages without lexical stress or tone markings, as opposed to the presence of stress or accent contrasts in phrasal (post-lexical constructions. Moreover, the degree of transparency between the locations of stress/tone and word boundaries did not appear to affect our results, despite earlier claims that this should have an effect. This finding is of significance for speech processing, language acquisition and phonological theory.

  18. Specific traumatic events during childhood as risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder development in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedl, Aline F; Costa, Mariana P; Fossaluza, Victor; Mari, Jair J; Mello, Marcelo F

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate differences in early life events (ELE) on adult victims of severe interpersonal violence among patients who developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control group. Adult victims of interpersonal violence were evaluated to diagnose the presence of PTSD and ELE. 308 subjects were included, 141 in patient's group (PTSD+) and 167 in control group (PSTD-). PTSD+ group had more severe PTSD, depressive symptoms and higher ETI scores than PTSD- group. Patients in PTSD+ group had a more frequent history of ELE. Some ELE were more significant for the development of this predisposition. PMID:23520354

  19. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  20. Early life adversities or high fat diet intake reduce cognitive function and alter BDNF signaling in adult rats: Interplay of these factors changes these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcego, Danusa Mar; Krolow, Rachel; Lampert, Carine; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Berlitz, Carolina; Lazzaretti, Camilla; Schmitz, Felipe; Rodrigues, André Felipe; Wyse, Angela T S; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Environmental factors, like early exposure to stressors or high caloric diets, can alter the early programming of central nervous system, leading to long-term effects on cognitive function, increased vulnerability to cognitive decline and development of psychopathologies later in life. The interaction between these factors and their combined effects on brain structure and function are still not completely understood. In this study, we evaluated long-term effects of social isolation in the prepubertal period, with or without chronic high fat diet access, on memory and on neurochemical markers in the prefrontal cortex of rats. We observed that early social isolation led to impairment in short-term and working memory in adulthood, and to reductions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the immunocontent of phospho-AKT, in prefrontal cortex. Chronic exposure to a high fat diet impaired short-term memory (object recognition), and decreased BDNF levels in that same brain area. Remarkably, the association of social isolation with chronic high fat diet rescued the memory impairment on the object recognition test, as well as the changes in BDNF levels, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, MAPK, AKT and phospho-AKT to levels similar to the control-chow group. In summary, these findings showed that a brief social isolation period and access to a high fat diet during a sensitive developmental period might cause memory deficits in adulthood. On the other hand, the interplay between isolation and high fat diet access caused a different brain programming, preventing some of the effects observed when these factors are separately applied. PMID:26948152

  1. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  2. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. Methods 5972 students, randoml...

  3. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adult Mental Health: Evidence for Gene-Environment Interplay as a Function of Maternal and Paternal Discipline and Affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C; Jarnecke, Amber M

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have long theorized that genetic influence on mental health may differ as a function of environmental risk factors. One likely moderator of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathological symptoms is parenting behavior, as phenotypic research shows that negative aspects of parent-child relationships are associated with greater likelihood of mental illness in adulthood. The current study examined whether levels of reported parental discipline and affection experienced in childhood act as a trigger, or buffer, for adult mental health problems. Results from a nationwide twin sample suggest level of father's discipline and affection, as reported by now-adult twins, moderated genetic and environmental influences on internalizing symptoms in adulthood, such that heritability was greatest at the highest levels of discipline and affection. Father's affection also moderated the etiological influences on alcohol use problems, with greater heritability at the lowest levels of affection. No moderating effect was found for mothers. Findings suggest relationships with fathers in childhood can have long-lasting effects on the etiological influences on adult mental health outcomes. PMID:25842345

  4. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  5. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  6. Associations between the COMT Val/Met polymorphism, early life stress, and personality among healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hoth, Karin F.; Paul, Robert H.; Williams, Leanne M.; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Todd, Elizabeth; Schofield, Peter R.; Gunstad, John; Cohen, Ronald A.; Gordon, Evian

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to identify genetic factors that confer an increased risk for the expression of psychiatric symptoms have focused on polymorphisms in variety of candidate genes, including the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Results from previous studies that have examined associations between the functional COMT polymorphism (Val158Met) and mental health have been mixed. In the present study, we examined the relationships between COMT, early life stress, and personality in a healthy adult s...

  7. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-jing Chen; Bing-qing Shen; Dan-dan Liu; Sheng-tian Li

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spont...

  8. Perceived Stress, Behavior, and Body Mass Index Among Adults Participating in a Worksite Obesity Prevention Program, Seattle, 2005–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Ceballos, Rachel M.; Bishop, Sonia K.; McGregor, Bonnie A.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Stress in numerous contexts may affect the risk for obesity through biobehavioral processes. Acute stress has been associated with diet and physical activity in some studies; the relationship between everyday stress and such behavior is not clear. The objective of this study was to examine associations between perceived stress, dietary behavior, physical activity, eating awareness, self-efficacy, and body mass index (BMI) among healthy working adults. Secondary objectives were to...

  9. Low Nourishment of Vitamin C Induces Glutathione Depletion and Oxidative Stress in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Attabi, Zahir; Guizani, Nejib

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the status of vitamin C among healthy young adults in relation to serum antioxidant parameters [glutathione (GSH), thiols, and total antioxidant capacity, (TAC)], and oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrites plus nitrates (NN)]. A prospective study included 200 young adults, and their dietary intake was assessed by using food diaries. Fasting plasma vitamin C, serum levels of GSH, thiols, TAC, MDA, and NN were measured using biochemical assays. It was observed that 38% of the enrolled subjects, n=76, had an adequate dietary intake of vitamin C (ADI group). Meanwhile, 62%, n=124, had a low dietary intake of vitamin C (LDI group) as compared to the recommended dietary allowances. The fasting plasma level of vitamin C was significantly higher in the ADI group as compared to the LDI group. Oxidative stress in the sera of the LDI group was evidenced by depletion of GSH, low thiols levels, impairment of TAC, an elevation of MDA, and increased NN. In the ADI group, positive correlations were found between plasma vitamin C and serum antioxidant parameters (GSH, thiols, and TAC). Meanwhile, the plasma vitamin C was negatively correlated with serum MDA and NN levels. This study reveals a significant increase of oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from healthy young adults with low intake of the dietary antioxidant, vitamin C. PMID:26451357

  10. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress

  11. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  12. Effect of chronic social defeat stress on behaviors and dopamine receptor in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Xu, Yu-Ming; Li, Hao; Lv, Lu-Xian

    2016-04-01

    Victims of bullying often undergo depression, low self-esteem, high anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The social defeat model has become widely accepted for studying experimental animal behavior changes associated with bullying; however, differences in the effects in susceptible and unsusceptible individuals have not been well studied. The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on behavior and the expression of dopamine receptors D1 and D2 in the brains of adult mice. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10days of social defeat stress. Behavioral tests were conducted, and protein levels in the brains were assessed by Western blotting. The results indicate that all mice undergo decreased locomotion and increased anxiety behavior. However, decreased social interaction and impaired memory performance were only observed in susceptible mice. A significantly decreased expression of D1 was observed in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of susceptible mice only. No significant differences in D2 expression were shown between control and defeated mice in any area studied. These data indicate that depression-like behavior and cognition impairment caused by social defeat stress in susceptible mice may be related to changes in the dopamine receptor D1. PMID:26655446

  13. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEX-SPECIFIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Takahashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress increases with advancing age and is a mediator of several diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Moreover, postmenopausal women have a lower estrogen concentration, which is associated with elevated oxidative stress. However, there is no definitive evidence regarding the relationship between daily physical activity and oxidative stress status in older adults, including postmenopausal women. Twenty-nine adults (age, 70.1 ± 1.0 years, mean ± SE; 12 women and 17 men were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to blood collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for 4 consecutive weeks to determine their level of physical activity. After a 48-h period of physical activity avoidance and a 10-h overnight fast, venous blood samples were obtained from each participant. Fasting plasma derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations of oxidative stress markers were negatively correlated with the amount of physical activity in women (d-ROMs; r = -0.708, p = 0.002 (MDA; r = -0.549, p = 0. 028, but not in men. Fasting plasma biological antioxidant potential of antioxidant capacity marker was positively correlated with the amount of physical activity in women (BAP; r = 0.657, p = 0.006 (GSH; r = 0.549, p = 0.028, but not in men. Moreover, superoxide dismutase activity of antioxidant capacity marker was positively correlated with the amount of physical activity in men (r = 0.627, p = 0.039, but not in women. There were no associations between physical activity and other oxidative stress markers (reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, thioredoxin. These findings suggest that regular physical activity may have a protective effect against oxidative stress by increasing total antioxidant capacity, especially in postmenopausal women

  14. Elderly Mothers of Adult Children with Intellectual Disability: An Exploration of a Stress Process Model for Caregiving Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Go-en; Chung, Soondool

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examines the utility of Pearlin's caregiving stress model for understanding the caregiving satisfaction of elderly mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Methods: Mothers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Incheon who were 55 years of age or older and providing care for adult children with intellectual disability…

  15. Association of PER2 genotype and stressful life events with alcohol drinking in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Blomeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clock genes govern circadian rhythms and shape the effect of alcohol use on the physiological system. Exposure to severe negative life events is related to both heavy drinking and disturbed circadian rhythmicity. The aim of this study was 1 to extend previous findings suggesting an association of a haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphism of PER2 gene with drinking patterns, and 2 to examine a possible role for an interaction of this gene with life stress in hazardous drinking. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an epidemiological cohort study on the outcome of early risk factors followed since birth. At age 19 years, 268 young adults (126 males, 142 females were genotyped for PER2 rs56013859 and were administered a 45-day alcohol timeline follow-back interview and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Life stress was assessed as the number of severe negative life events during the past four years reported in a questionnaire and validated by interview. RESULTS: Individuals with the minor G allele of rs56013859 were found to be less engaged in alcohol use, drinking at only 72% of the days compared to homozygotes for the major A allele. Moreover, among regular drinkers, a gene x environment interaction emerged (p = .020. While no effects of genotype appeared under conditions of low stress, carriers of the G allele exhibited less hazardous drinking than those homozygous for the A allele when exposed to high stress. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may suggest a role of the circadian rhythm gene PER2 in both the drinking patterns of young adults and in moderating the impact of severe life stress on hazardous drinking in experienced alcohol users. However, in light of the likely burden of multiple tests, the nature of the measures used and the nominal evidence of interaction, replication is needed before drawing firm conclusions.

  16. Effects of chronic treatment with methylphenidate on oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2016-04-21

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a central stimulant, prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The long-term behavioral consequences of MPH treatment are unknown. In this study, the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by various doses of MPH were investigated. Forty adult male rats were divided into 5 groups; and treated with different doses of MPH for 21 days. Twenty four hours after drug treatment, Open Field Test (OFT) was performed in all animals. At the end of the study, blood cortisol level (BCL) was measured and hippocampus was isolated and oxidative stress and inflammation parameters and histological changes were analyzed. Chronic MPH at all doses decreased central square entries, number of rearing, ambulation distance and time spent in central square in OFT. BCL increased in doses 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH. Furthermore, MPH in all doses markedly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level, Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampus. MPH (10 and 20mg/kg) treated groups had decreased mitochondrial reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) activities. 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH change cell density and morphology of cells in Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 areas of hippocampus. Chronic treatment with high doses of MPH can cause oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in hippocampus of adult rats. PMID:26687276

  17. Parenting Stress in Mothers of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parental Cognitions in Relation to Child Characteristics and Family Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C.; Rose, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to…

  18. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  19. Effect of the Interplay between Trauma Severity and Trait Neuroticism on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents Exposed to a Pipeline Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wei; Xue, Jiao-Mei; Shao, Di; Long, Zhou-Ting; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background While numerous studies have explored relevant factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, there have been few joint investigations of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on the development of PTSD symptoms. This study aims to assess the involvement and interrelationship of trauma severity and neuroticism in the expression of PTSD symptoms among adolescents exposed to an accidental explosion. Methods Six hundred and sixty-two adolescents were recruited from a junior ...

  20. THE ROLE OF STRESS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE PROGRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gingiva (gum tissues) caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. In older adults, progression of disease can lead to tooth loss, inadequate nutritional intake, and a higher risk of other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. As the proportion of older adults continues to grow over time and rates of tooth loss decline, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease will increase. While much is known about risk factors for disease onset, gaps remain in our understanding of factors that could influence disease progression. Over the past few decades, stress has been implicated as a contributory factor. This review critically examines the epidemiological and laboratory evidence and describes a conceptual framework that could help move the research forward.

  1. Evidence of perceived psychosocial stress as a risk factor for stroke in adults: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Joanne; Connelly, Lesley; Lawrence, Maggie; Chalmers, Campbell; Joice, Sara; Becker, Clarissa; Dougall, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that perceived psychosocial stress is associated with increased risk of stroke; however results are inconsistent with regard to definitions and measurement of perceived stress, features of individual study design, study conduct and conclusions drawn and no meta-analysis has yet been published. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing association between perceived psychosocial stress and risk of stroke in adults.The results o...

  2. Exponentially Distributed Outages of Decreased ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Stress in Healthy Adults with Childhood Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha. T; Karthika. K

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitantly hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress challenge has been reported in adult patients with Major Depressive Disorder and PostTraumatic Stress Disorder. This paper discussed the cons...

  3. Hemodynamic Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults with a Family History of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Fjóla Huld Sigurðardóttir 1989

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the leading cause of death among Europeans and Americans. While many risk factors for CVD have been identified, their role in the etiology of CVD is not fully understood. One such risk factor is a family history of CVD. In addition to a positive family history, Type D personality has been established as an independent risk factor for CVD. The purpose of this study was to examine the hemodynamic reactivity to laboratory stress in young adults with a po...

  4. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in UK therapists who work with adult trauma clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekundayo A. Sodeke-Gregson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253 working with adult trauma clients. Method: An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5 to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Results: Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. Conclusions: UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion

  5. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in UK therapists who work with adult trauma clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A.; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) working with adult trauma clients. Method An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5) to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Results Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. Conclusions UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion satisfaction. PMID

  6. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues.

  7. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem. PMID:26285356

  8. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  9. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  10. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events. PMID:22730152

  11. Doxorubicin-mediated bone loss in breast cancer bone metastases is driven by an interplay between oxidative stress and induction of TGFβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapasi Rana

    Full Text Available Breast cancer patients, who are already at increased risk of developing bone metastases and osteolytic bone damage, are often treated with doxorubicin. Unfortunately, doxorubicin has been reported to induce damage to bone. Moreover, we have previously reported that doxorubicin treatment increases circulating levels of TGFβ in murine pre-clinical models. TGFβ has been implicated in promoting osteolytic bone damage, a consequence of increased osteoclast-mediated resorption and suppression of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that in a preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis model, administration of doxorubicin would accelerate bone loss in a TGFβ-mediated manner. Administration of doxorubicin to 4T1 tumor-bearing mice produced an eightfold increase in osteolytic lesion areas compared untreated tumor-bearing mice (P = 0.002 and an almost 50% decrease in trabecular bone volume expressed in BV/TV (P = 0.0005, both of which were rescued by anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11. Doxorubicin, which is a known inducer of oxidative stress, decreased osteoblast survival and differentiation, which was rescued by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. Furthermore, doxorubicin treatment decreased Cu-ZnSOD (SOD1 expression and enzyme activity in vitro, and treatment with anti-TGFβ antibody was able to rescue both. In conclusion, a combination therapy using doxorubicin and anti-TGFβ antibody might be beneficial for preventing therapy-related bone loss in cancer patients.

  12. Interplay between pro-inflammatory cytokines and brain oxidative stress biomarkers: evidence of parallels between butyl paraben intoxication and the valproic acid brain physiopathology in autism rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Hoda G; Ali, Elham H A; Elgoly, Amany H Mahmoud

    2015-02-01

    Butyl paraben is a preservative used in food, drugs and cosmetics. Neurotoxic effect was reported recently beside the potential estrogenic activity of parabens. There is controversy as to the potential harmful effects of butyl parabens, which are suspected to contribute to autism and learning disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities between paraben intoxication signs in the rat brain and brain markers in an autistic like rat model. This study provides evidence of many parallels between the two, including (1) oxidative stress, (2) decreased reduced glutathione levels and elevated oxidised glutathione, (3) mitochondrial dysfunction, and (4) neuroinflammation and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the brain (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1-beta, and interleukin-6). (5) Increased protein oxidation reported by a significant increase in 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT)/tyrosine ratio. (6) A marked disturbance was found in the production of energy carriers (AMP, ATP and AMP/ATP ratio) in comparison with the control. The evidence suggests that paraben may, to some extent, either cause or contribute to the brain physiopathology in ASDs or pathogens that produce the brain pathology observed in the diagnosed rat model of ASD. PMID:25461396

  13. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

  14. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  15. Cardiopulmonary stress testing in children and adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliaresis, Christa; Beker, Susan; Gewitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing (CPET) is a vital tool used to assess patients with a history of congenital heart disease. There are several tests in the cardiologist's armamentarium that allow for assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. The majority of these tests are only performed with the body at rest and some even require sedation. Exercise stress testing is unique in allowing assessment of the hemodynamic status of a patient in motion. In addition to providing all the information obtained during an exercise stress test, such as heart rate, rhythm, ST-segment analysis, and blood pressure, the CPET provides critical metabolic information. Parameters such as VO2, oxygen pulse, and VE/VCO2 slope help to detail the patient's physiology in a dynamic state. Decisions can then be better made regarding follow-up plans, acceptable exercise recommendations, and future interventions, if necessary. It allows insight into the patient's exercise capacity and quality of life. Norms for both children and adults with many forms of congenital heart disease are now available allowing appropriate comparisons to be made. This review will discuss in detail the CPET and its application in congenital heart disease. PMID:25162333

  16. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  17. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnata...

  18. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Saki; Fakher Rahim; Karim Alizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming s...

  19. The Developmental Mental-Disorder Histories of Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koenen, Karestan C.; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies have established that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with other mental disorders. However, such studies have largely relied on adults' retrospective reports to ascertain comorbidity. The authors examined the developmental mental health histories of adults with PTSD using data on mental disorders assessed across the first 3 decades of life among members of the longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study; 100% o...

  20. Distinct effects of repeated restraint stress on basolateral amygdala neuronal membrane properties in resilient adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Andrea; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2014-08-01

    Severe and repeated stress has damaging effects on health, including initiation of depression and anxiety. Stress that occurs during development has long-lasting and particularly damaging effects on emotion. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a key role in many affective behaviors, and repeated stress causes different forms of BLA hyperactivity in adolescent and adult rats. However, the mechanism is not known. Furthermore, not every individual is susceptible to the negative consequences of stress. Differences in the effects of stress on the BLA might contribute to determine whether an individual will be vulnerable or resilient to the effects of stress on emotion. The purpose of this study is to test the cellular underpinnings for age dependency of BLA hyperactivity after stress, and whether protective changes occur in resilient individuals. To test this, the effects of repeated stress on membrane excitability and other membrane properties of BLA principal neurons were compared between adult and adolescent rats, and between vulnerable and resilient rats, using in vitro whole-cell recordings. Vulnerability was defined by adrenal gland weight, and verified by body weight gain after repeated restraint stress, and fecal pellet production during repeated restraint sessions. We found that repeated stress increased the excitability of BLA neurons, but in a manner that depended on age and BLA subnucleus. Furthermore, stress resilience was associated with an opposite pattern of change, with increased slow afterhyperpolarization (AHP) potential, whereas vulnerability was associated with decreased medium AHP. The opposite outcomes in these two populations were further distinguished by differences of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze that were correlated with BLA neuronal excitability and AHP. These results demonstrate a substrate for BLA hyperactivity after repeated stress, with distinct membrane properties to target, as well as age-dependent factors that

  1. Work-Related Goal Appraisals and Stress during the Transition from Education to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    People's personal goals interact with their life situations in many ways. This study examined the appraisals of personal goals during a transition from education to work and their interplay with stress in different domains of life. Finnish young adults (N = 265, 60% female) reported on their goals in the work domain, and related appraisals of…

  2. Stress, appraisals, and well-being of staff working with adults with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Brame, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study undertook a preliminary investigation of the staff well-being model with support staff working with adults with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. The staff well-being model was conceptualised from Lawton et al.’s (1991) two-factor model of caregiving appraisal and psychological well-being, Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) transactional model of stress, and research literature investigating staff stress and burnout. The proposed staff well-being model was used to...

  3. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zago, A.; R.M. Leão; P.E. Carneiro-de-Oliveira; Marin, M.T.; F.C. Cruz; C.S. Planeta

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have eva...

  4. Effect of Symptoms of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Korean Conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Bo-Seok; Lee, So-Jin; Bhang, Soo Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study is conducted to investigate the effect of symptoms of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among 224 conscripts during 5 weeks of military basic training. Methods Total number of subject is 224 conscripts. We evaluated past and present symptoms of ADHD with Korean-Wender Utah rating scale (K-WURS) and Korean adult attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder scale (K-AADHDS) and stress and symptoms of PTSD wi...

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among adult survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Qu, Zhiyong; Lu, Ben Qibin; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Ho, Andy Hau Yan; Yuan, Yin; Zhang, Braven Qiang; Wang, Xiying; Zhang, Xiulan

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the estimated prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and associated risk factors among Chinese adult survivors 7 to 8 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The sample was recruited from 2 areas close to the epicenter but of different distances. The estimated rate of PTSD symptoms was 55.6% and 26.4% respectively in the two areas. Loss of a child was a strong predictive factor for PTSD symptoms for the parents. Other predictive factors included female gender, loss of a parent, loss of friends or neighbors, residential house damage or collapse, and proximity to the epicenter. Effective and sustainable mental health services are needed and should be directed particularly to bereaved survivors. PMID:21608035

  6. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among adult survivors two months after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuqing; Shi, Zhanbiao; Wang, Wenzhong

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and associated risk factors among adult survivors 2 mo. after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. 228 survivors completed the Chinese version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 43%. The significant predictive factors for the severity of PTSD symptoms included being female, having lower educational level, being bereaved, and witnessing death. Findings of this study suggest that PTSD is a common mental health problem among earthquake survivors in China. Given inadequate knowledge and practices concerning the mental health of disaster victims in China, the information provided by this study is useful for directing, strengthening, and evaluating disaster-related mental health needs and interventions after earthquakes. PMID:20099550

  7. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress. PMID:27030775

  8. Association of Oxidative Stress Markers with Atherogenic Index of Plasma in Adult Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Emokpae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the association of oxidative stress and atherogenic index of plasma in order to assess the cardiovascular risk in Sickle cell nephropathy especially as lipoprotein levels are lower in SCD than non-SCD patients. Antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde(MDA, urea, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate were evaluated in 110 confirmed sickle cell disease patients: 65 males in steady state, aged 21.1±6.0 years, 30 males with macroalbuminuria, aged 24.5±7.0, years and 15 with chronic kidney disease (CKD, aged 31.8±2.0 years. The mean activity levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD, and catalase (CAT were significantly lower (P<0.001 in SCD with macroalbuminuria and CKD while MDA was higher (P<0.001 in SCD with macroalbuminuria and CKD compared with controls. There was negative correlation between GPx (P<0.001, Cu/ZnSOD (P<0.02, and Atherogenic index of plasma in SCD with CKD, while MDA shows a positive correlation (P<0.001 with AIP in SCD with CKD. There was however no correlation between CAT and AIP. Decreased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes and low HDL-cholesterol concentration were confirmed in adult SCD with CKD in Nigerians. The increase oxidative stress and high atherogenic index in CKD may accelerate the process of cardiovascular complications in adult SCD patients. Atherogenic index of plasma was negatively correlated with antioxidant enzymes and positively with MDA.

  9. Psychological treatments for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Karen; Jonas, Daniel E; Forneris, Catherine A; Wines, Candi; Sonis, Jeffrey; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Feltner, Cynthia; Brownley, Kimberly A; Olmsted, Kristine Rae; Greenblatt, Amy; Weil, Amy; Gaynes, Bradley N

    2016-02-01

    Numerous guidelines have been developed over the past decade regarding treatments for Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, given differences in guideline recommendations, some uncertainty exists regarding the selection of effective PTSD therapies. The current manuscript assessed the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and adverse effects of psychological treatments for adults with PTSD. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PILOTS, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science. Two reviewers independently selected trials. Two reviewers assessed risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE). We included 64 trials; patients generally had severe PTSD. Evidence supports efficacy of exposure therapy (high SOE) including the manualized version Prolonged Exposure (PE); cognitive therapy (CT), cognitive processing therapy (CPT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-mixed therapies (moderate SOE); eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and narrative exposure therapy (low-moderate SOE). Effect sizes for reducing PTSD symptoms were large (e.g., Cohen's d ~-1.0 or more compared with controls). Numbers needed to treat (NNTs) were EMDR. Several psychological treatments are effective for adults with PTSD. Head-to-head evidence was insufficient to determine these treatments' comparative effectiveness, and data regarding adverse events was absent from most studies. PMID:26574151

  10. LHC/ILC/cosmology interplay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sabine Kraml

    2006-10-01

    There is a strong and growing interplay between particle physics and cosmology. In this talk, I discuss some aspects of this interplay concerning dark matter candidates put forth by theories beyond the standard model. In explaining the requirements for collider tests of such dark matter candidates, I focus in particular on the case of the lightest neutralino in the MSSM.

  11. [Relationships between biomarkers of oxidative stress and nutritional status in adults, Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Barahona, Amparito; Santamaria, Manuel; Salas, Hilda; Oleas, Mariana; Bermeo, Bélgica

    2014-12-01

    In this work it was evaluated the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers (uric acid, bilirubin and C-reactive protein) with nutritional status in 321 adults of Ecuador, belonging to administrative staff of of the Universidad Tècnica del Norte, aged 43 ± 10 years old (46 30% female and 53.61% male). Socio demographic and epidemiological information and lifestyle were obtained through a survey; The Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat and body water percentages were calculated; waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure was measured. Determinations of uric acid, bilirubin, and serum C-reactive protein (PCR) were performed. 17.9% of the populations were obese and 51.72% overweight. The highest values of uric acid were found in obese, hypertensive and physical activity groups. The total direct and indirect bilirubin were found in upper limits in abdominal obesity and physical activity groups. The CRP level was influenced by % fat and % water in the low body fat group and in females. In male, BMI and WC were associated with CRP. Uric acid showed relationship with % fat and WC in overweight, high body fat and PHT groups, uric acid was associated with the % water and BMI in obese. Finally, uric acid was associated with % water and the WC in the abdominal obesity, and HT groups'. The body water percentage is an important indicator to development of oxidative stress in this population. PMID:26336722

  12. Early life stress enhancement of limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats: mechanistic insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2-14 to either maternal separation stress (MS or control brief early handling (EH, underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU. Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts and dentate gyrus (DG (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting. As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05, with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p = 0.002. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life

  13. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  14. The effects of early-life predator stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  15. A narrative review of the occurrence of posttraumatic stress responses in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuotto SC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stefanie C Vuotto,1 Katia M Perez,2 Kevin R Krull,1 Tara M Brinkman1 1Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, 2Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors may experience posttraumatic stress responses following cancer diagnosis or treatment. The current paper reviews 23 studies reporting the occurrence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and associated predictors of these outcomes in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. Results indicate considerable variability among prevalence estimates of PTSD (0%–34.8% and PTSS (4.4%–78%. Measurement inconsistencies limiting the ascertainment of reliable prevalence and risk estimates are discussed in the context of the reviewed literature. Specifically, differences in assessment measures utilized, the timing of assessment relative to diagnosis, the criteria used to define the outcome, and identification of the precipitating traumatic event may account for discrepancies in prevalence and risk estimates across studies. The application of specific PTSD diagnostic criteria to a survivorship population is discussed. Empirically supported interventions utilizing cognitive behavioral therapy approaches for the treatment of PTSS in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors are identified. Keywords: posttraumatic stress, adolescent and young adult, cancer survivors

  16. Still Stressed but Feeling Better: Well-Being in Autism Spectrum Disorder Families as Children Become Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Pilar; Sarriá, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The transition to adulthood and adulthood itself have been identified as times of stress for parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Longitudinal studies, however, show improvements in the well-being of mothers of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 102 Spanish…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  18. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  19. Variation in adult life history and stress resistance across five species of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Sharmila Bharathi; N. G. Prasad; Mallikarjun Shakarad; Amitabh Joshi

    2003-12-01

    species. In terms of overall performance, the laboratory population of D. melanogaster was clearly superior, under laboratory conditions, to the other four species if adult lifespan, lifetime fecundity, average daily fecundity, and absolute starvation and desiccation resistance are considered. This finding is contrary to several recent reports of substantially higher adult lifespan and stress resistance in recently wild-caught flies, relative to flies maintained for a long time in discrete-generation laboratory cultures. Possible explanations for these apparent anomalies are discussed in the context of the differing selection pressures likely to be experienced by Drosophila populations in laboratory versus wild environments.

  20. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Well-Being: The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklósi, Mónika; Máté, Orsolya; Somogyi, Klára; Szabó, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, severely affecting the emotional well-being of children as well as of adults. It has been suggested that individuals who experience symptoms of ADHD develop maladaptive schemata of failure, impaired self-discipline, social isolation, and shame. These schemata may then contribute to impaired emotional well-being by increasing unhelpful responses to stressful life events. However, to date, no empirical research has tested this theoretical proposition. In a sample of 204 nonclinical adults, we conducted a serial multiple mediator analysis, which supported the proposed model. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress both directly and indirectly through stronger maladaptive schemata, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest that identifying and modifying maladaptive schemata may be an important addition to psychotherapy for adult ADHD patients. PMID:26825377

  1. Prenatal stress alters diazepam withdrawal syndrome and 5HT1A receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakehayli, S; Said, N; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2016-08-25

    Early-life events have long-term effects on brain structures and cause behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress on diazepam-induced withdrawal syndrome and serotonin-1A (5HT1A) receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. The results of the present study reveal that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress increased the anxiety-like behavior in the prenatally stressed (PS) animals withdrawn from chronic diazepam (2.5mg/kg/day i.p for 1week). Moreover, prenatal stress induced a down-regulation of 5HT1A mRNA in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress enhances diazepam withdrawal symptoms and alters 5HT1A receptor gene expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. Thus, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the decrease of 5HT1A receptors expression in the raphe nuclei of PS rats. PMID:27235743

  2. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27015584

  3. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailey N Scofield

    Full Text Available The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera. Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults. Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus

  4. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Hailey N; Mattila, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  5. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  6. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  7. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual's phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds, not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  8. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  9. Relationships between adult asthma and oxidative stress markers and pH in exhaled breath condensate: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakheel, F M; Thomas, P S; Bourke, J E; Matheson, M C; Dharmage, S C; Lowe, A J

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress has a recognized role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Recently, interest has increased in the assessment of pH and airway oxidative stress markers. Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and quantification of biomarkers in breath samples can potentially indicate lung disease activity and help in the study of airway inflammation, and asthma severity. Levels of oxidative stress markers in the EBC have been systematically evaluated in children with asthma; however, there is no such systematic review conducted for adult asthma. A systematic review of oxidative stress markers measured in EBC of adult asthma was conducted, and studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. Sixteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Concentrations of exhaled hydrogen ions, nitric oxide products, hydrogen peroxide and 8-isoprostanes were generally elevated and related to lower lung function tests in adults with asthma compared to healthy subjects. Assessment of EBC markers may be a noninvasive approach to evaluate airway inflammation, exacerbations, and disease severity of asthma, and to monitor the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment regimens. Longitudinal studies, using standardized analytical techniques for EBC collection, are required to establish reference values for the interpretation of EBC markers in the context of asthma. PMID:26896172

  10. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  11. Analysis on Overcoming Level of Stress of Athletes Joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team Eliminations in Terms of Gender Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ACET

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to determine level of coping with stress of athletes joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team eliminations. Sample group of the research was consisted of elite 56 female, and 118 male athletes joined in the eliminations in Alanya, Antalya. Average age of females was 20, 48, males 'was 21.00. A - five - point coping with Stress S cale of Likert type developed by A.Sibel Türküm (1999 was used to identify the level of the athletes’ stress. No outstanding differences were found between the genders (p=0,987. However, in terms of the factor to cope with stress, meaningful difference w as found between groups (p=0,031. Taking into consideration this fact, mean of females was found pretty higher than the males

  12. Post traumatic stress disorder and coping in a sample of adult survivors of the Italian earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofini, V; Carbonelli, A; Cecilia, M R; Binkin, N; di Orio, F

    2015-09-30

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people who had left their damaged homes and were still living in temporary housing more than a year after the April 2009 L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake. In addition, we evaluated the differences in coping strategies implemented by persons who had and who did not have PTSD. A cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out on a sample of 281 people aged >18 years and living in temporary housing after the earthquake. The questionnaires used include the Davidson Trauma Scale and the Brief Cope. The prevalence of PTSD was 43%. Women and the non-employed were more vulnerable to PTSD, while, age and level of education were not associated with PTSD. Those with PTSD symptoms often employed maladaptive coping strategies for dealing with earthquake and had the highest scores in the domains of denial, venting, behavioral disengagement, self-blame. By contrast, those without PTSD generally had more adaptive coping mechanisms. Adults who were living in temporary housing after the earthquake experienced high rates of PTSD. The difference in coping mechanisms between those who have PTSD and those who do not also suggests that they influence the likeliness of developing PTSD. PMID:26162658

  13. Distress Tolerance: Associations With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Trauma-Exposed, Cocaine-Dependent Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Amador, Christina D; Schmitz, Joy M

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined associations between distress tolerance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a cocaine-dependent sample. Participants were comprised of 138 cocaine-dependent adults (Mage = 45.4, SD = 9.9; 81% male; 76.3% African American) who endorsed trauma exposure, defined according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) PTSD Criterion A. Participants were administered interview-based measures and completed a series of self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that distress tolerance was significantly, incrementally (negatively) associated with PTSD symptom severity, contributing 6.8% of unique variance to the model (p < .001); notably, the overall model explained 44.8% of variance in PTSD symptomatology. Distress tolerance also contributed between 2.7% and 6.8% of unique variance across each of the PTSD symptom clusters (ps < .05). Incremental effects were documented, after accounting for the variance explained by theoretically relevant covariates (i.e., gender, cocaine-use severity, depressive symptoms, trauma-exposure severity). Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26681735

  14. Dietary supplement consumption among urban adults influenced by psychosocial stress: its pronounced influence upon persons with a less healthy lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui-Jing; Nakamura, Keiko; Shimbo, Mari; Takano, Takehito

    2005-09-01

    In order to examine the consumption of dietary supplements among urban adults and the impact of psychological stress on supplement use in relation to lifestyle, 375 interviews of a population-based sample of urban Japanese in 2002 were analysed. The usage of various supplements, stress process (daily stressors, psychological moderators, stress outcomes), personal health practices (smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, fruit and vegetable juice consumption, health-conscious eating habits) and other background factors were measured. We examined the impacts of stress on the use of vitamin tablets and capsules, vitamin-enriched health drinks and health drinks for intestinal adjustment. The percentages of these three categories of supplement user were 26.9, 18.7 and 35.7%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with 'two or more' daily stressors out of the eight stressors investigated consistently showed 2-fold higher levels of consumption of either vitamin tablets and capsules or vitamin-enriched drinks compared with their counterparts with 'one or less' daily stressors. Stress-outcome indicators also related, to a greater or less extent, to the elevated consumption of various supplements. Further lifestyle-stratified analyses revealed that the stress-supplementation relationships were weaker in subjects fulfilling more than three of the five investigated health practices (i.e. the healthy lifestyle group), but stronger in subjects with fewer than two healthy practices (i.e. the less healthy lifestyle group). In conclusion, dietary supplement consumption is independently associated with stress in urban adults. The uncontrolled use of supplements for the self-medication of stress or to compensate for unhealthy behaviour represents a health concern for the general population. PMID:16176612

  15. Comparative study of the sensitivities of neonates and adults of selected cladoceran (Cladocera: Crustacea) species to acute toxicity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, S S S; Peredo-Alvarez, V M; Nandini, S

    2007-08-01

    The body size differences between neonates and adults of many cladoceran species are large and this influences their susceptibility to toxicants. In this study we quantified the mortality rates based on acute toxicity tests using 7 species of Cladocera (Alona rectangula,Daphnia laevis, D. pulex, D. similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Moina macrocopa and Macrothrix triserialis) subjected to stress from methyl parathion (a pesticide) and mercury (a heavy metal). Among the test species, the body size of D. pulex was the largest while that of A. rectangula was the smallest, for both adults and neonates. Regardless of the toxicant, for a given species, neonates were more sensitive than the adults. For mercury, the 24h LC(50) for neonates varied from 5.6 to 16.6 microg/L while for the adults the range was higher (7.6 to 42.5 microg/L); the ratio of LC(50) of neonates to adults of D. laevis was > 3.5, while it was lowest (1.3) for M. triserialis. For methyl parathion, the range of LC(50) for neonates was from 2.5 to 15.6 microg/L, while for the adults it was from 8.2 to 25.9 microg/L. The ratio of LC(50) of neonate to adults was lowest (about 1.1) for C. dubia but was highest (> 5.5) for Alona rectangula. Our study also showed the need to employ a range of cladoceran species for ecotoxicological tests since no single species was consistently sensitive for stress from heavy metal or pesticide. PMID:17680484

  16. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  17. Starvation stress during larval development reveals predictive adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of organisms exhibit developmental plasticity that results in differences in adult morphology, physiology or behavior. This variation in the phenotype, called “Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR),” gives a selective advantage in an adult's environment if the adult experiences environments s...

  18. Stressing over anxiety: A novel interaction of 5-HTTPLR genotype and anxiety-related phenotypes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Nia; Mikhailik, Anatoly; Mueller-Alcazar, Anett; Bernard, Kristin; Canli, Turhan

    2016-09-01

    Variation within the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTPLR) contributes to individual differences in trait neuroticism and increases risk for the development of psychopathology in the context of stressful life events. The underlying mechanisms may involve dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the release of stress-related hormones. Yet, observed effects are small, possibly because they occur against the background of many other, mostly unknown, genetic and environmental variables. In this study, we removed much of the variance contributed by such background factors by including complex trait and behavioral measures in our analyses, to isolate the unique contributions of 5-HTTLPR genotype to cortisol baseline, reactivity, and recovery during the Trier Social Stress Test. We recruited 82 community-dwelling older adults (55 and older), an under-studied population, and measured salivary cortisol levels at baseline and following the TSST. As a comparison group we also recruited 88 younger adults (males only, 18-51 years old). Neuroticism, trait anxiety, perceived stress levels, and early childhood trauma experiences were measured using self-report questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a latent anxiety trait. Cortisol baseline levels were significantly elevated in older adult S-allele carriers (but not in LL-homozygotes) who scored higher on the latent anxiety trait, relative to S-allele carriers. No such differences were found among younger adults, nor amongst measures obtained during the reactivity or recovery periods. These results highlight the utility of taking into account background variables that may otherwise obscure associations between genetic variables and endophenotypes. PMID:27235638

  19. Extreme temperatures in the adult stage shape delayed effects of larval pesticide stress: a comparison between latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh Van, Khuong; Stoks, Robby

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and pesticide pollution are major threats for aquatic biodiversity. Yet, how pesticideeffects are influenced by the increased frequency of extreme temperatures under global warming and howlocal thermal adaptation may mitigate these effects is unknown. We therefore investigated the combinedimpact of larval chlorpyrifos exposure, larval food stress and adult heat exposure on a set of fitness-relatedtraits in replicated low- and high-latitude populations of the damselfly Ischnura ...

  20. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is functionally important for stress-induced social avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Lagace, Diane C.; Donovan, Michael H.; DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Farnbauch, Laure A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Berton, Olivier; Nestler, Eric J.; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term response to chronic stress is variable, with some individuals developing maladaptive functioning, although other “resilient” individuals do not. Stress reduces neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ), but it is unknown if stress-induced changes in neurogenesis contribute to individual vulnerability. Using a chronic social defeat stress model, we explored whether the susceptibility to stress-induced social avoidance was related to changes in SGZ proliferation and...

  1. Gene expression of drug metabolizing enzymes in adult and aged mouse liver: A modulation by immobilization stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of stress in the regulation of enzymatic systems involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, as well as endogenous substrates in the liver was investigated using single immobilization stress as a model. Adult (3 months of age) and aged (26 months) C3H/a male mice were used. Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) mRNA levels in the mouse liver were measured by a semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Excluding CYP1A1, experiments revealed significant differences in the expression of these genes between adult- and aged-control animals. The influence of stress on the expression of genes studied was shown to be higher in adult mice than in aged ones. Our results clearly demonstrate the lack of response or even the attenuation of gene expression in aged animals that may play an important role in age-related pathologies and diseases

  2. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  3. Interplay of migratory and division forces as a generic mechanism for stem cell patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Coucke, Alice; Joanny, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    In many adult tissues, stem cells and differentiated cells are not homogeneously distributed: stem cells are arranged in periodic "niches," and differentiated cells are constantly produced and migrate out of these niches. In this article, we provide a general theoretical framework to study mixtures of dividing and actively migrating particles, which we apply to biological tissues. We show in particular that the interplay between the stresses arising from active cell migration and stem cell division give rise to robust stem cell patterns. The instability of the tissue leads to spatial patterns which are either steady or oscillating in time. The wavelength of the instability has an order of magnitude consistent with the biological observations. We also discuss the implications of these results for future in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  4. An interplay of migratory and division forces as a generic mechanism for stem cell patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Hannezo, Edouard; Joanny, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    In many adult tissues, stem cells and differentiated cells are not homogeneously distributed : stem cells are arranged in periodic "niches", and differentiated cells are constantly produced and migrate out of these niches. In this article, we provide a general theoretical framework to study mixtures of dividing and actively migrating particles, which we apply to biological tissues. We show in particular that the interplay between the stresses arising from active cell migration and stem cell division give rise to robust stem cell patterns. The instability of the tissue leads to spatial patterns which are either steady or oscillating in time. The wavelength of the instability has an order of magnitude consistent with the biological observations. We also discuss the implications of these results for future in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  5. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  6. Low-Temperature Stress during Capped Brood Stage Increases Pupal Mortality, Misorientation and Adult Mortality in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Xu, Xinjian; Zhu, Xiangjie; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Shujing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zhou, Bingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are key pollinators, playing a vital role in ecosystem maintenance and stability of crop yields. Recently, reduced honey bee survival has attracted intensive attention. Among all other honey bee stresses, temperature is a fundamental ecological factor that has been shown to affect honey bee survival. Yet, the impact of low temperature stress during capped brood on brood mortality has not been systematically investigated. In addition, little was known about how low temperature exposure during capped brood affects subsequent adult longevity. In this study, capped worker broods at 12 different developmental stages were exposed to 20°C for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours, followed by incubation at 35°C until emergence. We found that longer durations of low temperature during capped brood led to higher mortality, higher incidences of misorientation inside cells and shorter worker longevity. Capped brood as prepupae and near emergence were more sensitive to low-temperature exposure, while capped larvae and mid-pupal stages showed the highest resistance to low-temperature stress. Our results suggest that prepupae and pupae prior to eclosion are the most sensitive stages to low temperature stress, as they are to other stresses, presumably due to many physiological changes related to metamorphosis happening during these two stages. Understanding how low-temperature stress affects honey bee physiology and longevity can improve honey bee management strategies. PMID:27149383

  7. Low-Temperature Stress during Capped Brood Stage Increases Pupal Mortality, Misorientation and Adult Mortality in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera are key pollinators, playing a vital role in ecosystem maintenance and stability of crop yields. Recently, reduced honey bee survival has attracted intensive attention. Among all other honey bee stresses, temperature is a fundamental ecological factor that has been shown to affect honey bee survival. Yet, the impact of low temperature stress during capped brood on brood mortality has not been systematically investigated. In addition, little was known about how low temperature exposure during capped brood affects subsequent adult longevity. In this study, capped worker broods at 12 different developmental stages were exposed to 20°C for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours, followed by incubation at 35°C until emergence. We found that longer durations of low temperature during capped brood led to higher mortality, higher incidences of misorientation inside cells and shorter worker longevity. Capped brood as prepupae and near emergence were more sensitive to low-temperature exposure, while capped larvae and mid-pupal stages showed the highest resistance to low-temperature stress. Our results suggest that prepupae and pupae prior to eclosion are the most sensitive stages to low temperature stress, as they are to other stresses, presumably due to many physiological changes related to metamorphosis happening during these two stages. Understanding how low-temperature stress affects honey bee physiology and longevity can improve honey bee management strategies.

  8. SFC/SFBMN guidelines update for nuclear cardiology procedures: stress testing in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines update for nuclear cardiology procedures are studied in this article. We find the minimum technique conditions for the stress testing practice, the recommendations for the different ischemia activation tests, the choice of the stress test. (N.C.)

  9. Stress Evaluation in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Using Salivary Cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Mizawa; Masaki Yamaguchi; Chieko Ueda; Teruhiko Makino; Tadamichi Shimizu

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) are often aggravated by stress, and AD can also lead to psychological stress due to social isolation and discrimination. The salivary cortisol level reflects psychological stress, and it is a good index to assess chronic stress. In this study, we measured the salivary cortisol levels in patients with AD (n = 30) and compared them with those of healthy control subjects (n = 42). AD patients were also evaluated for general disease severity using the Scorin...

  10. Revisiting the causes of stress in social work:sources of job demands, control and support in personalised adult social care

    OpenAIRE

    Wilberforce, Mark; Jacobs, Sally; Challis, David; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin; Jasper, Rowan; Fernandez, Jose-Luis; Glendinning, Caroline; Jones, Karen; Knapp, Martin; Moran, Nicola Elizabeth; Netten, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Social workers in adult social care are at particular risk of job-related stress, although the contribution of different organisational and policy changes to this phenomenon is subject to debate. This paper explores a theoretical framework from the occupational psychology literature (the Job Demand/Control Model) to identify the characteristics of those most at risk of stress, in a sample of 249 social workers and other care managers working in English adult social services from the Individua...

  11. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterp...

  12. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  13. The Roles of Peritraumatic Dissociation, Child Physical Abuse, and Child Sexual Abuse in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Adult Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…

  14. The assessment and measurement of adult life stress: Basic premises, operational principles, and design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L; Monroe, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    Life stress is a central factor in the onset and course of a wide range of medical and psychiatric conditions. Determining the precise etiological and pathological consequences of stress, though, has been hindered by weaknesses in prevailing definitional and measurement practices. The purpose of the current paper is to evaluate the primary strategies for defining and measuring major and minor acute life events, chronic stressors, and daily hassles as informed by 3 basic scientific premises. The first premise concerns the manner in which stress is conceptualized and operationally defined, and specifically we assert that stress measures must not conflate the stress exposure with the stress response. The second premise concerns how stress exposures are measured, and we provide guidelines for optimizing standardized and sensitive indicators of life stress. The third premise addresses the consequences of variations in the procedures for life event measurement with regard to the validity of the research designs employed. We show that life stress measures are susceptible to several sources of bias, and if these potential sources of bias are not controlled in the design of the research, spurious findings may result. Our goal is to provide a useful guide for researchers who consider life stress to be an important factor in their theoretical models of disease, wish to incorporate measures of life stress in their research, and seek to avoid the common pitfalls of past measurement practices. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27254487

  15. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  16. Influence of perinatal stress on the hormone content in immune cells of adult rats: dominance of ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, G; Tekes, K; Pállinger, E

    2009-08-01

    Rat dams were stressed by total deprivation of food and water for 48 h just before or directly after delivery and the offspring were studied when adult. The immune cells' hormone content (ACTH, histamine, serotonin, and T(3)) was measured by immunocytochemical flow cytometry. The elevation of ACTH content in males was convincing in each cell type (lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes, and mast cells). The change in histamine and T(3) content was inconsistent, while serotonin level did not change at all. As ACTH is the key hormone in the General Adaptation Syndrome, it seems likely that the perinatal stress primarily caused elevation in ACTH level and it was provoking the life-long hormonal imprinting. There was a difference between the reaction of males and females (with males' advance), which points to the gender dependence of the phenomenon. It is important that the effect of stress on the offspring was similar in case of direct (prenatal, in the mother) and indirect (postnatal, transmitted by milk) stress treatment, which calls attention to the danger of stress during this latter period. PMID:19384819

  17. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function. PMID:23022220

  18. The impact of self-reported life stress on current impulsivity in cocaine dependent adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Elizabeth L.; Yoon, Jin H.; Mahoney, James J.; Omar, Yasmine; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Current cocaine treatments may be enhanced with a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the onset and maintenance of the disease, such as life stress and impulsivity. Life stress and impulsivity have previously been studied independently as contributors to drug use, and the current study expands upon past research by examining how these factors interact with one another. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of life stress in predicting impulsivi...

  19. Restraint Stress-Induced Morphological Changes at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Petra eSántha; Szilvia eVeszelka; Zsófia eHoyk; Mária eMészáros; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Andrea E Tóth; Lóránd eKiss; András eKincses; Zita eOláh; György eSeprényi; Gabor eRakhely; András eDér; Magdolna ePákáski; Janos eKalman; Ágnes eKittel

    2016-01-01

    Stress is well-known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognized in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3, and 21 days) were investigated on the morphology of th...

  20. Sex differences in the effects of adolescent stress on adult brain inflammatory markers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pyter, Leah M.; Kelly, Sean D.; Harrell, Constance S; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2013-01-01

    Both basic and clinical research indicates that females are more susceptible to stress-related affective disorders than males. One of the mechanisms by which stress induces depression is via inflammatory signaling in the brain. Stress during adolescence, in particular, can also disrupt the activation and continued development of both the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and –gonadal (HPG) axes, both of which modulate inflammatory pathways and brain regions involved in affective behavior. ...

  1. Dietary choline supplementation to dams during pregnancy and lactation mitigates the effects of in utero stress exposure on adult anxiety-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Pearson, Jennifer N.; Gasparrini, Mary E.; Brooks, Kayla F.; Drake-Frazier, Chakeer; Zajkowski, Megan E.; Kreisler, Alison D.; Adams, Catherine E.; Leonard, Sherry; Stevens, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain cholinergic dysfunction is associated with neuropsychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Maternal stress exposure is associated with these same illnesses in adult offspring, yet the relationship between prenatal stress and brain cholinergic function is largely unexplored. Thus, using a rodent model, the current study implemented an intervention aimed at buffering the potential effects of prenatal stress on the developing brain cholinergic system. Specificall...

  2. 〈Originals〉The association between anxiety and a decline in saliva cortisol during interview stress in adult patients with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Haraguchi, Ryuta; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Watatani, Nanase; Imbe, Shu; Sato, Ryuji; Makino, Yasushi; Nisiyama, Osamu; Sano, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Hirokazu; Toda, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    [Abstract] The relationship between anxiety and asthma is currently being intensively studied. It has been demonstrated that there is reduced responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress in an animal model of asthma. Our objectives were to identify the associations between anxiety and the decline of saliva cortisol during stress in adult patients with asthma. Saliva cortisol was sampled before and up to 30 min following stress induced by interviews in ...

  3. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (±5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26901590

  4. Childhood trauma and comorbid mood and anxiety disorders in adult patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Morgan; Solara Calderon; Molly Lebow; Dan Iosifescu; Dennis Charney; Adriana Feder

    2012-01-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood, especially with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These disorders frequently co-occur, yet few PTSD comorbidity studies have focused on samples with a range of CT severity and none have included participants with adulthood-only trauma in the same study. We investigated SCID diagnoses of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders among 69 adult PTSD patients (M age = 37.94, SD=11.13; 53.6% female), wit...

  5. EFFICACY OF A STRUCTURED GROUP PROGRAM IN COPYING STRATEGIES FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS IN DISPLACEMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA CLARA RODRÍGUEZ DÍAZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis is made on the efficacy of a structured group program in emotional, cognitiveand social coping skills for the treatment of a sample of adults and adolescents that developedposttraumatic stress disorder after a forced displacement situation. The participants completed a 10-session intervention including pre and post assessments about the severity level of the symptoms usingthe PSD scale (Foa, 1995 and an additional measure one month after. The results showed significantimprovements in symptoms in both groups and in each one of the possible comparisons. Recoveryshows that the decrease in the severity level of symptoms affects the functioning level positively.

  6. Socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Shirley A A Beresford; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteri...

  7. Effects of early life stress on adult male aggression and hypothalamic vasopressin and serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, Alexa H.; Blume, Annegret; Niederle, Daniela; Buwalda, Bauke; Neumann, Inga D.

    2006-01-01

    Early life stress in humans enhances the risk for psychopathologies, including excessive aggression and violence. In rodents, maternal separation is a potent early life stressor inducing long-lasting changes in emotional and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, associated with depression- and an

  8. Stress response symptoms in adolescent and young adult children of parents diagnosed with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, G.A.; Visser, A.; van der Graaf, W.T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Klip, E.C.; Pras, E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess stress response symptoms in children of parents diagnosed with cancer 1-5 year prior to study entry. The impact of event scale was used to measure stress response symptoms in terms of intrusion and avoidance; the youth self-report assessed emotional and behavioura

  9. Prenatal Stress Down-Regulates Reelin Expression by Methylation of Its Promoter and Induces Adult Behavioral Impairments in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-García, Ismael; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Montiel, Juan F.; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela F.; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Utreras, Elías; Montecino, Martín; González-Billault, Christian; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS) upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that can yield new

  10. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming stress for 3 min in water at 32°C daily for 50 days. Then, all male rats were sacrificed, the right epididymides were removed and sperm concentration and motility were determined. The sperm suspension was added to the ova. Fertilization capacity was assessed by counting two-cell embryos 24-26 h after completion of fertilization in vitro. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The mean and standard deviation of sperm concentration in the control and experimental groups were 60.8 ± 9.3 10 6 /ml and 20.4 ± 5.3 10 6 /ml, respectively. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the two groups in terms of sperm concentration. The percentage of motility in the experimental group was significantly different ( P < 0.05. The same results were obtained in case of fertility ( P < 0.05. Stress caused by forced swimming was observed by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: These results suggest that forced swimming stress in time course equal or more than spermatogenesis period, i.e. 48-50 days in the rat will be significantly effective to reduce the number and motility of sperms as well as the fertilization capacity.

  11. Prenatal stress down-regulates Reelin expression by methylation of its promoter and induces adult behavioral impairments in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Palacios-García

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that

  12. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  13. Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediates Preadolescent Stress-Induced Adult Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Joon H.; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that repeated stressful experiences during childhood increases the likelihood of developing depression- and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We subjected drd3-EGFP and drd3-null mice to daily, two hour restraint stress episodes over a five day period during preadolescence (postnatal day 35 to 39), followed by social isolation. When these mice reached adulthood (post-natal day > 90), we assessed locom...

  14. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, LE; Tomiyama, AJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 1...

  15. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803

  16. Gender and Stress Perception Based Differences in BMI, Hormonal Response and Appetite in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)

  17. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOHARA, Masakatsu; TOHEI, Atsushi; SATO, Takumi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments. PMID:26852731

  18. Sedentary Behavior and Sleep Duration Are Associated with Both Stress Symptoms and Suicidal Thoughts in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Keun Ok; Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress symptoms. Moreover, mental illness is linked with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. However, it is not clear whether sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts independent of physical activity. Thus, our study aimed to identify if sedentary time and sleep duration were associated with both stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The participants in present cross-sectional study were 4,674 general Korean adults (1,938 male; 2,736 female), aged ≥ 20 years. Prolonged sedentary time (≥ 420 min/day) was significantly associated with the increased risk of stress symptoms (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62) compared with sedentary time of sleep time (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.38) compared with sleep duration of ≥ 7 h/day. Moreover, prolonged sedentary time (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.42 in ≥ 420 min/day vs. sleep duration (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17-2.62 in ≤ 5 h/day vs. ≥ 7 h/day) were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal thoughts after adjusting for confounding factors including physical activity. Thus, prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are independently associated with both the risk of stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. From a public health perspective, reducing sedentary time and improvement of sleep deprivation may serve as an effective strategy for preventing mental illness. PMID:26596898

  19. Prenatal stress and adult drug-seeking behavior: interactions with genes and relation to nondrug-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippin, Tod E; Campbell, Jaonnalee C; Ploense, Kyle; Knight, Chris P; Bagley, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Addiction inflicts large personal, social, and economic burdens, yet its etiology is poorly defined and effective treatments are lacking. As with other neuropsychiatric disorders, addiction is characterized by a core set of symptoms and behaviors that are believed to be influenced by complex gene-environment interactions. Our group focuses on the interaction between early stress and genetic background in determining addiction vulnerability. Prior work by our group and others has indicated that a history of prenatal stress (PNS) in rodents elevates adult drug seeking in a number of behavioral paradigms. The focus of the present chapter is to summarize work in the area of PNS and addiction models as well as our recent studies of PNS on drug seeking in different strains of mice as a strategy to dissect gene-environment interactions underlying cocaine addiction vulnerability. These studies indicate that ability of PNS to elevate adult cocaine seeking is strain dependent. Further, PNS also alters other nondrug behaviors in a fashion that is dependent on different strains and independent from the strain dependence of drug seeking. Thus, it appears that the ability of PNS to alter behavior related to different psychiatric conditions is orthogonal, with similar nonspecific susceptibility to prenatal stress across genetic backgrounds but with the genetic background determining the specific nature of the PNS effects. Finally, the advent of recombinant inbred mouse strains is allowing us to determine the genetic bases of these gene-environment interactions. Understanding these effects will have broad implications to determining the nature of vulnerability to addiction and perhaps other disorders. PMID:25287537

  20. Moderate neonatal stress decreases within-group variation in behavioral, immune and HPA responses in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Macrì

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The significance of behavioral neuroscience and the validity of its animal models of human pathology largely depend on the possibility to replicate a given finding across different laboratories. Under the present test and housing conditions, this axiom fails to resist the challenge of experimental validation. When several mouse strains are tested on highly standardized behavioral test batteries in different laboratories, significant strain x lab interactions are often detected. This limitation, predominantly due to elevated within-group variability observed in control subjects, increases the number of animals needed to address fine experimental questions. Laboratory rodents display abnormal stress and fear reactions to experimental testing, which might depend on the discrepancy between the stability of the neonatal environment and the challenging nature of the adult test and housing conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stimulating neonatal environments (e.g. brief maternal separations, increased foraging demands or maternal corticosterone supplementation reduce stress and fear responses in adulthood. Here we tested whether reduced fearfulness associated with experimental testing would also reduce inter-individual variation. In line with our predictions, we show that a moderate elevation in neonatal corticosterone through maternal milk significantly reduces fear responses and inter-individual variability (average 44% in adult mouse offspring. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed reduced variation in pain perception, novelty preference, hormonal stress response and resistance to pathogen infection. This suggests that the results of this study may apply to a relatively broad spectrum of neuro-behavioral domains. Present findings encourage a reconsideration of the basic principles of neonatal housing systems to improve the validity of experimental models and reduce the number of animals used.

  1. Stress regulation in adolescents: physiological reactivity during the adult attachment interview and conflict interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Juffer, F.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT

  2. Early-life origin of adult insomnia : Does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance o

  3. EFFECTS OF HEMORRHAGIC STRESS ON SEVERAL BLOOD PARAMETERS IN ADULT RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood was removed from ten adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on a sequential (7 days) weekly (4 weeks) and monthly (1 month) schedule and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein, acid phosphatase (AP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Of the parame...

  4. Studies on protein turnover and energy expenditure in chronically undernourished adults during stress of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic undernutrition in man leads to adaptive responses which could reduce the requirements for dietary energy and protein. It is also possible that these adaptive responses, which are economical in nature, could lead to a decreased capacity for combating stress. Undernourished people are more susceptible to infections, and during these stresses, show different patterns of protein and energy metabolism from well-nourished subjects. Animal models have clearly shown a diminished response to tissue injury, in terms of the anabolic acute phase response. It is proposed to study the effect of prior nutritional status on the degree to which an infective stress stimulates the acute phase protein synthesis by the liver. In addition, the supply of amino acids to the liver in conditions of stress could come from the breakdown of body tissue proteins, particularly muscle. It is intended to study muscle protein turnover by the use of 13C-leucine in undernourished subjects under conditions of stress. Since whole body protein turnover can be measured by two methods, using 15N-glycine and 13C-leucine, a comparison of these two methods will initially be made in chronically undernourished subjects. It is also intended to study daily energy expenditure in the subject by an isotopic method, i.e. the appearance of 13CO2 in the breath after the administration of 13C-bicarbonate. (author). 8 refs

  5. Stress Evaluation in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Using Salivary Cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Mizawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD are often aggravated by stress, and AD can also lead to psychological stress due to social isolation and discrimination. The salivary cortisol level reflects psychological stress, and it is a good index to assess chronic stress. In this study, we measured the salivary cortisol levels in patients with AD (. AD patients were also evaluated for general disease severity using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD index. The serum levels of TARC, total IgE, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were measured by laboratory tests. The Skindex-16 was used as a skin disease-specific, quality of life measure, instrument. The results showed that the saliva cortisol level was significantly higher in AD patients compared to healthy subjects ( while the serum TARC and LDH levels were positively correlated with the SCORAD index. However, no statistically significant correlations were observed between the salivary cortisol level and Skindex-16. These results suggest that the saliva cortisol level is therefore a useful biomarker to evaluate the stress in AD patients.

  6. Stress evaluation in adult patients with atopic dermatitis using salivary cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizawa, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ueda, Chieko; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) are often aggravated by stress, and AD can also lead to psychological stress due to social isolation and discrimination. The salivary cortisol level reflects psychological stress, and it is a good index to assess chronic stress. In this study, we measured the salivary cortisol levels in patients with AD (n = 30) and compared them with those of healthy control subjects (n = 42). AD patients were also evaluated for general disease severity using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. The serum levels of TARC, total IgE, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were measured by laboratory tests. The Skindex-16 was used as a skin disease-specific, quality of life measure, instrument. The results showed that the saliva cortisol level was significantly higher in AD patients compared to healthy subjects (P Skindex-16. These results suggest that the saliva cortisol level is therefore a useful biomarker to evaluate the stress in AD patients. PMID:23971022

  7. Chronic social defeat stress increases dopamine D2 receptor dimerization in the prefrontal cortex of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagalkot, T R; Jin, H-M; Prabhu, V V; Muna, S S; Cui, Y; Yadav, B K; Chae, H-J; Chung, Y-C

    2015-12-17

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of chronic social defeat stress on the dopamine receptors and proteins involved in post-endocytic trafficking pathways. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10 days of social defeat stress. Western blot analysis was used to measure the protein expression levels of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), a short (D2S) and a long form (D2L) and, D2R monomers and dimers, dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of D2S, D2L, D2R monomers and dimers, and D1Rs in different brain areas. We observed increased expression of D2S, D2L and D2Rs dimers in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of susceptible and/or unsusceptible mice compared with controls. The only significant findings with regard to mRNA expression levels were lower expression of D2S mRNA in the amygdala (AMYG) of susceptible and unsusceptible mice compared with controls. The present study demonstrated that chronic social defeat stress induced increased expression of D2S, D2L, and D2R dimers in the PFC of susceptible and/or unsusceptible mice. PMID:26484605

  8. Examining mindfulness-based stress reduction: Perceptions from minority older adults residing in a low-income housing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly Amy B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR programs are becoming increasingly common, but have not been studied in low income minority older populations. We sought to understand which parts of MBSR were most important to practicing MBSR members of this population, and to understand whether they apply their training to daily challenges. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 13 current members of an MBSR program. Participants were African American women over the age of 60 in a low-income housing residence. We tape recorded each session and subsequently used inductive content analysis to identify primary themes. Results and discussion Analysis of the focus group responses revealed three primary themes stress management, applying mindfulness, and the social support of the group meditation. The stressors they cited using MBSR with included growing older with physical pain, medical tests, financial strain, and having grandchildren with significant mental, physical, financial or legal hardships. We found that participants particularly used their MBSR training for coping with medical procedures, and managing both depression and anger. Conclusion A reflective stationary intervention delivered in-residence could be an ideal mechanism to decrease stress in low-income older adult's lives and improve their health.

  9. The Effect of Yoga on Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Turkish Adults: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrtash, Shabnam; KOÇAK, SETTAR; Hürmeriç Altunsöz, Irmak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it is investigated the psychological effects of yoga on adult’s mood such as stress, anxiety and depression. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) with 42 items (Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995) was used for collecting data in two times: Pre-test and Post-test. This scale administered in 95 subjects in Middle East Technical University in Ankara/Turkey.  For data analysis, SPSS version 21 and a paired sample T-test were used. The results indicated that there was a significant ...

  10. Computer use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults – a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomée Sara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously studied prospective associations between computer use and mental health symptoms in a selected young adult population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if high computer use is a prospective risk factor for developing mental health symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Methods The study group was a cohort of young adults (n = 4163, 20–24 years old, who responded to a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Exposure variables included time spent on computer use (CU in general, email/chat use, computer gaming, CU without breaks, and CU at night causing lost sleep. Mental health outcomes included perceived stress, sleep disturbances, symptoms of depression, and reduced performance due to stress, depressed mood, or tiredness. Prevalence ratios (PRs were calculated for prospective associations between exposure variables at baseline and mental health outcomes (new cases at 1-year follow-up for the men and women separately. Results Both high and medium computer use compared to low computer use at baseline were associated with sleep disturbances in the men at follow-up. High email/chat use was negatively associated with perceived stress, but positively associated with reported sleep disturbances for the men. For the women, high email/chat use was (positively associated with several mental health outcomes, while medium computer gaming was associated with symptoms of depression, and CU without breaks with most mental health outcomes. CU causing lost sleep was associated with mental health outcomes for both men and women. Conclusions Time spent on general computer use was prospectively associated with sleep disturbances and reduced performance for the men. For the women, using the computer without breaks was a risk factor for several mental health outcomes. Some associations were enhanced in interaction with mobile phone use. Using the computer at night and consequently losing

  11. Content, Context & Connectivity Persuasive Interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Grund

    2013-01-01

    -supported research project under EACEA). In the development of this project several categories of content have been implemented in technology enhanced learning tools. These have been designed to support learning in different contexts and eventually the role of the connectivity of these learning objects and tools is...... discussed. Focus is here on The Kaj Munk Study Edition, The Conceptual Pond, Immersive Layers Design, and Generative Learning Objects (GLOs) which are applications affiliated with the Munk case. This paper explores the persuasive potential of the interplay between the different applications for the benefit...

  12. Stress Constellations and Coping Styles of Older Adults with Age-Related Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Othelia; Brennan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Narrative data from two earlier studies of adaptation to age-related visual impairment were examined for constellations of stressors and coping styles. In the course of previous qualitative analyses, the researchers identified stress and coping codes according to behavioral, psychological, and social domains using a grounded theory approach. In…

  13. Unpredictable neonatal stress enhances adult anxiety and alters amygdala gene expression related to serotonin and GABA

    OpenAIRE

    Sarro, Emma C.; Sullivan, Regina M.; Barr, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety-related disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. Early-life trauma, such as abuse from a caregiver, can be predictable or unpredictable, each resulting in increased prevalence and severity of a unique set of disorders. In this study, we examined the influence of early unpredictable trauma on both the behavioral expression of adult anxiety and gene expression within the amygdala. Neonatal rats were exposed to unpa...

  14. Stress and coping among children of alcoholic parents through the young adult transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Chassin, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    The transition to young adulthood is both a time when risky health behaviors such as substance misuse peak and a time of opportunity for growth and development through the acquisition of adult roles. In this transition, coping styles include responses to the stressors and opportunities associated with the emergence of adulthood. The extent to which such coping styles are skillfully employed in part determines adjustment into adulthood. The current study used a high-risk, longitudinal design t...

  15. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats produces limited effects on endocrine, behavioral, or gene expression measures in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Olson, Darin E.; Owens, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Stress and/or antidepressants during pregnancy have been implicated in a wide range of long-term effects in the offspring. We investigated the long-term effects of prenatal stress and/or clinically relevant antidepressant exposure on male adult offspring in a model of the pharmacotherapy of maternal depression. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that delivered clinically relevant exposure to the antidepressant escitalopram throughout gestation. Subsequently, preg...

  16. Two weeks of predatory stress induces anxiety-like behavior with co-morbid depressive-like behavior in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgado, Jillybeth; Harrell, Constance S; Eacret, Darrell; Reddy, Renuka; Barnum, Christopher J; Tansey, Malú G; Miller, Andrew H; Wang, Huichen; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2014-12-15

    Psychological stress can have devastating and lasting effects on a variety of behaviors, especially those associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression. Animal models of chronic stress are frequently used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between stress and mental health disorders and to develop improved treatment options. The current study expands upon a novel chronic stress paradigm for mice: predatory stress. The predatory stress model incorporates the natural predator-prey relationship that exists among rats and mice and allows for greater interaction between the animals, in turn increasing the extent of the stressful experience. In this study, we evaluated the behavioral effects of exposure to 15 days of predatory stress on an array of behavioral indices. Up to 2 weeks after the end of stress, adult male mice showed an increase of anxiety-like behaviors as measured by the open field and social interaction tests. Animals also expressed an increase in depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test. Notably, performance on the novel object recognition task, a memory test, improved after predatory stress. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that 15 exposures to this innovative predatory stress paradigm are sufficient to elicit robust anxiety-like behaviors with evidence of co-morbid depressive-like behavior, as well as changes in cognitive behavior in male mice. PMID:25200517

  17. Heat stress, health and well-being: findings from a large national cohort of Thai adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellström, Tord; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the association between self-reported heat stress interference with daily activities (sleeping, work, travel, housework and exercise) and three graded-holistic health and well-being outcomes (energy, emotions and life satisfaction). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The setting is tropical and developing countries as Thailand, where high temperature and high humidity are common, particularly during the hottest seasons. PARTICIPANTS: This study is...

  18. The Concrete Jungle: City Stress and Substance Abuse among Young Adult African American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...

  19. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in UK therapists who work with adult trauma clients

    OpenAIRE

    Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A.; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom.Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) wo...

  20. Relationship between salivary stress biomarker levels and cigarette smoking in healthy young adults: an exploratory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Nao; Nakanishi, Kosuke; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the relationships among salivary stress biomarkers, cigarette smoking, and mood states. Methods The study population comprised 49 healthy sixth-year dental students at Fukuoka Dental College (39 men, 10 women; age, 23–31 years). Lifetime exposure to smoking was calculated using the Brinkman index (BI). Resting saliva samples were collected, and concentrations of cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necros...

  1. Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, s...

  2. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Casement, Melynda D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of ma...

  3. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, wh...

  4. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime. PMID:26499372

  5. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  6. Differential Oxidative Stress Induced by Dengue Virus in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Adult and Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Añez, Germán; Levy, Alegria; Marcucci, Rafael; de Mon, Melchor Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Changes in immune response during lifespan of man are well known. These changes involve decreased neonatal and elderly immune response. In addition, it has been shown a relationship between immune and oxidative mechanisms, suggesting that altered immune response could be associated to altered oxidative response. Increased expression of nitric oxide (NO) has been documented in dengue and in monocyte cultures infected with different types of dengue virus. However, there is no information about the age-dependent NO oxidative response in humans infected by dengue virus. In this study, monocyte cultures from neonatal, elderly and adult individuals (n = 10 each group) were infected with different dengue virus types (DENV- 1 to 4) and oxidative/antioxidative responses and apoptosis were measured at days 1 and 3 of culture. Increased production of NO, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic anti-oxidative responses in dengue infected monocyte cultures were observed. However, neonatal and elderly monocytes had lower values of studied parameters when compared to those in adult-derived cultures. Apoptosis was present in infected monocytes with higher values at day 3 of culture. This reduced oxidant/antioxidant response of neonatal and elderly monocytes could be relevant in the pathogenesis of dengue disease. PMID:24069178

  7. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates. PMID:25460677

  8. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time. PMID:25297618

  9. Young-Adult Male Rats’ Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Pérez José Jaime; Benítez-Coronel Venus; Jiménez-Rubio Graciela; Hernández-Hernández Olivia Tania; Martínez-Mota Lucía

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal’s vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum cort...

  10. Protein and carbohydrate composition of larval food affects tolerance tothermal stress and desiccation in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laila H; Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2010-01-01

    Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult insects. Here we test whether raising larvae of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, on two different nutritional regimes affects resistance to cold, heat and desiccation...

  11. Childhood Trauma Exposure in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans: Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Adult Functional Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Brancu, Mira; Runnals, Jennifer; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and adult social support in a large sample of veterans who served in the military after 09/11/2001, with a specific focus on the potential role of the PTSD avoidance and numbing cluster as intervening in the association between…

  12. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  13. Occupational stress and self-perceived oral health in Brazilian adults: a Pro-Saude study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Pereira da Cunha Scalco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to investigate the association between occupational stress and self-perception of oral health. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire filled out in a Pró-Saúde Study by 3253 administrative technical staff from Rio de Janeiro's State University. Occupational stress was measured by means of a questionnaire elaborated in 1970 by Karasek, duly shortened by Thorell in 1988. Ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis, subsequently adjusted for three blocks of variables. Workers exposed to high occupational demands and little occupational control and to passive work had higher chances of self-perception of worse oral health, when compared with those exposed to low occupational demands, there being no association observed in those exposed to active work. However, in the multiple regression model the following estimates were reduced in magnitude and lost statistical significance, namely high occupational demands and passive work. Workers exposed to high occupational demands revealed worse self-reported oral health, which seems to be partly explained by health behavior patterns, the presence of oral health problems and seeking dental services at longer intervals than once per year.

  14. Occupational stress and self-perceived oral health in Brazilian adults: a Pro-Saude study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Giovana Pereira da Cunha; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger Keller; Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the association between occupational stress and self-perception of oral health. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire filled out in a Pró-Saúde Study by 3253 administrative technical staff from Rio de Janeiro's State University. Occupational stress was measured by means of a questionnaire elaborated in 1970 by Karasek, duly shortened by Thorell in 1988. Ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis, subsequently adjusted for three blocks of variables. Workers exposed to high occupational demands and little occupational control and to passive work had higher chances of self-perception of worse oral health, when compared with those exposed to low occupational demands, there being no association observed in those exposed to active work. However, in the multiple regression model the following estimates were reduced in magnitude and lost statistical significance, namely high occupational demands and passive work. Workers exposed to high occupational demands revealed worse self-reported oral health, which seems to be partly explained by health behavior patterns, the presence of oral health problems and seeking dental services at longer intervals than once per year. PMID:23827911

  15. Effects of stress and corticosterone in two post-training periods, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeimmy Marcela Cerón

    2015-04-01

    final product of HPA axis activity. These hormones act on specialized receptors located within all body cells; upon activation by ligand binding, these receptors interact with specific regions of DNA, thereby regulating gene expression (Tsigos & Chrousos, 2002. The lipidic nature of glucocorticoids allows them to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, which may influence cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of stress (movement restriction or the stress hormone corticosterone (intraperitoneal injection of corticosterone, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats in two different post-training time windows (immediately or 3 hours after training involved in memory consolidation. Rats were trained in a spatial memory task in the Barnes maze and a memory retention test was performed twenty-four hours after training. The results showed that both stress and corticosterone were able to enhance memory consolidation when they were administered immediately after training. However, when the same treatments were administered three hours after training, there was not a significant change in the performance during the test carried out after twenty-four hours. These results suggest, on the one hand, that memory consolidation process can be improved using treatments that modulate cellular gene expression programs, as stress and corticosterone, when they are applied during the first window of memory consolidation. Additionally, although the second period of memory consolidation is also related to a particular gene expression and protein synthesis program, the treatments used in the present study were not able to modulate memory consolidation when administered during this period. As the molecular events involved in the second window of memory consolidation may be different from those involved in the first one, it is possible that the molecular changes generated by stress and corticosterone do not interact with them in a way

  16. Redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celien eLismont

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reduction-oxidation or ‘redox’ reactions are an integral part of a broad range of cellular processes such as gene expression, energy metabolism, protein import and folding, and autophagy. As many of these processes are intimately linked with cell fate decisions, transient or chronic changes in cellular redox equilibrium are likely to contribute to the initiation and progression of a plethora of human diseases. Since a long time, it is known that mitochondria are major players in redox regulation and signaling. More recently, it has become clear that also peroxisomes have the capacity to impact redox-linked physiological processes. To serve this function, peroxisomes cooperate with other organelles, including mitochondria. This review provides a comprehensive picture of what is currently known about the redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes in mammals. We first outline the pro- and antioxidant systems of both organelles and how they may function as redox signaling nodes. Next, we critically review and discuss emerging evidence that peroxisomes and mitochondria share an intricate redox-sensitive relationship and cooperate in cell fate decisions. Key issues include possible physiological roles, messengers, and mechanisms. We also provide examples of how data mining of publicly-available datasets from ‘omics’ technologies can be a powerful means to gain additional insights into potential redox signaling pathways between peroxisomes and mitochondria. Finally, we highlight the need for more studies that seek to clarify the mechanisms of how mitochondria may act as dynamic receivers, integrators, and transmitters of peroxisome-derived mediators of oxidative stress. The outcome of such studies may open up exciting new avenues for the community of researchers working on cellular responses to organelle-derived oxidative stress, a research field in which the role of peroxisomes is currently highly underestimated and an issue of

  17. Time-dependent co-relation of BDNF and CREB mRNAs in adult rat brains following acute psychological stress in the communication box paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongying; Wang, Yanmei; Yan, Min; Ma, Hongxia; Gao, Yanjie; Li, Zexuan; Li, Changqi; Tian, Hongjun; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2016-06-15

    Psychological stress affects human health, and chronic stress leads to life-threatening diseases, such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological stress coping mechanisms involve the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and downstream cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), which are targets of the adverse effects of stress paradigms. Fourty-seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, physical stress and six psychological stress groups which were assayed at 0h, 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 6h and 24h after communication box (CB) stress induction. Behavioral assessment using open field and elevated plus maze tests determined that CB stress significantly increased anxiety. After CB stress, the alternation of mRNA levels of BDNF and CREB were assessed at different time points by in situ hybridization. The mRNA levels of BDNF and CREB were significantly decreased, then gradually recovered over 24h to maximum levels in the hippocampus (CA1 region), prefrontal cortex (PFC), central amygdaloid nuclei (AG), shell of accumbens nucleus (NAC), periaqueductal gray (PAG) and ventral tegmental area, except for the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, mRNA levels of BDNF and CREB were positively correlated in all examined brain regions, except for the VTA region at 0 and 24h after CB stress induction. These findings suggest that BDNF and CREB may belong to the same pathway and be involved in psychological stress response mechanisms, and protect the organism from stress induced, aversive processes leading to disease. PMID:27132084

  18. Prepubertal exposure to genistein alleviates di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular oxidative stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Dong; Li, He-Cheng; Chong, Tie; Gao, Ming; Yin, Jian; Fu, De-Lai; Deng, Qian; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plastizer in the world and can suppress testosterone production via activation of oxidative stress. Genistein (GEN) is one of the isoflavones ingredients exhibiting weak estrogenic and potentially antioxidative effects. However, study on reproductive effects following prepubertal multiple endocrine disrupters exposure has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage from postnatal day 22 (PND22) to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN at 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day (G), DEHP at 50, 150, 450 mg/kg bw/day (D50, D150, D450) and their mixture (G + D50, G + D150, G + D450). On PND90, general morphometry (body weight, AGD, organ weight, and organ coefficient), testicular redox state, and testicular histology were studied. Our results indicated that DEHP could significantly decrease sex organs weight, organ coefficient, and testicular antioxidative ability, which largely depended on the dose of DEHP. However, coadministration of GEN could partially alleviate DEHP-induced reproductive injuries via enhancement of testicular antioxidative enzymes activities, which indicates that GEN has protective effects on DEHP-induced male reproductive system damage after prepubertal exposure and GEN may have promising future in its curative antioxidative role for reproductive disorders caused by other environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:25530965

  19. Behavioral interventions and stress management training for hospitalized adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, A; Russo, D C; Masek, B J

    1984-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are not at high risk for developing psychological problems. Clinical studies emphasizing the development of adaptive coping mechanisms in these patients have been suggested as a more appropriate line of research. The purpose of the present paper is to describe our experience in teaching various behavioral and stress management strategies to help CF patients. Behavioral counseling, relaxation training, and biofeedback have all been used with these patients to help them manage a number of problems more effectively. The predominant presenting problems have included elevated anxiety levels, sleeping difficulties, pain, and hyperventilation episodes. The typical treatment course with these patients is described and a case example is given to help elucidate the nature of behavioral interventions. Patient satisfaction ratings indicate that most patients view these techniques positively. Clinical observations suggest that the acquisition of behavioral coping skills may enhance the CF patient's perceived control of his/her situation, reduce the level of pain and anxiety, and enhance the quality of life. PMID:6378718

  20. Metacognitive capacity predicts severity of trauma-related dysfunctional cognitions in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louanne W; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Siegel, Alysia; Brustuen, Beth; Luedtke, Brandi; Vohs, Jennifer L; James, Alison V; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-03-30

    Deficits in metacognition have been proposed as a barrier to adaptive responding to trauma. However, little is known about how different aspects of metacognitive capacity relate to responses to trauma and whether their potential link to such responses is independent of the overall level of psychopathology. To explore both issues, negative trauma-related cognitions about the self, the world, and self-blame, as measured by the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI), were correlated with concurrent measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and two forms of metacognition; the Metacognitions questionnaire (MCQ-30), which focuses on specific thoughts, and the Metacognition Assessment Scale Abbreviated (MAS-A) which focuses on the degree to which persons can form complex representations of self and other. Participants were 51 veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who had a PTSD diagnosis primarily involving a combat-related index trauma. Correlations revealed that being younger and more depressed were linked with greater levels of negative cognitions about self and the world. Lower levels of self-reflectivity on the MAS-A and higher levels of cognitive self-consciousness on the MCQ-30 were uniquely related to greater levels of self-blame even after controlling for age, level of depression, and PTSD. Implications for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:26837477

  1. Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Gilchrist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~ 3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem is now thought to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate.To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies. We consider possible interpretation in terms of cortical activity and perceptual mechanisms.

  2. Interplay Between Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jacob; Sudbø, Asle

    This chapter presents results on transport properties of hybrid structures where the interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity plays a central role. In particular, the appearance of so-called odd-frequency pairing in such structures is investigated in detail. The basic physics of superconductivity in such structures is presented, and the quasiclassical theory of Greens functions with appropriate boundary conditions is given. Results for superconductor∣ferromagnet bilayers as well as magnetic Josephson junctions and spin valves are presented. Further phenomena that are studied include transport in the presence of inhomogenous magnetic textures, spin-Josephon effect, and crossed Andreev reflection. We also investigate the possibility of intrinsic coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity, as reported in a series of uranium-based heavy-fermion compounds. The nature of such a coexistence and the resulting superconducting order parameter is discussed along with relevant experimental results. We present a thermodynamic treatment for a model of a ferromagnetic supercondcutor and moreover suggest ways to experimentally determine the pairing symmetry of the superconducting gap, in particular by means of conductance spectroscopy.

  3. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-09-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent age. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. Exposure to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-exposures, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult age, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-exposure, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249

  4. Altered gene expression and spine density in nucleus accumbens of adolescent and adult male mice exposed to emotional and physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Brandon L; Sial, Omar K; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Greenwood, Maria A; Brewer, Jacob S; Rozofsky, John P; Parise, Eric M; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Stressful early life experiences are implicated in lifelong health. However, little is known about the consequences of emotional stress (ES) or physical stress (PS) on neurobiology. Therefore, the following set of experiments was designed to assess changes in transcription and translation of key proteins within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male adolescent (postnatal day 35) or adult (8-week-old) mice were exposed to ES or PS using a witness social defeat paradigm. Then, 24 h after the last stress session, we measured levels of specific mRNAs and proteins within the NAc. Spine density was also assessed in separate groups of mice. Exposure to ES or PS disrupted extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2), reduced transcription of ΔFosB and had no effect on cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mRNA. Western blots revealed that exposure to ES or PS decreased ERK2 phosphorylation in adolescents, whereas the same stress regimen increased ERK2 phosphorylation in adults. Exposure to ES or PS had no effect on ΔFosB or CREB phosphorylation. ES and PS increased spine density in the NAc of adolescent exposed mice, but only exposure to PS increased spine density in adults. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to ES or PS is a potent stressor in adolescent and adult mice and can disturb the integrity of the NAc by altering transcription and translation of important signaling molecules in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to ES and PS induces substantial synaptic plasticity of the NAc. PMID:24943326

  5. Sex-specific effects of prenatal chronic mild stress on adult spatial learning capacity and regional glutamate receptor expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Wenwen; Jiang, Han; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Zhang, Xiaosong; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-07-01

    Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress can cause cognitive disorders in offspring. To explore the scope of these deficits and identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the spatial learning and memory performance and glutamate receptor (GluR) expression patterns of adult rats exposed to prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the interrelationships among spatial learning indices and GluR expression changes. Female PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited markedly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) task compared to control females, while PCMS-exposed males showed better initial spatial learning in the MWM compared to control males. PCMS also altered basal and post-MWM glutamate receptor expression patterns, but these effects differed markedly between sexes. Male PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited elevated basal expression of NR1, mGluR5, and mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas females showed no basal expression changes. Following MWM training, PCMS-exposed males expressed higher NR1 in the PFC and mammillary body (MB), higher mGluR2/3 in PFC, and lower NR2B in the hippocampus (HIP), PFC, and MB compared to unstressed MWM-trained males. Female PCMS-exposed offspring showed strongly reduced NR1 in MB and NR2B in the HIP, PFC, and MB, and increased mGluR2/3 in PFC compared to unstressed MWM-trained females. This is the first report suggesting that NMDA subunits in the MB are involved in spatial learning. Additionally, PCA further suggests that the NR1-NR2B form is the most important for spatial memory formation. These results reveal long-term sex-specific effects of PCMS on spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood and implicate GluR expression changes within HIP, PFC, and MB as possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in offspring exposed to prenatal stress. PMID:27094122

  6. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation. : Maoa,ELS and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Bendre, Megha; Comasco, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2015-01-01

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption a...

  7. Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) with adults on sick leave suffering from work-related stress – a mixed methods experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Bolette Daniels

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods study in Guided Music and Imagery as a treatment method for adults on long-term stress-related sick leave has combined a randomized clinical trial and a hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of themes and therapy cases. Stress has been studied within a biopsychosocial model of health. A number of 20 subjects from different professions with a mean age of 44.5 and a majority of women (16 out of 20) were randomized into two groups. There was a high degree of compliance (no protoc...

  8. Effect of a Family-Oriented Communication Skills Training Program on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Zahra; Feshangchi, Simin; Alavi, Mousa; Keshvari, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults face several physical and psychological problems such as hearing loss, vision loss, and memory loss, which diminish the quality of their communication. Poor communication in turn affects their psychological wellbeing and induces substantial depression, anxiety, and stress. The family has an important role in the mental health of older adults. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of a family-oriented communication skills training program on depression, anxiety, and stress in older adults. Patients and Methods For this randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 64 older adults from two healthcare centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were randomly allocated to an experimental group (n = 32) and a control group (n = 32). In the experimental group, older adults along with their primary caregiver participated in six sessions of communication skill education. The control group participated in two training sessions on nutrition and exercise. All participants answered the DASS21 questionnaire three times—at the start of the study, at the end of the sixth week, and a month after the last educational session of the experimental group. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Fisher’s exact and t tests and by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results In the experimental group, the mean depression score significantly reduced from 10.56 ± 3.34 before intervention to 7.46 ± 2.80 and 6.30 ± 2.75 after intervention and at follow-up, respectively; the mean anxiety score significantly reduced from 8.46 ± 1.88 before intervention to 5.83 ± 1.93 and 5.80 ± 2.12 after intervention and at follow-up, respectively; and the mean stress score significantly decreased from 11.40 ± 4.53 before intervention to 8.90 ± 3.81 and 8.43 ± 3.31 after intervention and at follow-up, respectively (P communication skills could reduce depression, anxiety, and stress in the elderly. Therefore

  9. Diferenças de sexo e escolaridade na manifestação de Stress em adultos jovens Gender and schooling differences in stress symptoms in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leal Calais

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo pesquisou sintomas de stress em adultos jovens, relacionando-os com o sexo e ano escolar em curso. Investigou também o tipo e a freqüência de sintomas. Participaram 295 estudantes de 15 a 28 anos, sendo 150 mulheres e 145 homens, que cursavam o primeiro e terceiro anos do ensino médio, curso pré-vestibular e primeiro e quarto anos de ensino superior. A avaliação do stress foi realizada através do Inventário de Sintomas de Stress de Lipp. Os resultados acusaram correlação significativa entre sexo e nível de stress (pGender differences in stress symptoms have been a topic of recent interest. This study investigated stress symptoms in young adults in relation to sex and school year. One hundred and fifty female and 145 male students, age 15 to 28, were the participants. They were recruited from freshman and senior high school classes, preparatory school for college, and the first and fourth year of a college in São Paulo. The Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory was used to evaluate self perceived stress. Results indicated a high correlation between gender and level of stress (p<0,0001. Women compared to men had more symptoms. Students in the preparatoy school class had the highest incidence of stress, followed by high school seniors. Students had a higher number of psychological symptoms and the most frequently mentioned were excessive emotional sensitivity for the female participants, and recurrent thoughts for the male students.

  10. A Novel Rodent Model of Autism: Intraventricular Infusions of Propionic Acid Increase Locomotor Activity and Induce Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Discrete Regions of Adult Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick F. MacFabe; Karina Rodríguez-Capote; Jennifer E.  Franklin; Martin Kavaliers; Fred Possmayer; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp; Andrew E. Franklin

    2008-01-01

    Innate neuroinflammatory changes, increased oxidative stress and disorders of glutathione metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Propionic acid (PPA) is a dietary and gut bacterial short chain fatty acid which can produce brain and behavioral changes reminiscent of ASD following intraventricular infusion in rats. Adult Long-Evans rats were given intraventricular infusions of either PPA (500ug uL-1, 4µl anima-1) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) ...

  11. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Reverri, Elizabeth J.; Randolph, Jody M.; Steinberg, Francene M; C. Tissa Kappagoda; Indika Edirisinghe; Burton-Freeman, Britt M.

    2015-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) consumed one of three ...

  12. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself. PMID:18846841

  13. Chronic and episodic interpersonal stress as statistically unique predictors of depression in two samples of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Stroud, Catherine B; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Zinbarg, Richard E; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-11-01

    Few studies comprehensively evaluate which types of life stress are most strongly associated with depressive episode onsets, over and above other forms of stress, and comparisons between acute and chronic stress are particularly lacking. Past research implicates major (moderate to severe) stressful life events (SLEs), and to a lesser extent, interpersonal forms of stress; research conflicts on whether dependent or independent SLEs are more potent, but theory favors dependent SLEs. The present study used 5 years of annual diagnostic and life stress interviews of chronic stress and SLEs from 2 separate samples (Sample 1 N = 432; Sample 2 N = 146) transitioning into emerging adulthood; 1 sample also collected early adversity interviews. Multivariate analyses simultaneously examined multiple forms of life stress to test hypotheses that all major SLEs, then particularly interpersonal forms of stress, and then dependent SLEs would contribute unique variance to major depressive episode (MDE) onsets. Person-month survival analysis consistently implicated chronic interpersonal stress and major interpersonal SLEs as statistically unique predictors of risk for MDE onset. In addition, follow-up analyses demonstrated temporal precedence for chronic stress; tested differences by gender; showed that recent chronic stress mediates the relationship between adolescent adversity and later MDE onsets; and revealed interactions of several forms of stress with socioeconomic status (SES). Specifically, as SES declined, there was an increasing role for noninterpersonal chronic stress and noninterpersonal major SLEs, coupled with a decreasing role for interpersonal chronic stress. Implications for future etiological research were discussed. PMID:26301973

  14. Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Shepherd, Kathrine; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Rumination is a well-established risk factor for the onset of major depression and anxiety symptomatology in both adolescents and adults. Despite the robust associations between rumination and internalizing psychopathology, there is a dearth of research examining factors that might lead to a ruminative response style. In the current study, we examined whether social environmental experiences were associated with rumination. Specifically, we evaluated whether self-reported exposure to stressful life events predicted subsequent increases in rumination. We also investigated whether rumination served as a mechanism underlying the longitudinal association between self-reported stressful life events and internalizing symptoms. Self-reported stressful life events, rumination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in 2 separate longitudinal samples. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at 3 time points spanning 7 months. A sample of adults (N = 1,132) was assessed at 2 time points spanning 12 months. In both samples, self-reported exposure to stressful life events was associated longitudinally with increased engagement in rumination. In addition, rumination mediated the longitudinal relationship between self-reported stressors and symptoms of anxiety in both samples and the relationship between self-reported life events and symptoms of depression in the adult sample. Identifying the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that explain a greater propensity for rumination following stressors remains an important goal for future research. This study provides novel evidence for the role of stressful life events in shaping characteristic responses to distress, specifically engagement in rumination, highlighting potentially useful targets for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of depression and anxiety. PMID:23713497

  15. Salicylic acid and reactive oxygen species interplay in the transcriptional control of defense genes expression

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Vásquez, Ariel; Salinas, Paula; Holuigue, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in the transcriptional reprograming that occurs during the plant defense response against biotic and abiotic stress. In the course of the defense response, the transcription of different sets of defense genes is controlled in a spatio-temporal manner via SA-mediated mechanisms. Interestingly, different lines of evidence indicate that SA interplays with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in stressed plants. ...

  16. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data. PMID:26408077

  17. Shame amplifies the association between stressful life events and paranoia amongst young adults using mental health services: Implications for understanding risk and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Jones, Christopher; Lin, Ashleigh; Wood, Stephen; Heinze, Kareen; Jackson, Christopher

    2014-12-15

    Shame is associated with a range of psychological disorders, and is a trans-diagnostic moderator of the association between stressors and symptoms of disorder. However, research has yet to investigate shame in relation to specific psychotic symptoms in clinical groups. In order to address this, the present study investigated shame in young adults with mental health problems, to test whether shame was i) directly associated with paranoia, a prevalent psychotic symptom, and ii) a moderator of the association between stress and paranoia. Sixty participants completed measures of stressful events, paranoia, shame, depression and anxiety. Results from a cross-sectional regression analysis suggested that shame was associated with paranoia after the stressful life event measure was entered into the model, and shame moderated the association between stress and paranoia. For individuals scoring high on shame, shame amplified the association between stress and paranoia, but for low-shame individuals, the association between stress and paranoia was non-significant. These findings suggest that high levels of shame could confer vulnerability for paranoia amongst clinical groups, and that resistance to experiencing shame could be a marker of resilience. PMID:25086764

  18. Skin conductance biofeedback training in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and stress-triggered seizures: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Kotwas, Iliana; Lanteaume, Laura; Berthet, Christelle; Bastien, Mireille; Vion-Dury, Jean; McGonigal, Aileen; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    The present proof-of-concept study investigated the feasibility of skin conductance biofeedback training in reducing seizures in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), whose seizures are triggered by stress. Skin conductance biofeedback aims to increase levels of peripheral sympathetic arousal in order to reduce cortical excitability. This might seem somewhat counterintuitive, since such autonomic arousal may also be associated with increased stress and anxiety. Thus, this sought to verify that patients with TLE and stress-triggered seizures are not worsened in terms of stress, anxiety, and negative emotional response to this nonpharmacological treatment. Eleven patients with drug-resistant TLE with seizures triggered by stress were treated with 12 sessions of biofeedback. Patients did not worsen on cognitive evaluation of attentional biases towards negative emotional stimuli (P>.05) or on psychometric evaluation with state anxiety inventory (P = .059); in addition, a significant improvement was found in the Negative Affect Schedule (P = .014) and in the Beck Depression Inventory (P = .009). Biofeedback training significantly reduced seizure frequency with a mean reduction of -48.61% (SD = 27.79) (P = .005). There was a correlation between the mean change in skin conductance activity over the biofeedback treatment and the reduction of seizure frequency (r(11) = .62, P = .042). Thus, the skin conductance biofeedback used in the present study, which teaches patients to achieve an increased level of peripheral sympathetic arousal, was a well-tolerated nonpharmacological treatment. Further, well-controlled studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic value of this nonpharmacological treatment in reducing seizures in adults with drug-resistant TLE with seizures triggered by stress. PMID:25461224

  19. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G.; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    eLife digest A little stress can be good for you. Just over 100 years ago, psychologists Robert Yerkes and John Dodson suggested that cognitive performance improves as stress increases, although it falls off again if stress levels continue to rise. The hippocampus is a key brain region for both memory and the regulation of emotion, and is highly sensitive to the main class of stress hormones, glucocorticoids. One particular subregion of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, contains a high dens...

  20. The scars of childhood adversity : minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Gemma; van Rijsbergen, Gerard; Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stre

  1. Effects of interaction of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial with social stress during adolescence on the serotonergic system and the stress responsiveness of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftogianni, A; Diamantopoulou, A; Alikaridis, F; Stamatakis, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2012-05-01

    Experiences during critical periods, such as the neonatal and adolescence, play a critical role in determining adult stress-coping behavior. Based on the aforementioned we developed an experimental protocol, which included a neonatal experience and a social stress during adolescence. The serotonergic system is known as an important modulator of coping ability and, in general, emotional balance in both normal and pathological states, such as depression and anxiety, for which females are more vulnerable. Thus in the present work we used female rats and determined 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala (AMY). During postnatal days 10-13 (PND 10-13) rat pups were exposed to a T-maze, one arm of which lead to the mother. One group of animals was allowed contact with the mother (rewarded-receiving expected reward (RER)), whereas the other was denied the expected reward (DER). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that in both the PFC and in AMY, adult RER animals had higher basal 5-HT levels. Furthermore, in the AMY of this group of animals, higher levels of 5-HT(1A) receptors were detected by Western blot analysis. In adulthood rats were exposed to the Forced Swimming Test/Stress (FST/S). RER animals not exposed to the adolescent stress exhibited longer immobility time during both the first and second day of FST. Corticosterone levels following the FST fell faster in the DER animals. Adolescent stress affected the responses to the adult FSS only in the DER animals, which had decreased 5-HT in the AMY and increased immobility time on both days of the FST, compared with the DER, not stressed in adolescence. The phenotype of the DER animals is in line with the "match-mismatch" hypothesis, which states that if two events during critical periods of life "match" in being mildly stressful, their interaction can be adaptive. PMID

  2. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in synbiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Compared to the other treatments, the population of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed synbiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). In the environmental stress challenge test, the maximum resistance to abrupt decrease of temperature (17 °C) or elevation of salinity (12 g per liter) was observed in the synbiotic treatment. Also, the total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity level of skin mucus was significantly elevated in fish fed Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding angelfish with synbiotic

  3. Regulation of adult neurogenesis by stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation : Implications for depression and antidepressant action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P. J.; Meerlo, P.; Naylor, A. S.; van Dam, A.M.; Dayer, A. G.; Fuchs, E.; Oomen, C. A.; Czeh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Adult hippocampal. neurogenesis, a once unorthodox concept, has changed into one of the most rapidly growing fields in neuroscience. The present report results from the ECNP targeted expert meeting in 2007 during which cellular plasticity changes were addressed in the adult brain, focusing on neurog

  4. Treadmill Intervention Attenuates the Cafeteria Diet-Induced Impairment of Stress-Coping Strategies in Young Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa, Igor; Lalanza, Jaume F.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    The current prevalence of diet-induced overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults is continuously growing. Although the detrimental biochemical and metabolic consequences of obesity are widely studied, its impact on stress-coping behavior and its interaction with specific exercise doses (in terms of intensity, duration and frequency) need further investigation. To this aim, we fed adolescent rats either an obesogenic diet (cafeteria diet, CAF) or standard chow (ST). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the type of treadmill intervention as follows: a sedentary group receiving no manipulation; a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill; a low-intensity treadmill group trained at 12 m/min; and a higher intensity treadmill group trained at 17 m/min. Both the diet and treadmill interventions started at weaning and lasted for 8 weeks. Subjects were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and for coping strategies in the two-way active avoidance paradigm at week 7 and were sacrificed at week 8 for biometric and metabolic characterization. CAF feeding increased the weight gain, relative retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT %), and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin and decreased the insulin sensitivity. Treadmill intervention partially reversed the RWAT% and triglyceride alterations; at higher intensity, it decreased the leptin levels of CAF-fed animals. CAF feeding decreased the motor activity and impaired the performance in a two-way active avoidance assessment. Treadmill intervention reduced defecation in the shuttle box, suggesting diminished anxiety. CAF feeding combined with treadmill training at 17 m/min increased the time spent in the center of the open field and more importantly, partially reversed the two-way active avoidance deficit. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that at doses that decreased anxiety-like behavior, treadmill exercise partially improved the coping strategy

  5. Prenatal stress induces long-term effects in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Baquedano

    Full Text Available Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day. Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations.

  6. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  7. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

  8. Interplay of viruses and radiation in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery by Gross and by Lieberman and Kaplan that leukemias induced by irradiation in mice may be transmissible by cell-free filtrates pointed to the existence of an interplay between the effects of radiation and those of an otherwise latent oncogenic virus, which has since been the subject of intensive study. In the years intervening since these pioneer observations, efforts have been made to elucidate the nature and mechanisms of the interplay and to determine whether other neoplasms also may be elicited by an interaction between virus and radiation. The results of these efforts, although still highly preliminary, are surveyed in the light of recent advances in viral oncology

  9. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Daniel R.; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Watt, Michael J.; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI...

  10. Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel eDavies; Dawne eOlson; Danielle eMeyer; Jamie eScholl; Michael eWatt; Pasquale eManzerra; Kenneth eRenner; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mT...

  11. Computer use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults – a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomée Sara; Härenstam Annika; Hagberg Mats

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We have previously studied prospective associations between computer use and mental health symptoms in a selected young adult population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if high computer use is a prospective risk factor for developing mental health symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Methods The study group was a cohort of young adults (n = 4163), 20–24 years old, who responded to a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Exposure va...

  12. Employment and Adults Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Current Status and Experiences of Barriers, Accommodations, and Stress in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, Renée

    2016-01-01

    In an integrative review of the literature covering the period 2004-2016, the author presents a current picture of the situation of people who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) relative to employment and careers-particularly the barriers, facilitators, and stress levels experienced by working DHH adults. First, an overview is provided of findings from recent reports on employment outcomes for people who are DHH. Second, the author reviews the literature on employment and workplace barriers, facilitators, and accommodations for people who are DHH, and relates findings about DHH people's workplace-related stress and fatigue levels and the associated issues of job demand, job control, and social support in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings, in particular the ways in which barriers to full participation of DHH people in the labor market can be addressed. PMID:27477043

  13. Childhood Poverty, Chronic Stress, and Young Adult Working Memory: The Protective Role of Self-Regulatory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that childhood poverty as well as chronic stress can damage children's executive functioning (EF) capacities, including working memory. However, it is also clear that not all children suffer the same degree of adverse consequences from risk exposure. We show that chronic stress early in life (ages 9-13) links childhood…

  14. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  15. Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults - a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagberg Mats; Härenstam Annika; Thomée Sara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Because of the quick development and widespread use of mobile phones, and their vast effect on communication and interactions, it is important to study possible negative health effects of mobile phone exposure. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between psychosocial aspects of mobile phone use and mental health symptoms in a prospective cohort of young adults. Methods The study group consisted of young adults 20-24 years old (n ...

  16. Evolutionary perspective on the interplay between family life, and parent and offspring personality

    OpenAIRE

    Roulin A.; Dreiss A.; Kölliker M.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent inter-individual variation in behaviour over time and across contexts has been reported for a wide variety of animals, a phenomenon commonly referred to as personality. As behavioural patterns develop inside families, rearing conditions could have lasting effects on the expression of adult personality. In species with parental care, conflicts among family members impose selection on parental and offspring behaviour through co-adaptation. Here, we argue that the interplay between th...

  17. Effects of Recent Stress and Variation in the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Depressive Symptoms: A Repeated-Measures Study of Adults Age 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Lee, Jinkook; Phillips, Drystan F; Crimmins, Eileen M; Levine, Morgan E; Prescott, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    Depending on genetic sensitivity to it, stress may affect depressive symptomatology differentially. Applying the stress-diathesis hypothesis to older adults, we postulate: (1) recent stress will associate with increased depressive symptom levels and (2) this effect will be greater for individuals with at least one short allele of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5-HTTLPR). Further, we employ a design that addresses specific limitations of many prior studies that have examined the 5-HTTLPR × SLE relation, by: (a) using a within-person repeated-measures design to address fluctuations that occur within individuals over time, increase power for detecting G × E, and address GE correlation; (b) studying reports of exogenous stressful events (those unlikely to be caused by depression) to help rule out reverse causation and negativity bias, and in order to assess stressors that are more etiologically relevant to depressive symptomatology in older adults. The sample is drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a U.S. population-based study of older individuals (N = 28,248; mean age = 67.5; 57.3 % female; 80.7 % Non-Hispanic White, 14.9 % Hispanic/Latino, 4.5 % African American; genetic subsample = 12,332), from whom measures of depressive symptoms and exogenous stressors were collected biannually (1994-2010). Variation in the 5-HTTLPR was characterized via haplotype, using two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ordered logit models were constructed to predict levels of depressive symptoms from 5-HTTLPR and stressors, comparing results of the most commonly applied statistical approaches (i.e., comparing allelic and genotypic models, and continuous and categorical predictors) used in the literature. All models were stratified by race/ethnicity. Overall, results show a main effect of recent stress for all ethnic groups, and mixed results for the variation in 5-HTTLPR × stress interaction, contingent upon statistical model used. Findings

  18. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ceci

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, the adherence to an EMRT protocol is able to induce a cellular adaptation allowing healthy elderly trained subjects to cope with the oxidative stress induced by an acute exercise more effectively than the aged-matched sedentary subjects.

  19. Effect of prenatal stress on memory, nicotine withdrawal and 5HT1A expression in raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N; Lakehayli, S; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Maternal distress has often been associated with cognitive deficiencies and drug abuse in rats. This study examined these behavioral effects in offspring of mothers stressed during gestation. To this end, pregnant dams were subjected to daily electric foot shocks during the last 10 days of pregnancy. We measured litter parameters and body weights of the descendants after weaning (21 days) and at adulthood (80 days). Afterwards, prenatally stressed and control rats' performances in the novel object recognition test were compared in order to evaluate their memory while others underwent the Water consumption test to assess the nicotine withdrawal intensity after perinatal manipulations. Meanwhile, another set of rats were sacrificed and 5HT1A receptors' mRNA expression was measured in the raphe nuclei by quantitative Real Time PCR. We noticed no significant influence of maternal stress on litter size and body weight right after weaning. However, control rats were heavier than the stressed rats in adulthood. The results also showed a significant decrease in the recognition score in rats stressed in utero compared to the controls. Moreover, a heightened anxiety symptom was observed in the prenatally stressed offspring following nicotine withdrawal. Additionally, the Real Time PCR method revealed that prenatal stress induced a significant decrease in 5HT1A receptors' levels in the raphe nuclei. Nicotine had a similar effect on these receptors' expression in both nicotine-treated control and prenatally stressed groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that the cognitive functions and drug dependence can be triggered by early adverse events in rats. PMID:25896010

  20. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ieraci; Alessandra Mallei; Maurizio Popoli

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation ...

  1. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders. PMID:21093519

  2. The role of ethnic identity in the relationship of race-related stress to PTSD symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaylis, Anna; Waelde, Lynn C; Bruce, Elizabeth Jean

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have shown that stronger ethnic identity is associated with better adjustment, the role of ethnic identity in the context of race-related threat is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ethnic identity on the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the context of race-related stress, particularly to examine whether ethnic identity moderates the effect of racism on consequent PTSD symptoms. Subjects were 91 undergraduate students (11% Caucasian, 6.6% African American, 18.7% Hispanic, 47.3% Asian, 5.5% Middle Eastern, and 8.8% Other) who reported experiences of race-related stress. Race-related stress, ethnic identity, and PTSD symptoms were assessed through self-report measures. Results of a simultaneous multiple regression indicated that ethnic identity moderated PTSD symptoms in response to perceived racism, such that stronger ethnic identity was associated with more PTSD symptoms in the face of increasing levels of race-related stress. Additionally, race-related stress independently predicted PTSD symptoms. These results are consistent with previous findings that ethnic identity increases the experience of distress in the context of self-relevant threat. PMID:18077286

  3. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. PMID:25725425

  4. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett C Haberstick

    Full Text Available The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive.We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724 participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health with follow-up information every six years since 1995.Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment.Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed.

  5. Experts stress both wellness and amenity aspects of food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities for older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been no consensus on best practices in food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities (ALFs) for older adults. We documented experts’ views on optimal food and nutrition services emphases in ALFs, and factors affecting their views. One hundred thirty-five national experts speci...

  6. Chronic stress down-regulates growth hormone gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, W B; Wu, H; Cacioppo, J T; Malarkey, K L; Poehlmann, K M; Glaser, R; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K

    1996-08-01

    "Pituitary" peptides are produced in both endocrine and immune cells. Acute and chronic stress can alter pituitary peptide secretion and might also influence neuroendocrine gene expression in human immune cells. We reasoned that, in Alzheimer caregivers, the chronic stress of caregiving would impact on the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary and hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis possibly leading to alterations in GH mRNA in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Therefore, we evaluated 10 caregivers and 10 controls subjects using a math and speech stress protocol to determine their neuroendocrine profile and to evaluate any relationship with mononuclear cell GH mRNA levels simultaneously acquired and then evaluated by a quantitative competitive RT-PCR technique. We found a significant (pcaregivers. Plasma ACTH and norepinephrine levels were negatively correlated with GH mRNA levels, suggesting their possible role in the down-regulation of mononuclear cell GH gene expression. These observations support the hypothesis that experiences associated with caregiving alter the brain's autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. These and perhaps other influences may then produce altered GH gene expression in mononuclear cells of chronically stressed individuals. It is tempting to speculate that the decreased GH mRNA that we found in these chronically stressed caregivers was partially responsible for their poor response to influenza vaccine and their delayed wound healing. PMID:21153091

  7. Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a nonclinical sample of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Siefert, Caleb J; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle M; Stein, Michelle B; Renna, Megan; Blais, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed. PMID:22008979

  8. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia; Lucía, Martínez-Mota

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  9. Young-Adult Male Rats’ Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Pérez José Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal’s vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals’ body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests; meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1 did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2 decreased body weight gain; and (3 increased the rat’s entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats’ vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors.

  10. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  11. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceci, R.; Beltran Valls, M.R.; Duranti, G.;

    2014-01-01

    evaluate the impact of EMRT on oxidative stress biomarkers induced in old people (70-75 years) by a single bout of acute, intense exercise. Sixteen subjects randomly assigned to either a control, not exercising group ( n=8) or a trained group performing EMRT protocol for 12-weeks ( n=8), were submitted to...... a graded maximal exercise stress test (GXT) at baseline and after the 12-weeks of EMRT protocol, with blood samples collected before, immediately after, 1 and 24. h post-GXT test. Blood glutathione (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG), plasma malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls and creatine kinase (CK) levels......, as well as PBMCs cellular damage (Comet assay, apoptosis) and stress-protein response (Hsp70 and Hsp27 expression) were evaluated. The use of multiple biomarkers allowed us to confirm that EMRT per se neither affected redox homeostasis nor induced any cellular and oxidative damage. Following the GXT...

  12. Supportive nature - and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Adevi, Anna A.

    2012-01-01

    Many benefits are claimed for the interplay between humans and nature, such as nature’s potentially positive effect on wellbeing and health. The main aim with the present work was to increase the understanding of how nature nvironments can support and contribute to health improvement from stress related experiences. Different landscape types’ effect on stress was studied in Sweden. Single case-studies focused on factors considered being essential in the recovery process for people diagn...

  13. Relations among Detection of Syllable Stress, Speech Abnormalities, and Communicative Ability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargas, Niko; López, Beatriz; Morris, Paul; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To date, the literature on perception of affective, pragmatic, and grammatical prosody abilities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been sparse and contradictory. It is interesting to note that the primary perception of syllable stress within the word structure, which is crucial for all prosody functions, remains relatively unexplored…

  14. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel R; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L; Scholl, Jamie L; Watt, Michael J; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM), or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 h after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes. PMID:27147992

  15. Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

  16. TOLUENE EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF YOUNG-ADULT, MIDDLE-AGE AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging-related susceptibility to environmental chemicals is poorly understood. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to play an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to test whether OS is a potential toxicity pathway for tol...

  17. Pathways of Sleep, Affect, and Stress Constellations during the First Year of College: Transition Difficulties of Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Lilac Lev; Shulman, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and fifty Israeli first-year college students were assessed twice: during the first semester following the commencement of their undergraduate studies and toward the end of the second semester. At each semester, participants completed web-based daily diaries for seven consecutive days assessing daily sleep, affective mood, stress, and…

  18. Aromatherapy for stress reduction in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Song, Ji-Ah; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of aromatherapy for stress management. Seven databases were searched from their inception through April 2014. RCTs testing aromatherapy against any type of controls in healthy human person that assessed stress level and cortisol level were considered. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies, data abstraction and validations. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria, and most of them had high risk of bias. Four RCTs tested the effects of aroma inhalation compared with no treatment, no aroma, and no odour oil. The meta-analysis suggested that aroma inhalation has favourable effects on stress management (n=80; standard mean difference (SMD), -0.96; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.48; P<0.0001; I(2)=0%). Three of included RCTs tested aroma inhalation on saliva or serum cortisol level compared with control and meta-analysis failed to show significant difference between two groups (n=88, SMDs -0.62; 95% CIs -1.26 to 0.02, P=0.06, I(2)=46%). In conclusion, there is limited evidence suggesting that aroma inhalation may be effective in controlling stress. However, the number, size and quality of the RCTs are too low to draw firm conclusions. PMID:25234160

  19. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Puran Badkoobeh; Kazem Parivar; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Seyed Davood Hosseini; Alireza Salabat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including...

  20. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattaria, Blattidae) subject to various stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jucelio Peter Duarte; Francielly Felchicher; Paulo Bretanha Ribeiro; Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2015-01-01

    Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P....

  1. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. PMID:26442952

  2. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 links early-life stress with impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Christine; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Grosse, Jocelyn; Fournier, Céline; Harbich, Daniela; Westerholz, Sören; Li, Ji-Tao; Bacq, Alexandre; Sippel, Claudia; Hausch, Felix; Sandi, Carmen; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress is a key risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules have been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in modulating social behaviors associated with these diseases. Neuroligin-2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule, located at the postsynaptic membrane of inhibitory GABAergic synapses, and is involved in synaptic stabilization and maturation. Alterations in neuroligin-2 express...

  3. Experiences of adult immigrants with posttraumatic stress disorder – challenges for nurses when providing evidence-based nursing care

    OpenAIRE

    Onyemaucheya, Kelechi

    2015-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder remains a chronic pyschiatric disorder affecting significant number of people exposed to traumatic events.This has created a significant morbidity among sufferers and shows a substantial impact on health systems, society and the person’s daily living activities.The aim of this study is to describe how immigrant patients with PTSD experience nursing care. Collection of data were accessed through Nelli portal database and qualitative content analysis was used t...

  4. The interaction of disrupted Type II Neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety and fear related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Sara B.; Taylor, Adam R.; Koenig, James I.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we e...

  5. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  6. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Maria D.; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I.; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers. PMID:26697137

  7. Mostly Heterosexual and Lesbian/Gay Young Adults: Differences in Mental Health and Substance Use and the Role of Minority Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Bos, Henny

    2016-09-01

    Individuals mostly attracted to other-sex but also to same-sex partners are a distinct and common sexual orientation group with possibly increased levels of health problems. The current study examined whether mostly heterosexual individuals differed in mental health and substance use from lesbian/gay individuals and whether sexual minority risk and protective factors offer an explanation in a sample of 528 Dutch young adults (16 to 25 years old, M = 21.2 years). Mostly heterosexual participants reported higher levels of psychological distress, suicidality, drug use, and smoking than lesbian/gay participants and equal levels of binge drinking. They also reported higher levels of internalized negativity to same-sex attractions, less openness to family members and others, less community involvement, and lower numbers of lesbian/gay/bisexual friends. However, bootstrapped mediation analysis showed that the differences in minority stress risk and protective factors did not mediate most of the differences in mental health and substance use with one exception: higher levels of psychological distress were mediated by the higher levels of internalized negativity to same-sex attractions. The limited explanatory power of the minority stress factors combined with the elevated level of problems of mostly heterosexual individuals call for future studies examining other risk and protective factors. PMID:26515026

  8. Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 2. Uptake and molecular effects in eleuthero-embryos and adult liver with focus on endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltermann, Susanne; Grundler, Verena; Gademann, Karl; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    . In contrast to adult liver, MC-LR and nodularin did not result in detectable changes of mRNA levels of selected target genes involved in ER-stress in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos, nor was the abundance of transcripts belonging to the MAPK and pro-apoptosis pathways altered. In conclusion, our data indicate that MC-LR and nodularin have similar transcriptional effects. They lead to changes in mRNA levels of genes that suggest induction of ER-stress, and furthermore, lead to increased level of tnfα mRNA in the adult liver, which suggests a novel (transcriptional) mode of action in fish. However, although taken up by eleuthero-embryos, no transcriptional changes induced by these cyanobacterial toxins were detected. This is probably due to action to specific organs such as liver and kidneys that could not be identified by whole-embryo sampling. PMID:26748408

  9. Functional neuroimaging in posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic stress has a broad range of effects on brain function. Brain areas implicated in the stress response include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Brain studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder replicated findings in animal studies by finding alterations in these brain areas. Brain areas implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder play an important role in the stress response as well as memory, highlighting the important interplay between memory and the tra...

  10. A Novel Rodent Model of Autism: Intraventricular Infusions of Propionic Acid Increase Locomotor Activity and Induce Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Discrete Regions of Adult Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick F. MacFabe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate neuroinflammatory changes, increased oxidative stress and disorders of glutathione metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Propionic acid (PPA is a dietary and gut bacterial short chain fatty acid which can produce brain and behavioral changes reminiscent of ASD following intraventricular infusion in rats. Adult Long-Evans rats were given intraventricular infusions of either PPA (500ug uL-1, 4µl anima-1 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS vehicle, twice daily for 7 days. Immediately following the second daily infusion, the locomotor activity of each rat was assessed in an automated open field (Versamax for 30 min. PPA-treated rats showed significant increases in locomotor activity compared to PBS vehicle controls. Following the last treatment day, specific brain regions were assessed for neuroinflammatory or oxidative stress markers. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed reactive astrogliosis (GFAP, activated microglia (CD68, Iba1 without apoptotic cell loss (Caspase 3 and NeuN in hippocampus and white matter (external capsule of PPA treated rats. Biomarkers of protein and lipid peroxidation, total glutathione (GSH as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione S-transferase (GST were examined in brain homogenates. Some brain regions of PPA treated animals (neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum showed increased lipid and protein oxidation accompanied by decreased total GSH in neocortex. Catalase activity was decreased in most brain regions of PPA treated animals suggestive of reduced antioxidant enzymatic activity. GPx and GR activity was relatively unaffected by PPA treatment while GST was increased perhaps indicating involvement of GSH in the removal of PPA or related catabolites. Impairments in GSH and catalase levels may render CNS cells more susceptible to oxidative stress

  11. High calcium diet improves the liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis in adult obese rats that were overfed during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E P S; Moura, E G; Soares, P N; Ai, X X; Figueiredo, M S; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is related to diabetes, higher oxidative stress and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and dietetic therapies, for instance calcium-rich diet, can improve these dysfunctions. Rats raised in small litters (SL) had increased fat depots and insulin resistance at adulthood associated with higher liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis. Thus, we evaluated if dietary calcium can improve these changes. In PN3, litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (SL group) to induce overfeeding, while controls had 10 pups until weaning. At PN120, SL group was randomly divided into: rats fed with standard chow or fed with calcium supplementation (SL-Ca group, 10 g/kg chow) for 60 days. At PN180, dietary calcium normalized food consumption, visceral fat, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glycaemia. Concerning oxidative balance, calcium restored both higher hepatic lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation as well as higher plasma lipid peroxidation. Higher fatty acid synthase (FAS) content, steatosis and lower protein kinase B (Akt) in SL group were normalized by dietary calcium and SL-Ca rats had lower hepatic cholesterol. Thus, calcium supplementation improved the insulin sensitivity, redox balance and steatosis in the liver. Therefore, dietary calcium can be a promising therapy for liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27108106

  12. Mgat5 modulates the effect of early life stress on adult behavior and physical health in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldcamp, Laura; Doucet, Jean-Sebastien; Pawling, Judy; Fadel, Marc P; Fletcher, Paul J; Maunder, Robert; Dennis, James W; Wong, Albert H C

    2016-10-01

    Psychosocial adversity in early life increases the likelihood of mental and physical illness, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mgat5 is an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in the Golgi pathway that remodels the N-glycans of glycoproteins at the cell surface. Mice lacking Mgat5 display conditional phenotypes in behaviour, immunity, metabolism, aging and cancer susceptibility. Here we investigated potential gene-environment interactions between Mgat5 and early life adversity on behaviour and physiological measures of physical health. Mgat5(-/-) mutant and Mgat5(+/+) wild-type C57Bl/6 littermates were subject to maternal separation or foster rearing as an early life stressor, in comparison to control mice reared normally. We found an interaction between Mgat5 genotype and maternal rearing condition in which Mgat5(-/-) mice subjected to early life stress had lower glucose levels and higher bone density. Mgat5(-/-) genotype was also associated with less immobility in the forced swim test and greater sucrose consumption, consistent with a less depression-like phenotype. Cortical neuron dendrite spine density and branching was altered by Mgat5 deletion as well. In general, Mgat5 genotype affects both behaviour and physical outcomes in response to early life stress, suggesting some shared pathways for both in this model. These results provide a starting point for studying the mechanisms by which protein N-glycosylation mediates the effects of early life adversity. PMID:27329152

  13. Fact Sheet on Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... items) NIMH (7 items) Share Fact Sheet on Stress Download PDF Download ePub Q&A on Stress for Adults: How it affects your health and ... to avoid more serious health effects. What is stress? Stress can be defined as the brain's response ...

  14. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3

  15. Psychological Treatments for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Schwartzkopff, Laura; Deppe, Julia; Steil, Regina

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analyses of the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence are restricted to specific trauma, selected interventions, and methodologically rigorous studies. This large meta-analysis quantifies the effects of psychological treatments for PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 13,040 articles; 135 studies with 150 treatment conditions (N = 9562 participants) met the inclusion criteria (psychological interventions with children and/or adolescents with PTSD symptoms that report quantitative measures of symptom change). The mean effect sizes (ESs) for PTSD symptoms ranged from large to small, depending on the control condition. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) yielded the highest ESs. Age and caretaker involvement were identified as moderators. CBT, especially when conducted in individual treatment with the inclusion of parents, is a highly effective treatment for trauma symptoms. Psychological treatments need to be modified to address younger patients' specific needs. PMID:27059619

  16. Effects of acute ingestion of different fats on oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peairs Abigail D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that obese individuals have prolonged elevations in postprandial lipemia and an exacerbated inflammatory response to high fat meals, which can increase risk for cardiovascular diseases. As epidemiological studies indicate an association between type of fat and circulating inflammatory markers, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different fat sources on inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight and obese individuals. Methods Eleven overweight and obese subjects consumed three high fat milkshakes rich in monounsaturated fat (MFA, saturated fat (SFA, or long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fat (O3FA in random order. Blood samples collected at baseline, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandial were analyzed for markers of inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α (8-epi and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, and metabolic factors (glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TG. Results O3FA enhanced NF-kB activation compared to SFA, but did not increase any inflammatory factors measured. Conversely, SFA led to higher ICAM-1 levels than MFA (p = 0.051, while MFA increased TG more than SFA (p Conclusions While most of the inflammatory factors measured had modest or no change following the meal, ICAM-1 and NF-κB responded differently by meal type. These results are provocative and suggest that type of fat in meals may differentially influence postprandial inflammation and endothelial activation.

  17. Evidence for two different ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorders in a community sample of adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkonigg, Axel; Höfler, Michael; Cloitre, Marylène; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    For the 11th revision of the International classification of diseases, a general category of posttraumatic stress disorders has been proposed with two distinct sibling disorders: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD). General population data are examined on evidence for these two disorders. Data were drawn from a 10-year prospective longitudinal, epidemiological study with a representative community sample (N = 3021, 14-24 years at baseline) in Germany. Mixture modelling on latent classes was conducted in a subset of all reported episodes with exposure to interpersonal traumas. Associations between class membership, symptom criteria, and other mental disorders were investigated. Four distinctly interpretable latent classes were found. Class 1 episodes (N = 181) typically included core PTSD symptoms associated with strong impairment (OR 11.68; 95 % CI 4.54-30.05). 18.3 % of these episodes matched the criteria of ICD-11 PTSD. Class 2 episodes (N = 78) had a high probability of PTSD core symptoms and disturbances in self-organization and were associated with strong impairment (OR 38.47; 95 % CI 15.77-93.86). Half of them (49.4 %) matched the proposed ICD-11 criteria of CPTSD. Class 3 (N = 79) was typically characterized by episodes with disturbances in self-organization but a low probability of PTSD core symptoms and impairment. Class 4 (N = 633) was related to a relatively low probability of symptom reports. Membership in class 2 was associated with lower educational attainment, a lower social class, and more other mental disorders. Findings support the ICD-11 proposal to differentiate between PTSD and CPTSD. Further studies should extend exploration to other types of traumatic events in samples covering the full age range. PMID:26320578

  18. Effect of Excess Iodine on Oxidative Stress Markers, Steroidogenic-Enzyme Activities, Testicular Morphology, and Functions in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Mandal, Jagadis; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chandra, Amar K

    2016-08-01

    Improper iodine intake is a major concern in public health. Chronic intake of low iodine affects gonadal functions of man and animals; however, such effects of excess iodine in male reproduction, specially on testicular morphology, testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities, sperm morphology, sperm viability, and sperm count including male hormonal profiles in reference to iodine status and thyroid hormone profiles are yet to be explored. With this background, adult male rats of 120 ± 10 gm Bw of 90 ± 5 days were divided broadly in two groups depending on the duration of the treatment for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Both the groups consisted of control animals. Excess iodine (100EI), i.e., 100 times more than its recommended level but within its tolerable ranges, was administered through gavage regularly to the first group of experimental animals for 30 and 60 days, respectively, and excessive iodine (500EI), i.e., 500 times more than its recommended level and above tolerable range in the same way and for the same durations, was administered to the other group of experimental animals. Overall results revealed that regular consumption of iodine in excess impairs reproductive functions in adult male rats depending on the dose and duration of its exposure through different mechanisms. Excess iodine accumulates in the testis which results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as evidenced by higher lipid peroxidation level as well as an imbalance in the pro-/antioxidant status inhibiting the activity of ∆(5) 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD resulting to reduced synthesis of testosterone that causes structural and functional changes of the testis. Secondly, persistent generation of ROS in testis as a result of prolonged excess iodine exposure affects hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis that stimulates synthesis and secretion of corticosterone which inhibits LH release that downregulates testosterone synthesis causing further

  19. Interplay between evolutionary game and network structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, J; Wang, W X; Chen, G; Wang, B H; Ren, Jie; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Wen-Xu; Chen, Guanrong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2006-01-01

    We study the interplay between evolutionary game and network structure and show how the dynamics of the game affect the growth pattern of the network and how the evolution of the network influence the cooperative behavior in the game. Simulation results show that the payoff preferential attachment mechanism leads to the emergence of a scale-free structural property, $P(k)\\sim k^{-\\gamma}$, with the power-law exponent $\\gamma$ controlled by a model parameter. Moreover, we investigate the average path length and the assortative mixing features. The obtained results indicate that the network has small-world and positive assortative behaviors, which are consistent with the observations of some real social networks. In parallel, we found that the evolution of the underlying network structure remarkably promotes the cooperation level of the game. Furthermore, we provide detrended fluctuation analysis for the time series of cooperator density. Interestingly, we found $1/f$ scaling behavior, which suggests that a lon...

  20. Interplay between oxidant species and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Celia; Trujillo, Madia; Castro, Laura; Trostchansky, Andrés

    2016-08-01

    It has long been recognized that energy metabolism is linked to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and critical enzymes allied to metabolic pathways can be affected by redox reactions. This interplay between energy metabolism and ROS becomes most apparent during the aging process and in the onset and progression of many age-related diseases (i.e. diabetes, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases). As such, the capacity to identify metabolic pathways involved in ROS formation, as well as specific targets and oxidative modifications is crucial to our understanding of the molecular basis of age-related diseases and for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Herein we review oxidant formation associated with the cell's energetic metabolism, key antioxidants involved in ROS detoxification, and the principal targets of oxidant species in metabolic routes and discuss their relevance in cell signaling and age-related diseases. PMID:26741399

  1. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at − 80 °C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative

  2. Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fiorella Mazzeo

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus.

  3. Adult Leukemias

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Lyall K.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past several years, advances have been made in the classification, diagnosis and therapy of the adult leukemias. The overall prognosis and quality of life have improved greatly, especially for patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemias. Some of the advances are described in this article. The importance of the clinical, laboratory and diagnostic tests for acute, chronic granulocytic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are stressed. The therapy and prognosis for patients with the vari...

  4. Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Hassell, James E; Davies, Daniel R; Scholl, Jamie L; Renner, Kenneth J; Watt, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26056032

  5. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women. PMID:26211934

  6. HPA axis gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in rats exposed to early life stress, adult voluntary ethanol drinking and single housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha eTodkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiological basis of early life stress (ELS impact on vulnerability to alcohol use disorder is not fully understood. The effect of ELS, adult ethanol consumption and single housing, on expression of stress and DNA methylation regulatory genes as well as blood corticosterone levels was investigated in the hypothalamus and pituitary of adult out-bred Wistar rats subjected to different rearing conditions. A prolonged maternal separation of 360 min (MS360 was used to study the effect of ELS, and a short maternal separation of 15 min (MS15 was used as a control. Voluntary ethanol drinking was assessed using a two-bottle free choice paradigm to simulate human episodic drinking. The effects of single housing and ethanol were assessed in conventional animal facility rearing (AFR conditions.Single housing in adulthood was associated with lower Crhr1 and higher Pomc expression in the pituitary, whereas ethanol drinking was associated with higher expression of Crh in the hypothalamus and Crhr1 in the pituitary, accompanied by lower corticosterone levels. As compared to controls with similar early life handling, rats exposed to ELS displayed lower expression of Pomc in the hypothalamus, and higher Dnmt1 expression in the pituitary. Voluntary ethanol drinking resulted in lower Fkbp5 expression in the pituitary and higher Crh expression in the hypothalamus, independently of rearing conditions. In rats exposed to ELS, water and ethanol drinking was associated with higher and lower corticosterone levels, respectively,. The use of conventionally reared rats as control group yielded more significant results than the use of rats exposed to short maternal separation.Positive correlations, restricted to the hypothalamus and ELS group, were observed between the expression of the HPA receptor and the methylation-related genes. Promoter DNA methylation and expression of respective genes did not correlate suggesting that other loci are involved in

  7. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  8. Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudwa, Andrea E; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2014-04-22

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled by neurons residing in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Although gonadal steroid hormones can influence HPA reactivity to stressors, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is known, however, that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) inhibits HPA reactivity and decreases anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Since ERβ is co-expressed with oxytocin (OT) in neurons of the PVN, an ERβ-selective agonist was utilized to test the whether ERβ decreases stress-induced HPA reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors via an OTergic pathway. Adult gonadectomized male and female rats were administered diarylpropionitrile, or vehicle, peripherally for 5days. When tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), diarylpropionitrile-treated males and females significantly increased time on the open arm of the EPM compared to vehicle controls indicating that ERβ reduces anxiety-like behaviors. One week after behavioral evaluation, rats were subjected to a 20minute restraint stress. Treatment with diarylpropionitrile reduced CORT and ACTH responses in both males and females. Subsequently, another group of animals was implanted with cannulae directed at the lateral ventricle. One week later, rats underwent the same protocol as above but with the additional treatment of intracerebroventricular infusion with an OT antagonist (des Gly-NH2 d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4)] OVT) or VEH, 20min prior to behavioral evaluation. OT antagonist treatment blocked the effects of diarylpropionitrile on the display of anxiety-like behaviors and plasma CORT levels. These data indicate that ERβ and OT interact to modulate the HPA reactivity and the display of anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:24631553

  9. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult posttraumatic stress disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Guiqing; Hu, Min; Liang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common mental disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of ∼5.7%. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most often studied and most effective psychotherapies for PTSD. However, evidence is inadequate to conclude which treatment is superior. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to confirm the effectiveness of EMDR compared to CBT for adult PTSD. We searched Medline, PubMed, Ebsco, Proquest, and Cochrane (1989-2013) to identify relevant randomized control trials comparing EMDR and CBT for PTSD. We included 11 studies (N = 424). Although all the studies had methodological limitations, meta-analyses for total PTSD scores revealed that EMDR was slightly superior to CBT. Cumulative meta-analysis confirmed this and a meta-analysis for subscale scores of PTSD symptoms indicated that EMDR was better for decreased intrusion and arousal severity compared to CBT. Avoidance was not significantly different between groups. EMDR may be more suitable than CBT for PTSD patients with prominent intrusion or arousal symptoms. However, the limited number and poor quality of the original studies included suggest caution when drawing final conclusions. PMID:25974059

  10. Lifetime mood symptoms and adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief and/or post-traumatic stress disorder: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Carmassi, Claudia; Musetti, Laura; Socci, Chiara; Shear, M Katherine; Conversano, Ciro; Maremmani, Icro; Perugi, Giulio

    2012-08-15

    A minority of bereaved individuals experiences symptoms of complicated grief (CG) that are associated with significant distress and impairment. CG is currently under consideration for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V) and a major issue is whether or not it can be differentiated from major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features of CG with those of PTSD and CG+PTSD. A total sample of 116 patients (66 PTSD, 22 CG and 28 CG+PTSD) was recruited. Assessments included: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P), Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR) lifetime version. CG was strongly associated with female gender. MDD comorbidity was more common among patients with CG while bipolar disorder was highest among those with PTSD+CG. Patients with CG+PTSD reported significantly higher ASA-27 scores compared to patients with either CG or PTSD alone. Patients with CG+PTSD or PTSD alone reported significantly higher scores on the manic component of the MOODS-SR. No significant differences were reported in the WSAS scores. Our results support differences between CG and PTSD that are important for the consideration of including CG as a new disorder in the DSM-V. PMID:22436352

  11. Reactions to Participating in Intimate Partner Violence and Minority Stress Research: A Mixed Methodological Study of Self-Identified Lesbian and Gay Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research. PMID:26421906

  12. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  13. Percolation and magnetism: interplay and relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetism of artificial structures, multilayer arrays and granular systems has lately attracted wide attention. On the contrary, the concept of percolation, first introduced in 1957, has scarcely been related to the former, in spite of the fact that it has been applied to many problems in completely different fields. In physics, percolation has been useful to study both macroscopic and microscopic phenomena, such as the electrical conduction of a mixture and the localization and hopping of electrons, respectively. However, recent experimental studies of magnetic granular solids have clearly established a connection between percolation and magnetism. In fact, magnetic anomalies were observed in a percolating system where the coercivity Hc of Ni films exhibits a non-monotonic behavior, related to topological morphology changes, which coincides with the onset of percolation. In this contribution we propose a theoretical model that describes the behavior of the coercivity Hc, of granular Ni films, as a percolation phenomenon. We show that the non-monotonic dependence of Hc, as a function of the occupation probability p, is due to the interplay of percolation and magnetism. Moreover, we also explain the dependence of Hc as a function of external magnetic field orientation

  14. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian evolution, three types of adipocytes have developed, white, brown and beige adipocytes. White adipocytes are the major constituents of white adipose tissue (WAT), the predominant store for energy-dense triglycerides in the body that are released as fatty acids during catabolic conditions. The less abundant brown adipocytes, the defining parenchymal cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT), internalize triglycerides that are stored intracellularly in multilocular lipid droplets. Beige adipocytes (also known as brite or inducible brown adipocytes) are functionally very similar to brown adipocytes and emerge in specific WAT depots in response to various stimuli including sustained cold exposure. The activation of brown and beige adipocytes (together referred to as thermogenic adipocytes) causes both the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides as well as the uptake of lipids and glucose from the circulation. Together, these fuels are combusted for heat production to maintain body temperature in mammals including adult humans. Given that heating by brown and beige adipocytes is a very-well controlled and energy-demanding process which entails pronounced shifts in energy fluxes, it is not surprising that an intensive interplay exists between the various adipocyte types and parenchymal liver cells, and that this influences systemic metabolic fluxes and endocrine networks. In this review we will emphasize the role of hepatic factors that regulate the metabolic activity of white and thermogenic adipocytes. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of lipids and hormones that are secreted by white, brown and beige adipocytes regulating liver metabolism in order to maintain systemic energy metabolism in health and disease. PMID:26829204

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Fruit Extract on Serum Lipids and hs-CRP Levels and Oxidative Stress in Adult Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia produces atherosclerosis, which in turn results in coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis is being considered as an inflammatory disease. Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. is a plant with fruits rich in anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fruit extract of this plant on serum levels of lipids, hs-CRP, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress, in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, p...

  16. Electromechanical Interplay in Deformable Dielectric Elastomer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noy; deBotton, Gal

    2016-05-20

    A systematic, statistical-mechanics-based analysis of the response of dielectric elastomers to coupled electromechanical loading is conducted, starting from the monomer level through the polymer chain and ending with closed-form expressions for the polarization and stress fields. It is found that the apparent response at the macrolevel is dictated by four microscopic parameters-the monomer type and polarizability and the chain length and density. Our analysis further reveals a new electrostrictive effect that either reinforces or opposes the polarization-induced deformation. The validity of the results is attested through comparisons with well-established experimental measurements of both the polarization field and the electrostrictive stress. PMID:27258888

  17. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  18. Neuroimaging in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Other Stress-related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic stress has a broad range of effects on the brain. Brain areas implicated in the stress response include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders related to stress have replicated findings in animal studies by finding alterations in these brain areas. Brain regions implicated in PTSD also play an important role in memory function, highlighting the important interplay between memory ...

  19. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress is an important public health issue. One in ten Danish adults experience high levels of stress in their daily lives and stress is one of the main occupational health problems in Europe. The link between stress and health is still debated in the scientific literature...... and the pathways underlying these potential health effects are far from elucidated. The dissertation contributions to the literature on stress and health by empirically testing the relationship between stress and major chronic disorders and by providing new evidence on the underlying physiological, psychological...... and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress...

  20. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Singh

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108, which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions.

  1. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25886365

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Fruit Extract on Serum Lipids and hs-CRP Levels and Oxidative Stress in Adult Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dyslipidemia produces atherosclerosis, which in turn results in coronary artery disease (CAD. Atherosclerosis is being considered as an inflammatory disease. Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. is a plant with fruits rich in anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fruit extract of this plant on serum levels of lipids, hs-CRP, and malondialdehyde (MDA as a marker of oxidative stress, in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 hyperlipidemic adult patients were randomly and equally assigned to receive either medicinal (V. arctostaphylos fruit extract or placebo capsules twice daily for 4 weeks. Each medicinal capsule contained 45 ± 2 mg of anthocyanins. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, hs-CRP, and MDA were obtained before and after the intervention and compared. Results. V. arctostaphylos fruit extract significantly reduced total cholesterol (P<0.001, LDL-C (P=0.004, TG (P<0.001, and MDA (P=0.013 compared to placebo but did not have any significant effect on HDL-C (P=0.631 and hs-CRP (P=0.190. Conclusion. Fruit extract of Vaccinium arctostaphylos has beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Therefore, it could be considered as a supplement for treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis development.

  3. Inhibitory Interplay between Orexin Neurons and Eating

    OpenAIRE

    González, J. Antonio; Jensen, Lise T.; Iordanidou, Panagiota; Strom, Molly; Fugger, Lars; Burdakov, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Summary In humans and rodents, loss of brain orexin/hypocretin (OH) neurons causes pathological sleepiness [1–4], whereas OH hyperactivity is associated with stress and anxiety [5–10]. OH cell control is thus of considerable interest. OH cells are activated by fasting [11, 12] and proposed to stimulate eating [13]. However, OH cells are also activated by diverse feeding-unrelated stressors [14–17] and stimulate locomotion and “fight-or-flight” responses [18–20]. Such OH-mediated behaviors pre...

  4. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun-Fang; Li, Ying-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes a variety of adverse effects on aquatic organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying inorganic Hg-induced reproductive impairment in fish remains largely unknown. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 15 and 30μg Hg/l (added as mercuric chloride, HgCl2) for 30days, and the effects on histological structure, antioxidant status and sex hormone levels in the ovary and testis, as well as the mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were analyzed. Exposure to Hg caused pathological lesions in zebrafish gonads, and changed the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) as well as the content of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In females, although ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) content remained relatively stable, significant down-regulation of lhβ, gnrh2, gnrh3, lhr and erα were observed. In males, testosterone (T) levels in the testis significantly decreased after Hg exposure, accompanied by down-regulated expression of gnrh2, gnrh3, fshβ and lhβ in the brain as well as fshr, lhr, ar, cyp17 and cyp11b in the testis. Thus, our study indicated that waterborne inorganic Hg exposure caused histological damage and oxidative stress in the gonads of zebrafish, and altered sex hormone levels by disrupting the transcription of related HPG-axis genes, which could subsequently impair the reproduction of fish. Different response of the antioxidant defense system, sex hormone and HPG-axis genes between females and males exposed to inorganic Hg indicated the gender-specific regulatory effect by Hg. To our knowledge, this is the first time to explore the effects and mechanisms of inorganic Hg exposure on reproduction at the histological, enzymatic and molecular levels, which will greatly extend our understanding on the mechanisms underlying of reproductive

  5. Antioxidant effects of magnesium in reducing oxidative stress by injected via an intraperitoneally carbon tetrachloride in the Wistar male adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introdaction & aim: Magnesium playes an important role in the structure and cell metabolism. In this research , anti oxidant effects of magnesium sulfate against oxidative stress effects of was investigated Methods: In this experimewtal study 36 male adults rats were placed into4 groups, with nine rats in each group. Treatment was then carried out as follows. Group I received olive oil (intraperitoneally and distilled water (intragastrically, and served as the untreated control animal group. Group II was the hepatotoxicity group that was given a suspension of (i.p., 0.5 mL/kg b.wt, 50% in olive oil, twice a week. Groups III received dissolved in distilled water daily via an intragastric tube(.0.15M g/kg b.wt.Groups IV were the treatment group that received dissolved in distilled water daily, via an intragastric tube 0.15 g/kg b.wt.,with (i.p., 0.5 mL/kg b.wt., 50% in olive oil twice a week. After a 28-day treatment period, the animals were deprived of food overnight, anesthetized by exposure to diethyl ether, and then sacrificed by decapitation. Blood ws collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and used for liver marker assays. Levels of ALT, AST ALP and GGT were estimated using commercial kits. The liver homogenates were used for the assay of SOD .All data were expressed as means S.E.M. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The criterion for statistical significance was p<0.05. Results:In the -treated control group, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT were significantly increased as compared with the untreated control group. In contrast, the group that also received mgso4 Showed signifi cantlyless elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT. compared to normal levels. Liver SOD activity in -treated rats was decreased significantly when compared with the the control group. Treatment with protected this enzyme activity. Conclusion:The results of this study showed that magnesium sulfate

  6. Interplay between exercise and dietary fat modulates myelinogenesis in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyesook; Kleven, Andrew; Paulsen, Alex; Kleppe, Laurel; Wu, Jianmin; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

    2016-04-01

    Here we show that the interplay between exercise training and dietary fat regulates myelinogenesis in the adult central nervous system. Mice consuming high fat with coordinate voluntary running wheel exercise for 7weeks showed increases in the abundance of the major myelin membrane proteins, proteolipid (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP), in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Expression of MBP and PLP RNA, as well that for Myrf1, a transcription factor driving oligodendrocyte differentiation were also differentially increased under each condition. Furthermore, expression of IGF-1 and its receptor IGF-1R, known to promote myelinogenesis, were also increased in the spinal cord in response to high dietary fat or exercise training. Parallel increases in AKT signaling, a pro-myelination signaling intermediate activated by IGF-1, were also observed in the spinal cord of mice consuming high fat alone or in combination with exercise. Despite the pro-myelinogenic effects of high dietary fat in the context of exercise, high fat consumption in the setting of a sedentary lifestyle reduced OPCs and mature oligodendroglia. Whereas 7weeks of exercise training alone did not alter OPC or oligodendrocyte numbers, it did reverse reductions seen with high fat. Evidence is presented suggesting that the interplay between exercise and high dietary fat increase SIRT1, PGC-1α and antioxidant enzymes which may permit oligodendroglia to take advantage of diet and exercise-related increases in mitochondrial activity to yield increases in myelination despite higher levels of reactive oxygen species. PMID:26826016

  7. Changes in Stress Perception and Coping during Adolescence: The Role of Situational and Personal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…

  8. Evaluation of the Effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Fruit Extract on Serum Lipids and hs-CRP Levels and Oxidative Stress in Adult Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasool; Hakimi, Mustafa; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia produces atherosclerosis, which in turn results in coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis is being considered as an inflammatory disease. Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. is a plant with fruits rich in anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fruit extract of this plant on serum levels of lipids, hs-CRP, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress, in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 hyperlipidemic adult patients were randomly and equally assigned to receive either medicinal (V. arctostaphylos fruit extract) or placebo capsules twice daily for 4 weeks. Each medicinal capsule contained 45 ± 2 mg of anthocyanins. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, hs-CRP, and MDA were obtained before and after the intervention and compared. Results. V. arctostaphylos fruit extract significantly reduced total cholesterol (P atherosclerosis development. PMID:24587807

  9. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low magnesium status has been associated with numerous conditions characterized as having a chronic inflammatory stress component. Some animal findings indicate that a moderate magnesium deficiency, similar to which apparently commonly occurs in humans, may enhance inflammatory or oxidative stress i...

  10. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marit Arp, J; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal d

  11. Evaluating the Effect of Vitamins E and C on Sexual Cell Lineages in Adult Male Rats under Oxidative Stress Induced by Endosulfan Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    yazdan heydari; shirzad hosseini; mojtaba keshavarz; ahmad mozafar; mohammadhasaan meshkibaf; mohammadali takhshid

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Endosulfan is one of the strong insecticides used in agriculture. This toxin is absorbed by inhalation and skin. Endosulfan has side effects such as infertility in men. This study surveys the effect of vitamins E and C on  preventing the harmful effects of Endosulfan on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: Adult male rats (200-250 g) from Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats. Rats in the experimental group...

  12. Interplay between Colloids and Interfaces : Emulsions, Foams and Microtubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the interplay between colloids and interfaces. The adsorption of colloids at fluid-fluid interfaces is the main topic and covers Chapters 2-6. Pickering emulsions where colloidal particles act as emulsion stabilizers in the absence of surfactants are studied in a

  13. Communication Strategies: An Interplay between Proficiency and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Hussein; Angameh, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    This paper is intended to investigate the interplay between proficiency and gender in the use of communication strategies. Sixty Iranian university male and female subjects studying English took part in the experiment and performed two tasks: word recognition and picture-story narration. The results indicate that proficiency had a more perceptible…

  14. The Interplay between Subject Recontextualizers: Social Reproduction through Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlund, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a Bernsteinian approach to explore, examine, and theorize about an activity in the upper-secondary curriculum within the Swedish Language subject. Based on an examination of the interplay between different educational actors in this recontextualization process the possibilities for pupils with different social backgrounds and…

  15. Interplay between Quantum and Coherent Effects in Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Yukalov, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    A technique is presented for treating strongly nonstationary and transient processes in optics, permitting one to take into account both types of competing with each other effects, quantum as well as coherent. The main equations for describing the interplay between these two kinds of effects are derived. The possibility of influencing coherent optical phenomena by preparing special quantum states of matter is discussed.

  16. Gene-Environment Interplay, Family Relationships, and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews behavioral genetic research from the past decade that has moved beyond simply studying the independent influences of genes and environments. The studies considered in this review have instead focused on understanding gene-environment interplay, including genotype-environment correlation (rGE) and genotype x environment…

  17. Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) with adults on sick leave suffering from work-related stress – a mixed methods experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Bolette Daniels

    2012-01-01

    therapeutic processes of embodiment and coping. Themes in the therapies were identified to relate equally to work stress and life stress. The participants found new coping strategies, new ways of being, increased contact with their bodies, reduced pain experience and enhanced creativity and hope through...... the music journeys. Bodily experiences and emotions were found to be closely connected to the processes of coping. Unresolved traumatic work episodes were identified as a part of the chronic stress and were renegotiated in music therapy leading to new social competencies. The music was experienced...... as a supportive space for self-regulative body processes, emotional expression, reconnection to self-esteem and competency, processes of existential life issues and contact with creativity. A result generated from the convergence of qualitative and quantitative results is that GIM decreased bodily stress symptoms...

  18. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, Brian C.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Campi, Katharine L.; Florez, Stefani A.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A.; Orr, Veronica N.; Silva, Andrea L.; Steinman, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy...

  19. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Settings and Design: Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45, a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. Statistical Analysis: t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001 in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006 in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the

  20. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Fu, Jianfang [Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Shun [Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Jie [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Xie, Nianlin, E-mail: xienianlin@126.com [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Cai, Guoqing, E-mail: firstchair@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  1. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  2. Early life stress is a risk factor for excessive alcohol drinking and impulsivity in adults and is mediated via a CRF/GABAA mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Warnock, Kaitlin T; Wang, Hong; June, Harry L; Bell, Kimberly A; Rabe, Holger; Tiruveedhula, Veera Venkata Naga Phani Babu; Cook, James; Lüddens, Hartmut; Aurelian, Laure; June, Harry L

    2016-03-01

    Childhood stress and trauma are associated with substance use disorders in adulthood, but the neurological changes that confer increased vulnerability are largely unknown. In this study, maternal separation (MS) stress, restricted to the pre-weaning period, was used as a model to study mechanisms of protracted effects of childhood stress/traumatic experiences on binge drinking and impulsivity. Using an operant self-administration model of binge drinking and a delay discounting assay to measure impulsive-like behavior, we report that early life stress due to MS facilitated acquisition of binge drinking and impulsivity during adulthood in rats. Previous studies have shown heightened levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) after MS, and here, we add that MS increased expression levels of GABAA α2 subunit in central stress circuits. To investigate the precise role of these circuits in regulating impulsivity and binge drinking, the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and the novel GABAA α2 subunit ligand 3-PBC were infused into the central amygdala (CeA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Antalarmin and 3-PBC at each site markedly reduced impulsivity and produced profound reductions on binge-motivated alcohol drinking, without altering responding for sucrose. Furthermore, whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed that low concentrations of 3-PBC directly reversed the effect of relatively high concentrations of ethanol on α2β3γ2 GABAA receptors, by a benzodiazepine site-independent mechanism. Together, our data provide strong evidence that maternal separation, i.e. early life stress, is a risk factor for binge drinking, and is linked to impulsivity, another key risk factor for excessive alcohol drinking. We further show that pharmacological manipulation of CRF and GABA receptor signaling is effective to reverse binge drinking and impulsive-like behavior in MS rats. These results provide novel insights into the role of the brain stress systems in the development

  3. The Interplay of Bioenergy Crop Production and Water Resource Availability in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale growing of bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), may introduce new challenges for water resource availability in the US. However, the strength of the interplay between bioenergy crop production and water resource availability is highly uncertain at the spatial scale and determined by (1) the spatial distribution of land cover types; (2) availability of soil water resources; (3) climate conditions and (4) biophysical characteristics of different bioenergy crops, such as water use efficiency (WUE), tolerances to extreme water and thermal conditions (dry, high temperature, low temperature etc.) and photoperiod adaptability, etc. To address potential water availability concerns the spatial distribution of bioenergy crops needs to be optimized by considering the maximum WUE and the minimum dependence and impact on water resource availability. To address this objective, we apply a coupled biophysical and biogeochemical model (ISAM), to investigate spatial variability in the interplay between water resources and bioenergy crop production in the US. The bioenergy crops considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock and Alamo switchgrasses, and corn (grain and stover). The interplay between bioenergy crop and corn production with water resources is quantitatively evaluated by calculating WUE and average water stress for different bioenergy crops and change in plant available soil water between bioenergy crops and natural vegetation. Our results indicate that low soil water availability limits production of bioenergy grasses in central and eastern Great Plains. Growing energy grasses here strengthens water depletion and limits its potential production. Miscanthus has the highest WUE in the central Midwest, followed by corn stover and Cave-in-Rock. However, growing Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock here strengthens soil water depletion and induces water stress on their production. Though production

  4. The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

  5. Early postnatal treatment with ACTH4-9 analog ORG 2766 improves adult spatial learning but does not affect behavioural stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, K.M.; Meerlo, P.; Felszeghy, K.; Nyakas, C.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on adult animals and humans have shown that the ACTH(4-9) analog ORG 2766 influences cognitive performance and possibly has neurotrophic effects. For this reason we studied the effect of ORG 2766 applied in early postnatal life when brain structures and neuronal pathways are still developing

  6. CENTRAL 5-ALPHA REDUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE IS REQUIRED FOR TESTOSTERONE’S INHIBITION OF THE HYPOTHALAMO-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS RESPONSE TO RESTRAINT STRESS IN ADULT MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J.; Kudwa, Andrea E.; Donner, Nina C.; McGivern, Robert F.; Brown, Roger

    2013-01-01

    In rodents, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is controlled by a precise regulatory mechanism that is influenced by circulating gonadal and adrenal hormones. In males, gonadectomy increases the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) response to stressors, and androgen replacement returns the response to that of the intact male. Testosterone (T) actions in regulating HPA activity may be through aromatization to estradiol, or by 5α-reduction to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To determine if the latter pathway is involved, we assessed the function of the HPA axis response to restraint stress following hormone treatments, or after peripheral or central treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Initially, we examined the timecourse whereby gonadectomy alters the CORT response to restraint stress. Enhanced CORT responses were evident within 48hrs following gonadectomy. Correspondingly, treatment of intact male rats with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, for 48 hrs, enhanced the CORT and ACTH response to restraint stress. Peripheral injections of gonadectomized male rats with DHT or T for 48 hrs reduced the ACTH and CORT response to restraint stress. The effects of T, but not DHT, could be blocked by the third ventricle administration of finasteride prior to stress application. These data indicate that the actions of T in modulating HPA axis activity involve 5α-reductase within the central nervous system. These results further our understanding of how T acts to modulate the neuroendocrine stress responses and indicate that 5α reduction to DHT is a necessary step for T action. PMID:23880372

  7. Central 5-alpha reduction of testosterone is required for testosterone's inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response to restraint stress in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; Kudwa, Andrea E; Donner, Nina C; McGivern, Robert F; Brown, Roger

    2013-09-01

    In rodents, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is controlled by a precise regulatory mechanism that is influenced by circulating gonadal and adrenal hormones. In males, gonadectomy increases the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) response to stressors, and androgen replacement returns the response to that of the intact male. Testosterone (T) actions in regulating HPA activity may be through aromatization to estradiol, or by 5α-reduction to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To determine if the latter pathway is involved, we assessed the function of the HPA axis response to restraint stress following hormone treatments, or after peripheral or central treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Initially, we examined the timecourse whereby gonadectomy alters the CORT response to restraint stress. Enhanced CORT responses were evident within 48 h following gonadectomy. Correspondingly, treatment of intact male rats with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, for 48 h, enhanced the CORT and ACTH response to restraint stress. Peripheral injections of gonadectomized male rats with DHT or T for 48 h reduced the ACTH and CORT response to restraint stress. The effects of T, but not DHT, could be blocked by the third ventricle administration of finasteride prior to stress application. These data indicate that the actions of T in modulating HPA axis activity involve 5α-reductase within the central nervous system. These results further our understanding of how T acts to modulate the neuroendocrine stress responses and indicate that 5α reduction to DHT is a necessary step for T action. PMID:23880372

  8. Dopamine levels in the mosquito Aedes aegypti during adult development, following blood feeding and in response to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Schwartz, Alex; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert;

    2006-01-01

    concentrations of dopamine than females, and that dopamine concentrations decrease with age in both sexes. Dopamine levels increase in females following a blood meal suggesting that dopamine might be involved in ovarian- and/or egg-development. We also found that female mosquitoes have a higher tolerance to a...... short term thermal stress in a water bath than males up to 44 degrees C, however, both sexes die if exposed to short term temperatures between 44 and 45 degrees C. Finally, we did not find any indication that dopamine levels were associated with short time thermal stress response in female mosquitoes....

  9. Dopamine levels in the mosquito Aedes aegypti  during adult development, following blood feeding and in response to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Schwartz, Alex Mark; Gramsbergen, J.B.;

    2006-01-01

    concentrations of dopamine than females, and that dopamine concentrations decrease with age in both sexes. Dopamine levels increase in females following a blood meal suggesting that dopamine might be involved in ovarian- and/or egg-development. We also found that female mosquitoes have a higher tolerance to a...... short term thermal stress in a water bath than males up to 44 °C, however, both sexes die if exposed to short term temperatures between 44 and 45 °C. Finally, we did not find any indication that dopamine levels were associated with short time thermal stress response in female mosquitoes. Keywords: HPLC...

  10. The interplay between dialogue, cognitive schemata and kinesthetic learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Johannsen, Bjørn Friis

    We ask how students use communicative signs (e.g., speech and gesture) to shape and develop cognitive schemata during a bodily exploration of force and motion in a physics teaching-learning activity. We refer to this interplay between dialogue, cognition, and bodily exploration as kinesthetic lea...... learning. In essence we ask: to an outside observer (e.g. a teacher), what signs exist that students derive formally correct meaning and understanding from kinesthetic learning?......We ask how students use communicative signs (e.g., speech and gesture) to shape and develop cognitive schemata during a bodily exploration of force and motion in a physics teaching-learning activity. We refer to this interplay between dialogue, cognition, and bodily exploration as kinesthetic...

  11. Collaborative Improvement – Interplay but not a Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus; Boer, Harry; Chapman, Ross;

    2006-01-01

    Collaboration literally means working together. Collaborative improvement is an extension of continuous improvement and can be defined as a purposeful inter-company interactive process that focuses on continuous incremental innovation aimed at enhancing the collaboration’s overall performance....... Developing collaborative improvement is a protracted and difficult process. Previous research has identified a number of factors affecting that process and suggested that it is not so much the individual factors, but rather their interplay that determines the successful development of collaborative...... affect the other factors, notably national culture, partner characteristics and competences, the use of power, individual behaviour and commitment. The way this interplay develops varies from case to case and has great influence on the development of collaborative improvement....

  12. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  13. Gene – Environment Interplay, Family Relationships, and Child Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews behavioral genetic research from the past decade that has moved beyond simply studying the independent influences of genes and environments. The studies considered in this review have instead focused on understanding gene – environment interplay, including genotype – environment correlation ( rGE) and genotype × environment interaction (G × E). Studies have suggested that rGE is an important pathway through which family relationships are associated with child adjustment. Al...

  14. The Interplay of Biology and the Environment Broadly Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele

    2009-01-01

    This special section of Developmental Psychology contains articles on the interplay of biology and the environment, broadly defined, that have the potential to change or challenge how developmental psychologists think. Topics include how experience affects gene expression; how genes affect how the environment is experienced and what effect the environment has; interactions between the environment and the presence or absence of early brain damage; motor neurons and the understanding of others’...

  15. New perspectives on host-parasite interplay by comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay.

  16. Rumination as a Mechanism Linking Stressful Life Events to Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Longitudinal Evidence in Early Adolescents and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Michl, Louisa C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shepherd, Kathrine; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Rumination is a well-established risk factor for the onset of major depression and anxiety symptomatology in both adolescents and adults. Despite the robust associations between rumination and internalizing psychopathology, there is a dearth of research examining factors that might lead to a ruminative response style. In the current study, we examined whether social environmental experiences were associated with rumination. Specifically, we evaluated whether self-reported exposure to stressfu...

  17. Nonequilibrium localization and the interplay between disorder and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Eduardo; Bragança, Helena; Drumond, R; Aguiar, M C O; França Santos, M

    2016-05-18

    We study the nonequilibrium interplay between disorder and interactions in a closed quantum system. We base our analysis on the notion of dynamical state-space localization, calculated via the Loschmidt echo. Although real-space and state-space localization are independent concepts in general, we show that both perspectives may be directly connected through a specific choice of initial states, namely, maximally localized states (ML-states). We show numerically that in the noninteracting case the average echo is found to be monotonically increasing with increasing disorder; these results are in agreement with an analytical evaluation in the single particle case in which the echo is found to be inversely proportional to the localization length. We also show that for interacting systems, the length scale under which equilibration may occur is upper bounded and such bound is smaller the greater the average echo of ML-states. When disorder and interactions, both being localization mechanisms, are simultaneously at play the echo features a non-monotonic behaviour indicating a non-trivial interplay of the two processes. This interplay induces delocalization of the dynamics which is accompanied by delocalization in real-space. This non-monotonic behaviour is also present in the effective integrability which we show by evaluating the gap statistics. PMID:27094321

  18. Nonequilibrium localization and the interplay between disorder and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Eduardo; Bragança, Helena; Drumond, R.; Aguiar, M. C. O.; França Santos, M.

    2016-05-01

    We study the nonequilibrium interplay between disorder and interactions in a closed quantum system. We base our analysis on the notion of dynamical state-space localization, calculated via the Loschmidt echo. Although real-space and state-space localization are independent concepts in general, we show that both perspectives may be directly connected through a specific choice of initial states, namely, maximally localized states (ML-states). We show numerically that in the noninteracting case the average echo is found to be monotonically increasing with increasing disorder; these results are in agreement with an analytical evaluation in the single particle case in which the echo is found to be inversely proportional to the localization length. We also show that for interacting systems, the length scale under which equilibration may occur is upper bounded and such bound is smaller the greater the average echo of ML-states. When disorder and interactions, both being localization mechanisms, are simultaneously at play the echo features a non-monotonic behaviour indicating a non-trivial interplay of the two processes. This interplay induces delocalization of the dynamics which is accompanied by delocalization in real-space. This non-monotonic behaviour is also present in the effective integrability which we show by evaluating the gap statistics.

  19. The interplay between sleep behavior and affect in elementary school children's daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Leonhardt, Anja; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Recent reviews raised the idea of a bidirectional relation between sleep behavior and affect in adults, but little is known about this interplay in general and especially regarding children. In this micro-longitudinal study, the interplay of sleep and affect was captured directly in children's daily life context in and out of school through ambulatory assessment. For 31 consecutive days, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) provided information about their last night's sleep and reported their current affect at four daily occasions in school and at home on smartphones. A multilevel approach was used to analyze the relation between sleep and affect the next day (morning, noon, and afternoon) and the relation between evening affect and subsequent sleep. At the within-person level, sleep quality was related to all observed facets of affect the next day and the strongest effects were found in the morning. The effect of sleep quality on positive affect was particularly pronounced for children who on average went to bed early and slept long. There were, however, no direct within-person effects of sleep quantity on affect. Furthermore, evening affect was related to subsequent sleep. The findings support the idea of a bidirectional relation between affect and sleep in children's daily life (including school). They suggest that good sleep provides a basis and resource for children's affective well-being the next day and demonstrate the importance of analyzing within-person variations of children's sleep. Micro-longitudinal findings can contribute to explain how macro-longitudinal relations between sleep and affect develop over time. PMID:27236036

  20. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model: Understanding the Role of Adult Attachment in the Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Calebs, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men. In addition, we highlight where future research can expand upon the presented model in order to better understand the developmental processes through which attachment and sexual minority stress influences health and health behaviors among sexual minority boys and men. PMID:27337620

  1. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2015-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical an...

  2. Cause-specific hospital admission and mortality among working men: association with socioeconomic circumstances in childhood and adult life, and the mediating role of daily stress

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, C.; Davey Smith, G; Sterne, J A C; Heslop, P.; Macleod, J.; Hart, C. L.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of childhood and adulthood social class with the occurrence of specific diseases, including those not associated with a high mortality rate, and to investigate daily stress as the mechanism for that part of any association which cannot be accounted for by established risk factors. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study with 25 years of follow-up for cause-specific morbidity and mortality. A total of 5577 Scottish men w...

  3. Managing stress and anxiety through qigong exercise in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Celia HY; Ho, Rainbow TH; Chan, Jessie SM; Ng, Siu-man; Chan, Cecilia LW

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies have documented the effectiveness of qigong exercise in helping people reduce psychological stress and anxiety, but there is a scarcity of systematic reviews evaluating evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among healthy subjects. Methods Thirteen databases were searched for RCTs from their inception through June 2013. Effects of qigong exercise were pooled across trials. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for ...

  4. Decreased postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampus combined with stress experience during adolescence is accompanied by an enhanced incidence of behavioral pathologies in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi Fumihiko; Takashima Noriko; Murayama Akiko; Inokuchi Kaoru

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescence is a vulnerable period in that stress experienced during this time can affect the incidence of psychiatric disorders later, during adulthood. Neurogenesis is known to be involved in the postnatal development of the brain, but its role in determining an individual's biological vulnerability to the onset of psychiatric disorders has not been addressed. Results We examined the role of postnatal neurogenesis during adolescence, a period between 3 to 8 weeks of age ...

  5. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction for adults with sleep disturbance: a protocol for an update of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Min; Park, Jeong Min; Seo, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is a common and significant health problem that has been linked to decreased quality of life. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can be a potentially effective intervention for insomnia. In previous systematic review examining the effects of MBSR for people with sleep disturbance, the authors highlighted the need for additional well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effects of MBSR practice. Recently, several RCTs of the effectivene...

  6. Validation of a French version of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory - short version: relationships between mindfulness and stress in an adult population.

    OpenAIRE

    Trousselard Marion; Steiler Dominique; Raphel Christian; Cian Corinne; Duymedjian Raffi; Claverie Damien; Canini Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Whereas interest in incorporating mindfulness into interventions in medicine is growing, data on the relationships of mindfulness to stress and coping in management is still scarce. This report first presents a French validation of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory-short form (FMI) in a middle-aged working population. Secondly, it investigates the relationship between psychological adjustment and mindfulness. Methods Five hundred and six non-clinical middle-aged working i...

  7. Glutamate Increases In Vitro Survival and Proliferation and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death in Adult Spinal Cord-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Non-NMDA Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a cascade of secondary chemical insults, including oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, which damage host neurons and glia. Transplantation of exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has shown promise in enhancing regeneration after SCI, although survival of transplanted cells remains poor. Understanding the response of NSPCs to the chemical mediators of secondary injury is essential in finding therapies to enhance survival. We examined the in vitro effects of glutamate and glutamate receptor agonists on adult rat spinal cord-derived NSPCs. NSPCs isolated from the periventricular region of the adult rat spinal cord were exposed to various concentrations of glutamate for 96 h. We found that glutamate treatment (500 μM) for 96 h significantly increased live cell numbers, reduced cell death, and increased proliferation, but did not significantly alter cell phenotype. Concurrent glutamate treatment (500 μM) in the setting of H2O2 exposure (500 μM) for 10 h increased NSPC survival compared to H2O2 exposure alone. The effects of glutamate on NSPCs were blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist GYKI-52466, but not by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist MK-801 or DL-AP5, or the mGluR3 antagonist LY-341495. Furthermore, treatment of NSPCs with AMPA, kainic acid, or the kainate receptor-specific agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid mimicked the responses seen with glutamate both alone and in the setting of oxidative stress. These findings offer important insights into potential mechanisms to enhance NSPC survival and implicate a potential role for glutamate in promoting NSPC survival and proliferation after traumatic SCI. PMID:27316370

  8. Decreased postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampus combined with stress experience during adolescence is accompanied by an enhanced incidence of behavioral pathologies in adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Fumihiko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a vulnerable period in that stress experienced during this time can affect the incidence of psychiatric disorders later, during adulthood. Neurogenesis is known to be involved in the postnatal development of the brain, but its role in determining an individual's biological vulnerability to the onset of psychiatric disorders has not been addressed. Results We examined the role of postnatal neurogenesis during adolescence, a period between 3 to 8 weeks of age in rodents. Mice were X-irradiated at 4 weeks of age, to inhibit postnatal neurogenesis in the sub-granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Electrical footshock stress (FSS was administered at 8 weeks old, the time at which neurons being recruited to granule cell layer were those that had begun their differentiation at 4 weeks of age, during X-irradiation. X-irradiated mice subjected to FSS during adolescence exhibited decreased locomotor activity in the novel open field, and showed prepulse inhibition deficits in adulthood. X-irradiation or FSS alone exerted no effects on these behaviors. Conclusion These results suggest that mice with decreased postnatal neurogenesis during adolescence exhibit vulnerability to stress, and that persistence of this condition may result in decreased activity, and cognitive deficits in adulthood.

  9. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Warda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat

  10. The Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Interplay between Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Genetic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and it comprises a spectrum of hepatic abnormalities from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. While the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains incompletely understood, a multihit model has been proposed that accommodates causal factors from a variety of sources, including intestinal and adipose proinflammatory stimuli acting on the liver simultaneously. Prior cellular and molecular studies of patient and animal models have characterized several common pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD, including proinflammation cytokines, lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In recent years, gut microbiota has gained much attention, and dysbiosis is recognized as a crucial factor in NAFLD. Moreover, several genetic variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies, particularly rs738409 (Ile748Met in PNPLA3 and rs58542926 (Glu167Lys in TM6SF2, which are critical risk alleles of the disease. Although a high-fat diet and inactive lifestyles are typical risk factors for NAFLD, the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and genetic background is believed to be more important in the development and progression of NAFLD. This review summarizes the common pathogenic mechanisms, the gut microbiota relevant mechanisms, and the major genetic variants leading to NAFLD and its progression.

  11. Effect of prenatal stress on the expression of Parvalbuminand Calretinin in adult female rat offspring%孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后钙结合蛋白Parvalbumin和Calretinin表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍校琼; 王岐本; 蔡维君; 罗明英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后钙结合蛋白阳性神经元表达的影响。方法6只SD孕鼠随机分为孕期应激组(PS组)和对照组(CON组)。PS组孕鼠在妊娠晚期接受限制性应激,CON组不给予孕期应激。子代成年后,PS组和CON组雌性子代随机分别又分为PS-S组,PS-NS组,CON-S组和CON-NS组(n均=6)。PS-S组和CON-S组动物先后接受限制性应激和冰水应激。动物在接受应激后均给与水和酒精喂养,用Western blot检测海马钙结合蛋白Parvalbumin(PV)和Calretinin(CR)蛋白的表达,进一步结合共聚焦免疫荧光组织化学方法检测PV和CR在海马CA1、CA3区和齿状回(dentate gyrus, DG)的表达。结果与CON-NS组相比,海马区PV和CR的蛋白表达在CON-S,PS-NS和PS-S组下降,以PS-S组表达最低。PV在海马CA1、CA3区和DG的免疫荧光结果与PV的蛋白表达呈一致性,免疫阳性细胞明显减少;而CR的表达除了在海马CA1区的PS-NS组略有升高外,在其余各组的表达均较减少。与CON-NS组相比,PV和CR在其它各组的蛋白表达和免疫阳性细胞计数差异有统计学意义,其中以PS-S组的表达降低最为有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论孕期应激可影响子代雌鼠成年后海马结构钙结合蛋白PV和CR的表达。%Objective To observe the effect of prenatal stress on the expression of Parvalbumin(PV) and Calretinin(CR)in adult female rat offspring. Methods Six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into a prenatal stress (PS) group and a control group (CON). Rats in PS group were subjected to restraint stress during the late gestational periods, while rats in the control group were not given prenatal stress. The adult female offspring were randomly divided into PS plus stress group (PS-S) and PS without stress group (PS-NS), CON plus stress group (CON-S) and CON plus no stress group (CON-NS). The rats in PS-S and CON-S were subjected to

  12. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY APPRAISALS IN MEASURING RESILIENCE TO STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2009-01-01

    Measuring resilience to stress (or stress resistance) validly and reliably is an important theoretical and practical problem. Process-oriented stress theories assume that primary and secondary appraisals play an important role in determining the level of resilience. In the present study, a model of resilience based on the analysis of the interplay between primary and secondary appraisal processes is developed. Resilience is high if benign primary appraisals of taxing situations are accompanie...

  13. Cellular and subcellular patterns of expression of bFGF and CNTF in the normal and light stressed adult rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N; Valter, K; Stone, J

    2001-05-01

    This study compared the distributions in the normal and light stressed rat retina of the neuroprotective factors bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) and CNTF (ciliary neurotrophic factor). Albino Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in cyclic light and some were exposed to bright continuous light for 48 hr, to induce light damage of photoreceptors. Their retinas were prepared as cryosections, immunolabelled with antibodies to bFGF and CNTF and analysed by confocal microscopy. Both factors were prominent in macroglial cells (astrocytes, Müller cells) and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In the somas of these cells the distributions of the two factors were complementary, with bFGF concentrated in the nuclei and CNTF in the cytoplasm. Both factors were distributed along the processes of macroglial cells, in granular form. CNTF was not detected in neurones, but bFGF was consistently present in the cytoplasm of ganglion cell somas and, in regions of retina subject to stress, in the cytoplasm of photoreceptors. bFGF was not detected in the nuclei or processes of neurones. In retina stressed by light exposure or proximity to the anterior edge of the retina, the levels of bFGF and CNTF were up-regulated, without major changes in localization. Macroglial cells (Müller cells, astrocytes) play a major role in distributing bFGF and CNTF throughout the retina. The different localizations of the two factors within the somas of macroglial, RPE and photoreceptor cells, suggest that their protective actions are exerted by distinctive mechanisms. PMID:11311041

  14. Early life stress interacts with the diet deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids during the life course increasing the metabolic vulnerability in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R Bernardi

    Full Text Available Early stress can cause metabolic disorders in adulthood. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs deficiency has also been linked to the development of metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess whether an early stressful event such as maternal separation interacts with the nutritional availability of n-3 PUFAs during the life course on metabolic aspects. Litters were randomized into: maternal separated (MS and non-handled (NH. The MS group was removed from their dam for 3 hours per day and put in an incubator at 32 °C on days 1° to 10° postnatal (PND. On PND 35, males were subdivided into diets that were adequate or deficient in n-3 PUFAs, and this intervention was applied during the subsequent 15 weeks. Animal's body weight and food consumption were measured weekly, and at the end of the treatment tissues were collected. MS was associated with increased food intake (p = 0.047 and weight gain (p = 0.012, but no differences were found in the NPY hypothalamic content between the groups. MS rats had also increased deposition of abdominal fat (p<0.001 and plasma triglycerides (p = 0.018 when compared to the NH group. Interactions between early life stress and n-3 PUFAs deficiency were found in plasma insulin (p = 0.033, HOMA index (p = 0.049, leptin (p = 0.010 and liver PEPCK expression (p = 0.050, in which the metabolic vulnerability in the MS group was aggravated by the n-3 PUFAs deficient diet exposure. This was associated with specific alterations in the peripheral fatty acid profile. Variations in the neonatal environment interact with nutritional aspects during the life course, such as n-3 PUFAs diet content, and persistently alter the metabolic vulnerability in adulthood.

  15. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  16. The Interplay Between Online and Offline Community Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Al Zagir, Nadia;

    This study examines the interplay between online and offline community cultures based on identifying the distinct features of both. Studying this interaction explicitly and in empirical analysis is new to community literature and brands can through this better know the communities to which they...... relate. The findings reveal that without a thorough understanding of both online and offline cultures and their interaction, companies or brands may get a misleading picture of these cultures. For instance, if only looking at the culture online and not core values offline, the company might intervene in...... ways that are dysfunctional to the culture....

  17. Superconductivity and magnetism: From antagonism to mutual interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a brief survey is given on a number of research activities devoted to exploring the relationship between superconductivity and magnetism in f-electron systems. The starting point for these activities has been the pioneering work of 1958 by Matthias and coworkers illustrating the antagonistic nature of the two phenomena. Subsequent efforts concerned the investigation of Kondo superconductors and Kondo-lattice systems (in the 1970s), heavy-fermion metals (in the 1980s and 90s) and quantum critical materials (in the last decade). The latter systems are especially interesting as they promise a deeper insight into the mutual interplay between unconventional superconductivity and magnetism

  18. Superconductivity and magnetism: From antagonism to mutual interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steglich, Frank

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, a brief survey is given on a number of research activities devoted to exploring the relationship between superconductivity and magnetism in f-electron systems. The starting point for these activities has been the pioneering work of 1958 by Matthias and coworkers illustrating the antagonistic nature of the two phenomena. Subsequent efforts concerned the investigation of Kondo superconductors and Kondo-lattice systems (in the 1970s), heavy-fermion metals (in the 1980s and 90s) and quantum critical materials (in the last decade). The latter systems are especially interesting as they promise a deeper insight into the mutual interplay between unconventional superconductivity and magnetism.

  19. Interplay between electron overheating and ac Josephson effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, A.; Le Calvez, K.; Sacépé, B.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, H.

    2016-05-01

    We study the response of high-critical-current proximity Josephson junctions to a microwave excitation. Electron overheating in such devices is known to create hysteretic dc voltage-current characteristics. Here we demonstrate that it also strongly influences the ac response. The interplay of electron overheating and ac Josephson dynamics is revealed by the evolution of the Shapiro steps with the microwave drive amplitude. Extending the resistively shunted Josephson junction model by including a thermal balance for the electronic bath coupled to phonons, a strong electron overheating is obtained.

  20. The Interplay of Different Types of Governance in Horizontal Cooperations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raue, Jan Simon; Wieland, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Over the last decades, horizontal cooperations between logistics service providers (LSPs) have become a well-established organizational form and their use is expected to grow even further in the future. In spite of this increasing importance of horizontal LSP cooperations, little research...... has been done to reveal how to govern these relationships successfully. Particularly, the role of contractual governance and its interplay with operational governance mechanisms remain to be investigated. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This research analyzes the...

  1. Nonmonotonic thermal Casimir force from geometry-temperature interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger

    2010-07-23

    The geometry dependence of Casimir forces is significantly more pronounced in the presence of thermal fluctuations due to a generic geometry-temperature interplay. We show that the thermal force for standard sphere-plate or cylinder-plate geometries develops a nonmonotonic behavior already in the simple case of a fluctuating Dirichlet scalar. In particular, the attractive thermal force can increase for increasing distances below a critical temperature. This anomalous behavior is triggered by a reweighting of relevant fluctuations on the scale of the thermal wavelength. The essence of the phenomenon becomes transparent within the worldline picture of the Casimir effect. PMID:20867823

  2. The Complex Interplay of Depression and Falls in Older Adults: A Clinical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Iaboni, Andrea.; Flint, Alastair J.

    2013-01-01

    Depression and falls have a significant bidirectional relationship. Excessive fear of falling, which is frequently associated with depression, also increases the risk of falls. Both depression and fear of falling are associated with impairment of gait and balance, an association that is mediated through cognitive, sensory, and motor pathways. The management of depression in fall-prone individuals is challenging, since antidepressant medications can increase the risk of falls, selective seroto...

  3. The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Rita

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.

  4. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress Management Banner 1 - To Stress or Not to Stress - ... Decide But We Can Help What Is Stress Management? Banner 2 - Stress Continuum Graphic Banner Live life ...

  5. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  6. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home 22 Apr 2013 Report Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children Supporting Children and Families After Traumatic ... Adult Learning and the Workforce International Client Services Student Assessment Research and Evaluation Policy, Practice, and Systems ...

  7. Correlation analysis of social support adult attachment and stress on depressive symptoms among undergraduates%大学生社会支持依恋及应激与抑郁的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 姚树桥; 代晖; 朱熊兆

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨社会支持、依恋和应激对大学生抑郁的影响,为大学生抑郁的干预和治疗提供理论依据.方法 采用整群抽样法,抽取湖南大学财经学院和中南大学二、三年级大学生647名进行调查.在完成了包含负性生活事件、社会支持、依恋和抑郁症状在内的首次测评1个月后完成负性生活事件和抑郁症状的追踪测评.结果 大学生社会支持网络大小、支持满意度和安全依恋与抑郁均呈负相关(r=-0.44~ -0.18,P值均<0.01),应激、不安全依恋与抑郁均呈正相关(r=0.20 ~0.44,P值均<0.01);路径分析显示,社会支持(满意度、网络大小、亲密性)、应激可通过不安全型依恋间接作用于抑郁,不安全型依恋是社会支持对抑郁作用的中介变量.结论 社会支持、依恋与应激的相互作用可以增强对大学生抑郁的预测性;不安全型依恋是社会支持、应激对抑郁作用的中介变量.%Objective To investigate the effects and prediction of social support, adult attachment and stress on depressive symptoms in undergraduates and to provide basis for intervention and improving their mental health. Methods A total of 647 undergraduate students were chosen by using clustered sampling method. All the participants were tested with General Social and Academic Hassles Scale for Students(GSASHS) , CES - D ( Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) , Social Support Scale(SSS) and Attachment Style Questionnaire) ASQ). The GSASHS and CES - D were follow-up assessed in 1 month later. Results The score of depressive symptom was significantly negatively correlated with the score of network of social relationship, secure attachment and support satisfaction) r = -0.44- -0. 18,P<0.01) ; and it was significantly positively correlatedwith stress, intimacy, insecure attachment (r = 0.20 -0.44,P <0.01). Path analysis showed that social support) network of social relationship, satisfaction, intimacy

  8. Acute deep brain stimulation in the thalamic reticular nucleus protects against acute stress and modulates initial events of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor Manuel; Pantoja-Jiménez, Christopher Rodrigo; Bazaldúa, Adrián; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador; Bolaños-Alejos, Fernanda; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabé

    2016-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as an alternative therapeutic procedure for pharmacoresistant psychiatric disorders. Recently the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) gained attention due to the description of a novel pathway from the amygdala to this nucleus suggesting that may be differentially disrupted in mood disorders. The limbic system is implicated in the regulation of these disorders that are accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The hippocampus is highly plastic and shows the generation of new neurons, process affected by stress but positively regulated by antidepressant drugs. We explored the impact of applying acute DBS to the TRN (DBS-TRN) in male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress caused by the forced-swim Porsolt's test (FST) and on initial events of hippocampal neurogenesis. After the first session of forced-swim, rats were randomly subdivided in a DBS-TRN and a Sham group. Stimulated rats received 10min of DBS, thus the depressant-like behavior reflected as immobility was evaluated in the second session of forced-swim. Locomotricity was evaluated in the open field test. Cell proliferation and doublecortin-associated cells were quantified in the hippocampus of other cohorts of rats. No effects of electrode implantation were found in locomotricity. Acute DBS-TRN reduced immobility in comparison to the Sham group (pcell proliferation (Ki67 or BrdU-positive cells; p=0.02, p=0.02) and the number of doublecortin-cells compared to the Sham group (p<0.02). Similar effects were found in rats previously exposed to the first session of forced-swim. Our data could suggest that TRN brain region may be a promising target for DBS to treat intractable depression. PMID:27435420

  9. Minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery: A grounded theory on living with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillemor R.-M. Hallberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992. Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category. This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the “pain gaps” are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to “pain gaps”. This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of

  10. Diphenyl diselenide, a simple organoselenium compound, decreases methylmercury-induced cerebral, hepatic and renal oxidative stress and mercury deposition in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Andressa Sausen; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Rotta, Mariana dos Santos; Bohrer, Denise; Mörschbächer, Vanessa; Puntel, Robson Luís; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been pointed out as an important molecular mechanism in methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication. At low doses, diphenyl diselenide ((PhSe)2), a structurally simple organoselenium compound, has been shown to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Here we have examined the possible in vivo protective effect of diphenyl diselenide against the potential pro-oxidative effects of MeHg in mouse liver, kidney, cerebrum and cerebellum. The effects of MeHg exposure (2 mg/(kg day) of methylmercury chloride 10 ml/kg, p.o.), as well as the possible antagonist effect of diphenyl diselenide (1 and 0.4 mg/(kg day); s.c.) on body weight gain and on hepatic, cerebellar, cerebral and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid content, mercury concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were evaluated after 35 days of treatment. MeHg caused an increase in TBARS and decreased NPSH levels in all tissues. MeHg also induced a decrease in hepatic ascorbic acid content and in renal GPx and CAT activities. Diphenyl diselenide (1 mg/kg) conferred protection against MeHg-induced hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and at both doses prevented the reduction in hepatic NPSH levels. Diphenyl diselenide also conferred a partial protection against MeHg-induced oxidative stress (TBARS and NPSH) in liver and cerebellum. Of particular importance, diphenyl diselenide decreased the deposition of Hg in cerebrum, cerebellum, kidney and liver. The present results indicate that diphenyl diselenide can protect against some toxic effects of MeHg in mice. This protection may be related to its antioxidant properties and its ability to reduce Hg body burden. We posit that formation of a selenol intermediate, which possesses high nucleophilicity and high affinity for MeHg, accounts for the ability of diphenyl diselenide to ameliorate Me

  11. Estrogens regulate the hepatic effects of Growth Hormone, a hormonal interplay with multiple fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro eFernandez-Perez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver responds to estrogens and GH which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This cross-talk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens on GH biology can cause a dramatic impact in liver physiology during mammalian development and in adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the current status of the influence of estrogen on GH actions in liver. A better understanding of estrogen-GH interplay in liver will lead to improved therapy of children with growth disorders and of adults with GH deficiency.

  12. The interplay of occupational motivation and well-being during the transition from university to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M; Heckhausen, Jutta; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2012-11-01

    A successful entry into work is one of the key developmental tasks in young adulthood. The present 4-wave longitudinal study examined the interplay between occupational motivation (i.e., goal engagement and goal disengagement) and well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, satisfaction with work, satisfaction with partnership, positive affect, depressive symptoms, autonomy, purpose in life, positive relations with others) during the transition from university to work. The sample consisted of 498 university graduates from 4 majors with favorable or unfavorable employment opportunities. Data were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. The results showed that increases in goal engagement were associated with increases in numerous aspects of well-being. Increases in goal disengagement were associated with decreases in numerous aspects of well-being. However, this dynamic was not without exception. Goal engagement at graduation was associated with a decrease in autonomy and, for individuals with unfavorable employment opportunities, an increase in depressive symptoms. Goal disengagement at graduation was associated with an increase in satisfaction with work. These findings elucidate why some individuals may opt for overall maladaptive motivational strategies during the transition into the workforce: They provide selective well-being benefits. In sum, how young adults deal with their occupational goals is closely linked to changes in their well-being. PMID:22182299

  13. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fu, Jianfang; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Nianlin; Cai, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli-germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli-germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. PMID:25886977

  14. Severe Maternal Stress Exposure Due to Bereavement before, during and after Pregnancy and Risk of Overweight and Obesity in Young Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military...... service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25...... kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06) was...

  15. Effect of noise stress on count, progressive and non-progressive sperm motility, body and genital organ weights of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It was decided to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the body weight, genital organ weights, and also on sperm parameters. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 20 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into 2 equal groups (n = 10: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were exposed to noise for 50 days with an intensity of 90-120 db and frequency of 300 - 350 Hz for 12 hours daily. After 50 days, at first, body weights of all animals were recorded, and then they were killed. The right epididymides were removed and also, sperm concentration and motility were determined. Each organ was weighed separately on an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The statistical significance of difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The weights of the testes, epididymes, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were found to be significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise pollution when compared with the weights of the same organs obtained from control group (P < 0.05. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the 2 groups in terms of sperm concentration. Conclusions: It is concluded that noise pollution has the bad effects on sperm concentration and motility; therefore, it is supposed that homes and places of working must be build far away of noisy of factories and other places with noise.

  16. Zinc-Oxide Nanoparticles Exhibit Genotoxic, Clastogenic, Cytotoxic and Actin Depolymerization Effects by Inducing Oxidative Stress Responses in Macrophages and Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Rashmirekha; Das, Ishani; Mehta, Ranjit Kumar; Sahu, Rojalin; Sonawane, Avinash

    2016-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have wide biological applications, which have raised serious concerns about their impact on the health and environment. Although, various studies have shown ZnO-NP toxicity on different cells underin vitroconditions, sufficient information is lacking regarding toxicity and underlying mechanisms underin vivoconditions. In this work, we investigated genotoxic, clastogenic, and cytotoxic effects of ZnO-NPs on macrophages and in adult mice. ZnO-NP-treated mice showed signs of toxicity such as loss in body weight, passive behavior and reduced survival. Further mechanistic studies revealed that administration of higher dose caused severe DNA damage in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells as evident by the formation of COMET tail, micronuclei, chromosomal fragmentation, and phosphorylation of H2A histone family member X. Moreover, ZnO-NPs inhibited DNA repair mechanism by downregulating the expression offen-1andpolBproteins. Histopathological examinations showed severe inflammation and damage to liver, lungs, and kidneys. Cell viability and wound healing assays revealed that ZnO-NPs killed macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, caused severe wounds and inhibited cellular migration by irreversible actin depolymerization and degradation. Reduction in the viability of macrophages was due to the arrest of the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, inhibition of superoxide dismutase and catalase and eventually reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, treatment with an antioxidant drug N-acetyl cysteine significantly reduced the ZnO-NP induced genotoxicity bothin vitroandin vivo Altogether, this study gives detailed pathological insights of ZnO-NP that impair cellular functions, thus will enable to arbitrate their biological applications. PMID:26794139

  17. 慢性综合应激对大鼠肠道Cajal间质细胞的影响%Effects of chronic and comprehensive stress on interstitial cells of Cajal in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷; 陈明锴; 张丽; 沈世强; 罗和生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of chronic and comprehensive stress on the behavior and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of adult rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: normal control group (n = 15) and model group (n = 15). Except the normal group,the model group was given various kinds of stimulation for continuous 21 days. Open-field test was used before and after the chronic and comprehensive stress. During the whole experiment, the body weight and behavior of each rat were observed in periodic days. The ultrastructure and network of ICC in adult rats were observed by using the transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Results Compared with the control group, the body weight in the model group was remarkably reduced [ ( 230. 50 ± 14. 89 ) vs (292.50 ± 20. 55 ) g, P < 0. 05 ) ]. Before and after chronic stress, there were significant differences in total ambulation distance and total number of rearings in open-field tests [ (6224.58 ± 1918. 25 ) vs ( 1407.68 ± 586. 92) cm, ( 17.07 ± 5.42) vs (7. 13 ± 2. 50), P < 0. 05 ) ]. The ultrastructure of ICC was changed, and the quantity of ICC and gap junctions between ICC and surrounding cells, such as other ICC,smoth muscle cells, and terminal nerves were decreased significantly in the model group as compared with the contro group. Conclusion The changes of ICC may play an important role in abnormal gastrointestinal motility of functional gastrointestinal diseases caused by chronic and comprehensive stress.%目的 观察慢性综合应激对大鼠行为及Cajal间质细胞(ICC)的影响.方法 将雄性Wistar大鼠30只随机分为对照组(15只)和模型组(15只).模型组接受21d不同的应激,对照组不予任何应激.造模前后行旷场试验.整个实验期间,定期观察大鼠体质量及行为变化.采用透射电镜和免疫荧光法观察各组大鼠ICC超微结构及网络变化.结果 模型组大鼠体质量(230.50±14.89)g

  18. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults. PMID:23774283

  19. The biopsychosocial model of stress in adolescence: self-awareness of performance versus stress reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Rith-Najarian, Leslie R.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research among adults supports the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of challenge and threat, which describes relationships among stress appraisals, physiological stress reactivity, and performance; however, no previous studies have examined these relationships in adolescents. Perceptions of stressors as well as physiological reactivity to stress increase during adolescence, highlighting the importance of understanding the relationships among stress appraisals, physiological reactivity, a...

  20. Comparison of Effect of Two-Hour Exposure to Forest and Urban Environments on Cytokine, Anti-Oxidant, and Stress Levels in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Geun Im

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two-hour exposure to a forest environment on cytokine, anti-oxidant and stress levels among university students and to compare the results to those measured in urban environments. Forty-one subjects were recruited. For our crossover design, subjects were divided into two groups based on similar demographic characteristics. Group A remained in the urban environment and was asked to perform regular breathing for 2 h. Blood samples were collected and the serum levels of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were examined. Subjects were moved to a small town in a rural area for an equal amount of time to exclude carryover effects, and then remained for another 2 h in a forest environment. The second set of blood samples was collected to assess the effect of exposure to the forest environment. Using the same method, Group B was first exposed to the forest environment, followed by exposure to the urban environment. Blood samples collected after the subjects were exposed to the forest environment showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 and TNF-α compared to those in samples collected after urban environment exposure (10.76 vs. 9.21, t = 4.559, p < 0.001, and 0.97 vs. 0.87, t = 4.130, p < 0.001. The GPx concentration increased significantly after exposure to the forest environment (LnGPx = 5.09 vs. LnGPx = 5.21, t = −2.039, p < 0.05.

  1. Comparison of Effect of Two-Hour Exposure to Forest and Urban Environments on Cytokine, Anti-Oxidant, and Stress Levels in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Su Geun; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Song, Min-Kyu; Kim, Won; Woo, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two-hour exposure to a forest environment on cytokine, anti-oxidant and stress levels among university students and to compare the results to those measured in urban environments. Forty-one subjects were recruited. For our crossover design, subjects were divided into two groups based on similar demographic characteristics. Group A remained in the urban environment and was asked to perform regular breathing for 2 h. Blood samples were collected and the serum levels of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were examined. Subjects were moved to a small town in a rural area for an equal amount of time to exclude carryover effects, and then remained for another 2 h in a forest environment. The second set of blood samples was collected to assess the effect of exposure to the forest environment. Using the same method, Group B was first exposed to the forest environment, followed by exposure to the urban environment. Blood samples collected after the subjects were exposed to the forest environment showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 and TNF-α compared to those in samples collected after urban environment exposure (10.76 vs. 9.21, t = 4.559, p < 0.001, and 0.97 vs. 0.87, t = 4.130, p < 0.001). The GPx concentration increased significantly after exposure to the forest environment (LnGPx = 5.09 vs. LnGPx = 5.21, t = −2.039, p < 0.05). PMID:27347982

  2. Exploring the interplay between entrepreneurial agency and structural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    The main objectives of this paper are twofold. First, the paper explores the theoretical suitability and applicability of Margaret Archer’s (1995) morphogenetic approach for investigating reciprocal links between regional context and entrepreneurial action. Second, it illustrates patterns of...... interactions (or morphogenetic sequences) between local (rural) structures and entrepreneurial agency empirically. The research shows how entrepreneurs draw from the local context to create unique activities; how these unique activities result in various forms of regional development outcomes (i.e. social and...... economic), which consequently transform and enrich the local context and resource base, serving as a fertile ground for new entrepreneurial agency (see figure1). The overall research question is stated as “What is the nature of the interplay between rural context/structures and enterprising agency?”...

  3. Interplay between coherence and decoherence in LHCII photosynthetic complex

    CERN Document Server

    Giorda, Paolo; Zanardi, Paolo; Lloyd, Seth

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of excitonic transport in photocomplex LHCII, the primary component of the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants. The dynamics exhibits a strong interplay between coherent processes mediated by the excitonic Hamiltonian, and incoherent processes due to interactions with the environment. The spreading of the exciton over a single monomer is well described by a proper measure of delocalization that allows one to identify two relevant time scales. An exciton initially localized in one chromophore first spreads coherently to neighboring chromophores. During this initial coherent spreading, quantum effects such as entanglement play a role. As the effects of a decohering environment come into play, coherence and decoherence interact to give rise to efficient and robust excitonic transport, reaching a maximum efficiency at the levels of decoherence found in physiological conditions. We analyze the efficiency for different possible topologies (monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer) ...

  4. Interplay between quantum shells and orientation in quasi-fission

    CERN Document Server

    Wakhle, A; Hinde, D J; Dasgupta, M; Evers, M; Luong, D H; Rietz, R du; Williams, E

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-fission mechanism hinders fusion in heavy systems through breakup within zeptoseconds into two fragments with partial mass equilibration. Its dependence on the structure of both the collision partners and the final fragments is a key question. Our original approach is to combine an experimental measurement of the fragments' mass-angle correlations in $^{40}$Ca$+^{238}$U with microscopic quantum calculations. We demonstrate an unexpected interplay between the orientation of the deformed $^{238}$U with quantum shell effects in the fragments. In particular, calculations show that only collisions with the tip of $^{238}$U produce quasi-fission fragments in the magic $Z=82$ region. In addition, collisions with the side are the only one which may result in fusion.

  5. Reciprocal Supportive Interplay between Glioblastoma and Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wenchao; Bao, Shideng, E-mail: baos@ccf.org [Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

    2014-03-26

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive type of primary brain malignancy. Failures of the traditional therapies in treating GBMs raise the urgent requirement to develop new approaches with more responsive targets. The phenomenon of the high infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) into GBMs has been observed for a long time. Regardless of the limited knowledge about TAMs, the high percentage of supportive TAM in GBM tumor mass makes it possible to be a good target for GBM treatment. In this review, we discussed the unique features of TAMs in GBMs, including their origin, the tumor-supportive properties, the secreted cytokines, and the relevant mechanisms. In addition, we tried to interpret the current understandings about the interplay between GBM cancer cells and TAMs. Finally, the translational studies of targeting TAMs were also described.

  6. Cultural Adaptations: A Complex Interplay between Clinical and Cultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wei-Chin

    2011-09-01

    Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice. PMID:21966098

  7. The complex interplay between semantics and grammar in impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreves, Wyley B; Hart, William; Adams, John M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Eno, Cassie A

    2014-09-01

    We sought to bridge findings showing that (a) describing a person's behavior with the perfective verb aspect (did), compared to the imperfective aspect (was doing), increases processing of semantic knowledge unrelated to the target's action such as stereotypes and (b) an increased recognition of stereotypical thoughts often promotes a judgment correction for the stereotypes. We hypothesized an interplay between grammar (verb conjugation) and semantic information (gender) in impression-formation. Participants read a resume, attributed to a male or female, for a traditionally masculine job. When the resume was written in the imperfective, people rated a male (vs. female) more positively. When the resume was in the perfective, this pattern reversed. Only these latter effects of gender were influenced by cognitive load. Further, people more quickly indicated the applicant's gender in the perfective condition, suggesting an enhanced focus on gender during processing. PMID:24950389

  8. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  9. The interplay of management accounting research and NPM health initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmmose, Margit

    health care reforms in relation to country of origin, development, theoretical approach, research method and topic. The study thus establishes a different focus; namely the interrelationship between the development of management accounting research and practical socio-political NPM innovations. The study...... shows that management accounting techniques are increasingly adopted in governmental health reforms and diffused across nations, themes and initiatives through time with the result that wider social practices become more and more integrated in management accounting research themes......This paper investigates the development of management accounting research in the context of New Public Management (NPM) initiatives in health care. Drawing on concepts from diffusion theory and earlier literature reviews, the paper examines the interplay between management accounting research and...

  10. Interplay between computable measures of entanglement and other quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Girolami, Davide; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.052110

    2011-01-01

    Composite quantum systems can be in generic states characterized not only by entanglement, but also by more general quantum correlations. The interplay between these two signatures of nonclassicality is still not completely understood. In this work we investigate this issue focusing on computable and observable measures of such correlations: entanglement is quantified by the negativity N, while general quantum correlations are measured by the (normalized) geometric quantum discord D_G. For two-qubit systems, we find that the geometric discord reduces to the squared negativity on pure states, while the relationship $D_G \\geq N^2$ holds for arbitrary mixed states. The latter result is rigorously extended to pure, Werner and isotropic states of two-qudit systems for arbitrary d, and numerical evidence of its validity for arbitrary states of a qubit and a qutrit is provided as well. Our results establish an interesting hierarchy, that we conjecture to be universal, between two relevant and experimentally friendly...

  11. Exploring the interplay between urban governance and smart services codesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Concilio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The large spreading of e-democracy and e-participatory tools and environments showed, and is still showing, that technologies offer new direction for dealing with the challenge of scaling the deliberative democracy perspective up to the urban governance scale. The recent growth of Urban Living Labs and Human Smart City initiatives is disclosing a promising bridge between the micro-scale of decision and the mechanisms of urban governance. In coherence with these perspectives, the article reports on the interplay between urban governance and the co-design of smart services in urban transformation as it has been observed and analysed in the two European research projects Periphèria and MyNeinghbourhood. The article also discusses the value of service codesign as a strategic practice to experiment new participatory governance in smart cities.

  12. The interplay of nonlinearity and architecture in equilibrium cytoskeletal mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenshen; Shen, Tongye; Wolynes, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between cytoskeletal architecture and the nonlinearity of the interactions due to bucklable filaments plays a key role in modulating the cell's mechanical stability and affecting its structural rearrangements. We study a model of cytoskeletal structure treating it as an amorphous network of hard centers rigidly cross-linked by nonlinear elastic strings, neglecting the effects of motorization. Using simulations along with a self-consistent phonon method, we show that this minimal model exhibits diverse thermodynamically stable mechanical phases that depend on excluded volume, cross-link concentration, filament length, and stiffness. Within the framework set by the free energy functional formulation and making use of the random first order transition theory of structural glasses, we further estimate the characteristic densities for a kinetic glass transition to occur in this model system. Network connectivity strongly modulates the transition boundaries between various equilibrium phases, as well as the kinetic glass transition density. PMID:21219010

  13. Interplay Between Optical Bianisotropy and Magnetism in Plasmonic Metamolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liuyang; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Yang, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Lee, Gaehang; Shi, Jinwei; Martinez, Irving; Yi, Gi-Ra; Shvets, Gennady; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-07-13

    The smallness of natural molecules and atoms with respect to the wavelength of light imposes severe limits on the nature of their optical response. For example, the well-known argument of Landau and Lifshitz and its recent extensions that include chiral molecules show that the electric dipole response dominates over the magneto-electric (bianisotropic) and an even smaller magnetic dipole optical response for all natural materials. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that both these responses can be greatly enhanced in plasmonic nanoclusters. Using atomic force microscopy nanomanipulation technique, we assemble a plasmonic metamolecule that is designed for strong and simultaneous optical magnetic and magneto-electric excitation. Angle-dependent scattering spectroscopy is used to disentangle the two responses and to demonstrate that their constructive/destructive interplay causes strong directional scattering asymmetry. This asymmetry is used to extract both magneto-electric and magnetic dipole responses and to demonstrate their enhancement in comparison to ordinary atomistic materials. PMID:27332701

  14. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... of 9 sections The Basics: Benefits of Lower Stress What are the benefits of managing stress? Over ...

  15. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  16. Role of heparin and non heparin binding serpins in coagulation and angiogenesis: A complex interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, Teena; Ali, Mohammad Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Bano, Shadabi; Ansari, Shoyab; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-08-15

    Pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic pathways are responsible for maintaining hemostatic balance under physiological conditions. Any deviation from these pathways would result in hypercoagulability leading to life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Angiogenesis is the process of sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and plays a critical role in vascular repair, diabetic retinopathy, chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Serpins; a superfamily of protease inhibitors, play a key role in regulating both angiogenesis and coagulation. They are characterized by the presence of highly conserved secondary structure comprising of 3 β-sheets and 7-9 α-helices. Inhibitory role of serpins is modulated by binding to cofactors, specially heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on cell surfaces and extracellular matrix. Heparin and HSPGs are the mainstay of anti-coagulant therapy and also have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic inhibitors. Many of the heparin binding serpins that regulate coagulation cascade are also potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between their specific anti-coagulant and anti-angiogenic role during inflammation, stress and regular hemostasis is important. In this review, we have tried to integrate the role of different serpins, their interaction with cofactors and their interplay in regulating coagulation and angiogenesis. PMID:27372899

  17. IGEMS: The Consortium on Interplay of Genes and Environment Across Multiple Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nancy L; Christensen, Kaare; Dahl, Anna K;

    2013-01-01

    The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) group is a consortium of eight longitudinal twin studies established to explore the nature of social context effects and gene-environment interplay in late-life functioning. The resulting analysis of the combined data from over......, physical functioning (health, functional ability), and psychological functioning (well-being, cognition), particularly in later life....

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Pinus koraiensis Needle Extracts on Serum Lipid and Oxidative Stress in Adults with Borderline Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansongyi; Kim, Hyerang; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia has been well-known as a common metabolic disorder contributing to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Pinus koraiensis needle extracts (PKE) on the blood cholesterol and oxidative stress. Method. We conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blinded controlled trial to examine the effect of PKE on blood lipid profiles in adults with borderline dyslipidemia. Thirty-three eligible persons were recruited and randomly assigned into PKE (n = 20) and placebo groups (n = 13). Serum lipids including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL-) cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured before and after trial. Serum insulin, glucose, and antioxidant indicators were also analyzed before and after trial and anthropometry and blood pressure were measured every 4 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, PKE statically significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (p effective in improving the superoxide dismutase in the individuals with borderline dyslipidemia. PMID:27610187

  19. Paraquat induces oxidative stress, neuronal loss in substantia nigra region and Parkinsonism in adult rats: Neuroprotection and amelioration of symptoms by water-soluble formulation of Coenzyme Q10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar TS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease, for which currently there is no cure, develops as a result of progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the brain; thus, identification of any potential therapeutic intervention for disease management is of a great importance. Results Here we report that prophylactic application of water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 could effectively offset the effects of environmental neurotoxin paraquat, believed to be a contributing factor in the development of familial PD. In this study we utilized a model of paraquat-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in adult rats that received three weekly intra-peritoneal injections of the herbicide paraquat. Histological and biochemical analyses of rat brains revealed increased levels of oxidative stress markers and a loss of approximately 65% of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra region. The paraquat-exposed rats also displayed impaired balancing skills on a slowly rotating drum (rotorod evidenced by their reduced spontaneity in gait performance. In contrast, paraquat exposed rats receiving a water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 in their drinking water prior to and during the paraquat treatment neither developed neurodegeneration nor reduced rotorod performance and were indistinguishable from the control paraquat-untreated rats. Conclusion Our data confirmed that paraquat-induced neurotoxicity represents a convenient rat model of Parkinsonian neurodegeneration suitable for mechanistic and neuroprotective studies. This is the first preclinical evaluation of a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 formulation showing the evidence of prophylactic neuroprotection at clinically relevant doses.

  20. Radiology of musculoskeletal stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the new emphasis on physical fitness, musculoskeletal stress injuries are being seen with greater frequency in children and adults, and in locations that are not widely associated with stress injury. Some of the injuries continue to be mistaken for signs of more serious illnesses, such as infection and neoplasm, and this may lead to unnecessary investigative effort. This book covers both the classic stress injuries and the new manifestations

  1. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Piks

    2014-01-01

    The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a s...

  2. Rapid enzymatic response to UV stress in zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, M.S.; Hansson, L.-A.; Hylander, Samuel; Modenutti, B.; Balseiro, E.

    2012-01-01

    (glutathione S-transferase, GST), that regulate apoptosis cell death (Caspase-3, Casp-3), and that facilitate neurotransmissions (cholinesterase-ChE). None of these enzyme systems is alone sufficient, but they act in concert to reduce the stress level of the organism. The interplay among enzymatic responses...

  3. The relationship between perceived stress and cue sensitivity for alcohol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelleman, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that cue sensitivity and stress affect the risk for relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Theoretically, a link between the two can be expected. However, a clear overview of the interplay of these factors is not yet available. The purpose of this review was to examine th

  4. Intraindividual Coupling of Daily Stress and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Hofer, Scott M.; Stawski, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    Most psychological theories predict associations among processes that transpire within individuals. However, these theories are often tested by examining relationships at the between-persons (BP) rather than the within-persons (WP) level. The authors examined the WP and BP relationships between daily stress and daily variability in cognitive performance. Daily stress and cognitive performance were assessed on 6 occasions in 108 older adults and 68 young adults. WP variability in stress predic...

  5. Quartic Gauge Boson Couplings at Linear Colliders Interplay of WWZ\\/ZZZ Production and WW-Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Han, T; Yuan, C P

    1998-01-01

    We study new physics effects to the quartic gauge boson couplings formulated by the electroweak chiral Lagrangian. Five next-to-leading order operators characterize the anomalous quartic gauge interactions which involve pure Goldstone boson dynamics for the electroweak symmetry breaking. We estimate the typical size of these couplings in different strongly-interacting models and examine the sensitivity to directly probing them via the WWZ/ZZZ triple gauge boson production at the high energy linear colliders. The important roles of polarized e- and e+ beams are stressed. We then compare the results with those from the W-pair production of the WW-fusion processes, and analyze the interplay of these two production mechanisms for an improved probe of the quartic gauge boson interactions.

  6. Quartic gauge boson couplings at linear colliders. Interplay of WWZ/ZZZ production and WW-fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; He, Hong-Jian; Yuan, C.-P.

    1998-03-01

    We study new physics effects to the quartic gauge boson couplings formulated by the electroweak chiral Lagrangian. Five next-to-leading order operators characterize the anomalous quartic gauge interactions which involve pure Goldstone boson dynamics for the electroweak symmetry breaking. We estimate the typical size of these couplings in different strongly-interacting models and examine the sensitivity to directly probing them via the WWZ/ZZZ triple gauge boson production at the high energy linear colliders. The important roles of polarized e- and e+ beams are stressed. We then compare the results with those from the W-pair production of the WW-fusion processes, and analyze the interplay of these two production mechanisms for an improved probe of the quartic gauge boson interactions.

  7. Stress Management

    OpenAIRE

    GÜÇLÜ, Nezahat

    2001-01-01

    Stress is defined as a neutral physiological phenomenon, in terms of the non-specific response of the human body to any demand. Stress migt be positive or negative, stimulus or threat. This paper is intended to provide answers to the following questions: (1) what is stress? (2) who is stressed? (3) what are the causes of stress in organisation? (4) How prevalent is stress in organisation? (5) What is stress management?

  8. Spice: discovery of phenotype-determining component interplays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhengzhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A latent behavior of a biological cell is complex. Deriving the underlying simplicity, or the fundamental rules governing this behavior has been the Holy Grail of systems biology. Data-driven prediction of the system components and their component interplays that are responsible for the target system’s phenotype is a key and challenging step in this endeavor. Results The proposed approach, which we call System Phenotype-related Interplaying Components Enumerator (Spice, iteratively enumerates statistically significant system components that are hypothesized (1 to play an important role in defining the specificity of the target system’s phenotype(s; (2 to exhibit a functionally coherent behavior, namely, act in a coordinated manner to perform the phenotype-specific function; and (3 to improve the predictive skill of the system’s phenotype(s when used collectively in the ensemble of predictive models. Spice can be applied to both instance-based data and network-based data. When validated, Spice effectively identified system components related to three target phenotypes: biohydrogen production, motility, and cancer. Manual results curation agreed with the known phenotype-related system components reported in literature. Additionally, using the identified system components as discriminatory features improved the prediction accuracy by 10% on the phenotype-classification task when compared to a number of state-of-the-art methods applied to eight benchmark microarray data sets. Conclusion We formulate a problem—enumeration of phenotype-determining system component interplays—and propose an effective methodology (Spice to address this problem. Spice improved identification of cancer-related groups of genes from various microarray data sets and detected groups of genes associated with microbial biohydrogen production and motility, many of which were reported in literature. Spice also improved the predictive skill of the

  9. Adult medulloblastoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pobereskin, L; Treip, C

    1986-01-01

    Twelve cases of adult onset medulloblastoma are presented. Clinical features, treatment and outcome are discussed. It was found that the survival rates for adults are no better than for children. There were no clinical or histological features that distinguished these tumours from those occurring in childhood, except for a higher incidence of hemisphere lesions.

  10. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  11. The gas-ice chemical interplay during cloud evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hocuk, S

    2014-01-01

    During the evolution of diffuse clouds to molecular clouds, gas-phase molecules freeze out on surfaces of small dust particles to form ices. On dust surfaces, water is the main constituent of the icy mantle in which a complex chemistry is taking place. We aim to study the formation pathways and the composition of the ices throughout the evolution of diffuse clouds. For this purpose, we use time-dependent rate equations to calculate the molecular abundances in both gas phase and on solid surfaces (onto dust grains). We fully consider the gas-dust interplay by including the details of freeze-out, chemical and thermal desorption, as well as the most important photo-processes on grain surfaces. The difference in binding energies of chemical species on bare and icy surfaces is also incorporated into our equations. Using the numerical code FLASH, we perform a hydrodynamical simulation of a gravitationally bound diffuse cloud and follow its contraction. We find that while the dust grains are still bare, water format...

  12. Interplay between Subthreshold Oscillations and Depressing Synapses in Single Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Latorre

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the interplay between the subthreshold oscillations of a single neuron conductance-based model and the short-term plasticity of a dynamic synapse with a depressing mechanism. In previous research, the computational properties of subthreshold oscillations and dynamic synapses have been studied separately. Our results show that dynamic synapses can influence different aspects of the dynamics of neuronal subthreshold oscillations. Factors such as maximum hyperpolarization level, oscillation amplitude and frequency or the resulting firing threshold are modulated by synaptic depression, which can even make subthreshold oscillations disappear. This influence reshapes the postsynaptic neuron's resonant properties arising from subthreshold oscillations and leads to specific input/output relations. We also study the neuron's response to another simultaneous input in the context of this modulation, and show a distinct contextual processing as a function of the depression, in particular for detection of signals through weak synapses. Intrinsic oscillations dynamics can be combined with the characteristic time scale of the modulatory input received by a dynamic synapse to build cost-effective cell/channel-specific information discrimination mechanisms, beyond simple resonances. In this regard, we discuss the functional implications of synaptic depression modulation on intrinsic subthreshold dynamics.

  13. Interplay of Anderson localization and strong interaction in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the interplay of disorder localization and strong local interactions within the Anderson-Hubbard model. Taking into account local Mott-Hubbard physics and static screening of the disorder potential, the system is mapped onto an effective single-particle Anderson model, which is studied within the self-consistent theory of electron localization. For fermions, we find rich nonmonotonic behavior of the localization length ξ, particularly in two-dimensional systems, including an interaction-induced exponential enhancement of ξ for small and intermediate disorders and a strong reduction of ξ due to hopping suppression by strong interactions. In three dimensions, we identify for half filling a Mott-Hubbard-assisted Anderson localized phase existing between the metallic and the Mott-Hubbard-gapped phases. For small U there is re-entrant behavior from the Anderson localized phase to the metallic phase. For bosons, the unrestricted particle occupation number per lattice site yields a monotonic enhancement of ξ as a function of decreasing interaction, which we assume to persist until the superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate phase is entered. Besides, we study cold atomic gases expanding, by a diffusion process, in a weak random potential. We show that the density-density correlation function of the expanding gas is strongly affected by disorder and we estimate the typical size of a speckle spot, i.e., a region of enhanced or depleted density. Both a Fermi gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate (in a mean-field approach) are considered. (orig.)

  14. Interplay between Peptide Bond Geometrical Parameters in Nonglobular Structural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Esposito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several investigations performed in the last two decades have unveiled that geometrical parameters of protein backbone show a remarkable variability. Although these studies have provided interesting insights into one of the basic aspects of protein structure, they have been conducted on globular and water-soluble proteins. We report here a detailed analysis of backbone geometrical parameters in nonglobular proteins/peptides. We considered membrane proteins and two distinct fibrous systems (amyloid-forming and collagen-like peptides. Present data show that in these systems the local conformation plays a major role in dictating the amplitude of the bond angle N-Cα-C and the propensity of the peptide bond to adopt planar/nonplanar states. Since the trends detected here are in line with the concept of the mutual influence of local geometry and conformation previously established for globular and water-soluble proteins, our analysis demonstrates that the interplay of backbone geometrical parameters is an intrinsic and general property of protein/peptide structures that is preserved also in nonglobular contexts. For amyloid-forming peptides significant distortions of the N-Cα-C bond angle, indicative of sterical hidden strain, may occur in correspondence with side chain interdigitation. The correlation between the dihedral angles Δω/ψ in collagen-like models may have interesting implications for triple helix stability.

  15. Interplay between computable measures of entanglement and other quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite quantum systems can be in generic states characterized not only by entanglement but also by more general quantum correlations. The interplay between these two signatures of nonclassicality is still not completely understood. In this work we investigate this issue, focusing on computable and observable measures of such correlations: entanglement is quantified by the negativity N, while general quantum correlations are measured by the (normalized) geometric quantum discord DG. For two-qubit systems, we find that the geometric discord reduces to the squared negativity on pure states, while the relationship DG≥N2 holds for arbitrary mixed states. The latter result is rigorously extended to pure, Werner, and isotropic states of two-qudit systems for arbitrary d, and numerical evidence of its validity for arbitrary states of a qubit and a qutrit is provided as well. Our results establish an interesting hierarchy, which we conjecture to be universal, between two relevant and experimentally friendly nonclassicality indicators. This ties in with the intuition that general quantum correlations should at least contain and in general exceed entanglement on mixed states of composite quantum systems.

  16. Virus-host interplay in high salt environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Nina S; Bamford, Dennis H; Oksanen, Hanna M

    2016-08-01

    Interaction of viruses and cells has tremendous impact on cellular and viral evolution, nutrient cycling and decay of organic matter. Thus, viruses can indirectly affect complex processes such as climate change and microbial pathogenicity. During recent decades, studies on extreme environments have introduced us to archaeal viruses and viruses infecting extremophilic bacteria or eukaryotes. Hypersaline environments are known to contain strikingly high numbers of viruses (∼10(9) particles per ml). Halophilic archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes inhabiting hypersaline environments have only a few cellular predators, indicating that the role of viruses is highly important in these ecosystems. Viruses thriving in high salt are called haloviruses and to date more than 100 such viruses have been described. Virulent, temperate, and persistent halovirus life cycles have been observed among the known isolates including the recently described SNJ1-SNJ2 temperate virus pair which is the first example of an interplay between two haloviruses in one host cell. In addition to direct virus and cell isolations, metagenomics have provided a wealth of information about virus-host dynamics in hypersaline environments suggesting that halovirus populations and halophilic microorganisms are dynamic over time and spatially distributed around the highly saline environments on the Earth. PMID:26929102

  17. Interplay between electrical and rheological properties of viscoelastic inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Milim; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effect of the interaction between the electrical and rheological properties of the ink in electrodydrodynamic (EHD) printing process by designing model systems that control both the electrical conductivity and the viscoelasticity of the ink to observe how they affect the Taylor cone jet formation. The results demonstrate that the initial voltage at which the Taylor cone jet first appears and the final voltage at which the jet becomes unstable increase at higher electrical conductivity as the conical shape with large surface area is formed and grants stability at higher conductivity. Increased viscosity and elasticity also lead to the similar result: increase in the initial and final voltages, which can be attributed to the slower charge transport that minimizes the stabilizing effect of the inks' electrical conductivity. In addition, we use two dimensionless variables (dimensionless flow rate and dimensionless voltage) to make an operating window map of the EHD process. Through this map, the processing condition for the Taylor cone jet zone can be predicted with respect to the effect of the interplay between the electrical and rheological properties of the ink.

  18. Interplay of Anderson localization and strong interaction in disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henseler, Peter

    2010-01-15

    We study the interplay of disorder localization and strong local interactions within the Anderson-Hubbard model. Taking into account local Mott-Hubbard physics and static screening of the disorder potential, the system is mapped onto an effective single-particle Anderson model, which is studied within the self-consistent theory of electron localization. For fermions, we find rich nonmonotonic behavior of the localization length {xi}, particularly in two-dimensional systems, including an interaction-induced exponential enhancement of {xi} for small and intermediate disorders and a strong reduction of {xi} due to hopping suppression by strong interactions. In three dimensions, we identify for half filling a Mott-Hubbard-assisted Anderson localized phase existing between the metallic and the Mott-Hubbard-gapped phases. For small U there is re-entrant behavior from the Anderson localized phase to the metallic phase. For bosons, the unrestricted particle occupation number per lattice site yields a monotonic enhancement of {xi} as a function of decreasing interaction, which we assume to persist until the superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate phase is entered. Besides, we study cold atomic gases expanding, by a diffusion process, in a weak random potential. We show that the density-density correlation function of the expanding gas is strongly affected by disorder and we estimate the typical size of a speckle spot, i.e., a region of enhanced or depleted density. Both a Fermi gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate (in a mean-field approach) are considered. (orig.)

  19. The interplay between obesity and cancer: a fly view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a strong clinical association between obesity and an increased risk of cancer. The global pandemic of obesity indicates a public health trend towards a substantial increase in cancer incidence and mortality. However, the mechanisms that link obesity to cancer remain incompletely understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been increasingly used to model an expanding spectrum of human diseases. Fly models provide a genetically simpler system that is ideal for use as a first step towards dissecting disease interactions. Recently, the combining of fly models of diet-induced obesity with models of cancer has provided a novel model system in which to study the biological mechanisms that underlie the connections between obesity and cancer. In this Review, I summarize recent advances, made using Drosophila, in our understanding of the interplay between diet, obesity, insulin resistance and cancer. I also discuss how the biological mechanisms and therapeutic targets that have been identified in fly studies could be utilized to develop preventative interventions and treatment strategies for obesity-associated cancers. PMID:27604692

  20. Interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Alexej

    2010-06-23

    In this thesis, we investigate the interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect for the inclined-plates, sphere-plate and cylinder-plate configurations. We use the worldline approach, which combines the string-inspired quantum field theoretical formalism with Monte Carlo techniques. The approach allows the precise computation of Casimir energies in arbitrary geometries. We analyze the dependence of the Casimir energy, force and torque on the separation parameter and temperature T, and find Casimir phenomena which are dominated by long-range fluctuations. We demonstrate that for open geometries, thermal energy densities are typically distributed on scales of thermal wavelengths. As an important consequence, approximation methods for thermal corrections based on local energy-density estimates, such as the proximity-force approximation, are found to become unreliable even at small surface-separations. Whereas the hightemperature behavior is always found to be linear in T, richer power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. In particular, thermal forces can develop a non-monotonic behavior. Many novel numerical as well as analytical results are presented. (orig.)

  1. Interplay between computable measures of entanglement and other quantum correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Davide; Adesso, Gerardo [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Composite quantum systems can be in generic states characterized not only by entanglement but also by more general quantum correlations. The interplay between these two signatures of nonclassicality is still not completely understood. In this work we investigate this issue, focusing on computable and observable measures of such correlations: entanglement is quantified by the negativity N, while general quantum correlations are measured by the (normalized) geometric quantum discord D{sub G}. For two-qubit systems, we find that the geometric discord reduces to the squared negativity on pure states, while the relationship D{sub G}{>=}N{sup 2} holds for arbitrary mixed states. The latter result is rigorously extended to pure, Werner, and isotropic states of two-qudit systems for arbitrary d, and numerical evidence of its validity for arbitrary states of a qubit and a qutrit is provided as well. Our results establish an interesting hierarchy, which we conjecture to be universal, between two relevant and experimentally friendly nonclassicality indicators. This ties in with the intuition that general quantum correlations should at least contain and in general exceed entanglement on mixed states of composite quantum systems.

  2. Interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, we investigate the interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect for the inclined-plates, sphere-plate and cylinder-plate configurations. We use the worldline approach, which combines the string-inspired quantum field theoretical formalism with Monte Carlo techniques. The approach allows the precise computation of Casimir energies in arbitrary geometries. We analyze the dependence of the Casimir energy, force and torque on the separation parameter and temperature T, and find Casimir phenomena which are dominated by long-range fluctuations. We demonstrate that for open geometries, thermal energy densities are typically distributed on scales of thermal wavelengths. As an important consequence, approximation methods for thermal corrections based on local energy-density estimates, such as the proximity-force approximation, are found to become unreliable even at small surface-separations. Whereas the hightemperature behavior is always found to be linear in T, richer power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. In particular, thermal forces can develop a non-monotonic behavior. Many novel numerical as well as analytical results are presented. (orig.)

  3. Interplay of metabolizing enzymes and transporter of xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hwee Ying; Ho, Qin Shi; Wong, Kim Ping

    2016-01-01

    1. Xenobiotics are metabolized and eliminated through the coordinated interplay of their metabolizing enzymes and transporters. However, these two activities in vitro are measured separately, with the addition of ATP as a pre-requisite. 2. We propose a human renal cell-line model which integrates the sulfate and glutathione conjugation of xenobiotics with the efflux of their respective conjugates. Sulfation and glutathionylation represent two major Phase II detoxification of xenobiotics in man. The reactions are catalyzed, respectively, by phenolsulfotransferase and glutathione-S-transferase followed by extrusion of their respective conjugates. 3. Using Ko-143, a specific inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, we identified this transporter to be responsible for the efflux of p-cresol sulfate, harmol sulfate and the glutathione conjugate of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. 4. The conjugation-cum-efflux was inhibited by oligomycin and uncouplers, which highlights the role of cellular mitochondria in providing ATP for the biosynthesis of their conjugating agents, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) and reduced glutathione as well as for the transport function of BCRP. 5. The human 786-O renal cell-line provides a "3-in-1" system linking ATP biosynthesis to metabolism of xenobiotics and their ultimate transport and elimination by BCRP; this integrated system was not apparent in other human cell-lines examined. PMID:26226519

  4. Interplay between inhibited transport and reaction in nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, David Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a detailed formulation of reaction and diffusion dynamics of molecules in confined pores such as mesoporous silica and zeolites. A general reaction-diffusion model and discrete Monte Carlo simulations are presented. Both transient and steady state behavior is covered. Failure of previous mean-field models for these systems is explained and discussed. A coarse-grained, generalized hydrodynamic model is developed that accurately captures the interplay between reaction and restricted transport in these systems. This method incorporates the non-uniform chemical diffusion behavior present in finite pores with multi-component diffusion. Two methods of calculating these diffusion values are developed: a random walk based approach and a driven diffusion model based on an extension of Fick's law. The effects of reaction, diffusion, pore length, and catalytic site distribution are investigated. In addition to strictly single file motion, quasi-single file diffusion is incorporated into the model to match a range of experimental systems. The connection between these experimental systems and model parameters is made through Langevin dynamics modeling of particles in confined pores.

  5. The interplays among technology and content, immersant and VE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meehae; Gromala, Diane; Shaw, Chris; Barnes, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The research program aims to explore and examine the fine balance necessary for maintaining the interplays between technology and the immersant, including identifying qualities that contribute to creating and maintaining a sense of "presence" and "immersion" in an immersive virtual reality (IVR) experience. Building upon and extending previous work, we compare sitting meditation with walking meditation in a virtual environment (VE). The Virtual Meditative Walk, a new work-in-progress, integrates VR and biofeedback technologies with a self-directed, uni-directional treadmill. As immersants learn how to meditate while walking, robust, real-time biofeedback technology continuously measures breathing, skin conductance and heart rate. The physiological states of the immersant will in turn affect the audio and stereoscopic visual media through shutter glasses. We plan to test the potential benefits and limitations of this physically active form of meditation with data from a sitting form of meditation. A mixed-methods approach to testing user outcomes parallels the knowledge bases of the collaborative team: a physician, computer scientists and artists.

  6. Dynamical interplay between epidemics and cascades in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bo; Jin, Xinyu; Xia, Yongxiang; Jiang, Lurong; Wu, Duanpo

    2014-04-01

    Epidemics and cascading failure are extensively investigated. Traditionally, they are independently studied, but in practice, there are many cases where these two dynamics interact with each other and neither of their effects can be ignored. For example, consider that a digital virus is spreading in a communication network, which is transferring data in the meantime. We build a model based on the epidemiological SIR model and a local load sharing cascading failure model to study the interplay between these two dynamics. In this model, when the dynamical process stops at equilibrium, the nodes both uninfected and unfailed form several clusters. We consider the relative size of the largest one, i.e. the giant component. A phenomenon is observed in both Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks and Barabási-Albert (BA) scale-free networks that when the infection probability is over some critical value, a giant component forms only if the tolerance parameter α is within some interval (\\alpha_l,\\alpha_u) . In this interval, the size of the remained giant component first increases and then decreases. After analyzing the cause of this phenomenon, we then present in ER random networks a theoretical solution of the key values of \\alpha_l and \\alpha_u , which are very important when we evaluate the robustness of the network. Finally, our theory is verified by numerical simulations.

  7. Vitamin D in Fibromyalgia: A Causative or Confounding Biological Interplay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Karras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic syndrome with an increasing prevalence, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain in combination with a variety of cognitive symptoms and fatigue. A plethora of scientific evidence that has accumulated during the last decades, resulted in a significant improvement of the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. However, current therapeutic approaches in patients with FM remains a multidimensional approach including patient education, behavioral therapy, exercise, pain management, and relief of chronic symptoms, rather than the use drug therapies, based on the mechanisms of disease development. Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin derived mainly from skin synthesis through ultraviolet radiation, has been recognized to manifest a plethora of extraskeletal actions, apart from its fundamental role in skeletal and calcium homeostasis, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular actions, and potential anti-inflammatory properties. Recent findings indicate that hypovitaminosis D to be highly prevalent in patients with FM. Supplementation studies are limited so far, indicating potential beneficial effects on pain and severity of the disease, however specific recommendations are lacking. This review aims to summarize and critically appraise data regarding the pathophysiological interplay between vitamin D and FM, available results from observational and supplementation studies so far, with a clinical discourse on current knowledge gaps and future research agenda.

  8. Vitamin D in Fibromyalgia: A Causative or Confounding Biological Interplay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Spyridon; Rapti, Eleni; Matsoukas, Stauros; Kotsa, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome with an increasing prevalence, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain in combination with a variety of cognitive symptoms and fatigue. A plethora of scientific evidence that has accumulated during the last decades, resulted in a significant improvement of the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. However, current therapeutic approaches in patients with FM remains a multidimensional approach including patient education, behavioral therapy, exercise, pain management, and relief of chronic symptoms, rather than the use drug therapies, based on the mechanisms of disease development. Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin derived mainly from skin synthesis through ultraviolet radiation, has been recognized to manifest a plethora of extraskeletal actions, apart from its fundamental role in skeletal and calcium homeostasis, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular actions, and potential anti-inflammatory properties. Recent findings indicate that hypovitaminosis D to be highly prevalent in patients with FM. Supplementation studies are limited so far, indicating potential beneficial effects on pain and severity of the disease, however specific recommendations are lacking. This review aims to summarize and critically appraise data regarding the pathophysiological interplay between vitamin D and FM, available results from observational and supplementation studies so far, with a clinical discourse on current knowledge gaps and future research agenda. PMID:27271665

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Pinus koraiensis Needle Extracts on Serum Lipid and Oxidative Stress in Adults with Borderline Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyerang; Choue, Ryowon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia has been well-known as a common metabolic disorder contributing to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Pinus koraiensis needle extracts (PKE) on the blood cholesterol and oxidative stress. Method. We conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blinded controlled trial to examine the effect of PKE on blood lipid profiles in adults with borderline dyslipidemia. Thirty-three eligible persons were recruited and randomly assigned into PKE (n = 20) and placebo groups (n = 13). Serum lipids including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL-) cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured before and after trial. Serum insulin, glucose, and antioxidant indicators were also analyzed before and after trial and anthropometry and blood pressure were measured every 4 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, PKE statically significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and waist circumference (p < 0.05) were observed. Also, VLDL-cholesterol significantly decreased (from 24.4 ± 10.0 mg/dL at baseline to 18.4 ± 4.1 mg/dL after 12 weeks) (p < 0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased (6.12 ± 0.41 U/mL to 9.06 ± 0.62 U/mL) (p < 0.01) in PKE group. However, after adjustment with WC, VLDL-cholesterol was not significant between groups (p = 0.095) and while SOD remained significant between groups (p = 0.013). Conclusion. The results show that PKE was effective in improving the superoxide dismutase in the individuals with borderline dyslipidemia.

  10. Interplay between parametric instabilities in the context of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents recent experimental results that clearly demonstrate the complex interplay between parametric instabilities in a laser-produced plasma. These results include: (a) the interplay between ion acoustic waves (IAW) and electron plasma waves (EPW) associated with stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), (b) the interplay between IAW from two independent SBS decays when two interaction beams are present and (c) the observation of a secondary process, the Langmuir decay instability (LDI), which is the further decay of EPWs driven by SRS, into an IAW and a secondary EPW. (Author)

  11. Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Chamine; Oken, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma...

  12. The Interplay between Anxiety and Social Functioning in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Hanley, Mary; Kirk, Hannah; Clark, Fiona; Little, Katie; Fleck, Ruth; Janes, Emily; Kelso, Linzi; O'Kane, Fionnuala; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Allday, Marianne Hvistendahl; Hocking, Darren; Cornish, Kim; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    The developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with an atypical social profile of hyper-sociability and heightened social sensitivity across the developmental spectrum. In addition, previous research suggests that both children and adults with WS have a predisposition towards anxiety. The current research aimed to explore…

  13. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  14. Circadian Clocks, Stress, and Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbell, Rebecca; Matveeva, Olga; Oster, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, molecular circadian clocks are present in most cells of the body, and this circadian network plays an important role in synchronizing physiological processes and behaviors to the appropriate time of day. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal endocrine axis regulates the response to acute and chronic stress, acting through its final effectors – glucocorticoids – released from the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoid secretion, characterized by its circadian rhythm, has an important role in synchronizing peripheral clocks and rhythms downstream of the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Finally, glucocorticoids are powerfully anti-inflammatory, and recent work has implicated the circadian clock in various aspects and cells of the immune system, suggesting a tight interplay of stress and circadian systems in the regulation of immunity. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of the role of the circadian clock network in both the HPA axis and the immune system, and discusses their interactions. PMID:27199894

  15. Gains and Losses in Creative Personality as Perceived by Adults across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Yeung, Dannii Y.; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C. K.; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age…

  16. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher as...... a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming...

  17. Deglaciation in the tropical Indian Ocean driven by interplay between the regional monsoon and global teleconnections

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Lea, D.W.; Nigam, R.; Mackensen, A.; Naik, Dinesh K.

    High resolution climate records of the ice age terminations from monsoon-dominated regions reveal the interplay of regional and global driving forces. Speleothem records from Chinese caves indicate that glacial terminations were interrupted...

  18. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  19. Biochar–macrofauna interplay: Searching for new bioindicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castracani, C., E-mail: cristina.castracani@unipr.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/a, 43124 Parma (Italy); Maienza, A., E-mail: a.maienza@ibimet.cnr.it [Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Grasso, D.A., E-mail: donato.grasso@unipr.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/a, 43124 Parma (Italy); Genesio, L., E-mail: l.genesio@ibimet.cnr.it [Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Malcevschi, A., E-mail: alessio.malcevschi@unipr.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/a, 43124 Parma (Italy); Miglietta, F., E-mail: f.miglietta@ibimet.cnr.it [Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Vaccari, F.P., E-mail: f.vaccari@ibimet.cnr.it [Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Mori, A., E-mail: alessandra.mori@unipr.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/a, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    Biochar incorporation in agricultural soils has been proposed as a climate change mitigation strategy and has proved to substantially increase crop productivity via physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. The changes induced in soil properties are known to have a direct impact on soil ecosystem with consequences for soil biota community that, in turn, can influence biochar aging in soil. Despite several studies investigated in the interplay between biochar and soil microbiology, there is a clear lack of information on groups that live in the most superficial ground layers: soil meso and macro fauna. These groups are of great importance if we consider that biochar application should ideally be located in the soil's surface layer (0–30 cm). Our study is the first attempt to investigate the interactions between biochar soil amendments and aboveground soil macro-meso fauna in a field crop. This was made setting-up a randomized-block experiment on a processing tomato crop in northern Italy, using three different biochar types and periodically monitoring soil parameters and fauna abundances along the crop growing cycle in summer 2013. Results show that the impact of biochar application on soil fauna as a whole is small when compared to that of agricultural management, suggesting that this amendment does not have short-term ecological interferences. Nevertheless, ants exhibited variations in abundances and distribution connected to properties of amended soils such as temperature, pH and humidity, proving that they can be effectively used as a target group in the study of interactions between biochar and soil biota. - Highlights: • We use a field study to evaluate the effects of biochar on aboveground fauna. • We focus on ants as useful bioindicators for biochar environmental safety. • Biochar has less impact on soil fauna compared to agricultural management. • Ant distribution can be connected to properties of amended soils.

  20. The interplay between experiential and traditional learning for competency development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesso, Sara; Gerli, Fabrizio; Pizzi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research demonstrated that firms may pursue several advantages in hiring individuals with the set of emotional, social, and cognitive (ESC) competencies that are most critical for business success. Therefore, the role of education for competency development is becoming paramount. Prior studies have questioned the traditional methods, grounded in the lecture format, as a way to effectively develop ESC competencies. Alternatively, they propose experiential learning techniques that involve participants in dedicated courses or activities. Despite the insights provided by these studies, they do not take into account a comprehensive set of learning methods and their combined effect on the individual's competency portfolio within educational programs that aim to transfer primarily professional skills. Our study aims to fill these gaps by investigating the impact of the interplay between different learning methods on ESC competencies through a sample of students enrolled in the first year of a master's degree program. After providing a classification of three learning methods [traditional learning (TL), individual experiential learning (IEL), and social experiential learning (SEL)], the study delves into their combined influence on ESC competencies, adopting the Artificial Neural Network. Contrary to prior studies, our results provide counterintuitive evidence, suggesting that TL needs to be implemented together, on the one hand, with IEL to achieve a significant effect on emotional competencies and, on the other hand, with SEL to have an impact on social competencies. Moreover, IEL plays a prominent role in stimulating cognitive competencies. Our research contributes to educational literature by providing new insights on the effective combination of learning methods that can be adopted into programs that transfer technical knowledge and skills to promote behavioral competencies. PMID:26388810