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Sample records for adult spanish population

  1. Orthodontic treatment need in a Spanish young adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Manzanera-Pastor, David; Almerich-Silla, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Orthodontic treatment need has often been assessed in child populations, but few studies employing internationally-recognized indices have been conducted in adult or young adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the orthodontic treatment need of a young adult population in Spain by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the need perceived by the patients. Study design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a broad, representative sample of 671 adults aged between 35 and 44 years using health centers in the Valencia Region of Spain, following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 31.3% of the sample according to the DAI and 19.2% according to the IOTN (DHC). The orthodontic treatment need perceived by the patients was 21.1%. On relating treatment need to different variables, significant differences in patient perception were encountered by gender, as women perceived a greater need (23.9%) than men (14.4%). Significant differences in previous orthodontic treatment history were found between middle/high (15%) and low (9%) social class and between secondary/tertiary (14%) and primary (3.3%) education. Conclusions: There was no agreement between the treatment need assessed objectively by the indices and that perceived by the patient, or between the indices themselves. The decision to undergo orthodontic treatment can depend on socioeconomic and psychological factors and on values and principles that do not easily lend themselves to objective measurement. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, adult, malocclusion. PMID:22322504

  2. Item analysis of the Spanish version of the Boston Naming Test with a Spanish speaking adult population from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stella H; Strutt, Adriana M; Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Lequerica, Anthony H; Rivera, Diego; De Los Reyes Aragon, Carlos Jose; Utria, Oscar; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2018-02-23

    The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is a widely used measure of confrontation naming ability that has been criticized for its questionable construct validity for non-English speakers. This study investigated item difficulty and construct validity of the Spanish version of the BNT to assess cultural and linguistic impact on performance. Subjects were 1298 healthy Spanish speaking adults from Colombia. They were administered the 60- and 15-item Spanish version of the BNT. A Rasch analysis was computed to assess dimensionality, item hierarchy, targeting, reliability, and item fit. Both versions of the BNT satisfied requirements for unidimensionality. Although internal consistency was excellent for the 60-item BNT, order of difficulty did not increase consistently with item number and there were a number of items that did not fit the Rasch model. For the 15-item BNT, a total of 5 items changed position on the item hierarchy with 7 poor fitting items. Internal consistency was acceptable. Construct validity of the BNT remains a concern when it is administered to non-English speaking populations. Similar to previous findings, the order of item presentation did not correspond with increasing item difficulty, and both versions were inadequate at assessing high naming ability.

  3. Prediction equation of resting energy expenditure in an adult Spanish population of obese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Romero, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of the equations to estimate REE in obese patents and develop a new equation in our obese population. A population of 200 obesity outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. The following variables were specifically recorded: age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. Basal glucose, insulin, and TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) were measured. An indirect calorimetry and a tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance were performed. REE measured by indirect calorimetry was compared with REE obtained by prediction equations to obese or nonobese patients. The mean age was 44.8 +/- 16.81 years and the mean BMI 34.4 +/- 5.3. Indirect calorimetry showed that, as compared to women, men had higher resting energy expenditure (REE) (1,998.1 +/- 432 vs. 1,663.9 +/- 349 kcal/day; p consumption (284.6 +/- 67.7 vs. 238.6 +/- 54.3 ml/min; p predicted by prediction equations showed the next data; Berstein's equation (r = 0.65; p prediction equation was REE = 58.6 + (6.1 x weight (kg)) + (1,023.7 x height (m)) - (9.5 x age). The female model was REE = 1,272.5 + (9.8 x weight (kg)) - (61.6 x height (m)) - (8.2 x age). Our prediction equations showed a nonsignificant difference with REE measured (-3.7 kcal/day) with a significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.67; p prediction equations overestimated and underestimated REE measured. WHO equation developed in normal weight individuals provided the closest values. The two new equations (male and female equations) developed in our study had a good accuracy. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Achón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  5. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achón, María; Serrano, María; García-González, Ángela; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-05-18

    Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  6. [Prevalence trends of high risk of mental disorders in the Spanish adult population: 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, Virginia

    To evaluate the prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity in the Spanish adult population and its changes between 2006 and 2012. Data from 47,905 participants obtained from the National Health Surveys in 2006 and 2012 were used. Mental health status was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire score. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity was 20.5% in 2012 and 21.3% in 2006. Using 2006 as the reference, the odds ratio (OR) for these problems in 2012 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89) in women and 1.10 (1.02-1.18) in men. In women, it decreased for all ages. In men, these ORs were 1.15 (1.04-1.27) in the aged 16-44 group, 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in the aged 45-64 group and 0.81 (0.68-0.96) in the aged ≥ 65 group. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity decreased except in males <65 years of age, who are more sensitive to the economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Arrebola, J.P.; Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E.; Aragones, N.; Llorca, J.; Perez-Gomez, B.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point

  8. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: mafero@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Aragones, N. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Llorca, J. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Universidad de Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Perez-Gomez, B. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and

  9. Stroop Color-Word Interference Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Perrin, P B; Stevens, L F; Garza, M T; Weil, C; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez, W; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Rábago, B; Weiler, G; García de la Cadena, C; Longoni, M; Martínez, C; Ocampo-Barba, N; Aliaga, A; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Guerra, A; Esenarro, L; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Stroop Test across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the Stroop Test, as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained 14-36% of the variance in Stroop Word scores, 12-41% of the variance in the Stoop Color, 14-36% of the variance in the Stroop Word-Color scores, and 4-15% of variance in Stroop Interference scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women on the Stroop test, none of the countries had an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America to create norms for the Stoop Test in a Spanish-Speaking sample. This study will therefore have important implications for the future of neuropsychology research and practice throughout the region.

  10. Antibody reactivity against Helicobacter pylori proteins in a sample of the Spanish adult population in 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Larrea, Nerea; Michel, Angelika; Romero, Beatriz; Butt, Julia; Pawlita, Michael; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Moreno, Victor; Martín, Vicente; Amiano, Pilar; Castilla, Jesús; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Clofent, Juan; Alguacil, Juan; Huerta, José María; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molinuevo, Amaia; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Casabonne, Delphine; Sierra, Ángeles; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Del Campo, Rosa; Waterboer, Tim; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-10-01

    Differences in Helicobacter pylori protein expression have been related to the risk of severe gastric diseases. In Spain, a marked geographic pattern in gastric cancer mortality has long been reported. To characterize antibody reactivity patterns against 16 H. pylori proteins, by age, sex, and region of birth, in a large sample of the Spanish adult population. Antibody reactivity was quantified by H. pylori multiplex serology in a sample from the control group of the multicase-control study MCC-Spain. For this analysis, 2555 population-based controls were included. Each participant was classified as seropositive or seronegative for each protein according to specific cutoffs. Overall H. pylori seroprevalence was defined as positivity against ≥4 proteins. Descriptive analyses by age, sex, and region of birth were performed for both seroprevalence and seroreactivity (continuous measure). Differences among groups were tested by logistic and linear regression models. Overall H. pylori seroprevalence increased with age in both sexes. For ages 55-74, seroprevalence was lower in women than in men (84% vs 92%, Ppylori seropositive subjects, proteins with the highest seroprevalence were GroEL, NapA, HP231, and Omp. Seropositivity for most of the proteins increased or remained stable with age, rising mainly for CagA, GroEL, and HyuA in women. A clear cohort effect was not observed. This is the first study to describe the antibody patterns against 16 H. pylori proteins in the Spanish population. We found variability in the H. pylori antibody profiles according to both individual factors such as age and sex, and environmental factors such as the region of birth. The slightness of the reduction in seropositivity with decreasing age highlights the ongoing importance of this infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Rodríguez, G; Garza, M T; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Rodríguez, W; Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Aguayo, A; Schebela, S; Weil, C; Longoni, M; Aliaga, A; Ocampo-Barba, N; Saracho, C P; Panyavin, I; Esenarro, L; Martínez, C; García de la Cadena, C; Perrin, P B

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the SDMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained 29-56% of the variance in SDMT scores. Although there were gender differences on the SDMT in Mexico, Honduras, Paraguay, and Guatemala, none of the four countries had an effect size greater than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America to create norms for the SDMT; this study will have an impact on the future practice of neuropsychology throughout the global region.

  12. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  13. Identifying Factors Related to Food Agency: Cooking Habits in the Spanish Adult Population-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ángela; Achón, María; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2018-02-15

    This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men). A total of 90.5% of participants stated that they had cooking skills. Women were mainly responsible for cooking tasks ( p < 0.05) at all ages. A significantly higher proportion of people under 50 years self-reported that they were "able to cook" in comparison with groups over 50 years. Regardless of age, most participants learned to cook either by practice (43.3%) or from a family member (42.2%). Men tended to be more autodidactic, whereas women reported learning from family. No relation was found between weight status and the evaluated factors investigated. In conclusion, women bear the responsibility for the entire cooking process in families, indicating a gender gap in the involvement of men in cooking responsibilities and competence. More research is needed to assess the influence of cooking knowledge on obesity prevention.

  14. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  15. Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Spanish Adult Population (Aged 25-64 Years) 2014-2015: The ENPE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Alberdi-Aresti, Goiuri; Ramos-Carrera, Natalia; Lázaro-Masedo, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    According to the 2013 analysis of the Institute of Health Metrics, high body mass index values are the most important risk factor for disease in Spain. Consequently, we describe the prevalence of total obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) for 2014-2015. The sample was taken from the ENPE study, a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population (n = 6800) carried out between May 2014 and May 2015. This analysis refers to the population between age 25 and 64 years (n = 3966). The anthropometric measurements were performed by trained observers at participants' homes according to standard international protocols. Body mass index ≥ 25 was defined as overweight and ≥ 30 as obesity. Abdominal obesity was classified as waist > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women. The estimated prevalence of overweight in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) was 39.3% 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 35.7%-42.9%). The prevalence of general obesity was 21.6% (95%CI, 19.0%-24.2%) and, more specifically, was 22.8% (95%CI, 20.6%-25.0%) among men and 20.5% (95%CI, 18.5%-22.5%) among women, and rose with age. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was estimated at 33.4% (95%CI, 31.1%-35.7%) and was higher among women (43.3%; 95%CI, 41.1%-45.8%) than among men (23.3%; 95%CI, 20.9%-25.5%), and also rose with age. The prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity in Spain is high, although the distribution differs according to autonomous community. A comparison with earlier data reveals a considerable increase in overweight, indicating the need for routine monitoring and comprehensive initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  17. Personality disorders and smoking in Spanish general and clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Río, Elena; López Durán, Ana; Martinez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is consistent evidence about the relationship between smoking and mental health. This study compares the relationship between tobacco use and personality disorders (PDs) in Spanish adults from general and clinical population, taking into account nicotine dependence (ND), and the presence of any mental disorder. Method: The sample was made up of 1,079 smokers (519 from general population, 560 from clinical population). PDs were assessed by means of the Inter...

  18. Relationship between serum selenium, sociodemographic variables, other trace elements and lipid profile in an adult Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Palazón-Bru, Irene; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Trasobares, Elena; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Fuentes, Manuel; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown an inverse relationship between selenium status and cardiovascular health, although epidemiologic evidence yielded by the randomized trials did not find a beneficial effect of selenium administration. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between serum selenium levels and lipid profile adjusted by age, sex and other associated factors among a general adult population in Spain. We recruited 372 hospital employee volunteers (60 men and 312 women) with a mean age of 47 (SD: 10.9), whom were given a standardized questionnaire. Serum selenium concentration was measured by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum copper and zinc concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean of serum selenium was 79.5μg/L (SD: 11.7) with no sex-dependent differences. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, the associated factors with the mean levels of selenium were: age (β=0.223; CI 95%: 0.101-0.345), pselenium≥79.5μg/L were 1.98 (OR=1.98; CI 95% 1.17-3.35; p=0.011) and 2.04 times (OR=2.04; CI 95% 1.06-3.97; p=0.034) more likely to have cholesterol ≥200mg/dL and LDL-c ≥100mg/dL respectively than those with serum selenium selenium was positively associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol but not with HDL-c and triglycerides. More studies are needed in order to confirm the lower serum selenium findings in widows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure - copy and immediate recall: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Perrin, P B; Morlett-Paredes, A; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Martínez, C; Garza, M T; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez, W; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Rábago, B; Aliaga, A; Schebela, S; Luna, M; Longoni, M; Ocampo-Barba, N; Fernández, E; Esenarro, L; García-Egan, P; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the ROCF as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained 7-34% of the variance in ROCF copy scores and 21-41% of the variance in immediate recall scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women on ROCF copy and immediate recall scores, none of the countries had an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. The present study is the first to create norms for the ROCF in Latin America. As a result, this study will have important implications for the formation and practice of neuropsychology in this region.

  20. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaton Lisa J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish

  1. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  2. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  3. Internal consistency of the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire for Spanish speaking older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Martín G; Vázquez, Jenniffer M; Cruz, Wanda I; Ortiz, Alexis

    2008-09-01

    The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) is a physical activity monitoring questionnaire for people between 65 to 90 years old. This questionnaire has been previously translated to Spanish to be used in the Latin American population. To adapt the Spanish version of the CHAMPS questionnaire to Puerto Rico and assess its internal consistency. An external review committee adapted the existent Spanish version of the CHAMPS to be used in the Puerto Rican population. Three older adults participated in a second phase with the purpose of training the research team. After the second phase, 35 older adults participated in a third content adaptation phase. During the third phase, the preliminary Spanish version for Puerto Rico of the CHAMPS was given to the 35 participants to assess for clarity, vocabulary and understandability. Interviews to each participant in the third phase were carried out to obtain feedback and create a final Spanish version of the CHAMPS for Puerto Rico. After analyses of this phase, the external review committee prepared a final Spanish version of the CHAMPS for Puerto Rico. The final version was administered to 15 older adults (76 +/- 6.5 years) to assess the internal consistency by using Cronbach's Alpha analysis. The questionnaire showed a strong internal consistency of 0.76. The total time to answer the questionnaire was 17.4 minutes. The Spanish version of the CHAMPS questionnaire for Puerto Rico suggested being an easy to administer and consistent measurement tool to assess physical activity in older adults.

  4. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected.

  5. Notable Books in Spanish for Children and Young Adults from Spanish-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of books recently published in Mexico, Spain, Argentina, and Peru for Spanish-speaking children and young adults. The books are grouped by the following levels: (1) preschool and primary grades; (2) grades 3 to 6; (3) junior high and up; and (4) young adult. (SED)

  6. [Spanish normative studies in a young adult population (NEURONORMA young adults Project): norms for the verbal span, visuospatial span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test and Symbol Digit Modalities Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, F; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2012-01-01

    Verbal and visuospatial span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test are frequently used in clinical practice to assess attention, executive functions and memory. In the present study, as part of the Spanish normative studies of NEURONORMA young adults Project, normative data adjusted by age and education are provided for digits, Corsi Block-Tapping Task, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. The sample consisted of 179 participants from 18 to 49 years old, who were cognitively normal. Tables to convert raw scores to scaled scores are provided. Age and education adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regressions. Education affected scores in most of the attention tests; age was found to be related to the visuospatial span and to speed of visuomotor tracking, and there was no relationship as regards sex. The data obtained will be useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Dapica, M P; Gómez-Reino, J J

    1986-06-01

    We have found in our clinic a 28.1% prevalence of familial chondrocalcinosis among 149 family members of 32 patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. The clinical and radiological characteristics of these familial chondrocalcinosis patients were similar to those of the Chiloes with familial chondrocalcinosis previously reported. No significant clinical or radiological differences were detected between our sporadic and familial chondrocalcinosis patients. Our findings support the hypothesis that the Chiloes familial chondrocalcinosis was carried to Chile by Spanish immigrants.

  8. Daily intake estimation of phenolic compounds in the Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Navarro González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large group of molecules present in plants with a diversity of chemical structures and biological activity. The objective of this study was to quantify the intake of phenolic compounds of the Spanish population. Material and Methods: The most consumed foods from vegetal origin in Spain were selected. These were picked up in the National Survey of Spanish Dietary Intake (ENIDE of 2011, edited by AESAN (Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition as a basis for quantifying the intake of phenolic compounds of Spaniards using the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: This database has allowed to estimate the average intake of polyphenols per day of Spaniards, which is 1365.1mg. Conclusions: The average intake of total polyphenols of Spaniards could have a protective effect against the mortality rate and exercise a preventive function on some chronic diseases along with other healthy lifestyle habits.

  9. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

  10. Validation of self-reported health literacy questions among diverse English and Spanish-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Schillinger, Dean; López, Andrea; Sudore, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Limited health literacy (HL) contributes to poor health outcomes and disparities, and direct measurement is often time-intensive. Self-reported HL questions have not been validated among Spanish-speaking and diverse English-speaking populations. To evaluate three self-reported questions: 1 "How confident are you filling out medical forms?"; 2 "How often do you have problems learning about your medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information?"; and 3 "How often do you have someone help you read hospital materials?" Answers were based on a 5-point Likert scale. This was a validation study nested within a trial of diabetes self-management support in the San Francisco Department of Public Health. English and Spanish-speaking adults with type 2 diabetes receiving primary care. Using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA) in English and Spanish as the reference, we classified HL as inadequate, marginal, or adequate. We calculated the C-index and test characteristics of the three questions and summative scale compared to the s-TOFHLA and assessed variations in performance by language, race/ethnicity, age, and education. Of 296 participants, 48% were Spanish-speaking; 9% were White, non-Hispanic; 47% had inadequate HL and 12% had marginal HL. Overall, 57% reported being confident with forms "somewhat" or less. The "confident with forms" question performed best for detecting inadequate (C-index = 0.82, (0.77-0.87)) and inadequate plus marginal HL (C index = 0.81, (0.76-0.86); pSpanish and English speakers with adequate HL and those with inadequate and/or inadequate plus marginal HL. The "confident with forms" question or the summative scale may be useful for estimating HL in clinical research involving Spanish-speaking and English-speaking, chronically-ill, diverse populations.

  11. Vitamin status of the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, G; Moreiras-Varela, O; Requejo, A

    1982-01-01

    The Recommended Nutrient Intakes (R.I.) of all the nutrients are studied and fixed for our census (1980), according to the age, sex and activity. Comparative studies are also carried out through Balance Sheets and Nutrition survey of vitamins consumption. In our country, as in others, we have not enough information about clinical or subclinical deficiencies, neither about loss due to cooking processes, that is why the data obtained from the consumption of nutrient, must be relativized in order to consider the nutritional status of the population. The study is carried out with data of the years 1973, first data sufficiently solvent, and 1974 and 1979 period of important economic crisis which repercussion in nutrition can be interesting. The incidence on the consumption of the touristic population has also been considered. Our diet is at the same level than in the other european countries, with an excess of energetic consumption (40% higher of the R.I.) and normal caloric contribution between the different macronutrients. The average consumptions of vitamins are satisfactory, except for the riboflavin, dangerously situated near the R.I. levels which could reflect problems of deficiency in wide groups of population.

  12. [New population curves in spanish extremely preterm neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, F; García-Alix Pérez, A; Figueras Aloy, J; Saavedra Santana, P

    2014-08-01

    Most anthropometric reference data for extremely preterm infants used in Spain are outdated and based on non-Spanish populations, or are derived from small hospital-based samples that failed to include neonates of borderline viability. To develop gender-specific, population-based curves for birth weight, length, and head circumference in extremely preterm Caucasian infants, using a large contemporary sample size of Spanish singletons. Anthropometric data from neonates ≤ 28 weeks of gestational age were collected between January 2002 and December 2010 using the Spanish database SEN1500. Gestational age was estimated according to obstetric data (early pregnancy ultrasound). The data were analyzed with the SPSS.20 package, and centile tables were created for males and females using the Cole and Green LMS method. This study presents the first population-based growth curves for extremely preterm infants, including those of borderline viability, in Spain. A sexual dimorphism is evident for all of the studied parameters, starting at early gestation. These new gender-specific and population-based data could be useful for the improvement of growth assessments of extremely preterm infants in our country, for the development of epidemiological studies, for the evaluation of temporal trends, and for clinical or public health interventions seeking to optimize fetal growth. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of exposure to furan in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; García-Villanova, Belén

    2012-02-01

    The presence of furan in foods has received recent attention because of its association with harmful effects to human health. This compound, which is originated as a consequence of thermal treatment, is mainly found in canned, jarred, toasted and fried foods. The aim of this study was to estimate the exposure to furan in the Spanish population and to study the evolution of furan content in the main categories of foods in recent years, taking into account changes in dietary patterns. With respect to exposure to furan in the Spanish population from 2001 to 2009, no large differences were found. The maximum furan exposure recorded in this study (1.95 μg/kg bw/day) is lower than the 'no observable adverse effect level' of 0.08 mg/kg bw/day determined in the studies of experimental animals, and is close to the reported acceptable daily intake of 2 μg/kg bw/day.

  14. Spanish-English Speech Perception in Children and Adults: Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Gorman, Brenda K.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trends and phonetic category formation in bilingual children and adults. Participants included 30 fluent Spanish-English bilingual children, aged 8-11, and bilingual adults, aged 18-40. All completed gating tasks that incorporated code-mixed Spanish-English stimuli. There were significant differences in…

  15. Trends of obesity prevalence among Spanish adults with diabetes, 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Gea, Alfredo; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel

    2018-04-24

    Our aim was to examine the secular trends in obesity prevalence among Spanish adults with diabetes. Data were collected from 8 waves (from 1987 to 2012) of the National Health Surveys (NHS). NHS are cross-sectional studies conducted in representative samples of the Spanish adult population. Data of 7378 adults (≥16 years) who reported having been diagnosed of diabetes were analyzed. Previously validated self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index (BMI). Obesity was defined as a BMI of 30kg/m 2 or greater. Age-adjusted obesity prevalence for each wave was calculated by the direct standardization method. From 1987 to 2012 age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among persons with diabetes increased from 18.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.2-22.2%) to 39.8% (95% CI: 36.8-42.8%). Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity in males with diabetes increased from 13.2% (95% CI: 7.3-19.1%) to 38.0% (95% CI: 33.8-42.1%) and in females from 23.0% (95% CI: 17.6-28.4%) to 42.3% (95% CI: 38.0-46.6%). Between 1987 and 2012 the prevalence of obesity markedly increased in Spain among adults with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge on musculoskeletal diseases by the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Pablo; Alfaro, Noelia; Méndez, José Ignacio; Garcia-Vicuña, Rosario; Jover, Juan Ángel; Sevilla, Jordi; Gabriele, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    To explore knowledge on musculoskeletal-diseases (MSDs) by the Spanish population. This was a cross-sectional study of the general population (> 18 years) using a telephone survey of 1,009 subjects stratified by habitat size, age, sex, and geographic area. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the subjects, their general knowledge of MSDs (GK), their specific knowledge of particular MSDs (SK), and their knowledge of their social impact (KSI). Synthetic indicators of the level of knowledge were used to analyze, using univariate and multivariate models, variables associated to the level of knowledge. The KSI level ranges from medium-high (mean: 0.62 ± 0.16 out of 1), suggesting that most subjects recognize MSDs as disabling conditions which affect the ability to work and have a high personal and social cost. The GK level is intermediate (mean: 0.50 ± 0.17); 60% of subjects know something about MSDs, but 54% state that their information is poor/very poor. The SK level is low (mean: 0.18 ± 0.10), and there are some MSDs that are little known (lupus, spondylitis). Being male or retired or having a MSD is associated to a greater knowledge of MSDs. The Spanish population has a medium level of knowledge of the frequency and extent to which MSDs affect performance of activities by those who suffer them. They identify them adequately and have a GK of their symptoms, but have little information about them. The level of knowledge varies depending on social and demographic factors and on whether or not the subject has direct or indirect experience of what a MSD means. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L.

    2006-01-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value by a conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  18. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Justo Dorado, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  19. Research applications for an Object and Action Naming Battery to assess naming skills in adult Spanish-English bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Lisa A; Donovan, Neila J

    2014-06-01

    Virtually no valid materials are available to evaluate confrontation naming in Spanish-English bilingual adults in the U.S. In a recent study, a large group of young Spanish-English bilingual adults were evaluated on An Object and Action Naming Battery (Edmonds & Donovan in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 55:359-381, 2012). Rasch analyses of the responses resulted in evidence for the content and construct validity of the retained items. However, the scope of that study did not allow for extensive examination of individual item characteristics, group analyses of participants, or the provision of testing and scoring materials or raw data, thereby limiting the ability of researchers to administer the test to Spanish-English bilinguals and to score the items with confidence. In this study, we present the in-depth information described above on the basis of further analyses, including (1) online searchable spreadsheets with extensive empirical (e.g., accuracy and name agreeability) and psycholinguistic item statistics; (2) answer sheets and instructions for scoring and interpreting the responses to the Rasch items; (3) tables of alternative correct responses for English and Spanish; (4) ability strata determined for all naming conditions (English and Spanish nouns and verbs); and (5) comparisons of accuracy across proficiency groups (i.e., Spanish dominant, English dominant, and balanced). These data indicate that the Rasch items from An Object and Action Naming Battery are valid and sensitive for the evaluation of naming in young Spanish-English bilingual adults. Additional information based on participant responses for all of the items on the battery can provide researchers with valuable information to aid in stimulus development and response interpretation for experimental studies in this population.

  20. The Health Literacy and ESL study: a community-based intervention for Spanish-speaking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Ji, Ming; Fuentes, Brenda O; Tinajero, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits.

  1. The Health Literacy and ESL Study: A Community-Based Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAS, FRANCISCO SOTO; JI, MING; FUENTES, BRENDA O.; TINAJERO, JOSEFINA

    2015-01-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  2. Lifestyle Patterns and Weight Status in Spanish Adults: The ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gianzo-Citores, Marta; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2017-06-14

    Limited knowledge is available on lifestyle patterns in Spanish adults. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aged 18-64 years and their association with obesity. Analysis was based on a subsample ( n = 1617) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and obesity. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, " Traditional DP ", " Mediterranean DP ", " Snack DP " and " Dairy-sweet DP ". Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aggregated into three different clusters of lifestyle patterns: " Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern ", " Not poor diet-low physical activity-low sedentary lifestyle pattern " and " Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern ". A higher proportion of people aged 18-30 years was classified into the " Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern ". The prevalence odds ratio for obesity in men in the " Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern " was significantly lower compared to those in the " Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern ". Those behavior patterns are helpful to identify specific issues in population subgroups and inform intervention strategies. The findings in this study underline the importance of designing and implementing interventions that address multiple health risk practices, considering lifestyle patterns and associated determinants.

  3. Lifestyle Patterns and Weight Status in Spanish Adults: The ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited knowledge is available on lifestyle patterns in Spanish adults. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aged 18–64 years and their association with obesity. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 1617 of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and obesity. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, “Traditional DP”, “Mediterranean DP”, “Snack DP” and “Dairy-sweet DP”. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aggregated into three different clusters of lifestyle patterns: “Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern”, “Not poor diet-low physical activity-low sedentary lifestyle pattern” and “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. A higher proportion of people aged 18–30 years was classified into the “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. The prevalence odds ratio for obesity in men in the “Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern” was significantly lower compared to those in the “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. Those behavior patterns are helpful to identify specific issues in population subgroups and inform intervention strategies. The findings in this study underline the importance of designing and implementing interventions that address multiple health risk practices, considering lifestyle patterns and associated determinants.

  4. A preliminary study of the mini-mental state examination in a Spanish child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubial-Alvarez, Sandra; Machado, María-Clara; Sintas, Elena; de Sola, Susana; Böhm, Peter; Peña-Casanova, Jordi

    2007-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is one of the most widely used screening tests for the adult population in daily neurologic practice. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination administered to Spanish children and to assess the relationship between Mini-Mental State Examination scores and the child's mental age/intelligence quotient. The study population included 181 children whose ages ranged between 4 and 12 years. The neuropsychologic battery consisted of the Mini-Mental State Examination and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Percentiles were obtained for the Mini-Mental State Examination total score according to age ranges. Performance gradually increased from 4 to 10 years of age when a plateau in the total Mini-Mental State Examination score was reached. At the age of 6 years, results exceeded 24 on average. Pairwise mean comparisons showed statistically significant differences between the age groups (P Mini-Mental State Examination score correlated significantly with the child's chronologic (r = 0.80, P mental (r = 0.76, P Mini-Mental State Examination in a Spanish child population as well as a first step for the assessment of the usefulness of this instrument as a cognitive screening tool for children's development.

  5. On worries, concerns and dangers among spanish population: a qualitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R.; Cebrian, A.L.; Menard, M.; Sola, R.; Prades, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents qualitative findings on the principal worries, concerns and dangers surrounding risk perception extracted from the Cross-cultural Survey carried out within RISKPERCOM' research project (Risk Perception and Communication). A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the Spanish population allowing a study of amplification/attenuation with regard to the tenth anniversary as well as investigating management and communication issues related to radiological matters. The questionnaires were mailed to the adult population from 18 to 75 years of age, where 48.9% males and 51.1 % females. The number of questionnaires obtained for each wave were 490. The response rate was around 69%. At this paper we present the principal concerns, worries and dangers perceived by the Spanish population as identified through three open questions. The items were grouped in different categories; national political situation, economical concern, personal/social concerns, environmental concerns, global concerns... These categories are associated through correspondence analysis to socio-demographical variables as sex, age, education, political orientation an environmental attitude. (authors)

  6. Narrative competence in Spanish-speaking adults with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Itza, Eliseo; Martínez, Verónica; Antón, Aránzazu

    2016-08-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability and characterised by displaying an atypical neuropsychological profile, with peaks and valleys, where language skills seem better preserved than non-verbal intelligence. This study researches the narrative competence of nine Spanish-speaking adults with WS. Oral narratives were elicited from a silent film, and narrative coherence was analysed as a function of sequential order of the events narrated at three structure levels, while narrative cohesion was assessed through the frequency of use and type of discourse markers. WS subjects were able to remember a significant proportion of the events from the film, but coherence of narratives, i.e., sequential order of events, was more impaired. Consistently with their linguistic abilities, cohesion of narratives was better preserved, as they used discourse markers to introduce a high proportion of events. Construction of mental models of the narratives may be constrained in WS by non-verbal cognitive abilities, but narrative competence is also determined by textual pragmatic abilities to organize discourse, which should be addressed by specific intervention in narrative competence.

  7. Lifestyle Patterns and Weight Status in Spanish Adults: The ANIBES Study

    OpenAIRE

    P?rez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gianzo-Citores, Marta; Gil, ?ngel; Gonz?lez-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Limited knowledge is available on lifestyle patterns in Spanish adults. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aged 18–64 years and their association with obesity. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 1617) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behavi...

  8. Predictors of leisure physical activity in a spanish university population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ponce-de-León Elizondo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine some predictors of leisure-time physical activity in the Spanish university environment. Participants: A total of 1340 participants (48% men, with an average age of 22 years. Variables: leisure-time physical activity practice; gender; civil status; place of residence; amount of leisuretime; leisure-time occupation; desire to perform physical activity; satisfaction with the use of leisure-time; leisure-time physical activity practice in the past; and years of physical activity practice. Method: Face-toface interviews were undertaken using a questionnaire with close-ended questions. Results: Fifty-eight percent of the subjects reported being physically inactive. Male gender, desire to perform physical activity, satisfaction with the use of leisure-time, and practice of sports in the past, were significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: Physical activity practice during childhood and adolescence is the strongest predictor of current leisure-time physical activity for this university population.

  9. Involvement of LCA5 in Leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa in the Spanish population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corton, M.; Avila-Fernandez, A.; Vallespin, E.; Lopez-Molina, M.I.; Almoguera, B.; Martin-Garrido, E.; Tatu, S.D.; Khan, M.I.; Blanco-Kelly, F.; Riveiro-Alvarez, R.; Brion, M.; Garcia-Sandoval, B.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Carracedo, A.; Ayuso, C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify novel genetic defects in the LCA5 gene underlying Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) in the Spanish population and to describe the associated phenotype. DESIGN: Case series. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 217 unrelated Spanish families affected by autosomal recessive or

  10. Genetic basis of hearing loss in Spanish, Hispanic and Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Patel, Amit P; Nguyen, Desiree; Pan, Debbie R; Jhaveri, Vasanti M; Rudman, Jason R; Dharmaraja, Arjuna; Yan, Denise; Feng, Yong; Chapagain, Prem; Lee, David J; Blanton, Susan H; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2018-03-20

    Hearing loss (HL) is the most common neurosensory disorder affecting humans. The screening, prevention and treatment of HL require a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Genetic predisposition is one of the most common factors that leads to HL. Most HL studies include few Spanish, Hispanic and Latino participants, leaving a critical gap in our understanding about the prevalence, impact, unmet health care needs, and genetic factors associated with hearing impairment among Spanish, Hispanic and Latino populations. The few studies which have been performed show that the gene variants commonly associated with HL in non-Spanish and non-Hispanic populations are infrequently responsible for hearing impairment in Spanish as well as Hispanic and Latino populations (hereafter referred to as Hispanic). To design effective screening tools to detect HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations, studies must be conducted to determine the gene variants that are most commonly associated with hearing impairment in this racial/ethnic group. In this review article, we summarize gene variants and loci associated with HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations. Identifying new genetic variants associated with HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations will pave the way to develop effective screening tools and therapeutic strategies for HL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  13. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Meseguer, María José; Burriel, Faustino Cervera; García, Cruz Vico; Serrano-Urrea, Ramón

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012-2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24 hour recalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70 mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low-intermediate score in both (51.2 ± 12.8 and 4.0 ± 1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored "poor" or "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exon 3-deleted/full-length growth hormone receptor polymorphism genotype frequencies in Spanish short small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children and adolescents (n = 247) and in an adult control population (n = 289) show increased fl/fl in short SGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audí, Laura; Esteban, Cristina; Carrascosa, Antonio; Espadero, Rosa; Pérez-Arroyo, Annalisa; Arjona, Rosa; Clemente, María; Wollmann, Hartmut; Fryklund, Linda; Parodi, Luis A

    2006-12-01

    A polymorphism in the human GH receptor gene (d3/fl-GHR) resulting in genomic deletion of exon 3 has been associated with the degree of height increase in response to GH therapy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the frequencies of d3/fl-GHR polymorphism genotypes in control and short small-for-gestational-age (SGA) populations. An adult control population with heights normally distributed (ACPNH) between -2 and +2 sd score (SDS) and a short non-GH-deficient SGA child population were selected. Thirty Spanish hospitals participated in the selection of the short non-GH-deficient SGA children in the setting of a controlled, randomized trial, and one of these hospitals selected the ACPNH. CONTROLS AND PATIENTS: Two hundred eighty-nine adult subjects of both sexes constituted the ACPNH and 247 children and adolescents of both sexes the short SGA patients. Heights and weights were recorded in the ACPNH, and auxologic and biochemical data were recorded at each hospital for the SGA patients; d3/fl-GHR genotypes were determined and data analyzed in a single hospital. In short SGA patients, d3/fl-GHR genotype frequencies were significantly different from those in ACPNH, with a higher frequency of fl/fl genotype (P or=-2 SDS, n = 60). Our data showed significant differences in the frequency distribution of the d3/fl-GHR genotypes between a normally distributed adult height population and short SGA children, with the biologically less active fl/fl genotype being almost twice as frequent in SGA patients. These data suggest that the d3/fl-GHR polymorphism might be considered among the factors that contribute to the phenotypic expression of growth.

  16. [Spanish adaptation of the adult version of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Diane C; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is a relative dearth of measures focusing on social anhedonia that are suitable for both patient and non-patient samples, up to date in terms of their content, and relatively brief. The goal of the present investigation was to validate the Spanish translation of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS)-Adult version for use with Spanish-speaking populations. The total sample included 387 nonclinical individuals from Spain (128 males). The mean age was 21.86 years (SD=5.11; range 18-46 years). The ACIPS and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 3-factor solution which explained 79.1% of the variance (intimate social interactions, social bonding in the context of media/communications, and casual socialization). The total ACIPS showed good internal consistency, estimated with ordinal alpha; it was 0.92, ranging from 0.76 to 0.84 for the subscales. The participants who reported a minimal to low level of depressive symptoms had significantly higher total ACIPS scores than the participants who reported experiencing moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms. Total scores on the ACIPS were negatively associated with scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r=-0.22, p≤.001). Participants with a family history reported significantly lower total ACIPS scores than those without a family history of schizophrenia. The present results showed that the Spanish version of the ACIPS scores had adequate psychometric properties. The ACIPS may be useful in terms of helping to elucidate the ways in which individual differences in hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal relationships relates meaningfully to risk for various forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Romo-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and physical inactivity (PI are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486. The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03, and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes. 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week. According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations.

  18. [Analysis of Sexual Strategies Theory in the Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yela, Carlos

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test some of the main hypotheses derived from Buss' Sexual Strategies Theory on a representative Spanish sample. These hypotheses refer to the different strategies men and woman seem to adopt when they want to engage in a short-term sexual relationship (fling), or in a long-term one (loving relationship). (The technical term "strategies", unlike its equivalent in everyday language, is not meant to imply something necessarily planned or conscious). Data was obtained by self-report from a representative sample of 1949 Spanish people. Almost all the results verify the working hypotheses, conferring some empirical support on the theory from which they were deduced, within an evolutionary Social Psychology paradigm. In any case, it is argued that socialization approaches ("double moral" and the social construction of gender role and sexual identity) can also explain most of the differences obtained, in perfect compatibility with biological perspectives.

  19. Genealogical analyses in open populations: the case of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Molina, A; Goyache, F; Valera, M

    2009-10-01

    This research assesses the genetic composition of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds as an example to highlight the major shortcomings related to genealogical analyses in open populations and to propose approaches useful to deal with this task. The studbooks of three Spanish Arab (SA)-derived horse breeds, Spanish Anglo-Arab (dAA), Hispano-Arab (dHA) and Spanish Sport Horse (dSSH) and those of their parental breeds SA, Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Thoroughbred (TB), totalling 211 754 individuals, were available. The genealogies of the dAA, dHA and dSSH were analysed not only using the corresponding studbook (breed exclusive dataset) but also including the genealogies of the founders from parental breeds (completed dataset). Coancestry analyses revealed that the present SA-derived populations share more genes with the Arab than with the other parental breeds. Effective population size was computed by accounting for migration rates to obtain an equivalent closed-population effective size ((eq)N(e)) of 39.2 for the dAA, 56.3 for dHA and 114.1 for dSSH. The essayed methodologies were useful for characterising populations involving migration. The consequences of the management of the analysed breeds are discussed. The results emphasize the need to include the complete genealogies of the individuals to attain reliable genealogical parameters.

  20. Improving Measures of Sexual and Gender Identity in English and Spanish to Identify LGBT Older Adults in Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Stuart; Milesi, Carolina; Stern, Michael; Viox, Melissa Heim; Morrison, Heather; Guerino, Paul; Dragon, Christina N; Haffer, Samuel C

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this research is to advance the study of health disparities faced by older sexual and gender minorities by assessing comprehension of and improving measures of sexual and gender identity in surveys. Cognitive interviews were conducted by expert interviewers with 48 non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (non-LGBT) and 9 LGBT older English and Spanish speakers. All respondents were able to answer questions about their sex assigned at birth and current gender identity successfully despite some cisgender respondents' lack of clear understanding of the transgender response option. On the contrary, while the vast majority of English speakers could answer the question about their sexual identity successfully, almost 60% of the non-LGBT Spanish speakers did not select the "heterosexual, that is, not gay (or lesbian)" response category. Qualitative probing of their response process pointed mainly to difficulties understanding the term "heterosexual," leading to their choosing "something else" or saying that they didn't know how to answer. A second round of testing of alternative response categories for the sexual identity question with Spanish speakers found a marked improvement when offered "not gay (or lesbian), that is, heterosexual" instead of beginning with the term "heterosexual." This research adds to our understanding of gender and sexual identity questions appropriate for population surveys with older adults. Inclusion of these measures in surveys is a crucial step in advancing insights into the needs of and disparities faced by LGBT older adults.

  1. Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure: A longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-12-01

    In Spain, two smoke-free laws have been passed after the approval of the WHO-FCTC. This study assesses the impact of these Spanish smoking legislations on the active and passive smoking through a population cohort in Barcelona (Spain). This is a longitudinal study before and after the implementation of two national smoking bans in Spain in a representative sample (n=1245) of adults (≥16years old) from Barcelona (Spain) surveyed in 2004-2005 and followed-up in 2013-2014. The final sample analyzed was 736 individuals. Both questionnaires (before and after the two laws) included the same variables about active and passive smoking. We calculated the prevalence and the prevalence ratio (PR, with their 95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of smoking cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco and also the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, work, public transport, leisure time and at any setting after vs. before Spanish legislations. After the implementation of the two Spanish smoke-free bans, a significant decrease was observed in the smoking prevalence (from 34.5% to 26.1%, PR=0.76, psmoke-free legislations in Spain is related to a reduction in smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. However, the smoking of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, has increased among young population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electromagnetic fields and safety : information and risk perception in Spanish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Guillen, V.

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about both the information the general population in Spain has on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the public risk perception regarding the exposure to non-ionizing EMF emitting sources. The aims of the present preliminary survey were to assess what the Spanish population knew about EMF, to explore their health risk perception associated with the exposure to commonly used sources of non-ionizing radiation; and to know their risk perception regarding cell towers. A total number of 801 adult participants, randomly selected answered a telephone interview based on a 13-item semi-structured questionnaire. Sixty-nine per cent of the interviewees reported having no knowledge about electromagnetic fields. Up to 88.9% mentioned to have a little or no information at all on the health effects of EMF. Comparing risk perception regarding several commonly used devices, mobile telephones and microwave ovens were associated with a higher heath risk than TV and computers. Of those who believed that the devices mentioned were linked with health problems, 40.7% associated them with cancer. Regarding base stations, 52.1% of the sample envisioned such sources as a health risk, and of those who believed so, the majority linked the proximity of base stations with cancer. Gender differences were observed in risk perception. (Author) 16 refs

  3. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain” study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old. A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women. The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women. The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day, followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day, adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day. Cereals or grains (27.4%, meats and derivatives (15.2%, oils and fats (12.3%, and milk and dairy products (11.8% contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%, fish and shellfish (3.6%, sugars and sweets (3.3% and alcoholic beverages (2.6% were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  4. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  5. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Mastering Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Research of language learning strategy (LLS) has provided insight for language learners from many international cultures since this branch of research began in the 1970s. Despite the urgent need for competence in the use of business English in Western Europe, LLS studies have not been conducted on Spanish adults who use English for business. The…

  6. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  7. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  8. Prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Spanish adults 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Gea, Alfredo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-22

    The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased worldwide. Our objective was to examine trends in the prevalence of overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and DM in Spain from 1987 to 2012. Data were obtained from 8 waves of the national health surveys which are cross-sectional studies conducted in representative samples of the Spanish adult population. Self-reported data of 156,440 adults (≥16 years) from 1987 to 2012 were used. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported weight and height. Overweight was defined as a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9kg/m 2 , obesity as a BMI≥30kg/m 2 and morbid obesity as a BMI≥40kg/m 2 . DM was considered present if the participant reported having been diagnosed. Age-adjusted prevalence was adjusted by the direct standardisation method to the 2003 survey population. From 1987 to 2012 age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 34.0% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 33.2-34.8) to 35.8% (95% CI 35.0-36.6), prevalence of obesity from 8.0% (95% CI 7.5-8.5) to 16.5% (95% CI 15.7-17.1%) and DM prevalence from 4.2% (95% CI 3.9-4.5) to 7.1% (95% CI 6.7-7.4%). Morbid obesity increased from 0.20% (95% CI 0.13-0.27) in 1993 to 0.88% (95% CI 0.70-1.05) in 2012. The growth rate was greater among males. An increasing trend of the prevalence of overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and DM was found in Spain from 1987 to 2012, particularly in males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Interpretation of Pronouns across Spanish-Speaking Populations

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    Sergio Baauw

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present data from both Spanish acquisition and aphasia on the Pronoun Interpretation Problem (PIP, according to which children allow pronouns to be identified with local c-commanding antecedents. Although it has recently been claimed that the PIP is, to a great extent, an experimental artifact, there are good reasons to believe that there is something “real” in the effect. As with many phenomena from acquisition, researchers have tried to explain this development in terms of “learning”, or more concretely, in terms of “parameter setting”. Children either must set the right local domain for the application of Principle B or they must set a +/− Principle B parameter. However, considering the PIP as an acquisition problem is problematic since it is difficult to see how children can converge on the target grammar without negative evidence. In this paper, we will defend an alternative approach, according to which the PIP is portrayed as the result of interplay between properties of predicates and different kinds of pronouns on the one hand, and language processing factors on the other.

  10. [Comparison of differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andía Melero, Víctor Manuel; Martín de Santa-Olalla Llanes, María; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Percovich Hualpa, Juan Carlos; Motilla de la Cámara, Marta; Collado Yurrita, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging is increasingly important due to the current trends to a less intensive therapy in low-risk patients. The TNM system is most widely used, but other systems based on follow-up of several patient cohorts have been developed. When these systems have been applied to other populations, results have been discordant. Our study evaluates the suitability of several differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population. 729 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and staging data available were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 10.8 years. The TNM, EORTC, AMES, Clinical class, MACIS, Ohio, NTCTCS, and Spanish systems were applied to all histological types. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for each system were analyzed, and compared using the proportion of explained variation (PEV). The demographic and clinical characteristics of our population were similar to those of other Spanish and international cohorts reported. The best systems were NTCTCS, with 74.7% PEV, and TNM (68.3%), followed by the Ohio, MACIS, EORTC, and AMES systems with minimal differences between them, while the least adequate were the Spanish (55.2%) and Clinical class (47.1%) systems. The NTCTCS staging system was found to be better than TNM in our population but, because of its simplicity and greater dissemination, the TNM appears to be recommended for staging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Influence of habitual chocolate consumption over the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Arbelaez, Edilbeto; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; López García, Esther

    2017-07-28

    There are associations described between dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and foods with a high content of polyphenols. To assess the infl uence of habitual chocolate consumption over the MMSE in Spanish older adults. Cross-sectional study, using data of the follow-up of the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) cohort. Habitual chocolate consumption in the last year was assessed with a computerized dietary history; differences between dark chocolate and milk chocolate were recorded. Chocolate intake was classified into the following categories: no consumption, chocolate consumption of ≥ 10 g/d had a better MMSE score (adjusted beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.26 (0.02-0.50; p trend = 0.05); for dark chocolate, the results were also statistically significant (0.48 [0.18-0.78]; p trend chocolate consumption was not associated with higher likelihood of having MCI. However, dark chocolate consumption was associated with less likelihood of MCI (OR and 95%CI for MMSE ≤ 25: 0.39 [0.20-0.77]; for MMSE ≤ 24: 0.26 [0.10-0.67]; and for MMSE ≤ 23: 0.25 [0.07-0.82]). Our results suggest that habitual dark chocolate consumption might improve cognitive function among the older population.

  12. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

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    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender.Patients and methods: The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57% and 277 women (66.43%, and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12. After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women.Conclusion: The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.Keywords: body appreciation, wellbeing, self-esteem, social

  13. Dietary intake of aluminum in a Spanish population (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, Dailos; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Rubio, Carmen; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this study was to analyze the aluminum content in foods and beverages most commonly consumed by the Canary Island population to determine the dietary intake of this metal throughout the Canary Islands as a whole and in each of the seven islands (Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro). Four hundred and forty samples were analyzed by ICP-OES. Estimated total intake of aluminum for the Canary population was 10.171 mg/day, slightly higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI; 10 mg/day for a person weighing 70 kg). Aluminum intake by age and sex of the Canary Island population was also determined and compared values from other populations, both national and international.

  14. National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery for English- and Spanish-speaking adults: normative data and factor-based summary scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanyan, Ida; McKenna, Benjamin S; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Heaton, Robert K

    2018-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery (NIHTB-EB) is a "common currency", computerized assessment developed to measure the full spectrum of emotional health. Though comprehensive, the NIHTB-EB's 17 scales may be unwieldy for users aiming to capture more global indices of emotional functioning. NIHTB-EB was administered to 1,036 English-speaking and 408 Spanish-speaking adults as a part of the NIH Toolbox norming project. We examined the factor structure of the NIHTB-EB in English- and Spanish-speaking adults and developed factor analysis-based summary scores. Census-weighted norms were presented for English speakers, and sample-weighted norms were presented for Spanish speakers. Exploratory factor analysis for both English- and Spanish-speaking cohorts resulted in the same 3-factor solution: 1) negative affect, 2) social satisfaction, and 3) psychological well-being. Confirmatory factor analysis supported similar factor structures for English- and Spanish-speaking cohorts. Model fit indices fell within the acceptable/good range, and our final solution was optimal compared to other solutions. Summary scores based upon the normative samples appear to be psychometrically supported and should be applied to clinical samples to further validate the factor structures and investigate rates of problematic emotions in medical and psychiatric populations.

  15. Trends in leisure time and work-related physical activity in the Spanish working population, 1987-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    To analyze time trends in the prevalence of leisure time (LTPA) and work-related (WRPA) physical activity between 1987 and 2006 in the Spanish working population. We analyzed data taken from the Spanish National Health Surveys for 1987 (n = 29,647), 1993 (n = 20,707), 1995-1997 (n = 12,800), 2001 (n = 21,058), 2003 (n = 21,650), and 2006 (n = 29,478). The main variables were LTPA and WRPA in working adults aged 18-64 years old. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived health status, lifestyle habits and associated comorbidities using multivariate logistic regression models. The prevalences of LTPA and WRPA were lower in women than in men (p women; OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.02-1.31 for men) and WRPA (OR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.38-2.19 for women; OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.44-1.91 for men) significantly increased from 1987 to 2006. In both genders, the variables associated with a higher likelihood of practicing LTPA were greater age, higher educational level and being an ex- or non-smoker, while negative predictors included being married, worse self-perceived health, and obesity. Factors that increased the probability of reporting WRPA were being married, worse self-rated health status, and sleeping > 8h per day. The only factor that reduced the probability of reporting WRPA was being an ex- or non-smoker. We found an increase in LTPA and WRPA in the last 20 years in the Spanish working population. Several factors were associated with a higher or lower likelihood of practicing LTPA or WRPA in this population. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Satisfaction with life scale in a representative sample of Spanish adults: validation and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Duque, Almudena; Hervás, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is a measure widely used to assess life satisfaction. This paper aims to test its psychometric properties, factor structure, and distribution scores across age, gender, education, and employment status. For this purpose, a representative sample of the Spanish population (N = 2,964) was used. Although analyses showed no significant differences across age or gender, participants with higher education level and those who held an occupation were more satisfied with their lives. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a unifactorial structure with significant correlations between the SWLS, and subjective happiness and social support. The internal consistency of the scale was .88. Thus, our results indicate that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction within the Spanish context.

  17. Screening for bipolar disorders in Spanish-speaking populations: sensitivity and specificity of the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale-Spanish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Gustavo Héctor; Romero, Ester; Fabregues, Fernando; Pies, Ronald; Ghaemi, Nassir; Mota-Castillo, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is commonly misdiagnosed, perhaps more so in Latin American and Spanish-speaking populations than in the United States. The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is a 19-item screening instrument designed to assist in screening for all types of bipolar disorder. The authors investigated the sensitivity of a Spanish-language version of the BSDS in a cohort of 65 outpatients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, based on a semi-structured interview and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. To determine specificity, we assessed a control group of 36 outpatients with diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder. The overall sensitivity of the BSDS Spanish version with bipolar disorders types I, II, and NOS was 0.70, which was slightly lower than the sensitivity in the study using the English version of the BSDS (0.76). The specificity was 0.89. When the threshold was decreased from 13 to 12, the sensitivity of the Spanish BSDS increased to 0.76 and specificity dropped to 0.81. The Spanish version of the BSDS is promising as a screening instrument in Spanish-speaking populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity as a mediator between sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic risk in Spanish healthy adults: a mediation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I.; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health strategies for cardiovascular prevention highlight the importance of physical activity, but do not consider the additional potentially harmful effects of sedentary behavior. This study was conducted between 2010 and 2012 and analyzed between 2013 and 2014. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic risk factors in the Spanish adult population and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by moderate-to-vi...

  19. Life-style factors associated with overweight and obesity among Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martín, A; Novalbos Ruiz, J P; Martínez Nieto, J M; Escobar Jiménez, L

    2009-01-01

    To assess the relationship between life styles and eating habits with the overweight and obesity prevalence in a Spanish adult population. A population-based, cross-sectional study conducted on 2640 subjects older than 15 years, in Cádiz (Spain). Surveys were conducted in subjects' homes to obtain life styles, eating habits, and anthropometric data. Logistic regression has been used to study the association between the life style variables and overweight and obesity. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Cadiz is 37% and 17%, respectively; higher in males and increases with age. BMI has an inverse relationship with educational level (PR = 2.3, 1.57-2.38). The highest levels of obesity are associated with daily alcohol consumption (PR = 1.39, 1.29-1.50), greater consumption of television,and sedentary pursuit (PR 1.5, 1.07-1.24). A lower prevalence of obesity is observed among those with active physical activity (10.9% vs 21.6%), with differences between sex. Following a slimming diet is more frequent in the obese and in women but dedicate more hours than men to passive activities. In men is greater the consumption of alcohol, high energy foods and snacks. Overweight and obesity is associated with the male sex (OR = 3.35 2.75-4.07), high consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.38 1.03-1.86) and watching television (OR = 1.52 1.11-2.07), and foods likes bread and cereals (OR = 1.47 1.13-1.91). Exercise activities is a protective factor (OR = 0.76 0.63-0.98). Life styles factors associated with overweight and obesity present different patterns in men and women and is necessary to understand them to identify areas for behavioural intervention in overweight and obesity patients.

  20. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life Questionnaire" into Spanish

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    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life (EoE-QoL-A Questionnaire" was developed in English as a valid, reliable, and disease-specific health-related QoL measure. This research aims to adapt and validate this questionnaire for Spanish-speaking patients. Patients and methods: A multicenter, observational, prospective study was conducted at 8 Spanish hospitals. The cultural adaptation of the original EoE-QoL-A questionnaire was undertaken through a standardized 3-phase procedure: 1. Translation; 2. Retrotranslation; and 3. Pilot study. Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Short Form (SF-12, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ, and the adapted EoE-QoL-A, with a retest 3 months later. Statistical analysis included construct validity, internal consistency, criterion validity, and reproducibility. Results: One hundred and seventy adult EoE patients (73.5 % male; aged 33.5 ± 11.4-y were included in the study. With regard to internal validity, all Cronbach alpha values were > 0.75. A significant correlation between items assessed in the SF-12, BIPQ and EoE-QoL-A questionnaires (p < 0.001 was observed. Correlations with the HADS were stronger for anxiety than for depression levels. Anxiety related to disease diagnosis and choking were the most affected dimensions; less affected were the dimensions related to eating, social, and emotional development. Intraclass correlation coefficients between the test and retest assessments were acceptable for all questionnaires, with the highest values (0.73-0.84 calculated for the EoE-QoL-A Spanish version. Conclusion: The Spanish version of the EoE-QoL-A is a reliable, valid, and responsive questionnaire. Diagnosis and choking anxiety were the most affected dimensions in the health-related QoL in adult EoE patients.

  1. Involvement of LCA5 in Leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, Marta; Avila-Fernandez, Almudena; Vallespín, Elena; López-Molina, María Isabel; Almoguera, Berta; Martín-Garrido, Esther; Tatu, Sorina D; Khan, M Imran; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Brión, María; García-Sandoval, Blanca; Cremers, Frans P M; Carracedo, Angel; Ayuso, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify novel genetic defects in the LCA5 gene underlying Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) in the Spanish population and to describe the associated phenotype. Case series. A cohort of 217 unrelated Spanish families affected by autosomal recessive or isolated retinal dystrophy, that is, 79 families with LCA and 138 families with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (EORP). A total of 100 healthy, unrelated Spanish individuals were screened as controls. High-resolution homozygosity mapping was performed in 44 patients with LCA using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. Direct sequencing of the LCA5 gene was performed in 5 patients who showed homozygous regions at chromosome 6 and in 173 unrelated individuals with LCA or EORP. The ophthalmic history of 8 patients carrying LCA5 mutations was reviewed and additional examinations were performed, including electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus photography. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, identity-by-descent (IBD) regions, LCA5 mutations, best-corrected visual acuity, visual field assessments, fundus appearance, ERG, and OCT findings. Four novel and 2 previously reported LCA5 mutations have been identified in 6 unrelated families with LCA by homozygosity mapping or Sanger sequencing. Thus, LCA5 mutations have a frequency of 7.6% in the Spanish population. However, no LCA5 mutations were found in 138 patients with EORP. Although most of the identified LCA5 mutations led to a truncated protein, a likely pathogenic missense variant was identified for the first time as a cause of LCA, segregating in 2 families. We also have characterized a novel splicing site mutation at the RNA level, demonstrating that the mutant LCA5 transcript was absent in a patient. All patients carrying LCA5 mutations presented nystagmus, night blindness, and progressive loss of visual acuity and visual field leading to blindness toward the third decade of life. Fundoscopy

  2. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID). Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67) and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14). Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID) being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline) and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities. PMID:19995453

  3. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

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    Macipe-Costa Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID. Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67 and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14. Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities.

  4. Spanish courses for older adults at the University of the third age and Adult day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Zavrl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical starting points regarding older adults and learning Spanish language in late adulthood. The starting points are based on the assumption that in order to effectively learn a foreign language in late adulthood; the definitions of the cognitive characteristics of the elderly and the characteristics of learning in this period have to be defined first. I continuation the paper explains various characteristics of learning with older adults. The main emphasis is on analyzing the ability of older people to learn a foreign language and their motivation to learn. The empirical part of the paper presents the results of the survey conducted among participants in the initial and intermediate Spanish courses at the University of the Third Age and day center activities for the elderly in Ljubljana; during the academic year 2013/14. The results showed that the most important reason for attending the course were the love of language and the chance to attend trips to Spanish-speaking countries. As the most important activities in the course the participants highlighted listening to the instructor and making notes; exercises in pronunciation and learning new words. The participants valued relaxed atmosphere of mutual understanding as well as cooperation within the learning group. The most important features of a good instructor; according to the participants; are coherent explanation; positive attitude towards the participants; and learning support.

  5. [Anxiety in a representative sample of the Spanish population over 50 years-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira Capeáns, Cecilia; Facal, David

    Anxiety is common throughout the ageing process. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of anxiety in a representative sample of the Spanish population over 50 years-old. The data of this study come from the Pilot Study developed within the Longitudinal Ageing Study in Spain (ELES), in which a representative sample of the non-institutionalised Spanish population was evaluated. An analysis was performed on the data of 1086 people who answered the question «I am now going to read a list with a series of diseases or health problems. I would like you to tell me if your doctor has diagnosed any of them». The tools used were a questionnaire consisting of 218 questions, along with standardised tests, such as the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Anxiety was reported to have been diagnosed at some time in 14.3% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women than in men (77.8 vs. 22.2%), decreasing with age, and related to different chronic diseases. The results show that the prevalence of anxiety throughout the lifespan is noticeable in people over 50 years, and should be taken into account, especially in the female population and in those with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English

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    Jeff Wallace Judge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along with the influence from current and historical events in Spain. The conceptual framework was the Oxford LLS model. These qualitative data were collected through 11 semistructured, in- depth interviews with Spanish business people who use English in their work and who studied English in Spanish secondary school. The data were analyzed following a typological analysis. The results show a strong tendency towards cognitive, metacognitive, and social strategies in business tasks. Cultural influences include the media, past political situation in Spain, and general issues in the English class in Spanish secondary schools.El objetivo de este estudio fenomenológico era el de explorar las estrategias de aprendizaje de un idioma (LLS de adultos españoles dentro del contexto de la empresa. Las preguntas examinaban las LLS específicas utilizadas por los adultos españoles en tareas de comunicación comercia. Además, el estudio abordaba las influencias culturales del sistema educativo español sobre los LLS y las influencias de los eventos actuales e históricos de España. El marco conceptual era el de las LLS del modelo Oxford. Estos datos cualitativos se recogieron a través de 11 entrevistas semiestructuradas exhaustivas de empresarios españoles. Los datos se analizaron usando el análisis tipológico. Los resultados muestran una fuerte tendencia hacia estrategias cognitivas, metacognitivas y sociales en tareas laborales. Las influencias culturales abarcan los medios de comunicación, el pasado político español y temas generales de las clases de inglés de los centros de estudios secundarios españoles.

  7. [Scientific evidence about the role of yogurt and other fermented milks in the healthy diet for the Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Aznar, Luis A; Cervera Ral, Pilar; Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Díaz Martín, Juan José; Baladia, Eduard; Basulto, Julio; Bel Serrat, Silvia; Iglesia Altaba, Iris; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Manera, María; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Santaliestra Pasías, Alba M; Babio, Nancy; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-11-01

    Milk products contain proteins of high biologic value and digestibility; they also contain fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Diversification of milk products consumption allows a high consumptiom of the above mentioned products, optimizing nutrient intake. In Spain, food consumption of milk products lower than the recommended amounts was observed in 20 to 40 % of the children and 30 to 45 % of the adults. Milk products represent 44 to 70 % of calcium intake in the Spanish population. Milk products consumption is positively associated with a high bone mineral density. More than 35 % of children and adults in Spain had calcium intakes below the national recommendations. Yogur contains less lactose than regular milk and fermenting milk bacteries express functioning lactase. Yogur intake is recommended to improve lactose digestion in individuals having lactose maldigestion. It seems reasonable to recommend yogur to improve calcium absorption, at least in post-menopausal women, and also for decreasing incidence and duration of infectious gastrointestinal disorders in children. Fermented milk products consumption, before, during and after medical eradication of Helicobacter Pylori, increases 5 to 10 % the effect of the specific drug therapy. Its consumption before, during and after antibiotic treatment, could also reduce the risk of diarrhea associated with the use of the above mentioned drugs. The Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Feeding and Dietetic Societies (FESNAD) recommend the following consumption of milk and milk products: Adults, 2-3 portions/day; school-age children, 2-3 portions/day; adolescents, 3-4 portions/day; pregnant and lactating women and during menopause, 3-4 portions/day; elderly, 2-4 portions/day. Considering yogur and fermented milk consumption show some advantages when compared with other milk products, we can recommend yogur within a daily and varied consumption of milk products. Copyright AULA MEDICA

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing of the Quality of Dying and Death Questionnaire for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Sánchez, Daniel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2018-04-01

    Many measurements have been developed to assess the quality of death (QoD). Among these, the Quality of Dying and Death Questionnaire (QODD) is the most widely studied and best validated. Informal carers and health professionals who care for the patient during their last days of life can complete this assessment tool. The aim of the study is to carry out a cross-cultural adaptation and a psychometric analysis of the QODD for the Spanish population. The translation was performed using a double forward and backward method. An expert panel evaluated the content validity. The questionnaire was tested in a sample of 72 Spanish-speaking adult carers of deceased cancer patients. A psychometric analysis was performed to evaluate internal consistency, divergent criterion-related validity with the Mini-Suffering State Examination (MSSE) and concurrent criterion-related validity with the Palliative Outcome Scale (POS). Some items were deleted and modified to create the Spanish version of the QODD (QODD-ESP-26). The instrument was readable and acceptable. The content validity index was 0.96, suggesting that all items are relevant for the measure of the QoD. This questionnaire showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.88). Divergent validity with MSSE (r = -0.64) and convergent validity with POS (r = -0.61) were also demonstrated. The QODD-ESP-26 is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of the QoD of deceased cancer patients that can be used in a clinical and research setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of Performance on the Modified Cued Recall Test in Spanish Adults With Down Syndrome With and Without Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benejam, Bessy; Fortea, Juan; Molina-López, Rafael; Videla, Sebastià

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of memory decline in people with intellectual disability (ID) is more difficult than in the general population, due to a lack of appropriate instruments and to preexisting cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to describe performance of healthy adults with Down syndrome (healthy-DS; prospectively cohort) on a Spanish version of the modified Cued Recall Test (mCRT). We also recruited retrospectively a cohort of DS subjects with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DS-DAT). Healthy-DS obtained higher scores on free recall and total score than DS-DAT. Age was the main factor associated with decreasing mCRT scores. The mCRT was useful in DS subjects with ID at the upper end of the spectrum or ID in the middle range of the spectrum, and discriminated well between DS subjects with and without DAT.

  10. Internalized HIV Stigma and Disclosure Concerns: Development and Validation of Two Scales in Spanish-Speaking Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernansaiz-Garrido, Helena; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Internalized stigma and disclosure concerns are key elements for the study of mental health in people living with HIV. Since no measures of these constructs were available for Spanish population, this study sought to develop such instruments, to analyze their reliability and validity and to provide a short version. A heterogeneous sample of 458 adults from different Spanish-speaking countries completed the HIV-Internalized Stigma Scale and the HIV-Disclosure Concerns Scale, along with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale and other socio-demographic variables. Reliability and correlation analyses, exploratory factor analyses, path analyses with latent variables, and ANOVAs were conducted to test the scales' psychometric properties. The scales showed good reliability in terms of internal consistency and temporal stability, as well as good sensitivity and factorial and criterion validity. The HIV-Internalized Stigma Scale and the HIV-Disclosure Concerns Scale are reliable and valid means to assess these variables in several contexts.

  11. Dynamics of the spanish population: toward what horizon in the external migratory flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Serrano Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last fifteen years, the number of immigrants has been increased in Spain to more than four million. Several favorable causes have contributed to reach this situation. But nowadays, with the deep economic crisis a new scenario has showed up and, therefore, a dilemma. Everything seems to indicate that a new migration cycle might start. It is not expected that during a short period of time the migration flows may increase as it was before. The Spanish production structure does not give clear possibilities to host a massive migration flow. Moreover, it seems probable that a certain number of immigrants might decide to leave Spain if their economic circumstances do not change rapidly. But the Spanish demographic weakness needs the arrival of youth population to compensate its significant imbalance. For all this reasons, the analysis of this matter is of great interest for the migration studies.

  12. Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire: Preliminary Validation with Spanish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortet, Generós; Martínez, Tania; Mezquita, Laura; Morizot, Julien; Ibáñez, Manuel I

    2017-02-09

    There are two major advantages of the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ) over other non-commercial short Five-Factor Model personality measures: widen conceptual breadth, and its use in both adolescents and adults. The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of this questionnaire in an adult Spanish sample. Factor, convergent (using the NEO-PI-R), and criterion (using scales that assess happiness and alcohol consumption) validities, internal consistency as well as test-retest reliabilities of the BFPTSQ were evaluated. The sample was composed of 262 participants; a subsample of 71 individuals also answered the NEO-PI-R, and another subsample of 42 respondents filled the BFPTSQ out again a month later. The results indicated that the expected factor structure was recovered using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). The ESEM showed satisfactory fit indices, with CFI and TLI around .90, as well as RMSEA and SRMR below .06. Moreover, coefficient alphas ranged from .75 to .85 and test-retest correlations ranged from .72 to .93 (p trait scales ranged from .57 to .80 (p < .001), and 27 out of 30 correlations with the facet scales were significant (p < .05 or lower). We also found that extraversion and emotional stability were associated with subjective well-being (p < .001), and extraversion and conscientiousness were related to alcohol consumption (p < .01). This study supports the construct validity of the Spanish version of the BFPTSQ in adults.

  13. Hydration Status of Adult Population of Yazd

    OpenAIRE

    MH Lotfi; M Shakiba; S Jafary-Nodushan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Water is an essential nutrient for life. It comprises 75% of total body weight in infants,60% in adult males and 50% in adult females. Decrease in body water is commonly known as dehydration. Acute or chronic dehydration is a common condition in some population groups, especialy the elderly and those who participate in physical activity in warm enviroments. Potential consequences of dehydration include constipation,urinary tract and respiratory infection,urinary stone disease an...

  14. Reliability and validity of the Spanish Language Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd Edition) in a sample of American, urban, Spanish-speaking Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Laura; Li, Susan Tinsley; Pliskin, Neil H

    2008-05-01

    The utility of the Spanish WAIS-III was investigated by examining its reliability and validity among 100 Spanish-speaking participants. Results indicated that the internal consistency of the subtests was satisfactory, but inadequate for Letter Number Sequencing. Criterion validity was adequate. Convergent and discriminant validity results were generally similar to the North American normative sample. Paired sample t-tests suggested that the WAIS-III may underestimate ability when compared to the criterion measures that were utilized to assess validity. This study provides support for the use of the Spanish WAIS-III in urban Hispanic populations, but also suggests that caution be used when administering specific subtests, due to the nature of the Latin America alphabet and potential test bias.

  15. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  16. New birthweight charts according to parity and type of delivery for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán, José Manuel; Varea, Carlos; Bernis, Cristina; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    Birthweight by gestational age charts enable fetal growth to be evaluated in a specific population. Given that maternal profile and obstetric practice have undergone a remarkable change over the past few decades in Spain, this paper presents new Spanish reference percentile charts stratified by gender, parity and type of delivery. They have been prepared with data from the 2010-2014 period of the Spanish Birth Statistics Bulletin. Reference charts have been prepared using the LMS method, corresponding to 1,428,769 single, live births born to Spanish mothers. Percentile values and mean birth weight are compared among newborns according to gender, parity and type of delivery. Newborns to primiparous mothers show significantly lower birthweight than those born to multiparous mothers (pparity and type of delivery-specific birthweight references. These new charts enable a better evaluation of the impact of the demographic, reproductive and obstetric trends currently in Spain on fetal growth. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptation to the Spanish population of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Díaz-Batanero, Carmen; Rojas-Tejada, Antonio J; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Lozano-Rojas, Óscar M

    2017-07-14

    The identification of different personality risk profiles for substance misuse is useful in preventing substance-related problems. This study aims to test the psychometric properties of a new version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) for Spanish college students. Cross-sectional study with 455 undergraduate students from four Spanish universities. A new version of the SURPS, adapted to the Spanish population, was administered with the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Internal consistency reliability ranged between 0.652 and 0.806 for the four SURPS subscales, while reliability estimated by split-half coefficients varied from 0.686 to 0.829. The estimated test-retest reliability ranged between 0.733 and 0.868. The expected four-factor structure of the original scale was replicated. As evidence of convergent validity, we found that the SURPS subscales were significantly associated with other conceptually-relevant personality scales and significantly associated with alcohol use measures in theoretically-expected ways. This SURPS version may be a useful instrument for measuring personality traits related to vulnerability to substance use and misuse when targeting personality with preventive interventions.

  18. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain” cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old. Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%. Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%, mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23% ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6% and meat and meat products (22.0%. Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70% combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%. The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents.

  19. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-07

    Jan 7, 2010 ... Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population. Celestine Okorome Mume*. Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun. State, Nigeria. Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities.

  20. Interpreting the Emigration of Young Spanish Adults in a Context of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Moreno Mínguez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effects of the economic crisis on the international mobility of young Spaniards from a critical perspective. The difficulties in finding employment resulting from the economic crisis have changed the international mobility of young people. The results presented in this paper point to a relative decline in the young population due to reduced fertility and increased youth mobility. On the one hand, this new trend has generated a relative media distortion. On the other hand, it could have future implications for the sustainability of the Spanish welfare state.

  1. Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Trapp, S; Jiménez-Pérez, C; Hernández Carrillo, C L; Pohlenz Amador, S; Vergara-Moragues, E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Rodriguez-Irizarry, W; García de la Cadena, C; Galvao-Carmona, A; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Llerena Espezúa, X; Torales Cabrera, N; Flor-Caravia, P; Aguayo Arelis, A; Saracostti Schwartzman, M; Barranco Casimiro, R; Albaladejo-Blázquez, N

    2017-01-01

    To generate normative data for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the SDMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. SDMT scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age in all countries, such that score increased linearly as a function of age. In addition, age2 had a significant effect in all countries, except in Honduras and Puerto Rico. Models indicated that children whose parent(s) had a MLPE >12 years of education obtained higher score compared to children whose parent(s) had a MLPE ≤12 years for Chile, Guatemala, Mexico, and Spain. Sex affected SDMT score for Paraguay and Spain. This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate interpretation of the SDMT with pediatric populations.

  2. Availability and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation information for Spanish-speaking population on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kirsten Y; Haukoos, Jason S; Sasson, Comilla

    2014-01-01

    websites included 5 or more quality markers for proper bystander CPR. A small proportion of internet resources have high quality CPR education for a Spanish-speaking population. More emphasis should be placed on improving the quality of educational resources available on the Internet for Spanish-speaking populations, and with particular emphasis on current basic life support recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Juan J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008 consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08 mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will

  4. Explaining differences in perceived health-related quality of life: a study within the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; Sarria-Santamera, Antonio; Del Cura-González, Isabel

    2017-09-25

    To assess the burden of several determinants on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to study its heterogeneity among the different Spanish regions. Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the Spanish National Health Survey (2012), and HRQOL was measured using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire (utility and visual analogue scale -VAS- scores). Demographic variables, physical health condition, social variables, mental health status, and lifestyle were also analysed. Tobit regression models were employed to study the relationships between expressed HRQOL and personal characteristics. A total of 20,979 surveys were obtained. Of them, 62.4% expressed a utility score of 1, corresponding to perfect health (95%CI: 61.8%-63.2%), and 54.2% showed VAS scores ≥80 (95%CI: 53.5%-54.9%). HRQOL was mainly described as a function of age, chronic limitation in daily activities, and mental health status. Belonging to a higher-class strata and physical activity were related to better self-perceived HRQOL. Ageing worsened perceived HRQOL, but did not influence its determinants, and differences in HRQOL by regions were also not significant after model adjustment. HRQOL perception in the Spanish population varied slightly depending on the measure used (utilities index or VAS). Age, chronic limitations in daily life, and mental health status best explained the variability in perception, and no meaningful differences in HRQOL perception among regions were found after adjustment. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the amount of 210Po ingested by the Spanish population and its relation to their diet habit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Francés, I.; García-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Manjón, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the contribution of 210 Po to the committed effective dose via ingestion received by the Spanish population have been evaluated, by determining the 210 Po activity concentrations in an ample set of samples which can be considered representatives of the diet consumed in Spain. The obtained results show a quit high variability, preventing the possibility to fix a representative value for the 210 Po contribution to the ingestion doses received by the Spanish population, but in general these values, due exclusively to 210 Po, are higher than the average value assigned by UNSCEAR to the annual committed effective dose received by the worldwide population due to the ingestion of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. Knowing the diet habits of the Spanish population and the 210 Po bioaccumulative behavior in the marine trophic chain, which implies enhanced concentration of 210 Po in the sea food in comparison with the obtained ones in other components of the diet, the variable and generally higher ingestion doses due to 210 Po received by the Spanish population can be associated to the variable and rich consumption of marine products. The Spanish population has the seafood as an essential component of his diet. Although the 210 Po levels in the edible parts of a great variety of marine organisms can be found in the literature in general the great majority of these determinations corresponds to raw edible products. But little is known about the effects of cooking on the 210 Po content of seafood which are normally cooked for human consumption. Then it is important to check if cooking can alter the 210 Po content in the seafood in order to refine the dose estimates to human consumers. Trying to cover this gap, and at the same time trying to confirm the key role of the seafood in the 210 Po ingestion doses received by the Spanish population, we have also analyzed the 210 Po content in the edible parts of several seafood products bought in commercial markets

  6. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (S-FAQLQ-AF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolin-Amerigo, D.; Cerecedo Carballo, [Unknown; Muriel, A.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Dieguez Pastor, M.; Flokstra-de Blok, B.; Dubois, A.; De la Hoz Caballer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Specific food allergy quality of life questionnaires have been developed within the context of the EuroPrevall project. We aimed to adapt and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) in the Spanish language. Methods: The original English

  7. Emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in institutionalised Spanish older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Spanish older adults who are institutionalised in long-term care (LTC) facilities. One hundred fifteen institutionalised individuals (47.82% women; 88.3 ± 7.9 years) from southern Spain completed a set of questionnaires that included measures of EI, health and personality. Data were analysed via hierarchical regression. After controlling for personality and sociodemographic variables, the EI dimensions, emotional comprehension and emotional facilitation, accounted for part of the variance in several HRQoL facets. These dimensions could have an important role in the HRQoL of residents in LTC. Moreover, the use of a performance measure addresses the limitations of previous studies that have relied on self-report measures. These aspects underscore the importance of the results of this study. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. [Caregiver's health: adaption and validation in a Spanish population of the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Maraver, Mariacruz; Doval, Eduardo; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Giménez-Salinas, Jordi; Prat, Gemma; Bonet, Pere

    2018-04-04

    To adapt and to validate the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI) in a Spanish population, providing empirical evidence of its internal consistency, internal structure and validity. Psychometric validation of the adapted version of the ECI. One hundred and seventy-two caregivers (69.2% women), mean age 57.51 years (range: 21-89) participated. Demographic and clinical data, standardized measures (ECI, suffering scale of SCL-90-R, Zarit burden scale) were used. The two scales of negative evaluation of the ECI most related to serious mental disorders (disruptive behaviours [DB] and negative symptoms [NS]) and the two scales of positive appreciation (positive personal experiences [PPE], and good aspects of the relationship [GAR]) were analyzed. Exploratory structural equation modelling was used to analyze the internal structure. The relationship between the ECI scales and the SCL-90-R and Zarit scores was also studied. The four-factor model presented a good fit. Cronbach's alpha (DB: 0.873; NS: 0.825; PPE: 0.720; GAR: 0.578) showed a higher homogeneity in the negative scales. The SCL-90-R scores correlated with the negative ECI scales, and none of the ECI scales correlated with the Zarit scale. The Spanish version of the ECI can be considered a valid, reliable, understandable and feasible self-report measure for its administration in the health and community context. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Translation and adaptation of the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofia; Pampliega Pérez, Ana; Peral Gómez, Paula; Pastor, María Ángeles; Hurtado-Pomares, Miriam

    2017-09-20

    Functional assessment is especially relevant in patients with cognitive impairment (CI). The Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale assesses functional ability and its use is becoming increasingly popular. This study aims to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the DAD scale in order to create a Spanish version: DAD-E. A double translation/back-translation process was developed, as well as a pilot study with 14 caregivers of patients with CI, and 3 review meetings to achieve general agreement. The DAD-E includes the 40 original items. Four response options and 8 scores were added in order to detect functional disability induced by CI independently of other possible causes. More detailed instructions for administration and scoring of the scale have been provided in order to improve the reliability of the content. The DAD-E was shown to be a cultural and linguistic adaptation equivalent of the original scale, which allows it to be applied to the Spanish population. It may be a useful instrument in clinical practice since it provides a more accurate assessment of functional disability due to cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical and genetic characterization of classical forms of familial adenomatous polyposis: a Spanish population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, B; González, S; Sánchez-Tomé, E; Blanco, I; Mercadillo, F; Letón, R; Benítez, J; Robledo, M; Capellá, G; Urioste, M

    2011-04-01

    Classical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the appearance of >100 colorectal adenomas. We screened the APC and MUTYH genes for mutations and evaluated the genotype-phenotype correlation in 136 Spanish classical FAP families. APC/MUTYH mutations were detected in 107 families. Sixty-four distinct APC point mutations were detected in 95 families of which all were truncating mutations. A significant proportion (39.6%) had not been previously reported. Mutations were spread over the entire coding region and great rearrangements were identified in six families. Another six families exhibited biallelic MUTYH mutations. No APC or MUTYH mutations were detected in 29 families. These APC/MUTYH-negative families showed clinical differences with the APC-positive families. A poor correlation between phenotype and mutation site was observed. Our results highlight that a broad approach in the genetic study must be considered for classical FAP due to involvement of both APC and MUTYH and the heterogeneous spectrum of APC mutations observed in this Spanish population. The scarcely consistent genotype-phenotype correlation does not allow making specific recommendations regarding screening and management. Differences observed in APC/MUTYH-negative families may reflect a genetic basis other than mutations in APC and MUTYH genes for FAP predisposition. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  11. Hydration Status of Adult Population of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Lotfi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water is an essential nutrient for life. It comprises 75% of total body weight in infants,60% in adult males and 50% in adult females. Decrease in body water is commonly known as dehydration. Acute or chronic dehydration is a common condition in some population groups, especialy the elderly and those who participate in physical activity in warm enviroments. Potential consequences of dehydration include constipation,urinary tract and respiratory infection,urinary stone disease and there might also be an association between a low habitual fluid intake and some carcinomas,cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many indices have been investigated to establish their role as markers of dehydration status. Body mass changes,blood indices,urine indices and bioelectrical impedance analysis have been used most widely, but current evidence and opinion tend to favour urine indices as the most convenient and sensitive methods. Methods: This cross sectional study was done for estimating the prevalence of dehydration in adult population(students,nurses,officials,workersin Yazd. These persons were selected randomly. Urine samples of two hundred and thirty persons were obtained at 10-12 AM,and urine specific gravity measured by refractometer (all of the samplesand dip stick (some samples. Finding: According to this study,96.7% of our population had some degree of dehydration.69.7% of them were significantly dehydrated(urine SG>1020 and 4.8% of them were severely dehydrated (urine SG>1030 and the mean specific gravity was 1021±5/65. This study evaluated other factors that could probably indicate hydration status like urine colour, type of drink,frequency of urination and frequency of thirst per day. Conclusion: High percentage of our population were dehydrated which was not correlated to the type of drink but was correlated to urine colour, frequency of urination and frequency of thirst. So, regular monitoring of urine to keep if clear or light

  12. Psychological Factors and Alcohol Use in Problematic Mobile Phone Use in the Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to study the existing relationships among the factors of state anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and alcohol consumption regarding problematic mobile phone use, as assessed by the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. The study was conducted among 1,126 participants recruited among the general Spanish population, aged 16-65 years, by assessing the predictive value of these variables regarding this problematic use. Initially tobacco use was also considered being subsequently refused because of the low internal consistency of the scale used. In general terms, the results show that this problematic use is mainly related to state anxiety and impulsivity, through the dimensions of Positive and Negative Urgency. Considering its predictive value, multiple regression analysis reveals that state anxiety, positive and negative urgency, and alcohol consumption may predict problematic mobile phone use, ruling out the influence of depression.

  13. Psychological Factors and Alcohol Use in Problematic Mobile Phone Use in the Spanish Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to study the existing relationships among the factors of state anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and alcohol consumption regarding problematic mobile phone use, as assessed by the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. The study was conducted among 1,126 participants recruited among the general Spanish population, aged 16–65 years, by assessing the predictive value of these variables regarding this problematic use. Initially tobacco use was also considered being subsequently refused because of the low internal consistency of the scale used. In general terms, the results show that this problematic use is mainly related to state anxiety and impulsivity, through the dimensions of Positive and Negative Urgency. Considering its predictive value, multiple regression analysis reveals that state anxiety, positive and negative urgency, and alcohol consumption may predict problematic mobile phone use, ruling out the influence of depression. PMID:28217101

  14. Urinary concentrations of phthalates and phenols in a population of Spanish pregnant women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Fernández, Mariana F; Llop, Sabrina; Guxens, Mònica; Ballester, Ferran; Olea, Nicolás; Irurzun, Mikel Basterrechea; Rodríguez, Loreto Santa Marina; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Calafat, Antonia M; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    Phthalate and phenol exposure is prevalent among the general population and of potential concern for pregnant women and children because of their suspected susceptibility to endocrine effects. To evaluate the extent of exposure to several phthalates and phenols in a sample of Spanish pregnant women - according to their individual characteristics (age, social class, education, and body mass index) - and children who participated in the INMA - Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project. One spot urine sample was taken during the third trimester of pregnancy from 120 pregnant women and from 30 4-year old children belonging to 5 Spanish birth cohorts, and analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites and 9 phenols. Three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate; two metabolites of dibutyl phthalates, mono-isobutyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate; monoethyl phthalate (MEP), the main metabolite of diethyl phthalate; and two phenols, methyl paraben (M-PB) and 2,5-dichlorophenol were detected in the urine samples of all women. The highest urinary concentrations were for MEP and M-PB. Urinary concentrations of all phthalate metabolites and of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and bisphenol A were lower in the pregnant women than in the children. Among women, a positive relationship with social class and education was shown for most of the phthalate metabolites and phenols. Almost all phthalate metabolites varied by region even after adjusting for social class and education. Phthalate and phenol exposures are prevalent in a group of pregnant women and young children, two susceptible populations, and these exposures might be positively related to social class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stroop Color-Word Interference Test: Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Morlett-Paredes, A; Peñalver Guia, A I; Irías Escher, M J; Soto-Añari, M; Aguayo Arelis, A; Rute-Pérez, S; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, A; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Albaladejo-Blázquez, N; García de la Cadena, C; Ibáñez-Alfonso, J A; Rodriguez-Irizarry, W; García-Guerrero, C E; Delgado-Mejía, I D; Padilla-López, A; Vergara-Moragues, E; Barrios Nevado, M D; Saracostti Schwartzman, M; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2017-01-01

    To generate normative data for the Stroop Word-Color Interference test in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the Stroop Word-Color Interference test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The Stroop Word, Stroop Color, Stroop Word-Color, and Stroop Interference scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on all scores, except on Stroop Interference for Guatemala, such that scores increased linearly as a function of age. Age2 affected Stroop Word scores for all countries, Stroop Color scores for Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Spain; Stroop Word-Color scores for Ecuador, Mexico, and Paraguay; and Stroop Interference scores for Cuba, Guatemala, and Spain. MLPE affected Stroop Word scores for Chile, Mexico, and Puerto Rico; Stroop Color scores for Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Spain; Stroop Word-Color scores for Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Spain; and Stroop-Interference scores for Ecuador, Mexico, and Spain. Sex affected Stroop Word scores for Spain, Stroop Color scores for Mexico, and Stroop Interference for Honduras. This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the Stroop Word-Color Interference test in pediatric populations.

  16. Spanish validation of the adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS): relevance of clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richarte, Vanesa; Corrales, Montserrat; Pozuelo, Marian; Serra-Pla, Juanfran; Ibáñez, Pol; Calvo, Eva; Corominas, Margarida; Bosch, Rosa; Casas, Miquel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence between 2.5% and 4% of the general adult population. Over the past few decades, self-report measures have been developed for the current evaluation of adult ADHD. The ADHD-RS is a 18-items scale self-report version for assessing symptoms for ADHD DSM-IV. A validation of Spanish version of the ADHD-RS was performed. The sample consisted of 304 adult with ADHD and 94 controls. A case control study was carried out (adult ADHD vs. non ADHD). The diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-II). To determinate the internal validity of the two dimensions structure of ADHD-RS an exploratory factor analysis was performed. The α-coefficients were taken as a measure of the internal consistency of the dimensions considered. A logistic regression study was carried out to evaluate the model in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Average age was 33.29 (SD=10.50) and 66% of subjects were men (there were no significant differences between the two groups). Factor analysis was done with a principal component analysis followed by a normalized varimax rotation. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests was .868 (remarkable) and the Bartlett's test of sphericity was 2 (153)=1,835.76, P<.0005, indicating the appropriateness of the factor analysis. This two-factor model accounted for 37.81% of the explained variance. The α-coefficient of the two factors was .84 and .82. The original strategy proposed 24 point for cut-off: sensitivity (81.9%), specificity (74.7%), PPV (50.0%), NPV (93.0%), kappa coefficient .78 and area under the curve (AUC) .89. The new score strategy proposed by our group suggests different cut-off for different clinical presentations. The 24 point is the best cut-off for ADHD combined presentation

  17. Dietary habits and cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population: the DRECE study (II) micronutrient intake. Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Pomar, M D; Rubio-Herrera, M A; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, J A; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Gómez-de-la-Cámara, A; Pascual, O; Gárate, I; Montero, R; Campiña, S

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dietary micronutrient intake in the adult Spanish population participating in the DRECE study. The cross-sectional study was performed in two stages in 1991 and 1996 in 43 primary care clinics. One thousand two hundred people 'with cardiovascular risk' and 600 'without risk' answered a food frequency questionnaire. Significant increases in vitamin C, retinol, lycopenes, beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin E intakes were found. Vitamin A, alpha-carotenoid and lutein intakes decreased. Vitamin B(12), B(6) and folic acid intakes increased in people with cardiovascular risk, whereas only the last two increased in the control group. Nearly 100% of the people consumed the recommended dietary allowances for vitamins B(12) and B(6) and >70% for folic acid. Calcium, iron, and zinc intake increased in both groups, but magnesium and selenium intake increased only in people at risk. Vitamin A, B(1) and zinc intakes have decreased, and >50% of the people do not consume the recommended dietary allowance. Antioxidant vitamins and vitamin B(12), B(6) and folic acid intakes seem to be adequate in the adult Spanish population, no significant differences appear regarding their cardiovascular risk status. Vitamin A, B(1) and zinc intakes are not appropriate. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Nutritional assessment of Esmeraldan adult population (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia MATEOS-MARCOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyse the nutritional status of the adult population in Esmeraldas by means of anthropometric measurements, the input of macro and micronutrients in the diet, and the adequacy estimation of nutrient intake by hispanic Dietary Reference Instakes along with the sex and the age influence. Methods Nutrient intake data were obtained by personal interview with the application of two 24 hour recalls (weekend and weekday. The anthropometric indicators analysed were body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. Nutriplato version 2.0 software was used for the two 24-hours food recall surveys data processing, and for the respective calculations of macronutrients, micronutrients and Dietary Reference Intakes. Means and standard deviations were calculated for anthropometry, nutrient intakes and Dietary Reference Instakes. The General Linear Model was applied to identify differences in relation to nutrient intakes considering sex, profession, body mass index, group, origin and day of the week as factors. Results Statistical analysis showed significant differences mainly in carbohydrates, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, iodine, and vitamin E. Dietary intakes were compared with the Federación Española de Sociedades de Nutrición, Alimentación y Dietética Dietary Reference Intakes requirements and calcium, potassium, iodine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin D, vitamin E, fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are below the Dietary Reference Instakes in all ages and gender subgroups. The anthropometric results obtained indicated that 67.0% of the population were overweight and obese, the 87.7% of the adults suffered from prehypertension and the waist circumference indicated that 73.0% of the subjects were established in the range of high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion Priority nutrition actions and interventions are needed to be developed in Esmeraldas adult

  19. The CAPN10 Gene Is Associated with Insulin Resistance Phenotypes in the Spanish Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, María E.; González-Sánchez, José L.; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Martínez-Larrad, María T.; Zabena, Carina; González, Alejandro; Morón, Francisco J.; Ruiz, Agustín; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. Familial aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors is a frequent finding, but genetic factors affecting its presentation are still poorly understood. The calpain 10 gene (CAPN10) has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), a complex metabolic disorder with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the CAPN10 gene has been associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in T2DM and in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this work, we have analysed whether the polymorphisms UCSNP44, -43, -19 and -63 are related to several cardiovascular risk factors in the context of MS. Molecular analysis of CAPN10 gene was performed in 899 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey. We have found that CAPN10 gene in our population is mainly associated with two indicators of the presence of insulin resistance: glucose levels two hours after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HOMA values, although cholesterol levels and blood pressure values are also influenced by CAPN10 variants. In addition, the 1221/1121 haplogenotype is under-represented in individuals that fulfil the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) diagnostic criteria for MS. Our results suggest that CAPN10 gene is associated with insulin resistance phenotypes in the Spanish population. PMID:18698425

  20. The CAPN10 gene is associated with insulin resistance phenotypes in the Spanish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Sáez

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. Familial aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors is a frequent finding, but genetic factors affecting its presentation are still poorly understood. The calpain 10 gene (CAPN10 has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM, a complex metabolic disorder with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the CAPN10 gene has been associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS in T2DM and in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. In this work, we have analysed whether the polymorphisms UCSNP44, -43, -19 and -63 are related to several cardiovascular risk factors in the context of MS. Molecular analysis of CAPN10 gene was performed in 899 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey. We have found that CAPN10 gene in our population is mainly associated with two indicators of the presence of insulin resistance: glucose levels two hours after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and HOMA values, although cholesterol levels and blood pressure values are also influenced by CAPN10 variants. In addition, the 1221/1121 haplogenotype is under-represented in individuals that fulfil the International Diabetes Federation (IDF diagnostic criteria for MS. Our results suggest that CAPN10 gene is associated with insulin resistance phenotypes in the Spanish population.

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of Reading Development from Kindergarten to Grade Eight in a Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Ryan P.; Solari, Emily J.; Gerber, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study used latent growth curve modeling to investigate English literacy development in a sample of Spanish-speaking language minority students from third through eighth grade. This study also compared the sample's literacy development to the entire population of California students using state standardized test data. Second, this…

  2. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation of natural tooth colour with aging in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Polo, Cristina; Gómez Polo, Miguel; Montero, Javier; Martínez Vazquez De Parga, Juan Antonio; Celemin Viñuela, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    To analyse natural tooth colour in the Spanish population according to the colour coordinates lightness (L*), chroma (C*), hue (h*), red-green axis (a*) and yellow-blue axis (b*) in order to quantify the correlation and changes of tooth colour with age and sex. Natural tooth colour was measured in a sample of 1,361 Spanish participants of both sexes distributed within an age range of 16 to 89 years. The Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer was used and the CIELAB and CIELCh systems were followed. Pearson's bivariate correlations between age and colour coordinates were highly significant for L* (r=-0.674, P≤0.001), h* (r=-0.468, P≤0.001) and C* (r=0.417, P≤0.001). The correlation between age and colour coordinates was stronger for men than for women, for all colour coordinates. The results showed that C*, b* and a* increased by 0.60, 0.56 and 0.26 units/year on average, respectively, whereas L* and h* decreased progressively with age (by 0.60 units/year, on average), and colour differences increased in a systematic way as the gap between the ages being compared grew wider. The strongest correlation was found between age and L*, then between age and h* (both inverse relationships) and then between age and a*, C* and b* (direct relationships). In addition, a similar degree of change in the colour coordinates L*, C* and h* (of 0.60 units/year on average) was observed for natural tooth colour. Knowledge of the chromatic range of natural teeth may help to choose colour for the replacement of missing elements. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. The validity of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory in older Spanish population: an examination of the androgyny model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Afshin; Alvarado, Beatriz; Tomás, Concepcion; Muro, Carmen; Martinez, Beatriz; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) is the most commonly used and validated gender role measurement tool across countries and age groups. However, it has been rarely validated in older adults and sporadically used in aging and health studies. Perceived gender role is a crucial part of a person's identity and an established determinant of health. Androgyny model suggests that those with high levels of both masculinity and femininity (androgynous) are more adaptive and hence have better health. Our objectives were to explore the validity of BSRI in an older Spanish population, to compare different standard methods of measuring gender roles, and to examine their impact on health indicators. The BSRI and health indicator questions were completed by 120 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Aragon, Spain. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine psychometric properties of the BSRI. Androgyny was measured by three approaches: geometric mean, t-ratio, and traditional four-gender groups classification. Relationships between health indicators and gender roles were explored. Factor analysis resulted in two-factor solution consistent with the original masculine and feminine items with high loadings and good reliability. There were no associations between biological sex and gender roles. Different gender role measurement approaches classified participants differently into gender role groups. Overall, androgyny was associated with better mobility and physical and mental health. The traditional four groups approach showed higher compatibility with the androgyny model and was better able to disentangle the differential impact of gender roles on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Length and repeat-sequence variation in 58 STRs and 94 SNPs in two Spanish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Ferran; Anglada, Roger; Bonet, Núria; Rasal, Raquel; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Hoogenboom, Jerry; Solé-Morata, Neus; Comas, David; Calafell, Francesc

    2017-09-01

    We have genotyped the 58 STRs (27 autosomal, 24 Y-STRs and 7 X-STRs) and 94 autosomal SNPs in Illumina ForenSeq™ Primer Mix A in 88 Spanish Roma (Gypsy) samples and 143 Catalans. Since this platform is based in massive parallel sequencing, we have used simple R scripts to uncover the sequence variation in the repeat region. Thus, we have found, across 58 STRs, 541 length-based alleles, which, after considering repeat-sequence variation, became 804 different alleles. All loci in both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F ST between both populations was 0.0178 for autosomal SNPs, 0.0146 for autosomal STRs, 0.0101 for X-STRs and 0.1866 for Y-STRs. Combined a priori statistics showed quite large; for instance, pooling all the autosomal loci, the a priori probabilities of discriminating a suspect become 1-(2.3×10 -70 ) and 1-(5.9×10 -73 ), for Roma and Catalans respectively, and the chances of excluding a false father in a trio are 1-(2.6×10 -20 ) and 1-(2.0×10 -21 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Barbara Lohse; Tricia Psota; Ramon Estruch; Itziar Zazpe; Jose V. Sorli; Merce Serra; Jodi Stotts Krall; Fabiola Ma´rquez; Emilio Ros; PREDIMED Study Investigators

    2010-01-01

    Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile. Eating competence (EC), a bio-psychosocial model for intrapersonal approaches to eating and food-related behaviors, is associated with less weight dissatisfaction, lower BMI, and increased HDL-cholesterol in small U.S. studies, but its relationship to nutrient quality and overall cardiovascular risk have not been examined. Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PRE...

  7. Validation of two complementary oral-health related quality of life indicators (OIDP and OSS 0-10 in two qualitatively distinct samples of the Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaladejo A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health-related quality of life can be assessed positively, by measuring satisfaction with mouth, or negatively, by measuring oral impact on the performance of daily activities. The study objective was to validate two complementary indicators, i.e., the OIDP (Oral Impacts on Daily Performances and Oral Satisfaction 0–10 Scale (OSS, in two qualitatively different socio-demographic samples of the Spanish adult population, and to analyse the factors affecting both perspectives of well-being. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, recruiting a Validation Sample from randomly selected Health Centres in Granada (Spain, representing the general population (n = 253, and a Working Sample (n = 561 randomly selected from active Regional Government staff, i.e., representing the more privileged end of the socio-demographic spectrum of this reference population. All participants were examined according to WHO methodology and completed an in-person interview on their oral impacts and oral satisfaction using the OIDP and OSS 0–10 respectively. The reliability and validity of the two indicators were assessed. An alternative method of describing the causes of oral impacts is presented. Results The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha of the OIDP was above the recommended 0.7 threshold in both Validation and Occupational samples (0.79 and 0.71 respectively. Test-retest analysis confirmed the external reliability of the OSS (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, 0.89; p Conclusion OIDP and OSS are valid and reliable subjective measures of oral impacts and oral satisfaction, respectively, in an adult Spanish population. Exploring simultaneously these issues may provide useful insights into how satisfaction and impact on well-being are constructed.

  8. Has the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain changed over the last 15 years (1993-2006)? A Spanish population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Silvia; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Villanueva-Martínez, Manuel; Ríos-Luna, Antonio; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and time trend of invalidating musculoskeletal pain in the Spanish population and its association with socio-demographic factors, lifestyle habits, self-reported health status, and comorbidity with other diseases analyzing data from 1993-2006 Spanish National Health Surveys (SNHS). We analyzed individualized data taken from the SNHS conducted in 1993 (n = 20,707), 2001 (n = 21,058), 2003 (n = 21,650) and 2006 (n = 29,478). Invalidating musculoskeletal pain was defined as pain suffered from the preceding 2 weeks that decreased main working activity or free-time activity by at least half a day. We analyzed socio-demographic characteristics, self-perceived health status, lifestyle habits, and comorbid conditions using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain in Spanish adults was 6.1% (95% CI, 5.7-6.4) in 1993, 7.3% (95% CI, 6.9-7.7) in 2001, 5.5% (95% CI, 5.1-5.9) in 2003 and 6.4% (95% CI 6-6.8) in 2006. The prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain among women was almost twice that of men in every year (P postural hygiene, physical exercise, and how to prevent obesity and sedentary lifestyle habits should be provided by Public Health Services. This population-based study indicates that invalidating musculoskeletal pain that reduces main working activity is a public health problem in Spain. The prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain was higher in women than in men and associated to lower income, poor sleeping, worse self-reported health status, and other comorbid conditions. Further, the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain increased from 1993 to 2001, but remained stable from the last years (2001 to 2006).

  9. Occurrence of mycotoxins in refrigerated pizza dough and risk assessment of exposure for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Juan Manuel; Saladino, Federica; Mañes, Jordi; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Meca, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The first objective of this research was to study the presence of mycotoxins in 60 samples of refrigerated pizza dough, by extraction with methanol and determination by liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of these mycotoxins, among the Spanish population, was calculated and the health risk assessment was performed, comparing the EDIs data with the tolerable daily intake values (TDIs). The mycotoxins detected in the analyzed samples were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin (ENB), enniatin B1 (ENB1) and BEA (beauvericin) with average concentration of the positive samples of 4.09 μg/kg, 0.50 μg/kg, 0.79 μg/kg, 77.78 μg/kg, 14.96 μg/kg, 4.54 μg/kg, 3.37 μg/kg, 1.69 μg/kg and 22.39 μg/kg, respectively. The presence of ZEA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1 was detected in 100% of the samples, AFB2 in 32%, AFB1 in 23%, ENA in 8% and BEA in 3%. Twelve percent of the samples contaminated with AFB1 and 12% of the doughs contaminated with ZEA exceeded the EU legislated maximum limits. The dietary intakes were estimated considering three different age groups of population, and the EDIs calculated for the mycotoxins detected in the samples were all below the established TDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validity Assessment of Low-risk SCORE Function and SCORE Function Calibrated to the Spanish Population in the FRESCO Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Subirana, Isaac; Ramos, Rafael; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Elosua, Roberto; Vila, Joan; Marín-Ibáñez, Alejandro; Guembe, María Jesús; Rigo, Fernando; Tormo-Díaz, María José; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Cabré, Joan Josep; Segura, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Quesada, Miquel; Medrano, María José; González-Diego, Paulino; Frontera, Guillem; Gavrila, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Basora, Josep; García, José María; García-Lareo, Manel; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Mayoral, Eduardo; Sala, Joan; Dégano, Irene R; Francès, Albert; Castell, Conxa; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume

    2018-04-01

    To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Frailty and long term mortality, disability and hospitalisation in Spanish older adults. The FRADEA Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reig, Marta; Flores Ruano, Teresa; Fernández Sánchez, Miguel; Noguerón García, Alicia; Romero Rizos, Luis; Abizanda Soler, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse whether frailty is related to long-term mortality, incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL), and hospitalisation. A concurrent cohort study conducted on 993 participants over age 70 from the FRADEA Study. Frailty was determined with Fried frailty phenotype. Data was collected on mortality, hospitalisation and incident disability in BADL (bathing, grooming, dressing, toileting, eating or transferring) during the follow-up period. The risk of adverse events was determined by logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for age, sex, Barthel index, comorbidity and institutionalization. Mean follow-up was 952 days (SD 408), during which 182 participants (18.4%) died. Frail participants had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 4.5, 95%CI: 1.8-11.1), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.7, 95%CI: 1.3-5.9) and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-6.1). Pre-frail subjects had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-6.5), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2-3.6), and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.3-3.6). There was a positive association between frailty and hospitalisation, which almost reached statistical significance (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-3.0). Frailty is long-term associated with mortality and incident disability in BADL in a Spanish cohort of older adults. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Western and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity and Fitness among Spanish Older Adults

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    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample (n = 380; 54% female aged 55–80 years (men and 60–80 years (women with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Body weight, body fat and waist circumference were assessed. Physical activity performed was measured using the Minnesota Leisure-time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA. Physical fitness was assessed using a validated physical fitness test battery. Food consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: “Western” (WDP and “Mediterranean” (MDP dietary patterns. Results: Participants in MDP’s fourth quartile were classified in the second (men and third (men and women tertile of LTPA. After adjusting for age, body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and METs, in both sexes, a negative significant association was found between 30-s Chair stand and 6-min walking test, a positive significant association was found between 30-m Gait speed and 8-foot Time Up-and-Go (except in men tests with WDP. The 30-m Gait speed test was negatively associated with MDP in men. Conclusions: MDP is associated with more time spent on LTPA, and this association was independent of body composition and a fast gait speed in men. WDP is associated with slower gait speed and lower body strength, agility and aerobic endurance. MDP has protective effect on healthy physical fitness, and WDP may be a contributor to frailty.

  13. Western and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity and Fitness among Spanish Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Julibert, Alicia; Argelich, Emma; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Pons, Antoni; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2017-07-06

    Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample ( n = 380; 54% female) aged 55-80 years (men) and 60-80 years (women) with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Body weight, body fat and waist circumference were assessed. Physical activity performed was measured using the Minnesota Leisure-time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA). Physical fitness was assessed using a validated physical fitness test battery. Food consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: "Western" (WDP) and "Mediterranean" (MDP) dietary patterns. Results: Participants in MDP's fourth quartile were classified in the second (men) and third (men and women) tertile of LTPA. After adjusting for age, body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and METs, in both sexes, a negative significant association was found between 30-s Chair stand and 6-min walking test, a positive significant association was found between 30-m Gait speed and 8-foot Time Up-and-Go (except in men) tests with WDP. The 30-m Gait speed test was negatively associated with MDP in men. Conclusions: MDP is associated with more time spent on LTPA, and this association was independent of body composition and a fast gait speed in men. WDP is associated with slower gait speed and lower body strength, agility and aerobic endurance. MDP has protective effect on healthy physical fitness, and WDP may be a contributor to frailty.

  14. Drug-resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates among Spanish middle aged and older adults with community-acquired pneumonia

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    Raga-Luria Xavier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Updated data on drug-resistance from different populations may be important to recognize changes in disease patterns. This study assessed current levels of penicilin resistance among Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in Spanish middle age and older adults. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested for 104 consecutive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from patients 50 years or older with radiographically confirmed pneumonia in the region of Tarragona (Spain between 2002 and 2007. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration of tested antimicrobials (penicillin, erythromycin, cefotaxime and levofloxacin strains were classified as susceptible or resistant. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for early cases (2002–2004 and contemporary cases (2005–2007. Results Twenty-seven (25.9% were penicillin-resistant strains (19 strains with intermediate resistance and 8 strains with high resistance. Penicillin-resistance was higher in 2002–2004 than in 2005–2007 (39.5% vs 18.2%, p = 0.017. Of 27 penicillin-resistant strains, 10 (37% were resistant to erythromycin, 8 (29.6% to cefotaxime, 2 (7.4% to levofloxacin, and 4 (14.8% were identified as multidrug resistant. Case-fatality rate was higher among those patients who had an infection caused by any penicillin susceptible strain (16.9% than in those with infections due to penicillin-resistant strains. Conclusion Resistance to penicillin among Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high, but such resistance does not result in increased mortality in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

  15. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

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    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  16. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

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    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  17. Psychiatric Status across Body Mass Index in a Mediterranean Spanish Population.

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    Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar

    Full Text Available Mental and body weight disorders are among the major global health challenges, and their comorbidity may play an important role in treatment and prevention of both pathologies. A growing number of studies have examined the relationship between psychiatric status and body weight, but our knowledge is still limited.The present study aims to investigate the cross-sectional relationships of psychiatric status and body mass index (BMI in Málaga, a Mediterranean city in the South of Spain.A total of 563 participants were recruited from those who came to his primary care physician, using a systematic random sampling, non-proportional stratified by BMI categories. Structured clinical interviews were used to assess current Axes-I and II mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR. BMI was calculated as weight (Kg divided by square of height in meters (m2. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between BMI and the presence of any mental disorder. BMI was introduced in the models using restricted cubic splines.We found that high BMI values were directly associated with mood and adjustment disorders, and low BMI values were directly associated with avoidant and dependent personality disorders (PDs. We observed an inverse relationship between low BMI values and cluster A PDs. There were not significant relationships between anxiety or substance-related disorders and BMI.Psychiatric status and BMI are related in a Mediterranean Spanish population. A multidisciplinary approach to both pathologies becomes increasingly more necessary.

  18. Validation of the VERITAS-Pro treatment adherence scale in a Spanish sample population with hemophilia

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    Cuesta-Barriuso R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rubén Cuesta-Barriuso,1–3 Ana Torres-Ortuño,4 Pilar Galindo-Piñana,4 Joaquín Nieto-Munuera,4 Natalie Duncan,5 José Antonio López-Pina6 1Department of Physiotherapy, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, European University of Madrid, 2Fishemo, Centro Especial de Empleo, Spanish Federation of Hemophilia, 3Royal Foundation Victoria Eugenia, Madrid, 4Department of Psychiatry and Social Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; 5Indiana Hemophilia & Thrombosis Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Department of Basic Psychology and Methodology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain Purpose: We aimed to conduct a validation in Spanish of the Validated Hemophilia Regimen Treatment Adherence Scale – Prophylaxis (VERITAS-Pro questionnaire for use in patients with hemophilia under prophylactic treatment.Patients and methods: The VERITAS-Pro scale was adapted through a process of back translation from English to Spanish. A bilingual native Spanish translator translated the scale from English to Spanish. Subsequently, a bilingual native English translator translated the scale from Spanish to English. The disagreements were resolved by agreement between the research team and translators. Seventy-three patients with hemophilia, aged 13–62 years, were enrolled in the study. The scale was applied twice (2 months apart to evaluate the test–retest reliability.Results: Internal consistency reliability was lower on the Spanish VERITAS-Pro than on the English version. Test–retest reliability was high, ranging from 0.83 to 0.92. No significant differences (P>0.05 were found between test and retest scores in subscales of VERITAS-Pro. In general, Spanish patients showed higher rates of nonadherence than American patients in all subscales.Conclusion: The Spanish version of the VERITAS-Pro has high levels of consistency and empirical validity. This scale can be administered to assess the degree of

  19. Population trends and current status of the endangered Pyrenean sculpin Cottus hispaniolensis in the Spanish part of the Garonne drainage

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    Rocaspana Rafel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of Pyrenean sculpin Cottus hispaniolensis was assessed in the Spanish part of the Garonne drainage on the basis of its distribution and abundance from 2001 to 2016. Population trends showed a progressive reduction in range extension and density, exacerbated by a severe spate occurred in 2013. However, C. hispaniolensis was resilient to this natural disturbance by compensating for mortality with increasing recruitment. Both occurrence and density of Pyrenean sculpin showed a positive correlation with coarse substrates. Riverine habitat deterioration, mainly channelization, presence of dams and flow regulation are the main factors threatening sculpin populations. Several management measures are proposed.

  20. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; Pcost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  1. IgE antibodies to alpha-gal in the general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Dam Laursen, A S; Vidal, C

    2014-01-01

    -gal-specific (s)IgE and its associated factors in the general adult population from two separated (Northern and Southern) European regions (Denmark and Spain, respectively). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2297 and 444 randomly selected adults from 11 municipalities in Denmark and one in Spain. Alpha-gal s.......1% in the Danish and Spanish series, respectively. The prevalence of sIgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L was 1.8% and 2.2% in Denmark and Spain, respectively. Alpha-gal sIgE positivity was associated with pet ownership in both series and, particularly, cat ownership (data available in the Danish series). Alpha-gal sIgE positivity...

  2. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for Stroop Color-Word Interference and Tower of London-Drexel University tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognoni, T; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-03-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (Stroop) measures cognitive flexibility, selective attention, cognitive inhibition and information processing speed. The Tower of London-Drexel University version test (TOL) assesses higher-order problem solving and executive planning abilities. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present normative data for the Stroop and young adults TOL tests. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Scores adjusted for sociodemographic factors were obtained by applying linear regression techniques. No effects were found for age and sex in either test. Educational level impacted most of the Stroop test variables and some of the TOL scores (Total Moves score and Total Initiation Time score). The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh, Faris H R; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages -French, Spanish, and Arabic- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features.

  4. Cross-language modulation of visual attention span: An Arabic-French-Spanish comparison in adult skilled readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Haroon Rasheed Awadh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages --French, Spanish and Arabic-- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were adult skilled readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented 5 consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T. All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that the VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between visual attention span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features.

  5. Family Early Literacy Practices Questionnaire: A Validation Study for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kandia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric validity of a Spanish translated version of a family involvement questionnaire (the FELP) using a mixed-methods design. Thus, statistical analyses (i.e., factor analysis, reliability analysis, and item analysis) and qualitative analyses (i.e., focus group data) were assessed.…

  6. Psychometric properties of the Plutchik´s Violence Risk Scale on adolescent sample of Spanish-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Á; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the validation and scaling of the Plutchik's Violence Risk Scale (EV) in adolescent Spanish-speaking population. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from forensic population (those who committed crime) and 585 adolescents from normal population (no crime committed). The internal consistency of the EV was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and with a value of 0.782. As for validity, the factorial structures found explain a large proportion of the variance (53.385%); the convergent validity was estimated by the correlation between the dimensions found, the EV and sociodemographic, criminological and personality variables. The developed scales are presented, for the first time in a cross-cultural sample, differentiating between gender and continent. Consequently, the obtained results suggest that the EV is a valid and reliable instrument within adolescent Spanish-speaking population. Furthermore, it is a quick scale, easy to apply, which is something valuable in forensic assessment.

  7. Prosodic Abilities of Spanish-Speaking Adolescents and Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, Maria; Campos, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the relevant role of prosody in communication, and in contrast with other linguistic components, there is paucity of research in this field for Williams syndrome (WS). Therefore, this study performed a systematic assessment of prosodic abilities in WS. The Spanish version of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication…

  8. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain (EPISER 2016 study): Aims and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sivera, Francisca; Blanco, Francisco J; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando; Juan-Mas, Antonio; Pego-Reigosa, José M; Narváez, Javier; Quilis Martí, Neus; Cortés Verdú, Raúl; Antón-Pagés, Fred; Quevedo Vila, Víctor; Garrido Courel, Laura; Del Amo, Natividad Del Val; Paniagua Zudaire, Inmaculada; Añez Sturchio, Gustavo; Medina Varo, Fermín; Ruiz Tudela, María Del Mar; Romero Pérez, Antonio; Ballina, Javier; Brandy García, Anahy; Fábregas Canales, Dolores; Font Gayá, Teresa; Bordoy Ferrer, Carolina; González Álvarez, Beatriz; Casas Hernández, Laura; Álvarez Reyes, Fátima; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Martínez Dubois, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, Simón Ángel; Rojas Vargas, Luisa Marena; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Olivé, Alejandro; Rubio Muñoz, Paula; Larrosa, Marta; Navarro Ricos, Noemí; Graell Martín, Eduard; Chamizo, Eugenio; Chaves Chaparro, Lara; Rojas Herrera, Sara; Pons Dolset, Jordi; Polo Ostariz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Alejos Garrido, Susana; Macía Villa, Cristina; Cruz Valenciano, Ana; González Gómez, María Luisa; Morcillo Valle, Mercedes; Palma Sánchez, Deseada; Moreno Martínez, María José; Mayor González, Marta; Atxotegi Sáenz de Buruaga, Joana; Urionagüena Onaindia, Irati; Blanco Cáceres, Boris Anthony; Díaz-González, Federico; Bustabad, Sagrario

    2017-07-31

    To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. STAT4 gene influences genetic predisposition to ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease in the Spanish population: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gallo, Lina Marcela; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio J; Gómez-García, María; Cardeña, Carlos; Rodrigo, Luis; Nieto, Antonio; Alcain, Guillermo; Cueto, Ignacio; López-Nevot, Miguel A; Martin, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Recently, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) gene has been associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, a recent work showed that the T allele of the rs7574865 STAT4 SNP was associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a Spanish population. The aim of the present study was to reevaluate the role of the STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism on IBD. The present case-control study included 498 Crohn's disease (CD) patients, 402 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 1296 healthy matched controls. Genotyping was performed using a PCR system with a pre-developed TaqMan allelic discrimination assay for the rs7574865 STAT4 SNP. Moreover, a meta-analysis was performed with the previous work in a Spanish population and the current study, including a final sample size of 1574 IBD patients (820 with CD and 754 with UC) and 2012 healthy controls. No evidence of association was found for the current case-control study (CD: p = 0.23, OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.75-1.1; UC: p = 0.17, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.95-1.38). However, the meta-analysis showed that the STAT4 rs7574865 T allele was significantly associated with susceptibility to UC (p = 0.012 pooled; OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.04-1.39) but not CD (p = 0.71 pooled; OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.65-1.34). Our data suggest that the rs7574865 STAT4 SNP is a genetic susceptibility variant for UC but not CD in the Spanish population. Copyright 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and memory) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, R; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-05-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are widely used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuo-spatial memory. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for both tests obtained by using linear regression techniques. The sample consisted of 179 healthy participants ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. We provide tables for converting raw scores to scaled scores in addition to tables with scores adjusted by socio-demographic factors. The results showed that education affects scores for some of the memory tests and the figure-copying task. Age was only found to have an effect on the performance of visuo-spatial memory tests, and the effect of sex was negligible. The normative data obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical neuropsychological evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The horizontal and vertical attributes of individualism and collectivism in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Valdiney V; Clemente, Miguel; Espinosa, Pablo

    2003-02-01

    The authors examined the dimensionality and factorial structure of individualism and collectivism in Spanish participants (N = 526). A series of confirmatory factor analyses were performed on responses to the 32-item individualism-collectivism measure reported by T. M. Singelis, H. C. Triandis, D. S. Bhawuk, and M. Gelfand (1995). Consistent with earlier data, the best fitting model was multidimensional: a vertical versus a horizontal attribute crossed with individualism and collectivism dimensions. Whereas the overall fit of the data to a LISREL model was moderate, additional self-report data on respondents' interpersonal experiences supported the construct validity of the 4 factors. The authors suggest that the additional complexity is useful in explaining Spanish social behavior.

  12. A comparison of the health status and health care utilization patterns between foreigners and the national population in Spain: new evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2009-08-01

    The increasing proportion of immigrants in Spanish society is placing pressure on the National Health Care System to accommodate the needs of this population group while keeping costs under control. In the year 2000, a law was approved in Spain according to which all people, regardless of their nationality, are entitled to use health care services under the same conditions as Spanish citizens, provided that they are registered in the local population census. However, empirical evidence about differences in health status and health care utilization between the immigrant and the Spanish population is insufficient. This paper uses the 2003 and 2006 Spanish National Health Surveys to explore the existence of inequalities in health and in the access to health services for the immigrant population living in Spain, relative to that of Spaniards. Our results show that there are different patterns in the level of health and the medical care use between the national and the foreign population in Spain: while immigrants' self-reported health relative to that of the Spanish population depends upon individual nationality, all immigrants, regardless of their nationality, seem to face barriers of entry to specialized care. Further research is needed to understand the nature of these barriers in order to design more effective health policies.

  13. Medicine and Physiotherapy students: are they physically active? Comparative research on Spanish and German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeńczak-Praga, Krystyna; Pluto-Prondzinska, Joanna; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-23

    Despite the fact that regular physical activity is beneficial to human life, there are still more and more overweight and obese people throughout the world today. Healthy habits taken from home or socioeconomic situation are factors which might influence on regular physical activity. People who lead a healthy lifestyle in childhood are also active during adulthood. On the other hand academic life might promote less healthy lifestyle. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the level of physical activity of both German and Spanish students of Medicine and Physiotherapy. The study involved 100 Spanish and 100 German students aged from 19 to 24 years. Based on Eurobarometer 72.3, the respondents were asked a set of questions regarding physical activity. The chi-squared test (χ2) and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the statistical analysis. The vast majority of students presented a normal BMI value, but it was not related to high physical activity. More than one-third of all students seldom practised any sports. The Spanish students usually did some form of physical activity outdoors, whereas the German students exercised in a fitness centre. Lack of time was to the Medicine and Physiotherapy students the most significant factor that did not allow them to be more physically active. Medicine and Physiotherapy students should be more physically active in order to promote a good, healthy lifestyle model to society and there should be more physical activity education to encourage more students to practise sports.

  14. Smokeless tobacco use in adult Nigerian population | Desalu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aim was to establish the prevalence and determinants of smokeless tobacco use in Nigerian adults' population. Across-sectional survey of 1776 adults inYola, North-East Nigeria was carried out in June 2007.A modified World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco survey questionnaire was used for interview and ...

  15. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised: Effects of Education and Age. Normative Data for the Spanish Speaking Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonieta; Galtier, Iván; Hernández, Edith; Velasco, Pedro; Barroso, José

    2016-07-29

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised is a brief test battery for the detection and classification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. The aims were to investigate the influence of age and education on the Spanish version of the ACE-R and to propose normative data for the Spanish speaking population. Three hundred thirty-four normal healthy volunteers were included in the study. They were classified in three age groups (48-64, 65-75, and 75-89 years of age) and four educational level groups (≤3; 4-8; 9-12, and ≥13 years of education). They were assessed with the version of ACE-R validated in Argentina with some modifications in order to adapt it to the Spanish population. Significant differences were obtained between all age groups in Total ACE-R, Memory, Fluency, and Language indexes. Differences were observed among the 48-64 and 76-89 age groups in the Attention-Orientation and Visuospatial indexes. Regarding education, significant difference between ≤3 years of education and the remaining groups were obtained in Total ACE-R and in all the indexes. Additionally, the group of 4-8 years of education performed significantly worse than the 9-12 and ≥13 groups in Total, Memory, Fluency, and Language indexes. Adjusted scores by education were obtained and percentiles for each age group were calculated. The results show that both age and education have an important effect on ACE-R performance. Consequently, age and education should be taken into account when interpreting results in ACE-R to improve diagnostic accuracy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. PROFILING THE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES SHAPING THE FOSSILISED IL OF ADULT SPANISH LEARNERS OF ENGLISH AS FOREIGN LANGUAGE. SOME THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Monroy Casas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the ever-growing literature dealing with the acquisition by adults of the phonetics and phonology of a foreign language (FL, research has tried to provide an answer to the complex nature of cross-language transfer. The fact that despite idiosyncratic differences and sociolinguistic variation most adults learners of a foreign language (FL speak with an accent which is a reflection of their native language (NL and that their progress is impaired at a certain stage prompted a host of questions such as whether adults follow identical or different paths of development in their approach to a foreign language, whether those speaking the same native language are able to identify target language categories in the same way, whether perception and production are interdependent, the nature of the learning abilities and the interplay of transfer with universals. These and other problems relating to foreign language speech have been approached from different angles and theoretical frameworks (see Leather & James (1 99 1 for an overview, and more recently Leather (1999. The research reported here, based on the oral production of sixty-five Spanish adult learners of English as a FL, tries to shed some light on one of well-known problems related to the acquisition of a foreign language by non-native speakers: the analysis of different types of phonological processes shaping the fossilised interlanguage (IL of adult FL learners in order to see a whether they are adhered to by those adult learners sharing identical L1; b whether frozen IL reflects transfer from the leamer's L1 or is the result of developmental (Le. universal processes. In this connection we(1987 and SimilarityIDifferential Rate Hypothesis (1999 or Ekman's Markedness Differential Hypothesis (1977 and Structural Conformity Hypothesis in connection with some of the processes under analysis. Optimality Theory will be brought in in dealing with some problems encountered under Cluster Simplification

  17. Profile of individuals who are metabolically healthy obese using different definition criteria. A population-based analysis in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa; Corbatón Anchuelo, Arturo; Del Prado, Náyade; Ibarra Rueda, José María; Gabriel, Rafael; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic complications such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and several forms of cancer. Our goal was to compare different criteria to define the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) with metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) subjects. We applied Wildman (W), Wildman modified (WM) with insulin resistance (IR) with cut-off point ≥ 3.8 and levels of C- Reactive Protein (CRP) ≥ 3 mg/l; and Consensus Societies (CS) criteria. In these subjects cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk) was estimated by Framingham score and SCORE for MHO and MUHO. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adults. A total of 3,844 subjects completed the study, 45% males, aged 35-74 years. Anthropometric/biochemical variables were measured. Obesity was defined as BMI: ≥ 30 Kg/m(2). The overall prevalence of obesity in our population was 27.5%, (23.7%/males and 30.2%/females). MHO prevalence according to W, WM, and CS definition criteria were: 9.65%, 16.29%, 39.94% respectively in obese participants. MHO has lower waist circumference (WC) measurements than MUHO. The estimated CV-risks by Framingham and SCORE Project charts were lower in MHO than MUHO subjects. WC showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting high estimated CV risk by Framingham. However, WHR showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting CV risk according to SCORE Project. MHO subjects as defined by any of the three criteria had higher adiponectin levels after adjustment by sex, age, WC, HOMA IR and Framingham or SCORE risks. This relationship was not found for CRP circulating levels neither leptin levels. MHO prevalence is highly dependent on the definition criteria used to define those individuals. Results showed that MHO subjects had less WC, and a lower estimated CV-risk than MUHO subjects. Additionally, the high adiponectin circulating levels in MHO may suggest a protective role against developing an unhealthy

  18. Profile of individuals who are metabolically healthy obese using different definition criteria. A population-based analysis in the Spanish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Martínez-Larrad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic complications such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and several forms of cancer. Our goal was to compare different criteria to define the metabolically healthy obese (MHO with metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO subjects. We applied Wildman (W, Wildman modified (WM with insulin resistance (IR with cut-off point ≥ 3.8 and levels of C- Reactive Protein (CRP ≥ 3 mg/l; and Consensus Societies (CS criteria. In these subjects cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk was estimated by Framingham score and SCORE for MHO and MUHO. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adults. A total of 3,844 subjects completed the study, 45% males, aged 35-74 years. Anthropometric/biochemical variables were measured. Obesity was defined as BMI: ≥ 30 Kg/m(2. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity in our population was 27.5%, (23.7%/males and 30.2%/females. MHO prevalence according to W, WM, and CS definition criteria were: 9.65%, 16.29%, 39.94% respectively in obese participants. MHO has lower waist circumference (WC measurements than MUHO. The estimated CV-risks by Framingham and SCORE Project charts were lower in MHO than MUHO subjects. WC showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting high estimated CV risk by Framingham. However, WHR showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting CV risk according to SCORE Project. MHO subjects as defined by any of the three criteria had higher adiponectin levels after adjustment by sex, age, WC, HOMA IR and Framingham or SCORE risks. This relationship was not found for CRP circulating levels neither leptin levels. CONCLUSIONS: MHO prevalence is highly dependent on the definition criteria used to define those individuals. Results showed that MHO subjects had less WC, and a lower estimated CV-risk than MUHO subjects. Additionally, the high adiponectin circulating levels in MHO may suggest a

  19. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  20. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, Mette; Jacobsen, S

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  1. Does the diet of the Balearic population, a Mediterranean-type diet, ensure compliance with nutritional objectives for the Spanish population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Josep A; Romaguera, Dora; Pons, Antoni

    2005-05-01

    To assess the dietary habits of Balearic Islands' consumers who are successful in meeting current nutritional recommendations, to find clues for the development of future food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) that would be relevant to this population. Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands between 1999 and 2000. Dietary habits were assessed by means of 24-hour recall (two non-consecutive days: warm and cold season) and a food-frequency questionnaire in a random sample (n=1200, aged 16-65 years) living in private households. Differences in percentage of compliers with the intermediate nutritional objectives for the Spanish population and differences in food consumption patterns between genders and between high (above the upper quartile of intake) and low (below the lower quartile of intake) consumers of fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), fibre, and fruit and vegetables were analysed. Gender differences were observed in nutrient and energy intakes, as well as in attainment of the recommendations. Less than 25% of the population reached the intermediate nutritional recommendations for iodine, fruit, carbohydrates, SFA, fibre and vegetables. Low fat/SFA and high fruit and vegetables/fibre consumers kept a diet in line with the traditional Balearic diet and prevailing dietary pyramids, which ensured better compliance with the nutritional goals. The intermediate nutritional objectives for the Spanish population could be achieved through maintenance of the traditional Balearic diet, a Mediterranean-type diet in the Balearic population. Therefore, this dietary model could be used to develop FBDG relevant to this population.

  2. Metallothionein polymorphisms in a Northern Spanish population with neovascular and dry forms of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Montserrat; Álvarez, Lydia; Fernández, Ángela; González-Iglesias, Héctor; Escribano, Julio; Fernández-Vega, Beatriz; Villota, Eva; Fernández-Vega Cueto, Luis; Fernández-Vega, Álvaro; Coca-Prados, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the metallothionein (MT) genes in Northern Spanish patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 130 unrelated Northern Spanish natives diagnosed with AMD (46 dry, 35 neovascular, and 49 mixed) and 96 healthy controls, matched by age and ethnicity, were enrolled in a case-control study. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and genotyped for 14 SNPs located at 5 MT genes (MT1A: rs11076161, rs 11640851, rs8052394, and rs7196890; MT1B: rs8052334, rs964372, and rs7191779; MT1M: rs2270836 and rs9936741; MT2A: rs28366003, rs1610216, rs10636, and rs1580833; MT3: rs45570941) using TaqMan probes. The association study was performed using the HaploView 4.0 software. The allelic and genotypic frequencies analysis revealed that rs28366003 at MT2A gene is significantly associated with dry AMD. The frequency of genotype AG was significantly higher in dry AMD than in control cases (p = 2.65 × 10 -4 ; AG vs. AA) conferring more than ninefold increased risk to dry AMD (OR = 9.39, 95% CI: 2.11-41.72), whereas the genotype AA confers disease protection (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71-0.95). No statistically significant differences were observed between AMD subjects and controls in the rest of the 14 SNPs analyzed. The present study is the first to investigate the potential association of SNPs at MT genes with susceptibility to AMD. We found a significant association of SNP rs28366003 at MT2A gene with susceptibility to the dry form of AMD in a Northern Spanish population.

  3. Electromagnetic fields and safety : information and risk perception in Spanish population; Campos electromagneticos y salud: informacion y percepcion del riesgo en la poblacion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Guillen, V.

    2005-07-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about both the information the general population in Spain has on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the public risk perception regarding the exposure to non-ionizing EMF emitting sources. The aims of the present preliminary survey were to assess what the Spanish population knew about EMF, to explore their health risk perception associated with the exposure to commonly used sources of non-ionizing radiation; and to know their risk perception regarding cell towers. A total number of 801 adult participants, randomly selected answered a telephone interview based on a 13-item semi-structured questionnaire. Sixty-nine per cent of the interviewees reported having no knowledge about electromagnetic fields. Up to 88.9% mentioned to have a little or no information at all on the health effects of EMF. Comparing risk perception regarding several commonly used devices, mobile telephones and microwave ovens were associated with a higher heath risk than TV and computers. Of those who believed that the devices mentioned were linked with health problems, 40.7% associated them with cancer. Regarding base stations, 52.1% of the sample envisioned such sources as a health risk, and of those who believed so, the majority linked the proximity of base stations with cancer. Gender differences were observed in risk perception. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of…

  5. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Kjøller, Mette

    1993-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of fibromyalgia have so far been based mainly on patients identified in rheumatologic settings. This paper offers the clinical findings in fibromyalgia based on a national health interview survey, in which 123 persons fulfilled preset criteria for widespread pain. Clinical......, headache, difficulty in stair-climbing, and poorer self-evaluated health with more tender points was found. Contrary to that which was expected, fibromyalgia subjects did not suffer from sleep disturbances, irritable bowels or morning stiffness. Our findings indicate that clinical characteristics...... of fibromyalgia in the general population may differ from those found in rheumatological settings....

  6. Burden of illness attributable to subclinical hypothyroidism in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnay, S; Balsa, J A; Álvarez, Julia; Crespo, C; Pérez-Alcántara, F; Polanco, C

    2013-11-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) has been associated recently to cardiovascular diseases. However, the loss of health it entails remains unknown. This study has assessed the burden of illness attributable to SH in Spain. Based on the Spanish prevalence data found in international studies, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lost due to Disability (YLD) associated with SH. Prevalence of risk factors, coronary mortality risk and coronary event risk associated with SH were obtained from a review of the literature. An analysis was conducted according to the World Health Organization methodology approach for these studies, using official Spanish sources (hospital discharge records, minimum basic data set [MBDS], inpatient mortality records, etc. In Spain, approximately 2,767,124 people have SH, specifically 1,949,820 with levels of TSH between 4.5 and 6.9mIU/l (70.5%), 538,988 with levels between 7 and 9.9mIU/l (19.5%), and 278,317 between 10 and 19.9mIU/l (10%). These subjects suffer approximately 12,608 cardiac events and 1,388 deaths a year attributed to their SH. This represents 30,550 DALYs (13,124 YLL and 17,426 YLD). Between 1.6 and 7.3% of cardiovascular DALYs can be attributed to SH. SH is a silent disease which considerably increases the burden of disease. Evaluation of SH, at least in patients belonging to risk groups, could be cost-effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual behaviors among older adults in Spain: results from a population-based national sexual health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish National Sexual Health Survey (SNSHS) is designed to examine sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual health among the Spanish population. To describe sexual activity and behaviors of Spaniards aged ≥ 65 years old focusing on gender differences. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using individual data from the SNSHS. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included was 1,939 (1,118 women, 821 men). Sexual activity, frequency, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and reasons for lack of sexual activity were assessed from questions included in the survey. Subjects who reported having any sexual practice including giving or receiving kissing and hugging, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or masturbation, with at least one partner in the previous 12 months were considered as sexually active. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and sexual health, comorbid conditions, and medications using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 62.3% of men and 37.4% of elderly women were sexually active (P practices were kissing, hugging, and vaginal intercourse. The most common reasons for sexual inactivity were: partner was physically ill (23%), lack of interest (21%), and the man was a widower (23%). This study provided data on sexual activity in older Spanish adults and has identified potential factors that appear to influence sexuality in the elderly with some gender differences. Current results can have implications for healthcare providers for addressing these concerns in an effective manner. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Adaptation, Validation, Reliability and Factorial Equivalence of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in Colombian and Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lugo, Mayra; Espada, José P; Morales, Alexandra; Marchal-Bertrand, Laurent; Soler, Franklin; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2016-10-14

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is the most widely used instrument to assess self-esteem. In light of the absence of adaptations in Colombia, this study seeks to validate and adapt this scale in the Colombian population, and perform factorial equivalence with the Spanish version. A total of 1,139 seniors (633 Colombians and 506 Spaniards) were evaluated; the individuals answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and sexual self-esteem scale. The average score of the items was similar to the questionnaire's theoretical average, and standard deviations were close to one. The psychometric properties of the items are generally adequate with alphas of .83 and .86 and significant (CI = .95) and correlations with the sexual self-esteem scale ranging from .31 and .41. Factorial equivalence was confirmed by means of a structural equation model (CFI = .912 and RMSEA = .079), thus showing a strong level of invariance.

  9. Suicidal ideation among Italian and Spanish young adults: the role of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Ioverno, Salvatore; Lonigro, Antonia; Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify demographic, social, and psychological variables associated with suicidal ideation in an Italian sample and a Spanish sample, taking into account the relevance of sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicide. Three hundred twenty gay and bisexual men, 396 heterosexual men, 281 lesbians and bisexual women, and 835 heterosexual women were recruited. In chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses we identified several consistent cross-national risk factors for suicidal ideation: having lower education, not being religious, being homosexual or bisexual, not being engaged in a stable relationship, having lower level of peer and parental attachment, and having depressive symptoms. Interestingly, the strongest risk factor in both samples, after depression symptoms, was sexual orientation.

  10. Are the eating habits of university students different to the rest of the Spanish population? Food availability, consumption and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, E.; Escribano, F.; Garcia-Meseguer, M.J.; Pardo, I.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge of the eating habits of young people is highly relevant to understand the demand for food. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze the eating habits of a section of young people in relation to the food habits of the rest of the Spanish population, to evaluate the influence of food prices on eating habits and the relevance of those food products related to the Mediterranean diet. The three food surveys used in this study were the Food Balance Sheet (FBS), designed by the FAO, the Household Budget Survey (HBS), designed by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics and an individual survey given to enrolled students at the University of Castilla-La Mancha. The cross-sectional study which was carried out allowed us to discover the cost of food and the consumption habits of a section of young people. A change in food availability and consumption was identified between 2009 and 2012. The average availability per capita and day for food expenditure was €6.19, while the average consumption in the two surveys was €4. The average food availability was 125.58 g per capita and day with an average price of 0.0022 €/g. The behavior of these university students is different from that of the rest of the population. Fruits, legumes, vegetables and greens are the cheapest groups of food; however, the consumption of these food groups is the lowest whereas meat is one of the more expensive groups and is consumed in greater quantities by students. These results are relevant in order to encourage the dietary habits of young people towards the products included in the Mediterranean diet. (Author)

  11. [FRAX® thresholds to identify people with high or low risk of osteoporotic fracture in Spanish female population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagra, Rafael; Roca, Genís; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Casado, Enrique; Encabo, Gloria; Zwart, Marta; Aguyé, Amada; Díez-Pérez, Adolf

    2015-01-06

    To detect FRAX(®) threshold levels that identify groups of the population that are at high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in the Spanish female population using a cost-effective assessment. This is a cohort study. Eight hundred and sixteen women 40-90 years old selected from the FRIDEX cohort with densitometry and risk factors for fracture at baseline who received no treatment for osteoporosis during the 10 year follow-up period and were stratified into 3 groups/levels of fracture risk (low20%) according to the real fracture incidence. The thresholds of FRAX(®) baseline for major osteoporotic fracture were: low riskX-ray absorptiometry (DXA-scan) for FRAX(®)≥ 5 (Intermediate and high risk) to reclassify by FRAX(®) with DXA-scan at high/low risk. These thresholds select 17.5% of women for DXA-scan and 10% for treatment. With these thresholds of FRAX(®), compared with the strategy of opportunistic case finding isolated risk factors, would improve the predictive parameters and reduce 82.5% the DXA-scan, 35.4% osteoporosis prescriptions and 28.7% cost to detect the same number of women who suffer fractures. The use of FRAX ® thresholds identified as high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in this calibration (FRIDEX model) improve predictive parameters in Spanish women and in a more cost-effective than the traditional model based on the T-score ≤ -2.5 of DXA scan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Are the eating habits of university students different to the rest of the Spanish population? Food availability, consumption and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Amo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the eating habits of young people is highly relevant to understand the demand for food. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze the eating habits of a section of young people in relation to the food habits of the rest of the Spanish population, to evaluate the influence of food prices on eating habits and the relevance of those food products related to the Mediterranean diet. The three food surveys used in this study were the Food Balance Sheet (FBS, designed by the FAO, the Household Budget Survey (HBS, designed by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics and an individual survey given to enrolled students at the University of Castilla-La Mancha. The cross-sectional study which was carried out allowed us to discover the cost of food and the consumption habits of a section of young people. A change in food availability and consumption was identified between 2009 and 2012. The average availability per capita and day for food expenditure was €6.19, while the average consumption in the two surveys was €4. The average food availability was 125.58 g per capita and day with an average price of 0.0022 €/g. The behavior of these university students is different from that of the rest of the population. Fruits, legumes, vegetables and greens are the cheapest groups of food; however, the consumption of these food groups is the lowest whereas meat is one of the more expensive groups and is consumed in greater quantities by students. These results are relevant in order to encourage the dietary habits of young people towards the products included in the Mediterranean diet.

  13. Prevalence and etiology of vertigo in adult rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Abrol, Raman; Nehru, Vikas I.; Venkatramana, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A survey on 10.000 adults between the age of 20 and 79 years out of a total population of 66.186 persons in rural settlements under the inrisduction of Union Territory of Chandigarh between June 1993 to June 1995 was conducted to find out the prevalence and various causes of vertigo. In general community, in rural population, we found that more people suffer from non-otologic vertigo rather than otologic vertigo. We found overall prevalence of vertigo in rural adult community to be 0.71%. Ver...

  14. Estimating the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia, Spain: descriptive and comparative data analysis to identify differences in MSM stratified by migrant and Spanish-born population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin N J; Vives, Núria; Esteve, Anna; Ambrosioni, Juan; Tural, Cristina; Ferrer, Elena; Navarro, Gemma; Force, Lluis; García, Isabel; Masabeu, Àngels; Vilaró, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia; Caylà, Joan Artur; Miró, Josep M; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Objective Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. Methods To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013. Data used to estimate the proportion of people enrolled, on ART and virally suppressed in the HIV care cascade were derived from the PISCIS cohort. Results The total number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Catalonia in 2013 was 34 729 (32 740 to 36 827), with 12.3% (11.8 to 18.1) of whom were undiagnosed. By 2013, there were 8458 (8101 to 9079) Spanish-born men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2538 (2334 to 2918) migrant MSM living with HIV in Catalonia. A greater proportion of migrant MSM than local MSM was undiagnosed (32% vs 22%). In the subsequent steps of the HIV care cascade, migrants MSM experience greater losses than the Spanish-born MSM: in retention in care (74% vs 55%), in the proportion on combination antiretroviral treatment (70% vs 50%) and virally suppressed (65% vs 46%). Conclusions By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 34 729 PLHIV in Catalonia, of whom 4271 were still undiagnosed. This study shows that the Catalan epidemic of HIV has continued to expand with the key group sustaining HIV transmission being MSM living with undiagnosed HIV. PMID:29490955

  15. Estimating the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia, Spain: descriptive and comparative data analysis to identify differences in MSM stratified by migrant and Spanish-born population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Urueña, Juliana Maria; Campbell, Colin N J; Vives, Núria; Esteve, Anna; Ambrosioni, Juan; Tural, Cristina; Ferrer, Elena; Navarro, Gemma; Force, Lluis; García, Isabel; Masabeu, Àngels; Vilaró, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia; Caylà, Joan Artur; Miró, Josep M; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-02-28

    Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013. Data used to estimate the proportion of people enrolled, on ART and virally suppressed in the HIV care cascade were derived from the PISCIS cohort. The total number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Catalonia in 2013 was 34 729 (32 740 to 36 827), with 12.3% (11.8 to 18.1) of whom were undiagnosed. By 2013, there were 8458 (8101 to 9079) Spanish-born men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2538 (2334 to 2918) migrant MSM living with HIV in Catalonia. A greater proportion of migrant MSM than local MSM was undiagnosed (32% vs 22%). In the subsequent steps of the HIV care cascade, migrants MSM experience greater losses than the Spanish-born MSM: in retention in care (74% vs 55%), in the proportion on combination antiretroviral treatment (70% vs 50%) and virally suppressed (65% vs 46%). By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 34 729 PLHIV in Catalonia, of whom 4271 were still undiagnosed. This study shows that the Catalan epidemic of HIV has continued to expand with the key group sustaining HIV transmission being MSM living with undiagnosed HIV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Biological variability of the minutiae in the fingerprints of a sample of the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Esperanza; Galera, Virginia; Martínez, Jose Manuel; Alonso, Concepción

    2007-10-25

    The minutiae, a term coined by Galton to refer to the small peculiarities present along the length of every isolated ridge, or characteristic points, a term used primarily by the Spanish Police Scientists, have an inter- and intrapopulation variability which has not been extensively studied. However, these peculiarities constitute the bases for the fingerprint identification of individuals in the field of criminology. Using the adhesive paper and graphite method, the fingerprints of 200 students, 100 males and 100 females, with ages ranging between 20 and 35, have been taken at the University of Alcala (Madrid). From this sample, the distal phalanx of the index finger of the right hand has been studied. The total count of the minutiae, as well as that of each different type, was made of the entire print area, and inside and outside of a circle with a radius of 18 ridges. The highest frequencies were of ridge endings, followed by bifurcations and convergences, all others appearing with frequencies of lower than 5%. The distribution of the minutiae was not homogeneous for the area of the fingerprint (inside and outside the circle). In the study of minutiae statistically significant differences were found between the sexes, and between the different types of general pattern (arches, loops, and whorls).

  17. Methylmercury determination in fish and seafood products and estimated daily intake for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahuquillo, I; Lagarda, M J; Silvestre, M D; Farré, R

    2007-08-01

    The mercury content of 25 samples of fish and seafood products most frequently consumed in Spain was determined. A simple method comprising cold vapour and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine separately inorganic and organic mercury. In all samples inorganic mercury content was below 50 microg kg(-1). There was wide variability, among not only the mercury levels of different fish species, but also for different samples of the same species - with the methylmercury content ranging from below 54 to 662 microg kg(-1). The highest mean methylmercury content was found in fresh tuna. Based on an average total fish consumption of 363 g/person week(-1), the methylmercury intake was estimated to be 46.2 microg/person week(-1). Therefore, the mercury intake of Spanish people with a body weight Food Additives (JECFA) provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 1.6 microg kg(-1) body weight, but exceeds the US National Research Council (NRC) limit of 0.7 microg kg(-1) body weight week(-1) based on a benchmark dose.

  18. Prevalence and etiology of vertigo in adult rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, R; Nehru, V I; Venkatramana, Y

    2001-01-01

    A survey on 10.000 adults between the age of 20 and 79 years out of a total population of 66.186 persons in rural settlements under the inrisduction of Union Territory of Chandigarh between June 1993 to June 1995 was conducted to find out the prevalence and various causes of vertigo. In general community, in rural population, we found that more people suffer from non-otologic vertigo rather than otologic vertigo. We found overall prevalence of vertigo in rural adult community to be 0.71%. Vertigo secondary to cardiovascular disease was most common and prevalent in 0.32% of population. Neurologic disease accounted for vertigo in 0.14%, metabolic disease in 0.09% and otologic disease 0.08%. Miscellaneous disorders were present in remaining 0.08% of population studied. To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first population based survey of prevalence of various causes of vertigo in general community in adult rural population.

  19. Aggression Profiles in the Spanish Child Population: Differences in Perfectionism, School Refusal and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vicent

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the existence of combinations of aggression components (Anger, Hostility, Physical Aggression and Verbal Aggression that result in different profiles of aggressive behavior in children, as well as to test the differences between these profiles in scores of perfectionism, school refusal and affect. It is interesting to analyze these variables given: (a their clinical relevance due to their close relationship with the overall psychopathology; and (b the need for further evidence regarding how they are associated with aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of 1202 Spanish primary education students between the ages of 8 and 12. Three aggressive behavior profiles for children were identified using Latent Class Analysis (LCA: High Aggression (Z scores between 0.69 and 0.7, Moderate Aggression (Z scores between −0.39 and −0.47 and Low Aggression (Z scores between −1.36 and −1.58. These profiles were found for 49.08%, 38.46% and 12.48% of the sample, respectively. High Aggression scored significantly higher than Moderate Aggression and Low Aggression on Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP, Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP, the first three factors of school refusal (i.e., FI. Negative Affective, FII. Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, FIII. To Pursue Attention, and Negative Affect (NA. In addition, Moderate Aggression also reported significantly higher scores than Low Aggression for the three first factors of school refusal and NA. Conversely, Low Aggression had significantly higher mean scores than High Aggression and Moderate Aggression on Positive Affect (PA. Results demonstrate that High Aggression was the most maladaptive profile having a high risk of psychological vulnerability. Aggression prevention programs should be sure to include strategies to overcome psychological problems that characterize children manifesting high levels of aggressive behavior.

  20. An epidemiological survey of hymenoptera venom allergy in the Spanish paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cañavate, A; Tabar, A I; Eseverri, J L; Martín, F; Pedemonte-Marco, C

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom are infrequent in paediatric patients. A study was made to determine the incidence of this pathology in children, based on an epidemiological survey targeted to all members of the SEICAP (Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia Pediátrica/Spanish Society of Paediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergy), and designed to collect the data on patients under 17 years of age diagnosed with hymenoptera venom allergy. The data corresponding to 175 patients (135 males) were collected. The mean age was 9.9 ± 3.6 years. Seventeen percent (32 patients) were the offspring of beekeepers, and 68.9% had experienced previous stings. The causal insect was Apis melifera, implicated in 55 cases, followed by Polistes dominulus (33 cases). In 151 patients (83.9%) the condition consisted of a local reaction. The most frequent systemic response was urticaria and angio-oedema. Fourteen patients suffered anaphylactic shock. The diagnosis was based on skin test (intradermal and prick) and/or specific IgE testing. Three treatment categories were established: (a) prevention and educational measures; (b) symptomatic treatment with oral antihistamines as well as self-injectable adrenalin; and (c) immunotherapy. In this context, 135 patients underwent immunotherapy with a mean duration of 3.5 ± 1.7 years (range 2-5 years) - with excellent tolerance. The starting regimen was predominantly conventional (92 patients). The results of this survey show hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom to be infrequent in paediatrics, though with a strong impact upon patient quality of life. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Rodriguez, Paula; Valero, Teresa; Ávila, José M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009) carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE), the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE), and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE). Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic) was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold) were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%), greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%), sugar (17.8%), bakery and pastry items (15.2%), chocolates (11.4%), yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%), other dairy products (5.99%), jams (3.58%), juices and nectars (2.91%), and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%), summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  2. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009 carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE, the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE, and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE. Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%, milks (19.6%, juices and nectars (11.1%, vegetables (9.89%, yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%, low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%, bread (2.91%, and sugar soft drinks (2.24%, greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%, sugar (17.8%, bakery and pastry items (15.2%, chocolates (11.4%, yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%, other dairy products (5.99%, jams (3.58%, juices and nectars (2.91%, and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%, summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  3. The Self-Concept of Spanish Young Adults with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Justicia, Maria Dolores; Cordoba, Inmaculada Nieto

    2006-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disease of the retina that causes the severe impairment of visual functioning similar to low vision, leading, in many cases, to blindness. Because the construct of self-concept plays a key role in personality, this study was designed to measure self-concept in a group of young adults with RP. The…

  4. Volunteering among Older Spanish Adults: Does the Type of Organization Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celdran, Montserrat; Villar, Feliciano

    2007-01-01

    This study in Spain explored three aspects of older adult volunteering (motivations, satisfaction, and perceptions of benefits and drawbacks) and examines to what extent these aspects are influenced by the type of organization and other factors (sociodemographic variables and level of volunteering). The sample consisted of 88 older adults…

  5. Breast cancer risk and night shift work in a case-control study in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Ardanaz, Eva; Altzibar, Jone Miren; Sanchez, Vicente Martin; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Muñoz, David; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic and animal data indicate that night shift work might increase the risk for breast cancer. We evaluated the association of night work with different clinical types of breast cancer in a population based case-control study (MCC-Spain study) taking into account chronotype, an individual characteristic that may relate to night shift work adaptation. Lifetime occupational history was assessed by face-to-face interviews and shift work information was available for 1708 breast cancer cases and 1778 population controls from 10 Spanish regions, enrolled from 2008 to 2013. We evaluated three shift work domains, including shift work type (permanent vs rotating), lifetime cumulative duration and frequency. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for night work compared to day work using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for confounders. Having ever worked permanent or rotating night shift was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer compared to day workers [odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.43]. Chronotype was differentially associated with breast cancer depending on the duration of night shift work. Risk was higher in women with invasive tumors (OR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.51) and for estrogen and progestagen positive tumors among premenopausal women (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.99). Having ever performed night shift was associated with a small increased risk for breast cancer and especially in subgroups of women with particular hormone related characteristics.

  6. Relationship of the Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Its Main Components with CRP Levels in the Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Carlos; Castillo, Elisa; Mostaza, Jose M; de Dios, Olaya; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A; González-Alegre, Teresa; García-Iglesias, Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Laguna, Fernando; Sanchez, Vanesa; Sabín, Concesa; López, Silvia; Cornejo, Victor; de Burgos, Carmen; Garcés, Carmen

    2018-03-20

    Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet seems to be inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) has been developed to assess dietary compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether each of the MEDAS questions as well as their final score were associated with the levels of CRP in general Spanish population. Cross-sectional analysis of 1411 subjects (mean age 61 years, 43.0% males) randomly selected from the general population. CRP levels were determined by a commercial ELISA kit. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the 14-point MEDAS. Results: There was an inverse correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the CRP concentration, even after adjusting by age, gender, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, statin treatment and hypertension treatment ( p = 0.041). Subjects who consume ≥2 servings of vegetables per day ( p = 0.003), ≥3 pieces of fruit per day ( p = 0.003), ≥1 serving of butter, margarine, or cream per day ( p = 0.041) or ≥3 servings of fish/seafood per week ( p = 0.058) had significantly lower levels of CRP. Conclusions : Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet measured by a simple questionnaire is associated with lower CRP concentration. However, this association seems to be particularly related to a higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and fish.

  7. Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, Margarita M

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20-79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health "Semanas del Corazon" events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41-0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05-1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84-1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63-1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

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    Bordonaba-Bosque Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain. Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®. Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain.

  9. Ghrelin Gene Variants Influence on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Aged Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Mireia; Adam, Victoria; Palomera, Elisabet; Blesa, Sebastian; Díaz, Gonzalo; Buquet, Xavier; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Palanca, Ana; Chaves, Javier Felipe; Puig-Domingo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The role of genetic variations within the ghrelin gene on cardiometabolic profile and nutritional status is still not clear in humans, particularly in elderly people. We investigated six SNPs of the ghrelin gene and their relationship with metabolic syndrome (MS) components. 824 subjects (413 men/411 women, age 77.31±5.04) participating in the Mataró aging study (n = 310) and the Hortega study (n = 514) were analyzed. Anthropometric variables, ghrelin, lipids, glucose and blood pressure levels were measured, and distribution of SNPs -994CT (rs26312), -604GA (rs27647), -501AC (rs26802), R51Q (rs34911341), M72L (rs696217) and L90G (rs4684677) of the ghrelin gene evaluated. Genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR and SNaPshot minisequencing. MS (IDF criteria) was found in 54.9%. No association between any of the SNPs and levels of total fasting circulating ghrelin levels was found. C/A-A/A genotype of M72L was associated with increased risk of central obesity according to IDF criteria, while G/A-G/G genotypes of -604GA with reduced risk. A/A genotype of -501AC polymorphism was associated to decreased BMI. In relation to lipid profile, the same genotypes of -604GA were associated with increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and -501AC with reduced triglycerides. There were no associations with systolic or diastolic blood pressure levels or with hypertension, glucose levels or diabetes and ghrelin polymorphisms. However, G/G genotype of -604GA was associated with glucose >100 mg/dL. Haplotype analysis showed that only one haplotype is associated with increased risk of waist circumference and central obesity. The analysis of subjects by gender showed an important and different association of these polymorphisms regarding MS parameters. Ghrelin gene variants -604GA, -501AC and M72L are associated with certain components of MS, in particular to BMI and lipid profile in elderly Spanish subjects.

  10. Ghrelin Gene Variants Influence on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Aged Spanish Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Mora

    Full Text Available The role of genetic variations within the ghrelin gene on cardiometabolic profile and nutritional status is still not clear in humans, particularly in elderly people.We investigated six SNPs of the ghrelin gene and their relationship with metabolic syndrome (MS components.824 subjects (413 men/411 women, age 77.31±5.04 participating in the Mataró aging study (n = 310 and the Hortega study (n = 514 were analyzed. Anthropometric variables, ghrelin, lipids, glucose and blood pressure levels were measured, and distribution of SNPs -994CT (rs26312, -604GA (rs27647, -501AC (rs26802, R51Q (rs34911341, M72L (rs696217 and L90G (rs4684677 of the ghrelin gene evaluated. Genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR and SNaPshot minisequencing. MS (IDF criteria was found in 54.9%.No association between any of the SNPs and levels of total fasting circulating ghrelin levels was found. C/A-A/A genotype of M72L was associated with increased risk of central obesity according to IDF criteria, while G/A-G/G genotypes of -604GA with reduced risk. A/A genotype of -501AC polymorphism was associated to decreased BMI. In relation to lipid profile, the same genotypes of -604GA were associated with increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and -501AC with reduced triglycerides. There were no associations with systolic or diastolic blood pressure levels or with hypertension, glucose levels or diabetes and ghrelin polymorphisms. However, G/G genotype of -604GA was associated with glucose >100 mg/dL. Haplotype analysis showed that only one haplotype is associated with increased risk of waist circumference and central obesity. The analysis of subjects by gender showed an important and different association of these polymorphisms regarding MS parameters.Ghrelin gene variants -604GA, -501AC and M72L are associated with certain components of MS, in particular to BMI and lipid profile in elderly Spanish subjects.

  11. Economic crisis and changes in drug use in the Spanish economically active population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colell, Esther; Sánchez-Niubò, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia

    2015-07-01

    To examine changes in the use of alcohol, cannabis and hypnotics/sedatives between two periods (before and during Spain's economic crisis), and to identify differences in the change between employed and unemployed individuals. Using cross-sectional data from four editions of the Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs, we selected economically active individuals aged 16-64 years (total sample = 62 440) and defined two periods, pre-crisis [period 1 (P1) = 2005-07] and crisis (P2 = 2009-11). Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) of heavy and binge drinking and multinomial regression models to obtain relative risk ratios (RRR) of cannabis and hypnotic/sedative use between the two periods, also considering the interaction between period and employment status. While the prevalence of alcohol use remained stable, heavy drinking declined in P2 in men both overall [PR = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.67-0.79] and in the two age groups (16-34 and 35-64 years), and also in women overall (PR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.75-0.99) and in the older age group. In contrast, binge drinking increased overall in P2 in men (PR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.12-1.22) and in women (PR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.49-1.76), and in both age groups. No differences in the change were observed between employed and unemployed individuals. Overall cannabis use remained stable in P2, but unemployed men and women of the older age group were more likely to have increased sporadic use compared to their employed counterparts (RRR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.36-3.68 and RRR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.30-7.93, respectively). Hypnotic/sedative use remained stable in P2 in men, but unemployed men were less likely to have increased heavy use in P2 compared with employed men (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.49-0.97). In women, heavy use increased in P2 overall and in the older age group, irrespective of employment status. During a period of economic recession in Spain, heavy drinking

  12. Development and Validation of the Spanish Numeracy Understanding in Medicine Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Walker, Cindy M; Miller, Tamara; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Ganschow, Pamela S; Imbert, Diana; O'Connell, Maria; Neuner, Joan M; Schapira, Marilyn M

    2016-11-01

    The Spanish-speaking population in the U.S. is large and growing and is known to have lower health literacy than the English-speaking population. Less is known about the health numeracy of this population due to a lack of health numeracy measures in Spanish. we aimed to develop and validate a short and easy to use measure of health numeracy for Spanish-speaking adults: the Spanish Numeracy Understanding in Medicine Instrument (Spanish-NUMi). Items were generated based on qualitative studies in English- and Spanish-speaking adults and translated into Spanish using a group translation and consensus process. Candidate items for the Spanish NUMi were selected from an eight-item validated English Short NUMi. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was conducted to evaluate equivalence between English and Spanish items. Cronbach's alpha was computed as a measure of reliability and a Pearson's correlation was used to evaluate the association between test scores and the Spanish Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) and education level. Two-hundred and thirty-two Spanish-speaking Chicago residents were included in the study. The study population was diverse in age, gender, and level of education and 70 % reported Mexico as their country of origin. Two items of the English eight-item Short NUMi demonstrated DIF and were dropped. The resulting six-item test had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.72, a range of difficulty using classical test statistics (percent correct: 0.48 to 0.86), and adequate discrimination (item-total score correlation: 0.34-0.49). Scores were positively correlated with print literacy as measured by the S- TOFHLA (r = 0.67; p Spanish NUMi is a reliable and valid measure of important numerical concepts used in communicating health information.

  13. Improving advance care planning for English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults: study protocol for the PREPARE randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sudore, RL; Barnes, DE; Le, GM; Ramos, R; Osua, SJ; Richardson, SA; Boscardin, J; Schillinger, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that allows patients to identify their goals for medical care. Traditionally, ACP has focused on completing advance directives; however, we have expanded the ACP paradigm to also prepare patients to communicate their wishes and make informed decisions. To this end, we created an ACP website called PREPARE (http://www.prepareforyourcare.org) to prepare diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults for medical decision-making. H...

  14. Mothers' attitudes toward adolescent confidential services: development and validation of scales for use in English- and Spanish-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebb, Kathleen P; Pollack, Lance M; Millstein, Shana; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Wibbelsman, Charles J

    2014-09-01

    To explore parental beliefs and attitudes about confidential services for their teenagers; and to develop an instrument to assess these beliefs and attitudes that could be used among English and Spanish speakers. The long-term goal is to use this research to better understand and evaluate interventions to improve parental knowledge and attitudes toward their adolescent's access and utilization of comprehensive confidential health services. The instrument was developed using an extensive literature review and theoretical framework followed by qualitative data from focus groups and in-depth interviews. It was then pilot tested with a random sample of English- and Spanish-speaking parents and further revised. The final instrument was administered to a random sample of 1,000 mothers. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed for Spanish and English speakers. The instrument consisted of 12 scales. Most Cronbach alphas were >.70 for Spanish and English speakers. Fewer items for Spanish speakers "loaded" for the Responsibility and Communication scales. Parental Control of Health Information failed for Spanish speakers. The Parental Attitudes of Adolescent Confidential Health Services Questionnaire (PAACS-Q) contains 12 scales and is a valid and reliable instrument to assess parental knowledge and attitudes toward confidential health services for adolescents among English speakers and all but one scale was applicable for Spanish speakers. More research is needed to understand key constructs with Spanish speakers. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-González, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel; Quintela, Arturo González

    2013-10-16

    Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. It included 2459 adults (range 20-92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women.

  16. Epidemiology of chronic renal disease in the Galician population: results of the pilot Spanish EPIRCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Alfonso; Gayoso, Pilar; Garcia, Fernando; de Francisco, Angel L

    2005-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major social health problem because of the aging of the population, the high incidence of diabetes mellitus, and the epidemic of silent CKD resulting from inadequate diagnosis of early chronic renal insufficiency The sociodemographic, baseline characteristics and CKD prevalence measured by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula were studied in a randomly selected sample of people aged 20 years or older in the general population. We report the results of the analysis of the EPIRCE (Estudio Epidemiológico de la Insuficiencia Renal en España) pilot study performed in Galicia, Spain, in the last quarter of 2004. Baseline characteristics, sociodemographic characteristics, and results of a clinical examination and blood variables were collected from 237 patients who fulfilled the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean age of the sample was 49.58 years (95% confidence interval, 47.39-51.76). The prevalence of Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative grade 3 CKD was 5.1%, but the coexistence of an albumin/creatinine ratio>30 mg/g with grade 1 to 2 CKD raised the final rate to 12.7% in this population. We found a high prevalence of hypertension (31.5%), isolated systolic hypertension (20.1%), diabetes mellitus (8%), obesity (13.1%), smoking habit (22.7%), high atherogenic index (30.8%), and high alcohol intake (24%). Risk factors significantly associated with renal disease were age [P=0.018; odds ratio (OR) 2.7], hypertension (P=0.023; OR 2.13), pulse pressure (P=0.04; OR 0.10), diabetes mellitus (P=0.08; OR 4.48), obesity (P=0.000; OR 7.7), and insulin resistance index (P=0.04; OR 4.95). The prevalence of CKD and conventional cardiovascular risk factors is high in this randomly selected sample of the general population. Secondary preventive measures are needed to detect chronic kidney impairment as early as possible and to reduce the incidence and mortality arising from the associated comorbidities.

  17. Association between Opioid Receptor mu 1 (OPRM1 Gene Polymorphisms and Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption in a Spanish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Francès

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence gained from animals and humans suggests that the encephalic opioid system might be involved in the development of drug addiction through its role in reward. Our aim is to assess the influence of genetic variations in the opioid receptor mu 1 on alcohol and tobacco consumption in a Spanish population. 763 unrelated individuals (465 women, 298 men aged 18-85 years were recruited between October 2011 and April 2012. Participants were requested to answer a 35-item questionnaire on tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as to complete the AUDIT and Fagerström tests. Individuals were genotyped for three polymorphisms in the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1 gene, using a TaqMan® protocol. In males, the rs10485057 polymorphism was associated with total pure ethanol intake and with the risk of being an alcohol consumer. Also, this polymorphism was significantly associated with higher Fagerström scores. Rs1799971 had a different influence on adaptive and maladaptive patterns of alcohol use. Despite the limited sample size, our study might enrich current knowledge on patterns of alcohol use, because it encompasses both extreme and adaptive phenotypes, providing thus a wider perspective on this subject.

  18. Dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium in a Spanish population (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel José; González, Gara Luis; Caballero Mesa, José María; Revert Gironés, Consuelo; Burgos Ojeda, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium contents in food and beverages consumed by the population of the Canary Islands (Spain) as well as determine dietary intake of these metals in the archipelago as a whole and in its individual islands. To this end, 440 samples were analyzed by ICP-OES and GFAAS. Barium concentrations ranged from 5.210 ± 2.117 mg/kg in nuts to 0.035 ± 0.043 mg/L in water. Viscera exhibited the highest levels of bismuth (38.07 ± 36.80 mg/kg). The cold meat and sausages group stood out for its high chromium concentrations (0.494 ± 0.257 mg/kg). The highest concentration of lithium and strontium came out in nuts (8.761 ± 5.368 mg/kg and 9.759 ± 5.181 mg/kg, respectively). The total intakes of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium were 0.685, 1.274, 0.087, 3.674, and 1.923 mg/day, respectively. Cereals turned out to contribute most to the dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, and lithium in the Canary Islands, while fruit contributes most to the strontium intake. We also performed a metal intake study by age and sex of the population and compared the outcome with data from other regions, both national and international.

  19. Daily dietary intake of iron, copper, zinc and manganese in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Revert, Consuelo; Reguera, Juan Ignacio; Burgos, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the daily dietary intake of essential metals in the Canary Islands, the iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents in 420 food and drink samples collected in local markets were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The estimated daily dietary intakes of iron, copper, zinc and manganese are 13.161 mg/day, 2.098 mg/day, 8.954 mg/day and 2.372 mg/day, respectively. The iron dietary intake was found to be below the recommendations fixed for adult women, while the copper and manganese dietary intakes fulfilled the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The mean daily intake of zinc was below the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Cereals were found to be the food group that contributed most to the intake of these metals. While the island of El-Hierro presented iron, copper, zinc and manganese mean intakes over the estimated intakes for the whole archipelago, Fuerteventura island showed the lowest intakes. Tenerife and Fuerteventura showed the lowest iron intakes, being below the recommendations.

  20. "Una persona derechita (staying right in the mind)": perceptions of Spanish-speaking Mexican American older adults in South Texas colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Sharf, Barbara F; St John, Julie A

    2009-06-01

    This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by promotoras (community health workers) from clusters of colonias in Hidalgo County to participate in focus group discussions conducted in Spanish. After participants completed a 19-item questionnaire (in Spanish), a bilingual and bicultural researcher from the community, trained as a moderator, conducted 4 focus groups using a semistructured interview guide, culturally modified with the assistance of promotoras. All discussions were audio recorded; audio recordings were transcribed verbatim in Spanish and then translated into English. Analyses were conducted in English. Almost 85% had less than a high school education and 100% reported a household income less than $20,000/year. Groups attached cultural meaning to aging well. The idea of "staying straight in the mind" resonated as a depiction of brain health. Participants also mentioned the types of activities they could do to stay "right in the mind." Particular attention must be focused on development of programs that provide satisfying culturally appropriate activities for older participants and the delivery of health messages that take into consideration culture and language.

  1. Co-isolation of Vahlkampfia and acanthamoeba in acanthamoeba-like keratitis in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Irigoyen, Cristina; Morcillo-Laiz, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco; Piñero, Jose E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-05-01

    To report the co-isolation incidence of Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfia in amoebic keratitis from a tertiary care institution in Madrid, Spain. In this retrospective case series, 7 eyes of 7 consecutive patients with culture-proven or polymerase chain reaction-positive Acanthamoeba keratitis were seen at a tertiary care institution from January 2010 to April 2011, and their charts were reviewed. Two of 7 patients showed mixed Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfia keratitis. Good clinical response to the treatment was strongly correlated with early diagnosis, whereas delayed diagnosis resulted in poor response to the treatment in single or mixed infection. Co-isolation of Vahlkampfia and Acanthamoeba in Acanthamoeba-like keratitis has recently been detected in our population. This finding should raise awareness of the existence of other amoeba different from Acanthamoeba causing keratitis. There are not enough cases yet to determine the impact of mixed amoebic keratitis in the prognosis of this disease.

  2. [Chronic disease, mortality and disability in an elderly Spanish population: the FRADEA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso Silguero, Sergio A; Martínez-Reig, Marta; Gómez Arnedo, Llanos; Juncos Martínez, Gema; Romero Rizos, Luis; Abizanda Soler, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the relationships between the major chronic diseases and multiple morbidity, with mortality, incident disability in basic activities of daily living, and loss of mobility in the elderly. A total of 943 participants were selected from the FRADEA Study, using available baseline data of chronic diseases, and at the follow-up visit of mortality, incident disability, and loss of mobility. The analysis was made of the unadjusted and adjusted association between the number of chronic diseases, the number of 14 pre-selected diseases, and the presence of two or more chronic diseases (multiple morbidity) with adverse health events recorded. Participants with a higher number of diseases (OR 1.11; 95% CI: 1.02-1.22), and 14 pre-selected diseases (OR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38) had a higher adjusted mortality risk, but not a higher incident disease or mobility loss risk. Subjects with multiple morbidity had a higher non-significant mortality risk (HR 1.45; 95% CI: 0.87-2.43), than those without multiple morbidity. Disability-free mean time in participants with and without multiple morbidity was 846±34 and 731±17 days, respectively (Log-rank χ(2) 7.45. P=.006), and with our without mobility loss was 818±32 and 696±13 days, respectively (Log rank χ(2) 10.99. P=.001). Multiple morbidity was not associated with mortality, incident disability in ADL, or mobility loss in adults older than 70 years, although if mortality is taken into account, the number of chronic diseases is linear. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic myeloid leukaemia in Spain: Its presentation characteristics have changed. Spanish section of the EUTOS population-based registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, S; Casado, L F; Giraldo, P; Maestro, B; Andrade, M; Redondo, S; García-Gutiérrez, V; Ayala, R; Garcia, N; Steegmann, J L

    2016-01-01

    To provide more reliable data on the epidemiology of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in Spain than are currently available. The EUTOS population-based project of European LeukemiaNet is a population registry of new CML cases in patients 18 years of age or older from 22 European areas. The Spanish section included the autonomous communities of Madrid, Castilla-La Mancha and Aragon, from 1-2-2010 to 31-12-2012. A total of 250 cases were recorded in 35 months. The overall incidence was 1.08 cases/10(5) inhabitants-year, with a predominance of men (58%) and clear differences among the communities. The incidence standardised by age was similar (overall, 1.04; men, 1.31; women, 0.81). The median age was 54 years. The incidence increased with age, reaching a peak at>65 years, although 31.7% of cases appeared between the ages of 20 and 44 years. Four percent of cases were diagnosed in advanced stages (2.4% in accelerated phase, 1.6% in blast crisis), 56% were asymptomatic, 38% had splenomegaly, and the Sokal score was high in 11% (lower than what was previously reflected in the literature). The current incidence of CML in Spain is higher than previously reported and similar to that of the European studies. Unlike the classical descriptions, CML presented mostly in asymptomatic form, with no splenomegaly, less leucocytosis and in stages with better prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of the new American and British guidelines on the management and treatment of dyslipidemia in a Spanish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Carlos; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; Moral, Irene; García-Margallo, María Teresa; Cortés-Arcas, María Victoria; Puig, Mireia; Vázquez-Pirillo, Gastón; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2014-11-01

    The guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence on the management and treatment of dyslipidemia recommend significant changes, such as the abolition of therapeutic targets and the use of new risk tables. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the use of these new guidelines compared with the application of European guidelines. Observational study conducted among Spanish workers. We included all workers registered with the Sociedad de Prevención de Ibermutuamur in 2011 whose cardiovascular risk could be evaluated. Cardiovascular risk was calculated for each worker using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation cardiovascular risk tables for low-risk countries, as well as the tables recommended by the American and British guidelines. A total of 258,676 workers were included (68.2% men; mean age, 39.3 years). High risk was found in 3.74% of the population according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation tables and in 6.85% and 20.83% according to the British and American tables, respectively. Treatment would be needed in 20 558 workers according to the American guidelines and in 13,222 according to the British guidelines, but in only 2612 according to the European guidelines. By following the American guidelines, the cost of statins would increase by a factor of 8. The new recommendations would result in identifying more high-risk patients and in treating a larger fraction of the population with lipid-lowering drugs than with the European recommendations, which would result in increased costs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Living Kidney Donation Questionnaire (PCID-DVR-Ríos): Validation and Psychometric Characteristics in a Spanish-Speaking Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; De-Francisco, C; Sánchez, Á; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The attitude toward living kidney donation is important for certain promotion campaigns, however, there are few validated questionnaires in this regard. The aim of this work was to analyze the psychometric characteristics of the attitudes questionnaire about living renal donation, PCID-DVR-Ríos (Cuestionario del Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante sobre Donación de Vivo Renal [Questionnaire of the International Collaborative Donor Project on Living Kidney Donation] developed by Dr Ríos) for the validation of the questionnaire in population of Spanish speakers. The sample studied represented the population >18 years of age, native and resident of Spain, stratified by age and sex. The measurement instrument was the PCID-DVR-Ríos questionnaire. Analysis of data was structured in several stages: an initial description of the data, exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and internal consistency of the factors. The questionnaire consists of 11 items, distributed in 3 factors of 6, 3, and 2 items. This structure accounts for 63.995% of the total variance. By factors, the variance is distributed as follows: factor 1: 38.461%; factor 2: 14.228%; and factor 3: 11.306%. The analysis of items and internal consistency supported the trifactorial composition. Each factor is internally consistent (α1 = .80; α2 = .70; α3 = .55). The analyzed dimensions of the PCID-DVR Ríos questionnaire to analyze attitude toward living kidney donation showed a good fit in terms of factorial validity and internal consistency values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Factors Related to Food Agency: Cooking Habits in the Spanish Adult Population—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ángela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men). A total of 90.5% of participants stated that they had cooking skills. Women were mainly responsible for cooking tasks (p cook” in comparison with groups over 50 years. Regardless of age, most participants learned to cook either by practice (43.3%) or from a family member (42.2%). Men tended to be more autodidactic, whereas women reported learning from family. No relation was found between weight status and the evaluated factors investigated. In conclusion, women bear the responsibility for the entire cooking process in families, indicating a gender gap in the involvement of men in cooking responsibilities and competence. More research is needed to assess the influence of cooking knowledge on obesity prevention. PMID:29462887

  7. NOD2/CARD15: geographic differences in the Spanish population and clinical applications in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-de-Acosta, M; Mendoza, J L; Lana, R; Domínguez-Muñoz, J E; Díaz-Rubio, M

    2010-05-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a genetically complex disease in which both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play key roles in the development of the disorder. NOD2/CARD15 mutations are associated with CD. NOD2 encodes for a protein that is an intracellular receptor for a bacterial product (muramyl dipeptide), though the exact functional consequences of these mutations remain the subject of debate. NOD2/CARD15 mutations are associated with ileal CD, with stricturing behavior, and possibly with a more complicated course of CD. NOD2/CARD15 mutations associated with CD have demonstrated heterogeneity across ethnicities and populations throughout the world, with regional variations across Europe and Spain. However, "NOD2/CARD15 testing" is not yet ready for use in the clinical setting. One of the reasons is that we know that these genetic variants increase the risk of disease only marginally, and many healthy individuals carry the risk alleles, at present it is not recommended to screen first-degree relatives, because we do not have the ability to prevent the disease at the present time.

  8. Baseline PSA in a Spanish male population aged 40-49 years anticipates detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Viñas, M A; Gimbernat, H; Fata, F Ramón de; Granados, R; Luján, M

    2015-12-01

    We researched the usefulness of optimizing prostate cancer (PC) screening in our community using baseline PSA readings in men between 40-49 years of age. A retrospective study was performed that analyzed baseline PSA in the fifth decade of life and its ability to predict the development of PC in a population of Madrid (Spain). An ROC curve was created and a cutoff was proposed. We compared the evolution of PSA from baseline in patients with consecutive readings using the Friedman test. We established baseline PSA ranges with different risks of developing cancer and assessed the diagnostic utility of the annual PSA velocity (PSAV) in this population. Some 4,304 men aged 40-49 years underwent opportunistic screening over the course of 17 years, with at least one serum PSA reading (6,001 readings) and a mean follow-up of 57.1±36.8 months. Of these, 768 underwent biopsy of some organ, and 104 underwent prostate biopsy. Fourteen patients (.33%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The median baseline PSA was .74 (.01-58.5) ng/mL for patients without PC and 4.21 (.76-47.4) ng/mL for those with PC. The median time from the reading to diagnosis was 26.8 (1.5-143.8) months. The optimal cutoff for detecting PC was 1.9ng/mL (sensitivity, 92.86%; specificity, 92.54%; PPV, 3.9%; NPV, 99.97%), and the area under the curve was 92.8%. In terms of the repeated reading, the evolution of the PSA showed no statistically significant differences between the patients without cancer (p=.56) and those with cancer (P=.64). However, a PSAV value >.3ng/mL/year revealed high specificity for detecting cancer in this population. A baseline PSA level ≥1.9ng/mL in Spanish men aged 40-49 years predicted the development of PC. This value could therefore be of use for opportunistic screening at an early age. An appropriate follow-up adapted to the risk of this population needs to be defined, but an annual PSAV ≥.3ng/mL/year appears of use for reaching an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 AEU

  9. Hypertension in the very old; prevalence, awareness, treatment and control: a cross-sectional population-based study in a Spanish municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado, Alba; López, Flora; Miravet, Sonia; Oriol, Pilar; Fuentes, M Isabel; Henares, Belén; Badia, Teresa; Esteve, Lluis; Peligro, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on hypertension in the very elderly is sparse. Until recently evidence of benefits from pharmacological treatment was inconclusive. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension in subjects aged 80 or more, the proportion of awareness, treatment and control. Explanatory variables associated with good control were also studied. Methods Cross sectional, population-based study, conducted in Martorell, an urban Spanish municipality, in 2005. By simple random sampling...

  10. [Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in Spanish population of school children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca-Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara; Moreno-Gónzalez, Paula; Malumbres-Chacón, María

    2017-08-08

    To analyse the prevalence of hypovitaminosisD and associated factors in school children and adolescents living in a region of northern Spain. Cross-sectional study (convenience sampling). Primary Health Care. A total of 602 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypovitaminosisD were calculated (dependent variable). HypovitaminosisD is defined according to the US Endocrine Society criteria: deficiency (calcidiol <20ng/mL), insufficiency (calcidiol: 20-29ng/mL), and sufficiency (calcidiol ≥30ng/mL). Gender, age, body mass index, residence, and season of the year were recorded (independent variables), and their association with hypovitaminosisD was analysed by multiple regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosisD was 60.4% (insufficiency: 44.6%; deficiency: 15.8%). Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated to hypovitaminosisD were being female (OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.3), pubertal age (OR: 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), autumn (OR: 9.5; 95%CI: 4.8-18.7), winter (OR: 8.8; 95%CI: 4.5-17.5) and spring time (OR: 13.2; 95%CI: 6.4-27.5), living in urban areas (OR:1.6; CI95%: 1.1-2.2), and severe obesity (OR: 4.4; 95%CI: 1.9-10.3). There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosisD in juvenile populations. being female, pubertal age, autumn, winter and spring seasons, severe obesity, and living in urban areas are factors associated to hypovitaminosisD. Consideration should be given to the administration of vitamin supplements and/or the increase in the ingestion of natural vitaminD dietary sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

  12. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years. The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  13. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Salas

    Full Text Available Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years.The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4% than in men (48.9% and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity.Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  14. Predictive risk modelling in the Spanish population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orueta, Juan F; Nuño-Solinis, Roberto; Mateos, Maider; Vergara, Itziar; Grandes, Gonzalo; Esnaola, Santiago

    2013-07-09

    An increase in chronic conditions is currently the greatest threat to human health and to the sustainability of health systems. Risk adjustment systems may enable population stratification programmes to be developed and become instrumental in implementing new models of care.The objectives of this study are to evaluate the capability of ACG-PM, DCG-HCC and CRG-based models to predict healthcare costs and identify patients that will be high consumers and to analyse changes to predictive capacity when socio-economic variables are added. This cross-sectional study used data of all Basque Country citizens over 14 years of age (n = 1,964,337) collected in a period of 2 years. Data from the first 12 months (age, sex, area deprivation index, diagnoses, procedures, prescriptions and previous cost) were used to construct the explanatory variables. The ability of models to predict healthcare costs in the following 12 months was assessed using the coefficient of determination and to identify the patients with highest costs by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The coefficients of determination ranged from 0.18 to 0.21 for diagnosis-based models, 0.17-0.18 for prescription-based and 0.21-0.24 for the combination of both. The observed area under the ROC curve was 0.78-0.86 (identifying patients with a cost higher than P-95) and 0.83-0.90 (P-99). The values of the DCG-HCC models are slightly higher and those of the CRG models are lower, although prescription information could not be used in the latter. On adding previous cost data, differences between the three systems decrease appreciably. Inclusion of the deprivation index led to only marginal improvements in explanatory power. The case-mix systems developed in the USA can be useful in a publicly financed healthcare system with universal coverage to identify people at risk of high health resource consumption and whose situation is potentially preventable through proactive interventions.

  15. Intelligence Assessment Instruments in Adult Prison Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, A Y M; Denzel, A D; Scherder, E J A; Masthoff, E D M

    2017-10-01

    Detection of intellectual disability (ID) in the penitentiary system is important for the following reasons: (a) to provide assistance to people with ID in understanding their legal rights and court proceedings; (b) to facilitate rehabilitation programs tailored to ID patients, which improves the enhancement of their quality of life and reduces their risk of reoffending; and (c) to provide a reliable estimate of the risk of offence recidivism. It requires a short assessment instrument that provides a reliable estimation of a person's intellectual functioning at the earliest possible stage of this process. The aim of this systematic review is (a) to provide an overview of recent short assessment instruments that provide a full-scale IQ score in adult prison populations and (b) to achieve a quality measurement of the validation studies regarding these instruments to determine which tests are most feasible in this target population. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement is used to ensure reliability. The Satz-Mögel, an item-reduction short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, shows the highest correlation with the golden standard and is described to be most reliable. Nevertheless, when it comes to applicability in prison populations, the shorter and less verbal Quick Test can be preferred over others. Without affecting these conclusions, major limitations emerge from the present systematic review, which give rise to several important recommendations for further research.

  16. Felbamate in an adult population with severe refractory epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, H

    2011-04-05

    Felbamate (FBM) is efficacious in treating patients with refractory epilepsy but was withdrawn due to cases of aplastic anaemia, hepatic failure and five reported deaths. FBM is currently used in specialist centres and is only being used in one Irish centre to date. This papers aim is to review the efficacy and safety experience of FBM in Irish adult patients with refractory epilepsy. A retrospective chart review was done on patients\\' medical records. Patients were subdivided into responders and non responders based on change in seizure frequency and side effects were recorded for all. Of the 13 patients on FBM nine patients responded to FBM, four patients did not. FBM is a safe and efficacious alternative in an Irish adult population with refractory epilepsy. However close monitoring is still required given the potential fatal side effects that are possible with this anticonvulsant.

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health among middle-aged adults and the role of behavioral and psychosocial factors: evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Diego Alberto; Davidsen, Michael

    2017-02-16

    The goal of this analysis was to describe socioeconomic inequalities in dental health among Spanish middle-aged adults, and the role of behavioral and psychosocial factors in explaining these inequalities. This cross-sectional study used survey data from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey and focused on adults ages 30 - 64. The outcome was dental health status based on the presence of self-reported dental problems. We used education, income, and occupational class as indicators of socioeconomic position and applied logistic regression analysis to estimate associations. We included behavioral and psychosocial variables in the models and compared non-adjusted to adjusted estimates to assess their potential role in explaining socioeconomic gradients. Results showed clear socioeconomic gradients in dental health among middle-aged adults. The percentage of people who reported more dental problems increased among those with lower levels of education, income, and occupation. These gradients were statistically significant (p socioeconomic position. Substantial unexplained associations remained significant after adjusting the model by behavioral and psychosocial variables. This study shows significant socioeconomic gradients in dental health among middle-aged adults in Spain. Behavioral and psychosocial variables were insufficient to explain the inequalities described, suggesting the intervention of other factors. Further research should incorporate additional explanations to better understand and comprehensively address socioeconomic inequalities in dental health.

  18. [Osteoarthritis in the adult population of the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaeva, M G

    2015-01-01

    To analyze overall and new-onset osteoarthritis (OA) morbidity among the adult population in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2011-2012. The data of annual statistical reports "On Population Health and Public Health System" (Form No. 12) in 2011-2012 were analyzed. The indicators in the Republic of Kazakhstan were taken from the statistical collected articles "Population Health in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Activities of Healthcare Facilities". A comparative analysis of the indicators revealed a rising trend in overall morbidity by 1%, including in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases (MSD) by 3% (the increase rate per 100,000 population was 2%). An analysis of the incidence of MSD per 100,000 population in some regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan showed an upward trend in the Almaty Region: the incidence increased among the women and the 18 or more year olds by 23 and 16%, respectively. Among the adults (aged 18 years or older) and women, the number of patients with a newly diagnosed coxarthrosis (CA) increased by 43 and 18%, respectively; the number of those with gonarthrosis (GA) rose by 36 and 33%, respectively. The people older than 60 years of age and women showed 122 and 82% rises in the number of patients with a newly diagnosed CA; there were 78% increment rates in the patients with GA and 68% in the women. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, there was a high incidence of OA in both the people aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed CA, GA and the people over 60 years of age, in women in particular.

  19. External validation of the DRAGON score in an elderly Spanish population: prediction of stroke prognosis after IV thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Rodríguez-Campello, Ana; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Ois, Ángel; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) thrombolysis within 4.5 h of symptom onset has proven efficacy in acute ischemic stroke treatment, although half of all outcomes are unfavorable. The recently published DRAGON score aims to predict the 3-month outcome in stroke patients who have received i.v. alteplase. The purpose of this study was an external validation of the results of the DRAGON score in a Spanish cohort. Patients with acute stroke treated with alteplase were prospectively registered in our BasicMar database. We collected demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, the time from stroke onset to treatment, baseline serum glucose levels and stroke severity for this population. We then reviewed hyperdense cerebral artery signs and signs of early infarct on the admission CT scan. We calculated the DRAGON score and used the developers' 3-month prognosis categories: good [modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) 0-2], poor (mRS 3-6) and miserable (mRS 5-6) outcome. Discrimination was tested using the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC-ROC). Calibration was assessed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Our final cohort of 297 patients was older (median age 74 years, IQR 65-80) and had more risk factors and severe strokes [median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) points 13, IQR 7-19] than the original study population. Poor prognosis was observed in 143 (48.1%) patients. Higher DRAGON scores were associated with a higher risk of poor prognosis. None of our treated stroke patients with a DRAGON score ≥8 at admission experienced a favorable outcome after 3 months. All DRAGON variables were significantly associated with a worse outcome in the multivariate analysis except for onset-to-treatment time (p = 0.334). Discrimination to predict poor prognosis was very good (AUC-ROC 0.84) and the score had good Hosmer-Lemeshow calibration (p = 0.84). The DRAGON score is easy to perform and offers a rapid, reliable prediction of poor prognosis in acute-stroke patients

  20. Cone beam computed tomography analysis of root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a Spanish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llena, Carmen; Ortolani, Pablo Sebastian; Forner, Leopoldo; Fernandez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical anatomy of lower premolar roots in a Spanish population by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), correlating findings with patient gender and tooth type. Using 70 CBCT images, we evaluated 126 healthy, untreated, well-developed lower premolars. The number and morphology of roots and root canals, and the foramina number were assessed. Results for gender and tooth type were compared using the chi-squared and ANOVA tests. The average length of teeth and roots was significantly higher in men (p=0.00). All 126 premolars had a single root. One canal was found in 83.3% of the premolars, with no gender or tooth type differences; Vertucci configuration types I and V were the most prevalent. The first premolars showed significantly greater variability than the second premolars (p=0.03). A single apical foramen was found in 89.7% of the premolars, with no differences by tooth type. Women had a significantly higher prevalence of two apical foramina than men (p=0.04). Some degree of curvature was observed in 65% of the premolars, with no differences by gender or tooth type. A root angle of more than 20 degrees was found in 12.98% of the premolars, without any differences by gender or tooth. All premolars were single-rooted. One canal had the most prevalent morphology. More variability in canal anatomy was found in the first premolars. Curvatures greater than 20 degrees were found at less than 5 mm from the apex.

  1. A risk score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in an elderly Spanish Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guasch-Ferré

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To develop and test a diabetes risk score to predict incident diabetes in an elderly Spanish Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A diabetes risk score was derived from a subset of 1381 nondiabetic individuals from three centres of the PREDIMED study (derivation sample. Multivariate Cox regression model ß-coefficients were used to weigh each risk factor. PREDIMED-personal Score included body-mass-index, smoking status, family history of type 2 diabetes, alcohol consumption and hypertension as categorical variables; PREDIMED-clinical Score included also high blood glucose. We tested the predictive capability of these scores in the DE-PLAN-CAT cohort (validation sample. The discrimination of Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC, German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS and our scores was assessed with the area under curve (AUC. RESULTS: The PREDIMED-clinical Score varied from 0 to 14 points. In the subset of the PREDIMED study, 155 individuals developed diabetes during the 4.75-years follow-up. The PREDIMED-clinical score at a cutoff of ≥6 had sensitivity of 72.2%, and specificity of 72.5%, whereas AUC was 0.78. The AUC of the PREDIMED-clinical Score was 0.66 in the validation sample (sensitivity = 85.4%; specificity = 26.6%, and was significantly higher than the FINDRISC and the GDRS in both the derivation and validation samples. DISCUSSION: We identified classical risk factors for diabetes and developed the PREDIMED-clinical Score to determine those individuals at high risk of developing diabetes in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The predictive capability of the PREDIMED-clinical Score was significantly higher than the FINDRISC and GDRS, and also used fewer items in the questionnaire.

  2. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919). Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations ( r  = 0.785, p  = 0.000) with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS) and state anxiety ( r  = 0.330, p  = 0.000). We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency ( r  = 0.303, p  = 0.000) and positive urgency ( r  = 0.290, p  = 0.000), which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1). The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of craving, from the absence of craving to that referred to as addiction. Based on these results, we can conclude that this scale is a reliable tool that complements ongoing studies on problematic cell phone use.

  3. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José De-Sola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS. It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA, the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919. Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations (r = 0.785, p = 0.000 with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and state anxiety (r = 0.330, p = 0.000. We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency (r = 0.303, p = 0.000 and positive urgency (r = 0.290, p = 0.000, which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1. The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of craving, from the absence of craving to that referred to as addiction. Based on these results, we can conclude that this scale is a reliable tool that complements ongoing studies on problematic cell phone use.

  4. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    José De-Sola; Hernán Talledo; Hernán Talledo; Gabriel Rubio; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style...

  5. Development of a mobile phone addiction craving scale and its validation in a Spanish adult population

    OpenAIRE

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style...

  6. Validation of a Spanish translation of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) with a Chilean sample of adults and high schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Álvaro I; Ulloa, Valentina G; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Araya-Véliz, Claudio; Brito, Gonzalo

    2016-03-31

    Recent studies have associated positive emotions with several variables such as learning, coping strategies or assertive behaviour. The concept of gratitude has been specifically defined as a tendency to recognise and respond to people or situations with grateful emotion. Unfortunately in Latin America, no validated measures of gratitude on different populations are available. The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) in two Chilean samples. Two studies were conducted: the first with 668 high school adolescents (390 women and 278 men, with ages ranging between 12 and 20, and a mean age 15.54 ± 1.22) and the second with 331 adults (231 women and 100 men, with an average age of 37.59 ± 12.6). An analysis of the psychometric properties of the GQ-6 scale to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument in Chilean adolescents and adults was performed. Bivariate correlations, multiple regression analyses, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. A single-factor solution was found in both studies, a 5 item version for the adolescents and 6 items for adults. This factorial solution was invariant across genders. Reliability of the GQ was adequate in both samples (using Cronbach's alpha coefficient). In addition convergent and discriminate validity were assessed. Additionally, a negative correlation between the GQ-5 and depression in adolescents and a positive correlation between the GQ-6 and happiness in adults was found. The GQ is a suitable measure for evaluating a person's disposition toward gratitude in Chilean adolescents and adults. This instrument may contribute to the advancement of the study of positive emotions in Latin America.

  7. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  8. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Suseela, B.; Bhalke, Sunil; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 μg/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  9. Depression in an older adult rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sati P; Shrivastava, Saurabh R; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-10-01

    With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as an important public health concern. According to the WHO, prevalence of depression in adults aged ≥60 years in developed and developing countries was 0.5 million and 4.8 million respectively in 2004. In India, increased life expectancy led to a rise in the older adult population between 2001 and 2011, expected to reach 324 million by 2050. To estimate the prevalence of depression and assess association between sociodemographic parameters and depression among older adults in a rural Indian community. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in February and March 2012 in the rural village of Sembakkam, Kancheepuram District in the state of Tamil Nadu, India; the village has a population of 5948, 3.1% of whom are aged ≥60 years. Universal sampling technique was employed, in which every household in the community was visited and all elderly persons were selected. After obtaining written informed consent (a thumbprint was taken if the person was illiterate), participants were assessed face to face for depression using the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. The inclusion criterion was a score >24 on the mini-mental state examination. Final sample size was 103. Study variables included sociodemographic parameters such as age, sex, education, occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. Data entry and statistical analysis used SPSS version 17. Of 103 respondents interviewed, 73 (70.9%) were aged 60-69 years and 58 (56.3%) were male. Forty-four (42.7%) individuals (17 males, 27 females) were found to be depressed; 23 (22.3%) with mild depression, 14 (13.6%) moderate depression and 7 (6.8%) severe depression. Female sex and widowhood were significantly associated with depression. Depression, particularly mild depression, is common in this rural population of older adults, particularly among women and widowed elderly. These study findings can help program managers implement a more

  10. [Alimentation dependent health disorders among adult population of Bashkortostan Republic and their relation with nutritional traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Baĭkina, I M; Larionova, T K

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.

  11. Comparative chemistry and biological properties of the solid residues from hydrodistillation of Spanish populations of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Vioque, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid residues from the hydrodistillation of selected Spanish populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. have been analyzed for their polyphenol composition, and antioxidant and bioplaguicide activities. The objective was to evaluate and select the most suitable plant materials as sources of natural antioxidants and crop protectants. Total polyphenol content and polyphenol composition of rosemary populations were very dependent on the growth location: populations from Aranjuez showed a higher content of total polyphenols and were richer in rosmarinic acid as compared with their equivalent populations from Cuenca, whereas these latter were characterized by an overall higher content in genkwanin and carnosol. Most of the antioxidant activities were highly correlated with the total content of polyphenols although some polyphenols like carnosic acid and carnosol seemed to favor such activities. The extracts from R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and moderate against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and Myzus persicae Sulzer, according to their feeding ecologies. The biological effects of the active samples cannot be accounted by their chemical composition, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Both the phytotoxic and stimulating effects on Lactuca sativa L., and Lolium perenne L. leaf and/or root growth were observed.Se ha analizado la composición en polifenoles y las actividades antioxidante y bioplaguicida de los residuos sólidos procedentes de la hidrodestilación de poblaciones seleccionadas de romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. El objetivo fue evaluar y seleccionar los materiales vegetales más adecuados como fuente de antioxidantes y bioplaguicidas naturales. El contenido total y la composición en polifenoles de las poblaciones de romero dependieron mucho de la localidad de cultivo: las poblaciones de Aranjuez mostraron un mayor contenido en polifenoles y fueron más ricas en

  12. Health, treatment and health care resources consumption profile among Spanish adults with diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo; de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Rejas-Gutierrez, Javier; Martín-Centeno, Antonio; Gobartt-Vázquez, Elena; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentin; Gil de Miguel, Angel; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2009-08-01

    To describe the health, treatment and health care resources consumption profile among Spanish adults with diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and compare it with that of non-diabetic COPD patients. An observational and descriptive epidemiological study (EPIDEPOC study). The study included patients with stable COPD and aged > or =40 years, evaluated in primary care. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic variables, health profile, quality of life (SF-12), treatment and health care resources consumption. The results corresponding to diabetic and non-diabetic patients were compared. A total of 10,711 patients (75.6% males) with COPD were evaluated. The prevalence of diabetes was 16.9%. The diabetic patients were significantly older, with a larger percentage of women, and a lesser educational level compared with the non-diabetic patients. In addition, the diabetics were more sedentary, smoked less, and presented a higher percentage of obesity (33.6% versus 19.7%) than the non-diabetic patients. The severity of airways obstruction was greater among the diabetics than in the non-diabetic patients (54.57+/-13.37% versus 57.92+/-13.39%, respectively, pconsumption of drugs for COPD. In addition, they consumed significantly more health care (and thus economical) resources than the non-diabetic patients. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the variables that were independently associated to COPD among diabetic patients were: higher age, higher BMI, concomitant chronic heart disease, use of inhaled corticoids, SF-12 mental component, SF-12 physical component and total cost of COPD. The presence of diabetes in patients with COPD shows in the bivariate analysis a more severe lung disease, greater co-morbidity, poorer quality of life, and a greater consumption of resources, as well as a less favorable course in the previous year. However, the multivariate logistic regression shows that the variables that are

  13. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Renal length measured by ultrasound in adult mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyuela-Carrasco, J; Rodríguez-Castellanos, F; Kimura, E; Delgado-Hernández, R; Herrera-Félix, J P

    2009-01-01

    Renal length estimation by ultrasound is an important parameter in clinical evaluation of kidney disease and healthy donors. Changes in renal volume may be a sign of kidney disease. Correct interpretation of renal length requires the knowledge of normal limits, these have not been described for Latin American population. To describe normal renal length (RL) by ultrasonography in a group of Mexican adults. Ultrasound measure of RL in 153 healthy Mexican adults stratified by age. Describe the association of RL to several anthropometric variables. A total of 77 males and 76 females were scanner. The average age for the group was 44.12 +/- 15.44 years. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and height were 68.87 +/- 11.69 Kg, 26.77 +/- 3.82 kg/m2 and 160 +/- 8.62 cm respectively. Dividing the population by gender, showed a height of 166 +/- 6.15 cm for males and 154.7 +/- 5.97 cm for females (p =0.000). Left renal length (LRL) in the whole group was 105.8 +/- 7.56 mm and right renal length (RRL) was 104.3 +/- 6.45 mm (p = 0.000.) The LRL for males was 107.16 +/- 6.97 mm and for females was 104.6 +/- 7.96 mm. The average RRL for males was 105.74 +/- 5.74 mm and for females 102.99 +/- 6.85 mm (p = 0.008.) We noted that RL decreased with age and the rate of decline accelerates alter 60 years of age. Both lengths correlated significantly and positively with weight, BMI and height. The RL was significantly larger in males than in females in both kidneys (p = 0.036) in this Mexican population. Renal length declines after 60 years of age and specially after 70 years.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Swine Flu among adult population

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    Harjot Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention is the most appropriate measure to control H1N1 flu pandemic and awareness of H1N1 flu is ranked very high in preventive measures. Keeping this in view, study was designed to assess the awareness level and to compare it among urban and rural participants. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among adult population, to assess whether there is any difference among rural and urban population and to assess the response generated by the media coverage and the Government efforts.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from April to July 2015 on 300 houses from the urban area and 150 houses from rural area, chosen from study population by random sampling. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical were calculated. Results: 94% of urban and 91.3% of the rural participants had previously heard about swine flu, main source being TV. 46% of urban and 74% of rural participants had myth about spread of swine flu by eating pork. 41.3% of urban and 8.7% of rural population thought that government measures are sufficient for controlling swine flu. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding swine flu pandemic is good among study participants but role of health care providers is minimal and requires more dedicated effort. Lack of awareness among study population regarding some key focus areas like health promoting habits, vaccination and myths regarding the spread is of serious concern and needs to be addressed by the media, health workers and the Government efforts

  16. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

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    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  17. [Socioeconomic status and risky health behaviors in Croatian adult population].

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    Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our

  18. Comparative evolution of P-M system and infection by the sigma virus in French and Spanish populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Fleuriet, A; Kalmes, R; Pascual, L; Periquet, G

    1992-10-01

    In 1983, an extensive survey of populations of D. melanogaster was started in a southern French region (Languedoc) in two non-Mendelian systems: the P-M system of transposable elements and the hereditary Rhabdovirus sigma. Unexpectedly fast-evolving phenomena were observed and interesting correlations were noted, giving similar geographical pattern to the region in both systems. For these reasons, the analysis was continued and extended towards the north (Rhône Valley) and the south (Spain). In the P-M system, all the Languedoc populations evolved from 1983 to 1991 towards the Q type which is characteristic of the Rhône Valley populations. In contrast, M' strains are currently observed in the southernmost French populations and in all Spanish ones, so that there is a clear pattern in their geographical distribution. The frequency of flies infected by the sigma virus dramatically increased from 1983 to 1988 in Languedoc; this increase was clearly correlated with some viral characteristics. But, in northern France, similar characteristics did not trigger any increase in the frequency of infected flies. The data presented here show that the distinctive features of Languedoc extend northwards through the Rhône Valley up to Lyon and disappears southwards before the Spanish border.

  19. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

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    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  20. Time trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness in elderly people: 20 year follow-up of the Spanish population national health survey (1987-2006

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    Carrasco-Garrido Pilar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness between 1987-2006 in older Spanish people. Methods We analyzed data collected from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 1987 (n = 29,647, 1993 (n = 20,707, 1995-1997 (n = 12,800, 2001 (n = 21,058, 2003 (n = 21,650, and 2006 (n = 29,478. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included in the current study was 29,263 (1987: n = 4,958-16.7%; 1993: n = 3,751-17.8%; 1995-97: n = 2,229-17.4%; 2001: n = 4,356-20.7%; 2003: 6,134-28.3%; 2006: 7,835-26.5%. Main variables included leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness. We analyzed socio-demographic characteristics, self-rated health status, lifestyle habit and co-morbid conditions using multivariate logistic regression models. Results Women exhibited lower prevalence of leisure time physical activity and physical fitness compared to men (P Conclusions We found an increase in leisure time physical activity in the older Spanish population. Older age, married status, co-morbid conditions, obesity, and worse self-perceived health status were associated with lower activity. Identification of these factors can help to identify individuals at risk for physical inactivity.

  1. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  2. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

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    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Version of the SARC-F to Assess Sarcopenia in Mexican Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rodríguez, Lorena; Szlejf, Claudia; García-González, Ana Isabel; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Cruz-Arenas, Esteban; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish-language version of the SARC-F in Mexican community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. Participants were 487 men and women older than 60 years, living in the designated area in Mexico City. Information from questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental status, nutritional status, dependence in activities of daily living, frailty, and quality of life. Objective measurements of muscle mass, strength and function were as follows: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was taken using dual-energy x-ray, grip strength using a hand dynamometer, 6-meter gait speed using a GAIT Rite instrumented walkway, peak torque and power for knee extension using a isokinetic dynamometer, lower extremity functioning measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and balance using evaluation on a foam surface, with closed eyes, in the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration. The SARC-F scale translated to Spanish and the consensus panels' criteria from European, international, and Asian sarcopenia working groups were applied to evaluate sarcopenia. The Spanish language version of the SARC-F scale showed reliability (Cronbach alfa = 0.641. All items in the scale correlated to the scale's total score, rho = 0.43 to 0.76), temporal consistency evaluated by test-retest (CCI = 0.80), criterion validity when compared to the consensus panels' criteria (high specificity and negative predictive values). The scale was also correlated to other measures related to sarcopenia (such as age, quality of life, self-rated health status, cognition, dependence in activities of daily living, nutritional status, depression, gait speed, grip strength, peak torque and power for knee extension, SPPB, balance, SMI, and frailty). The SARC-F scale was successfully adapted to

  4. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

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    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  6. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran.

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    Daroudi, Rajabali; Rashidian, Arash; Zeraati, Hojjat; Oliyaeemanesh, Alireza; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction.

  7. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. METHODS We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. RESULTS On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction. PMID:27809456

  8. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  9. The impact of socioeconomic status on the association between biomedical and psychosocial well-being and all-cause mortality in older Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Abella, Joan; Mundó, Jordi; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Perales, Jaime; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Miret, Marta; Haro, Josep Maria; Olaya, Beatriz

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the effect of biomedical and psychosocial well-being, based on distinct successful aging models (SA), on time to mortality, and determine whether this effect was modified by socioeconomic status (SES) in a nationally representative sample of older Spanish adults. Data were taken from a 3-year follow-up study with 2783 participants aged 50 or over. Vital status was ascertained using national registers or asking participants' relatives. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the time to death by SES, and levels of biomedical and psychosocial SA. Cox proportional hazard regression models were conducted to explore interactions between SES and SA models while adjusting for gender, age, and marital status. Lower levels of SES and biomedical and psychosocial SA were associated with low probability of survival. Only the interaction between SES and biomedical SA was significant. Biomedical SA impacted on mortality rates among individuals with low SES but not on those with medium or high SES, whereas psychosocial SA affected mortality regardless of SES. Promoting equal access to health care system and improved psychosocial well-being could be a protective factor against premature mortality in older Spanish adults with low SES.

  10. Influence of Language and Culture in the Primary Care of Spanish-Speaking Latino Adults with Poorly Controlled Diabetes: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Cindy D; Sanchez, Gabriela; Altschuler, Andrea; Grant, Richard W

    2017-01-01

    We examined the role of language and culture in the interactions between Spanish-speaking Latino patients with poorly controlled diabetes - a fast-growing population in the United States - and their primary care providers. We conducted four focus groups with 36 non-US born Spanish-speaking patients with elevated HbA1c. Participants were insured health plan members with either English-speaking (2 groups) or Spanish-speaking (2 groups) primary care providers. Moderated discussions focused on visit preparation, communication during visit, and role of other care team members. Key themes derived from these discussions were then linked to corresponding Latino cultural constructs. Patients had a mean age of 57.9 (±11.2) years and last measured HbA1c was 8.6% (1.5%). Two communication-related themes (reluctance to switch providers and use of intermediaries) and two visit-related themes (provider-driven visit agendas and problem-based visits) emerged from our analyses. These themes reflected the cultural constructs of confianza (trust), familismo (family), respeto (deference), and simpatía (harmonious relationship). Trust in the patient-provider relationship led many participants to remain with English-speaking providers who treated them well. Patients with either language concordant and discordant providers reported reliance on family or other intermediaries to close communication gaps. Deference to physician expertise and authority led to visit expectations that it is the doctor's job to know what to ask and that visits were intended to address specific, often symptom-driven problems. Spanish-speaking Latino patients' cultural expectations play an important role in framing their primary care interactions. Recognizing culturally influenced visit expectations is an important step toward improving patient-provider communication.

  11. Spanish translation, adaptation and validation of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey in adults with type 1 diabetes in the Community of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasende, Clara; Rubio, José Antonio; Álvarez, Julia

    2018-05-01

    The negative impact of hypoglycemia on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may lead to development of fear of hypoglycemia. In this study, the original Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) questionnaire was translated into Spanish, adapted and validated, and variables associated to fear of hypoglycemia in T1DM were analyzed. The HFS was translated and adapted to Spanish using the forward-backward translation method. The resulting questionnaire, EsHFS, was administrated to a population with T1DM. The following parameters of the questionnaire were analyzed: feasibility, reliability (Cronbach's alpha), content validity (correlating EsHFS and EsDQOL [Diabetes Quality of Life] questionnaire), and stability (by means of test-retest correlation). The EsHFS questionnaire consists of 24 items and three subscales including: subscale 1 on worry; subscale 2 on hypoglycemia-avoidant behavior, and subscale 3 on hyperglycemia-influenced behavior. 163 subjects, with a mean aged (SD) of 36 (10.5) years, 24% on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Of these, 99.8% completed the EsHFS questionnaire in less than 10minutes. Cronbach's alpha for global EsHFS was 0.92. EsHFS and its subscales correlated with EsDQOL. Test-retest correlation (Pearson) was r=0.92. Age, female sex, lower educational level, living alone, frequency of daily self-monitoring and non-severe hypoglycemia, and history of severe and/or asymptomatic hypoglycemia were independently associated to the result of EsHFS. The Spanish version of the HFS, EsHFS, has good psychometric properties and may be a useful tool to assess fear of hypoglycemia in Spanish-speaking patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population

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    Hakan Çolak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is defined as a chronic orofacial pain condition, characterized symptomatically by burning pain localized to the tongue and lips or may involve the entire oral cavity. The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms reported from international studies ranges from 0.6% to 15%. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population.Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect data on demographic characteristics, medical history and drugs taken by the patients and clinical examination was performed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 (500 men and 500 women randomly selected patients who attended attending to Kırıkkale University Dental Faculty Department of Restorative Dentistry.Results: BMS was diagnosed in 12 patients with 0.12% prevalence in 2 man and 10 women, with 1:5 ratio respectively. The most common site for BMS was tongue. Para functional habits were the most common local factor. According to visual analogue scale (VAS mean (±SD level of burning intensity was 5.45 (±1.69.Conclusions: Burning Mouth Syndrome in Turkish population has low prevalence and is more frequent in females.

  13. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels in a general adult population: curves percentile by gender and age. The EPIRCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; Cadarso-Suarez, Carmen; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel

    2011-10-01

    To describe the distribution of HOMA-IR levels in a general nondiabetic population and its relationships with metabolic and lifestyles characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Data from 2246 nondiabetic adults in a random Spanish population sample, stratified by age and gender, were analyzed. Assessments included a structured interview, physical examination, and blood sampling. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to assess the effect of lifestyle habits and clinical and demographic measurements on HOMA-IR. Multivariate GAMs and quantile regression analyses of HOMA-IR were carried out separately in men and women. This study shows refined estimations of HOMA-IR levels by age, body mass index, and waist circumference in men and women. HOMA-IR levels were higher in men (2.06) than women (1.95) (P=0.047). In women, but not men, HOMA-IR and age showed a significant nonlinear association (P=0.006), with increased levels above fifty years of age. We estimated HOMA-IR curves percentile in men and women. Age- and gender-adjusted HOMA-IR levels are reported in a representative Spanish adult non-diabetic population. There are gender-specific differences, with increased levels in women over fifty years of age that may be related with changes in body fat distribution after menopause. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spanish translation and linguistic validation of the quality of life in neurological disorders (Neuro-QoL) measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, H; Pérez, B; Arnold, B; Wong, Alex W K; Lai, J S; Kallen, M; Cella, D

    2015-03-01

    The quality of life in neurological disorders (Neuro-QoL) measurement system is a 470-item compilation of health-related quality of life domains for adults and children with neurological disorders. It was developed and cognitively debriefed in English and Spanish, with general population and clinical samples in the USA. This paper describes the Spanish translation and linguistic validation process. The translation methodology combined forward and back-translations, multiple reviews, and cognitive debriefing with 30 adult and 30 pediatric Spanish-speaking respondents in the USA. The adult Fatigue bank was later also tested in Spain and Argentina. A universal approach to translation was adopted to produce a Spanish version that can be used in various countries. Translators from several countries were involved in the process. Cognitive debriefing results indicated that most of the 470 Spanish items were well understood. Translations were revised as needed where difficulty was reported or where participants' comments revealed misunderstanding of an item's intended meaning. Additional testing of the universal Spanish adult Fatigue item bank in Spain and Argentina confirmed good understanding of the items and that no country-specific word changes were necessary. All the adult and pediatric Neuro-QoL measures have been linguistically validated with Spanish speakers in the USA. Instruments are available for use at www.assessmentcenter.net.

  15. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Spanish field populations of Ceratitis capitata and metabolic resistance mediated by P450 in a resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouri, Rabeh; Le Goff, Gaelle; Hemden, Hiethem; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; M'saad, Mariem; Castañera, Pedro; Feyereisen, René; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Ortego, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The withdrawal of malathion in the European Union in 2009 resulted in a large increase in lambda-cyhalothrin applications for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Spanish citrus crops. Spanish field populations of C. capitata have developed resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (6-14-fold), achieving LC50 values (129-287 ppm) higher than the recommended concentration for field treatments (125 ppm). These results contrast with the high susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin found in three Tunisian field populations. We have studied the mechanism of resistance in the laboratory-selected resistant strain W-1Kλ (205-fold resistance). Bioassays with synergists showed that resistance was almost completely suppressed by the P450 inhibitor PBO. The study of the expression of 53 P450 genes belonging to the CYP4, CYP6, CYP9 and CYP12 families in C. capitata revealed that CYP6A51 was overexpressed (13-18-fold) in the resistant strain. The W-1Kλ strain also showed high levels of cross-resistance to etofenprox (240-fold) and deltamethrin (150-fold). Field-evolved resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin has been found in C. capitata. Metabolic resistance mediated by P450 appears to be the main resistance mechanism in the resistant strain W-1Kλ. The levels of cross-resistance found may compromise the effectiveness of other pyrethroids for the control of this species. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Periodontal Disease Status in an Isolated Greek Adult Population

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    N. A. Chrysanthakopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal condition of an adult population in three isolated regions in Greece and to determine the association of periodontal disease with several demographic, behavioral and environmental factors.Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 640 individuals, aged 20to69 years from three isolated regions. The following indices were assessed: Pocket Depth (PD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL, Dental Plaque, Calculus and Bleeding on Probing (BOP. Statistical analysis was accomplished by multiple linear regression model which was used to assess the association between the mean clinical attachment loss and clinical, demographic and behavioral parameters.Results: The samples of the study showed high levels of dental plaque, dental calculus and BOP. The final multivariate model showed that age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.016 and presence of calculus (p=0.000 were associated with the mean clinical attachment loss. Age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.000 and dental plaque (p=0.027 were associated with gingival recession, while age (p=0.018 and gender (p=0.000 were associated with probing depth. Bleeding on probing, dental plaque, toothbrush frequency, level of education, tobacco consumption and reasons for dental visits were not associated with the mean clinical attachment loss.Conclusion: Periodontal disease consists of a complicated destructive condition of the Periodontal tissue with a.multi-factorial etiology. Oral hygiene instructions and a regular dental follow-up could play a significant role in the prevention of periodontal disease.Key Words: Periodontal Disease; Epidemiology; Risk Factors

  17. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

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    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  18. The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire: Factor structure and predictive validity among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Vidrine, Damon J; Costello, Tracy J; Mazas, Carlos; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Mejia, Luz Maria; Wetter, David W

    2009-11-01

    Much of the existing research on smoking outcome expectancies has been guided by the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ ). Although the original version of the SCQ has been modified over time for use in different populations, none of the existing versions have been evaluated for use among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in the United States. The present study evaluated the factor structure and predictive validity of the 3 previously validated versions of the SCQ--the original, the SCQ-Adult, and the SCQ-Spanish, which was developed with Spanish-speaking smokers in Spain--among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in Texas. The SCQ-Spanish represented the least complex solution. Each of the SCQ-Spanish scales had good internal consistency, and the predictive validity of the SCQ-Spanish was partially supported. Nearly all the SCQ-Spanish scales predicted withdrawal severity even after controlling for demographics and dependence. Boredom Reduction predicted smoking relapse across the 5- and 12-week follow-up assessments in a multivariate model that also controlled for demographics and dependence. Our results support use of the SCQ-Spanish with Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in the United States.

  19. Prevalence of insomnia in the adult Norwegian population.

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    Pallesen, S; Nordhus, I H; Nielsen, G H; Havik, O E; Kvale, G; Johnsen, B H; Skjøtskift, S

    2001-11-01

    A representative adult sample (18 years and above) of the Norwegian population, comprising 2001 subjects, participated in telephone interviews, focusing on the one-month point prevalence of insomnia and use of prescribed hypnotics. Employment of DSM-IV inclusion criteria of insomnia yielded a prevalence rate of 11.7%. Logistic regression analysis performed on the different insomnia symptoms revealed that somatic and psychiatric health were the strongest predictors of insomnia, whereas gender, age, and socioeconomic status showed a more inconsistent relationship. Use of prescribed hypnotic drugs was reported by 6.9% and was related to being female, elderly, and having somatic and emotional problems. Sleep onset problems and daytime impairment were more common during winter compared to summer. Use of hypnotics was more common in the southern (rather than the northern) regions of Norway. For sleep onset problems a Season x Region interaction was found, indicating that the prevalence of sleep onset problems increased in southern Norway from summer to winter, while the opposite pattern was found in the northern regions. The importance of clinically adequate criteria and seasonal variation in the evaluation of insomnia is briefly discussed.

  20. Factors related to food involvement in the adult population

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    Bárbara de ALENCAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate aspects associated with food involvement and to ascertain whether individuals with higher food involvement consume larger amounts of fruits and vegetables. Methods This cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted with 301 adults (19-59 years old from the Federal District, Brazil. Sample size calculation was based on numbers from the Brazilian Demographic Census and on consumption data for fruits and vegetables obtained from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Interviews survey. Data were collected in October of 2012. The questionnaire comprised 28 questions and included socio-demographic variables, reported fruit and vegetable consumption, and an adapted food involvement scale. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed to determine population characteristics . Results Women and older individuals displayed a higher degree of food involvement than did men and younger individuals ( p <0.001. Among the factors included in food involvement, the highest influence was attributed to satisfaction in preparing food (cooking, pre-preparation of food, and pleasure in cooking for other people ( p <0.001. Conclusion The results presented here suggest that food involvement can be stimulated through innovative strategies of communication that go beyond the biological arguments and focus on the cultural expression of the elements of socialization, whose relationship with eating is well established.

  1. Adult Mouse Liver Contains Two Distinct Populations of Cholangiocytes

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    Bin Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biliary system plays an important role in several acquired and genetic disorders of the liver. We have previously shown that biliary duct epithelium contains cells giving rise to proliferative Lgr5+ organoids in vitro. However, it remained unknown whether all biliary cells or only a specific subset had this clonogenic activity. The cell surface protease ST14 was identified as a positive marker for the clonogenic subset of cholangiocytes and was used to separate clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Only ST14hi duct cells had the ability to generate organoids that could be serially passaged. The gene expression profiles of clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells were similar, but several hundred genes were differentially expressed. RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that clonogenic duct cells are interspersed among regular biliary epithelium at a ∼1:3 ratio. We conclude that adult murine cholangiocytes can be subdivided into two populations differing in their proliferative capacity.

  2. Clinical spectrum of thrombocytopenia in adult population of karachi

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    Rehman, Z.; Alam, M.; Mubarik, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the etiology and clinical features of patients presenting with bleeding due to thrombocytopenia. Design: A cross sectional study. Place and duration of study:.Th study was carries out at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi during the period form 1994-1996. Subjects and Methods: A total of 500 consecutive patients of 15 years or more age with a platelet count of less than 150 x 10/sup 9/L were included in the study. Complete blood count including platelets count was carried out by using electronic counter model T-890 for each patient. Very low platelet count was also confirmed by manual method. Results: among 500 patients of thrombocytopenia the commonest cause was malaria consisting of 216 (43.2%) cases. Megaloblastic anemia was the leading hematological cause, comprising of 31 (6.2%) patients. Other miscellaneous causes like dengue hemorrhagic fever, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura aplastic anemia and leukemias were responsible for the rest of cases of thrombocytopenia. Epistaxis followed by gum bleeding was the leading clinical manifestation. Conclusion: We conclude that malaria and viral infections are common causes of transient ghtombocytopenia. Epistaxis and gum bleeding are the leading clinical manifestations in various disease processes in adult population. (author)

  3. A Study Of Prevalence Of Obesity In Adult Punjabi Population

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    Pooja Goyal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally with more than 1 billion overweight, Atleast 300 million of them are clinically obese and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability (1. Long considered a buy product of modern life in rich, developed contries, obesity is spreading to developing contries as well. Two critical factors that have influenced this explosion are changes in dietary patterns and levels of physical activity. The latest list of morbidity associated with obesity includes about forty diseases. Though, prevalence of co-morbidities of obesity is quite high among adults in India yet there are relatively less reliable and representative data available. Hence, this study was carried out. Material & Methods : It was a community based, cross sectional study conducted in field practice areas at Rural Health Centre (RHC, Pohir and Urban Health Centre (UHC, Kirti Nagar attached to the department of Community Medicine, DMC & Hospital Ludhiana. Field practice area of RHC is composed of 10 villages serving a total population of 20,450. The Urban health Centre covers ten colonies having a total populaation of 20.645.

  4. Improving advance care planning for English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults: study protocol for the PREPARE randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Barnes, Deborah E; Le, Gem M; Ramos, Roberto; Osua, Stacy J; Richardson, Sarah A; Boscardin, John; Schillinger, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that allows patients to identify their goals for medical care. Traditionally, ACP has focused on completing advance directives; however, we have expanded the ACP paradigm to also prepare patients to communicate their wishes and make informed decisions. To this end, we created an ACP website called PREPARE (http://www.prepareforyourcare.org) to prepare diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults for medical decision-making. Here, we describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled efficacy trial of PREPARE in a safety-net setting. The goal is to determine the efficacy of PREPARE to engage diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults in a full spectrum of ACP behaviours. Methods and analysis We include English-speaking and Spanish-speaking adults from an urban public hospital who are ≥55 years old, have ≥2 chronic medical conditions and have seen a primary care physician ≥2 times in the last year. Participants are randomised to the PREPARE intervention (review PREPARE and an easy-to-read advance directive) or the control arm (only the easy-to-read advance directive). The primary outcome is documentation of an advance directive and/or ACP discussion. Secondary outcomes include ACP behaviour change processes measured with validated surveys (eg, self-efficacy, readiness) and a broad range of ACP actions (eg, choosing a surrogate, identifying goals for care, discussing ACP with clinicians and/or surrogates). Using blinded outcome ascertainment, outcomes will be measured at 1 week and at 3, 6 and 12 months, and compared between study arms using mixed-effects logistic regression and mixed-effects linear, Poisson or negative binomial regression. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Boards and is guided by input from patient and clinical advisory boards and a data safety monitoring board. The results of this study will

  5. [Analysis of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in the adult population of Yecla (Murcia, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Candela, J; Gallardo Martín, A; Franch Nadal, J; Romero Ortiz, J; Cánovas Domínguez, C; Gómez Marco, R

    2004-10-31

    To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG or GBA), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in the adult population of Yecla. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study (on Primary Care Field) with stratified and random sampling (393) from 17 500 residents in Yecla with sanitary card and aged > or =30 years. We studied 286 subjects (107 declining to participate) and 261 of them (125 men and 136 women) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). World Health Organization (WHO-99) and American Diabetes Association (ADA-97) criteria were used for diagnosis of unknown DM2, GBA and IGT. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables were measured. Plasma lipid, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), microalbuminuria and insulin levels also were measured. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the HOMA method. According ADA-97 criteria the prevalence of DM2 and GBA was 2.65 (CI+/-1.95) and 4.3% (+/-2.5) respectively. Underwent an OGTT, the age-adjusted prevalence of DM2, IGT and GBA (using the Spanish population of July 02) was 6.7 (95%CI, 3,7-9,7); 13.2 (95%CI, 9.1-17.3) and 0.2% (95%CI, 0-1.8) respectively. The known DM2 was 5,9% (95%CI, 3.8-8) and the global prevalence of DM2 was 12.6% (95%CI, 9.6-15.6). The diabetes was associated with overweight, overage and higher insulin, HbA1C and insulin resistance levels. There is a high prevalence of DM2 in Yecla (known/unknown 0.87/1). The ADA97 criteria only detected 53% of the unknown DM2. The 78% of normoglycemics subjects had overweight or upper-body fat distribution and diabetics people had higher BMI (Body Mass Index), Hypertension, insulinemia, HbA1C and insulin resistance levels than normoglycemics and IGT subjects.

  6. Cut-off scores of a brief neuropsychological battery (NBACE for Spanish individual adults older than 44 years old.

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    Montserrat Alegret

    Full Text Available The neuropsychological battery used in Fundació ACE (NBACE is a relatively brief, and easy to administer, test battery that was designed to detect cognitive impairment in the adulthood. The NBACE includes measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis and executive functions. The aim of the present study was to establish the cut-off scores for impairment for different levels of age and education that could be useful in the cognitive assessment of Spanish subjects who are at risk for cognitive impairment, especially dementia. Data from 1018 patients with a mild dementia syndrome, and 512 cognitively healthy subjects, older than 44 years, from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE (Barcelona, Spain were analyzed. In the whole sample, cut-off scores and sensitivity/specificity values were calculated for six conditions after combining 3 age ranges (44 to 64; 65 to 74; and older than 74 years old by 2 educational levels (until Elementary school; and more than Elementary school. Moreover, general cut-offs are reported for Catalan and Spanish speakers. The results showed that most of NBACE tests reached good sensitivity and specificity values, except for Ideomotor praxis, Repetition and Verbal Comprehension tests, which had a ceiling effect. Word List Learning from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and Semantic Verbal Fluency were the most useful tests to discriminate between cognitively healthy and demented subjects. The NBACE has been shown to be a useful tool able to detect cognitive impairment, especially dementia, in older than 44 years Spanish persons.

  7. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  8. Response to methylphenidate by adult and pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Spanish multicenter DIHANA study

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    Valdizán-Usón JR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JR Valdizán-Usón,1 A Cánovas-Martínez,2 MT De Lucas-Taracena,3 F Díaz-Atienza,4 LS Eddy-Ives,5 A Fernández-Jaén,6 M Fernández-Pérez,7 M García-Giral,8 P García-Magán,9 M Garraus-Oneca,10 MA Idiazábal-Alecha,11 M López-Benito,12 G Lorenzo-Sanz,13 J Martínez-Antón,14 MA Martínez-Granero,15 F Montañés-Rada,16 F Mulas-Delgado,17 G Ochando-Perales,18 E Ortega-García,19 A Pelaz-Antolín,20 JA Ramos-Quiroga,21 FC Ruiz-Sanz,22 J Vaquerizo-Madrid,23 A Yusta-Izquierdo241Unidad Trastornos Neurofuncionales, Clínica Montpellier, Zaragoza, 2Hospital Dr Peset, Valencia, 3Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, 4Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, 5Centre Mèdic Sant Ramon, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Barcelona, 6Hospital Universitario Quirón, Madrid, 7Centro de Salud La Felguera, Langreo, Asturias, 8Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, 9Unidad Salud Mental, Talavera de la Reina, 10Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona, 11Hospital Ntra. Sra. del Pilar, Barcelona, 12Centro Salud Contrueces, Gijón, 13Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 14Complejo Hospitalario Carlos Haya, Málaga, 15Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Alcorcón, Madrid, 16Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Alcorcón, Madrid, 17Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, 18Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, 19Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, 20Centro Salud Mental, Alcalá de Henares, 21Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron. CIBERSAM. Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 22Hospital General Rio Carrión, Palencia, 23Hospital Materno-Infantil, Badajoz, 24Hospital Universitario, Guadalajara, SpainBackground: The purpose of this multicenter Spanish study was to evaluate the response to immediate-release methylphenidate by children and adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, as well as to obtain information on current therapy patterns and safety characteristics.Methods: This multicenter

  9. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC in young adults

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    García-Campayo Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Findings Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. Conclusions The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  10. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Chilmeran, Saba K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C 130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C 5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  11. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S [Dept. of Chemical Pathology, Royal Hospital, Muscat (Oman); Chilmeran, Saba K [Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Univ. of Mosul (Iraq)

    2007-07-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C<40mg/dl (1.04mmol/L) and non-HDL-C>130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C<45mg/dl (1.15mmol/L), TC: HDL-C>5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  12. Utility of the PHQ-9 to identify major depressive disorder in adult patients in Spanish primary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Navarro, Roger; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Medrano, Leonardo Adrián; Schmitz, Florian; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Abellán-Maeso, Carmen; Font-Payeras, Maria Antonia; Hermosilla-Pasamar, Ana María

    2017-08-09

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Spanish primary care (PC) centres is high. However, MDD is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently only some patients receive the appropriate treatment. The present study aims to determine the utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to identify MDD in a subset of PC patients participating in the large PsicAP study. A total of 178 patients completed the full PHQ test, including the depression module (PHQ-9). Also, a Spanish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was implemented by clinical psychologists that were blinded to the PHQ-9 results. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool as compared to the SCID-I as a reference standard. The psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 for a cut-off value of 10 points were as follows: sensitivity, 0.95; specificity, 0.67. Using a cut-off of 12 points, the values were: sensitivity, 0.84; specificity, 0.78. Finally, using the diagnostic algorithm for depression (DSM-IV criteria), the sensitivity was 0.88 and the specificity 0.80. As a screening instrument, the PHQ-9 performed better with a cut-off value of 12 versus the standard cut-off of 10. However, the best psychometric properties were obtained with the DSM-IV diagnostic algorithm for depression. These findings indicate that the PHQ-9 is a highly satisfactory tool that can be used for screening MDD in the PC setting. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58437086 . Registered 20 May 2013.

  13. Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults

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    Jose T. Ramos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many physiologic differences between children and adults may result in age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors such as gastric pH and emptying time, intestinal transit time, immaturity of secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid among other factors determine the oral bioavailability of pediatric and adult populations. Anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics in children also affect the bioavailability of other routes of administration. Key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the pediatric population and adults are membrane permeability, plasma protein binding and total body water. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the pediatric population compared with adults both for phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Immaturity of glomerular filtration, renal tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption at birth and their maturation determine the different excretion of drugs in the pediatric population compared to adults.

  14. The TGFBR1*6A allele is not associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, Adela; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen; Carrato, Alfredo; Soto, José-Luís; Mata-Balaguer, Trinidad; Montenegro, Paola; Ochoa, Enrique; Lázaro, Rafael; Martínez-Cantó, Ana; Castillejo, María-Isabel; Guarinos, Carla; Barberá, Víctor-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β receptor type I is a mediator of growth inhibitory signals. TGFBR1*6A (rs11466445) is a common polymorphic variant of the TGF-β receptor I gene and has been associated with tumour susceptibility. Nevertheless, the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TGFBR1*6A and colorectal cancer, age, sex, tumour location and tumour stage in a Spanish population. The case-control study involved 800 Spanish subjects: 400 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and 400 age-, sex-, and ethnic-matched controls. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the TGFBR1*6A polymorphism were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. Analysis of somatic mutations at the GCG repeat of TGFBR1 exon 1 and germline allele-specific expression were also conducted to obtain further information on the contribution of the TGFBR1*6A allele to CRC susceptibility. There was no statistically significant association between the TGFBR1*6A allele and CRC (p > 0.05). The OR was 1.147 (95% CI: 0.799–1.647) for carriers of the TGFBR1*6A allele and 0.878 (95% CI: 0.306–2.520) for homozygous TGFBR1*6A individuals compared with the reference. The frequency of the polymorphism was not affected by age, sex or tumour stage. The TGFBR1*6A allele was more prevalent among colon tumour patients than among rectal tumour patients. Tumour somatic mutations were found in only two of 69 cases (2.9%). Both cases involved a GCG deletion that changed genotype 9A/9A in normal DNA to genotype 9A/8A. Interestingly, these two tumours were positive for microsatellite instability, suggesting that these mutations originated because of a deficient DNA mismatch repair system. Allele-specific expression of the 9A allele was detected in seven of the 14 heterozygous 9A/6A tumour cases. This could have been caused by linkage disequilibrium of the TGFBR1*6A allele with

  15. Common variants of the liver fatty acid binding protein gene influence the risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in Spanish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Mansego

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The main objective was to evaluate the association between SNPs and haplotypes of the FABP1-4 genes and type 2 diabetes, as well as its interaction with fat intake, in one general Spanish population. The association was replicated in a second population in which HOMA index was also evaluated. METHODS: 1217 unrelated individuals were selected from a population-based study [Hortega study: 605 women; mean age 54 y; 7.8% with type 2 diabetes]. The replication population included 805 subjects from Segovia, a neighboring region of Spain (446 females; mean age 52 y; 10.3% with type 2 diabetes. DM2 mellitus was defined in a similar way in both studies. Fifteen SNPs previously associated with metabolic traits or with potential influence in the gene expression within the FABP1-4 genes were genotyped with SNPlex and tested. Age, sex and BMI were used as covariates in the logistic regression model. RESULTS: One polymorphism (rs2197076 and two haplotypes of the FABP-1 showed a strong association with the risk of DM2 in the original population. This association was further confirmed in the second population as well as in the pooled sample. None of the other analyzed variants in FABP2, FABP3 and FABP4 genes were associated. There was not a formal interaction between rs2197076 and fat intake. A significant association between the rs2197076 and the haplotypes of the FABP1 and HOMA-IR was also present in the replication population. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports the role of common variants of the FABP-1 gene in the development of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians.

  16. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  17. The Choice of Screening Instrument Matters: The Case of Problematic Cannabis Use Screening in Spanish Population of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Barrio Anta, Gregorio; Sánchez Mañez, Amparo; Llorens Aleixandre, Noelia; Brime Beteta, Begoña; Vicente, Julián

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14–18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments' items (10.5–12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. PMID:25969832

  18. Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H. Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality. Methods: The study population consisted of 3695 adults aged 20 to 59 years at

  19. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  20. Genetic variants in PARP1 (rs3219090) and IRF4 (rs12203592) genes associated with melanoma susceptibility in a Spanish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña-Chilet, Maria; Ribas, Gloria; Blanquer-Maceiras, Maite; Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Martin-Gonzalez, Manuel; Gomez-Fernandez, Cristina; Mayor, Matias; Aviles, Juan Antonio; Lluch, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Few high penetrance genes are known in Malignant Melanoma (MM), however, the involvement of low-penetrance genes such as MC1R, OCA2, ASIP, SLC45A2 and TYR has been observed. Lately, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been the ideal strategy to identify new common, low-penetrance susceptibility loci. In this case–control study, we try to validate in our population nine melanoma associated markers selected from published GWAS in melanoma predisposition. We genotyped the 9 markers corresponding to 8 genes (PARP1, MX2, ATM, CCND1, NADSYN1, CASP8, IRF4 and CYP2R1) in 566 cases and 347 controls from a Spanish population using KASPar probes. Genotypes were analyzed by logistic regression and adjusted by phenotypic characteristics. We confirm the protective role in MM of the rs3219090 located on the PARP1 gene (p-value 0.027). Additionally, this SNP was also associated with eye color (p-value 0.002). A second polymorphism, rs12203592, located on the IRF4 gene was associated with protection to develop MM for the dominant model (p-value 0.037). We have also observed an association of this SNP with both lentigines (p-value 0.014) and light eye color (p-value 3.76 × 10 -4 ). Furthermore, we detected a novel association with rs1485993, located on the CCND1 gene, and dark eye color (p-value 4.96 × 10 -4 ). Finally, rs1801516, located on the ATM gene, showed a trend towards a protective role in MM similar to the one firstly described in a GWAS study. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these SNPs have been associated with MM in a Spanish population. We confirmed the proposed role of rs3219090, located on the PARP1 gene, and rs12203592, located on the IRF4 gene, as protective to MM along the same lines as have previous genome-wide associated works. Finally, we have seen associations between IRF4, PARP1, and CCND1 and phenotypic characteristics, confirming previous results for the IRF4 gene and presenting novel data for the last two, suggesting that

  1. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Andrea B; Canizares, Catalina; Gomez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  2. Latent class analysis of multimorbidity patterns and associated outcomes in Spanish older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya, Beatriz; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Bayes, Ivet; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-08-18

    This study sought to identify multimorbidity patterns and determine the association between these latent classes with several outcomes, including health, functioning, disability, quality of life and use of services, at baseline and after 3 years of follow-up. We analyzed data from a representative Spanish cohort of 3541 non-institutionalized people aged 50 years old and over. Measures were taken at baseline and after 3 years of follow-up. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted using eleven common chronic conditions. Generalized linear models were conducted to determine the adjusted association of multimorbidity latent classes with several outcomes. 63.8% of participants were assigned to the "healthy" class, with minimum disease, 30% were classified under the "metabolic/stroke" class and 6% were assigned to the "cardiorespiratory/mental/arthritis" class. Significant cross-sectional associations were found between membership of both multimorbidity classes and poorer memory, quality of life, greater burden and more use of services. After 3 years of follow-up, the "metabolic/stroke" class was a significant predictor of lower levels of verbal fluency while the two multimorbidity classes predicted poor quality of life, problems in independent living, higher risk of hospitalization and greater use of health services. Common chronic conditions in older people cluster together in broad categories. These broad clusters are qualitatively distinct and are important predictors of several health and functioning outcomes. Future studies are needed to understand underlying mechanisms and common risk factors for patterns of multimorbidity and to propose more effective treatments.

  3. A Spanish Validation of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Stinchfield, Randy; Tremblay, Joël; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Savvidou, Lamprini G.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Gunnard, Katarina; Martín-Romera, Virginia; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Menchón, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Large-scale epidemiological studies show a significant prevalence of gambling disorder (GD) during adolescence and emerging adulthood, and highlight the need to identify gambling-related behaviors at early ages. However, there are only a handful of screening instruments for this population and many studies measuring youth gambling problems use adult instruments that may not be developmentally appropriate. The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI) among late adolescent and young adults and to explore its psychometric properties. Methods: The sample (16–29 years old) included a clinical group (n = 55) with GD patients and a control group (n = 340). Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded one factor as the best model. This 24-item scale demonstrated satisfactory reliability (internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha, α = 0.91), satisfactory convergent validity as measured by correlation with South Oaks Gambling Screen (r = 0.74), and excellent classification accuracy (AUC = 0.99; sensitivity = 0.98; and specificity = 0.99). Conclusion: Our results provide empirical support for our validation of the Spanish version of the CAGI. We uphold that the Spanish CAGI can be used as a brief, reliable, and valid instrument to assess gambling problems in Spanish youth. PMID:28223961

  4. Survey of familial glaucoma shows a high incidence of cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in non-consanguineous congenital forms in a Spanish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millá, Elena; Mañé, Begoña; Duch, Susana; Hernan, Imma; Borràs, Emma; Planas, Ester; Dias, Miguel de Sousa; Carballo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify myocilin (MYOC) and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in a Spanish population with different clinical forms of familial glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods Index patients from 226 families participated in this study. Patients were diagnosed with familial glaucoma or OHT by complete ophthalmologic examination. Screening for MYOC mutations was performed in 207 index patients: 96 with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 21 with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), 18 with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), five with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), and 67 with other types of glaucoma. One hundred two of the families (including all those in whom a MYOC mutation was detected) were also screened for CYP1B1 mutations: 45 POAG, 25 PCG, 21 JOAG, four ARS, and seven others. Results We examined 292 individuals (patients and relatives) with a positive family history of glaucoma or OHT. We identified two novel MYOC variants, p.Lys39Arg and p.Glu218Lys, in two families with POAG, and six previously reported MYOC mutations in seven families with POAG (four), JOAG (one), PCG (one), and normotensive glaucoma (one). CYP1B1 mutations were found in 16 index patients with PCG (nine), POAG (three), JOAG (two), and ARS (two). Conclusions The high percentage (9/25=36%) of mutations in CYP1B1 found in non-consanguineous patients with congenital glaucoma mandates genetic testing. However, the percentage of mutations (9/207=4.4%) in MYOC associated with glaucoma is relatively low in our population. The variable phenotype expression of glaucoma, even in families, cannot be explained with a digenic mechanism between MYOC and CYP1B1. PMID:23922489

  5. Determination of thyrotropin reference values in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Moreno-Castañeda, Lidia; Vega-Servín, Norman S; López-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Juvera, Aída

    2015-02-01

    The upper limit of TSH reference level is controversial. The purpose of our study was to determine TSH reference values in a Mexican population in accordance with the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria and in correlation with thyroid ultrasound (US) examination. The study was conducted in volunteers with no known thyroid disease. We recruited 482 subjects, most of them medical or administrative staff from our hospital. They answered a questionnaire on demographic data, family history, co-morbidities, and drug use. Their thyroid hormone levels and thyroid antibodies were determined, and a complete physical examination and thyroid US were performed. The population used to establish the TSH reference intervals was selected according to the NACB criteria and their normal thyroid structural and echogenic characteristics in US examination. Among 482 subjects (209 males) with a median age of 26 years, prevalence rates of TPOAb and TgAb were 9.3% and 10.3% respectively. Mean TSH level in the overall population was 1.90±1.94, with a 97.5th percentile of 6.76 mIU/L. The reference population was limited to 282 subjects (41.5% were excluded) with a mean TSH of 1.86±1.63 and a 97.5th percentile of 4.88 mIU/L. No sex difference was found (p=0.287). Median urinary iodine level in the reference population was 267 μg/L IQR (161.3-482.5). The TSH reference interval in the reference population was 0.71 (CI 0.65-0.77) to 4.88 mIU/L (CI 4.5-5.3); these limits may be influenced by iodine nutritional status in this population. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liang, Chung-Chao; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2017-06-06

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual's activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan's general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of

  7. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system. Using probability proportional to size (PPS sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD, 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction. Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and

  8. [An analysis of the diabetic population in a Spanish rural are: morbidity profile, use of resources, complications and metabolic control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoriza, José M; Pérez, Marc; Cols, Montse; Sánchez, Inma; Carreras, Marc; Coderch, Jordi

    2013-11-01

    To describe the characteristics of a diabetic population, morbidity profile, resource consumption, complications and degree of metabolic control. Cross-sectional study during 2010. Four Health Areas (91.301 people) where the integrated management organization Serveis de Salut integrated Baix Empordà completely provide healthcare assistance. 4.985 diabetic individuals, identified through clinical codes using the ICD-9-MC classification and the 3M? Clinical Risk Groups software. Morbidity profile, related complications and degree of metabolic control were obtained for the target diabetic population. We analyzed the consumption of healthcare resources, pharmaceutical and blood glucose reagent strips. All measurements obtained at individual level. 99.3% of the diabetic population were attended at least once at a primary care center (14.9% of visits). 39.5% of primary care visits and less than 10% of the other scanned resources were related to the management of diabetes. The pharmaceutical expenditure was 25.4% of the population consumption (average cost ?1.014,57). 36.5% of diabetics consumed reagents strips (average cost ?120,65). The more frequent CRG are 5424-Diabetes (27%); 6144-Diabetes and Hypertension (25,5%) and 6143-Diabetes and Other Moderate Chronic Disease (17,2%). The degree of disease control is better in patients not consumers of antidiabetic drugs or treated with oral antidiabetic agents not secretagogues. Comorbidity is decisive in the consumption of resources. Just a few part of this consumption is specifically related to the management of diabetes. Results obtained provide a whole population approach to the main existing studies in our national and regional context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying consumer's needs of health information technology through an innovative participatory design approach among English- and Spanish-speaking urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, R; Sheehan, B; Yen, P; Velez, O; Nobile-Hernandez, D; Tiase, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant's needs related to information technology. The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant's needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer's technology needs while taking into account core public health functions.

  10. Spanish Visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  11. [Trends in the nutritional status of the Spanish population: results from the Catalan nutrition monitoring system (1992-2003)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Majem, Luis; Ribas Barba, Lourdes; Salvador Castell, Gemma; Roman Viñas, Blanca; Castell Abat, Conxa; Cabezas Peña, Carmen; Pastor Ferrer, Mari Cruz; Raidó Quintana, Blanca; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy; García Alvarez, Alicia; Serra Farró, Jaume; Salleras Sanmartí, Luis; Taradach Antoni, Plasencia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the nutricional habits and nutricional status of the Catalan population over 10 years interval of the two Catalan Nutricional Surveys conducted in 1992-93 and 2002-03. 2641 individuals in 1992-93 and 2060 individuals in 2002-03 aged 10 to 75 years participated in the surveys. Two 24 hour recall, a food frequency questionnaire, and a general questionnaire with information on physical activity, knowledge and opinions on nutrition and supplements use were administered. Weight (Kg), height (cm) and waist circumference (WC) (cm) were measured. A subsample of the population underwent a biochemical evaluation. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, tryglicerides and beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and retinol were measured. A decrease in the consumption of fruit, vegetables, potatoes, meat and fish and an increase in the consumption of dairy products and fast food (in young individuals) were reported. An increase in the mean value of Body Mass Index (BMI) was observed among males, and an increase in WC mean value was observed in males and females. BMI value decreased in females (except among the younger ones). The prevalence of obesity increased among males (from 9.9% to 16.6%), but not in females. Both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol decreased. A decrease was observed in the percentage of population with sedentary habits during leisure time. There is a need for an effective nutrition policy promoting healthy nutrition in accordance with the ongoing dietary guidelines.

  12. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model.

  13. Medulloblastomas - primitive neuroectodermal tumours in the adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, R.I.; Williams, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Medulloblastomas - primitive neuroectodermal tumours are rare in adults. This review will evaluate a single centre's experience with this malignancy. The medulloblastoma - primitive neuroectodermal tumour database was evaluated for all patients aged more than 18 years who were referred for management. Relevant information from the database was abstracted to provide a descriptive record of this malignancy. Between 1977-2004 there were 11 patients referred, 1 with persistent disease and 10 were eligible, presenting with initial diagnosis. There was increased intracranial pressure in 50% of patients. Most patients had symptoms >3 months, with three having symptoms 1-3 months before diagnosis and one patient having thoracic dural metastases at presentation. Complete resection was recorded in four patients and six had 50-90% resection. All patients completed craniospinal radiotherapy (35-36 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions) barring one patient, who died of surgical complications during his radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was given in five of the nine patients postradiotherapy. There were two posterior fossa recurrences, with associated supratentorial and extra central nervous system disease. Of the 10 primary patients 7 are alive with no evidence of diease, 2 died because of disease, with 1 intercurrent death. One patient developed a second malignancy. The outcome for adults matches that of the more common paediatric patients. Radiotherapy could control local disease even where complete resection was not achieved.

  14. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Trends in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population, United States - 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Emma L; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brooks, John T; Shouse, R Luke; Weiser, John

    2018-06-01

    Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16.2-17.4) in 2014. HIV-positive adults in care were significantly more likely to be current smokers compared with the general U.S. population; they were also less likely to quit smoking. For both HIV-positive adults in care and the general population, disparities were noted by racial/ethnic, educational level, and poverty-level subgroups. For most years, non-Hispanic blacks, those with less than high school education, and those living below poverty level were more likely to be current smokers and less likely to quit smoking compared with non-Hispanic whites, those with greater than high school education, and those living above poverty level, respectively. To decrease smoking-related causes of illness and death and to decrease HIV-related disparities, smoking cessation interventions are vital as part of routine care with HIV-positive persons. Clinicians who care for HIV-positive persons who smoke should utilize opportunities to discuss and implement smoking cessation strategies during routine clinical visits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht,...

  17. Periodontal Reasons for Tooth Extraction in Adult Population in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of permanent teeth extracted due to periodontal disease and its relation to several aspects such as age, gender and type of extracted teeth due to periodontal and non-periodontal reasons, among patients attending a private practice. Material and Methods: Study population consisted of 600 patients, 270 males and 330 females, aged 18 to 74 years from a private practice in Greece. The reasons for extractions of teeth in the sample for ...

  18. Quantifying risk: verbal probability expressions in Spanish and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence D; Vázquez, Miguel E Cortés; Alvarez, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how Spanish- and English-speaking adults interpret verbal probability expressions presented in Spanish and English (eg, posiblemente and possibly, respectively). Professional translators and university students from México and the United States read a series of likelihood statements in Spanish or English and then estimated the certainty implied by each statement. Several terms that are regarded as cognates in English and Spanish elicited significantly different likelihood ratings. Several language equivalencies were also identified. These findings provide the first reported evaluation of Spanish likelihood terms for use in risk communications directed towards monolingual and bilingual Spanish speakers.

  19. Genetics of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in the Spanish Gypsy population: the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Russe in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, T; Martínez-Rubio, D; Márquez, C; Paradas, C; Colomer, J; Jaijo, T; Millán, J M; Palau, F; Espinós, C

    2013-06-01

    Four private mutations responsible for three forms demyelinating of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) have been associated with the Gypsy population: the NDRG1 p.R148X in CMT type 4D (CMT4D/HMSN-Lom); p.C737_P738delinsX and p.R1109X mutations in the SH3TC2 gene (CMT4C); and a G>C change in a novel alternative untranslated exon in the HK1 gene causative of CMT4G (CMT4G/HMSN-Russe). Here we address the findings of a genetic study of 29 Gypsy Spanish families with autosomal recessive demyelinating CMT. The most frequent form is CMT4C (57.14%), followed by HMSN-Russe (25%) and HMSN-Lom (17.86%). The relevant frequency of HMSN-Russe has allowed us to investigate in depth the genetics and the associated clinical symptoms of this CMT form. HMSN-Russe probands share the same haplotype confirming that the HK1 g.9712G>C is a founder mutation, which arrived in Spain around the end of the 18th century. The clinical picture of HMSN-Russe is a progressive CMT disorder leading to severe weakness of the lower limbs and prominent distal sensory loss. Motor nerve conduction velocity was in the demyelinating or intermediate range. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Factors associated with the utilization of primary care emergency centers in a Spanish region with high population dispersion: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Otero-García, Laura; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2014-09-03

    Adequate access to primary care emergency centers is particularly important in rural areas isolated from urban centers. However, variability in utilization of emergency services located in primary care centers among inhabitants of nearby geographical areas is understudied. The objectives of this study are twofold: 1) to analyze the association between the availability of municipal emergency care centers and utilization of primary care emergency centers (PCEC), in a Spanish region with high population dispersion; and 2) to determine healthcare providers' perceptions regarding PCEC utilization. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Quantitative phase: multilevel logistic regression modeling using merged data from the 2003 Regional Health Survey of Castile and Leon and the 2001 census data (Spain). Qualitative phase:14 in-depth- interviews of rural-based PCEC providers. Having PCEC as the only emergency center in the municipality was directly associated with its utilization (p use. PCEC users were considered to be predominantly workers and students with scheduling conflicts with rural primary care opening hours. The location of emergency care centers is associated with PCEC utilization. Increasing access to primary care by extending hours may be an important step toward optimal PCEC utilization. Further research would determine whether lower PCEC use by certain groups is associated with disparities in access to care.

  1. Translation and validation of a Spanish-language genetic health literacy screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sally Ann; Roter, Debra L; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos; Hooker, Gillian W; Erby, Lori H

    2015-02-01

    Literacy deficits and underutilization of medical services have been linked to health disparities among minorities, and this appears especially relevant for the Latino population. Given the increasing importance of genetics, assessment of genetic health literacy may direct future efforts to better serve this vulnerable population. The current study was designed to contribute to this area by translating and validating a Spanish-language genetic health literacy measure. This was a cross-sectional study involving an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Eligible individuals were Latinos between the ages of 18 and 75 residing in Maryland, who self-reported Spanish as their primary language, recruited through convenience sampling. The genetic health literacy measure components were adapted from existing English-language measures [Erby, Roter, Larson, & Cho's (2008) Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Genetics (REAL-G) and Hooker et al.'s (2014) Genetic Literacy and Comprehension]. An existing Spanish-language general health literacy measure was used to establish preliminary concurrent validity [Lee, Bender, Ruiz, & Cho's (2006) SAHLSA]. 116 individuals completed the assessment. The Spanish-language REAL-G (REAL-G-Sp) was found to correlate well with the SAHLSA (Pearson's r = .77, p validity with an existing health literacy measure in the Latino population residing in Maryland. Significant proportions of this population are predicted to have limitations in genetic health literacy, even when information is provided in Spanish.

  2. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

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    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  4. Facial soft tissue thickness in North Indian adult population

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    Tanushri Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Forensic facial reconstruction is an attempt to reproduce a likeness of facial features of an individual, based on characteristics of the skull, for the purpose of individual identification - The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue thickness values of individuals of Bareilly population, Uttar Pradesh, India and to evaluate whether these values can help in forensic identification. Study design: A total of 40 individuals (19 males, 21 females were evaluated using spiral computed tomographic (CT scan with 2 mm slice thickness in axial sections and soft tissue thicknesses were measured at seven midfacial anthropological facial landmarks. Results: It was found that facial soft tissue thickness values decreased with age. Soft tissue thickness values were less in females than in males, except at ramus region. Comparing the left and right values in individuals it was found to be not significant. Conclusion: Soft tissue thickness values are an important factor in facial reconstruction and also help in forensic identification of an individual. CT scan gives a good representation of these values and hence is considered an important tool in facial reconstruction- This study has been conducted in North Indian population and further studies with larger sample size can surely add to the data regarding soft tissue thicknesses.

  5. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

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    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  6. A colorectal cancer susceptibility new variant at 4q26 in the Spanish population identified by genome-wide association analysis.

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    Luis M Real

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC is a complex disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are useful for identifying such genetic susceptibility factors. However, the single loci so far associated with CRC only represent a fraction of the genetic risk for CRC development in the general population. Therefore, many other genetic risk variants alone and in combination must still remain to be discovered. The aim of this work was to search for genetic risk factors for CRC, by performing single-locus and two-locus GWAS in the Spanish population. RESULTS: A total of 801 controls and 500 CRC cases were included in the discovery GWAS dataset. 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from single-locus and 243 SNPs from two-locus association analyses were selected for replication in 423 additional CRC cases and 1382 controls. In the meta-analysis, one SNP, rs3987 at 4q26, reached GWAS significant p-value (p = 4.02×10(-8, and one SNP pair, rs1100508 CG and rs8111948 AA, showed a trend for two-locus association (p = 4.35×10(-11. Additionally, our GWAS confirmed the previously reported association with CRC of five SNPs located at 3q36.2 (rs10936599, 8q24 (rs10505477, 8q24.21(rs6983267, 11q13.4 (rs3824999 and 14q22.2 (rs4444235. CONCLUSIONS: Our GWAS for CRC patients from Spain confirmed some previously reported associations for CRC and yielded a novel candidate risk SNP, located at 4q26. Epistasis analyses also yielded several novel candidate susceptibility pairs that need to be validated in independent analyses.

  7. Three novel and the common Arg677Ter RP1 protein truncating mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in a Spanish population

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    Antiñolo Guillermo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP, a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal degeneration disorders affecting the photoreceptor cells, is one of the leading causes of genetic blindness. Mutations in the photoreceptor-specific gene RP1 account for 3–10% of cases of autosomal dominant RP (adRP. Most of these mutations are clustered in a 500 bp region of exon 4 of RP1. Methods Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and direct genomic sequencing were used to evaluate the 5' coding region of exon 4 of the RP1 gene for mutations in 150 unrelated index adRP patients. Ophthalmic and electrophysiological examination of RP patients and relatives according to pre-existing protocols were carried out. Results Three novel disease-causing mutations in RP1 were detected: Q686X, K705fsX712 and K722fsX737, predicting truncated proteins. One novel missense mutation, Thr752Met, was detected in one family but the mutation does not co-segregate in the family, thereby excluding this amino acid variation in the protein as a cause of the disease. We found the Arg677Ter mutation, previously reported in other populations, in two independent families, confirming that this mutation is also present in a Spanish population. Conclusion Most of the mutations reported in the RP1 gene associated with adRP are expected to encode mutant truncated proteins that are approximately one third or half of the size of wild type protein. Patients with mutations in RP1 showed mild RP with variability in phenotype severity. We also observed several cases of non-penetrant mutations.

  8. Influence of the North Atlantic oceanograghic and climatic parameters on the Spanish European Eel population recruitment: relationships in the past and for a future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribalaygua, Jaime; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert; Díaz, Estíbaliz; Korta, María; Chust, Guillem

    2016-04-01

    The status of the European eel population is critical.; the annual recruitment of glass eel to European waters in 2015 is 1.2% of the 1960-1979 level in the 'North Sea' area, and 8.4% in the rest of Europe (ICES 2015) . There are a number of anthropogenic impacts potentially affecting eel population including commercial exploitation, habitat loss, dam and weir construction, hydropower, pumping stations and surface water abstractions. Furthermore, the first eel stages and larval migration and marine survival are heavily influenced by oceanic and climatic factors since the species breeds in the Sargasso Sea and migrates to the continental shelf of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North Africa. Therefore, the study of the relations between recruitment and oceanic conditions may allow to study the potential effect of climatic change on the future eel recruitment and therefore stock. In the present study, the relation between glass eel recruitment and oceanic and climatic factors has been studied. Historic glass eel catches data beginning in the 50s from two Mediterranean and two Atlantic estuaries have been used as a proxy of recruitment. The relation of catches with the main oceanographic and climatic factors identified in the literature was established using an ocean reanalysis, the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) and determined which variables are significantly related to the number of catches. The analysis shows significant relationships between catches and oceanic (Surface Downward Stress, Sea Water Temperature and Sea Water Velocity) and atmospheric (NAO Index, AMO Index) variables. Subsequently, we applied the results of three climate models (GFDL-ESM2M, CanESM2 and CNRM-CM5), associated with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) under two simulations of climate change (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), both associated with the 5th Assessment Report of the IPCC, for possible future influences on the eel. This research was funded by the Spanish

  9. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Mehravaran, Shiva; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in the general 40- to 64-year-old population of Shahroud, Iran. Population-based cross-sectional study. Through cluster sampling, 6311 people were selected and 5190 participated. Assessment of dry eye was done in a random subsample of 1008 people. Subjective assessment for dry eye syndrome was performed using Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. In addition, the following objective tests of dry eye syndrome were employed: Schirmer test, tear break-up time, and fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining using the Oxford grading scheme. Those with an Ocular Surface Disease Index score ≥23 were considered symptomatic, and dry eye syndrome was defined as having symptoms and at least one positive objective sign. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome was 8.7% (95% confidence interval 6.9-10.6). Assessment of signs showed an abnormal Schirmer score in 17.8% (95% confidence interval 15.5-20.0), tear break-up time in 34.2% (95% confidence interval 29.5-38.8), corneal fluorescein staining (≥1) in 11.3% (95% confidence interval 8.5-14.1) and Rose Bengal staining (≥3 for cornea and/or conjunctiva) in 4.9% (95% confidence interval 3.4-6.5). According to the Ocular Surface Disease Index scores, 18.3% (95% confidence interval 15.9-20.6) had dry eye syndrome symptoms. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome was significantly higher in women (P = 0.010) and not significantly associated with age (P = 0.291). The objective dry eye syndrome signs significantly increased with age. Based on the findings, the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in the studied population is in the mid-range. The prevalence is higher in women. Also, objective tests tend to turn abnormal at higher age. Pterygium is associated with dry eye syndrome and increased its symptoms. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Candice; Kress, Jeff; Schroeder, Jan; Donlin, Ayla; Rozenek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level...

  11. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  12. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Otake, Masanori; Belsky, J.L.; Pastore, J.O.

    1978-04-01

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  13. Multidimensional clinical phenotyping of an adult cystic fibrosis patient population.

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    Douglas J Conrad

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a multi-systemic disease resulting from mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR gene and has major manifestations in the sino-pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal tracts. Clinical phenotypes were generated using 26 common clinical variables to generate classes that overlapped quantiles of lung function and were based on multiple aspects of CF systemic disease.The variables included age, gender, CFTR mutations, FEV1% predicted, FVC% predicted, height, weight, Brasfield chest xray score, pancreatic sufficiency status and clinical microbiology results. Complete datasets were compiled on 211 subjects. Phenotypes were identified using a proximity matrix generated by the unsupervised Random Forests algorithm and subsequent clustering by the Partitioning around Medoids (PAM algorithm. The final phenotypic classes were then characterized and compared to a similar dataset obtained three years earlier.Clinical phenotypes were identified using a clustering strategy that generated four and five phenotypes. Each strategy identified 1 a low lung health scores phenotype, 2 a younger, well-nourished, male-dominated class, 3 various high lung health score phenotypes that varied in terms of age, gender and nutritional status. This multidimensional clinical phenotyping strategy identified classes with expected microbiology results and low risk clinical phenotypes with pancreatic sufficiency.This study demonstrated regional adult CF clinical phenotypes using non-parametric, continuous, ordinal and categorical data with a minimal amount of subjective data to identify clinically relevant phenotypes. These studies identified the relative stability of the phenotypes, demonstrated specific phenotypes consistent with published findings and identified others needing further study.

  14. Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey

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    Maria Jose Fuster-RuizdeApodaca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this research is to study the psychosocial determinants of HIV-testing as a function of the decision or change stage concerning this health behavior. The determinants considered in the major ongoing health models and the stages contemplated in the Precaution Adoption Process Model are analysed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1,554 people over 16 years of age living in Spain by a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI. The sample design was randomised, with quotas of sex and age. The survey measured various psychosocial determinants of health behaviors considered in the main cognitive theories, the interviewees' stage of change concerning HIV-testing (lack of awareness, decision not to act, decision to act, action, maintenance, and abandonment, and the signal for the action of getting tested or the perceived barriers to being tested. Results Approximately two thirds of the population had not ever had the HIV test. The predominant stage was lack of awareness. The most frequently perceived barriers to testing were related to the health system and to the stigma. We also found that the psychosocial determinants studied differed depending on the respondents' stage of change. Perception of risk, perceived self-efficacy, proximity to people who had been tested, perceived benefits of knowing the diagnosis, and a positive instrumental and emotional attitude were positively associated with the decision and maintenance of testing behavior. However, unrealistic underestimation of the risk of HIV infection, stereotypes about the infection, and the perceived severity of HIV were associated with the decision not to be tested. Conclusions There are various sociocognitive and motivational profiles depending on people’s decision stage concerning HIV-testing. Knowing this profile may allow us to design interventions to influence the psychosocial determinants that characterise each stage of change.

  15. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  16. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  17. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

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    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  18. Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria Jose; Laguia, Ana; Molero, Fernando; Toledo, Javier; Arrillaga, Arantxa; Jaen, Angeles

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this research is to study the psychosocial determinants of HIV-testing as a function of the decision or change stage concerning this health behavior. The determinants considered in the major ongoing health models and the stages contemplated in the Precaution Adoption Process Model are analysed. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1,554 people over 16 years of age living in Spain by a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI). The sample design was randomised, with quotas of sex and age. The survey measured various psychosocial determinants of health behaviors considered in the main cognitive theories, the interviewees' stage of change concerning HIV-testing (lack of awareness, decision not to act, decision to act, action, maintenance, and abandonment), and the signal for the action of getting tested or the perceived barriers to being tested. Approximately two thirds of the population had not ever had the HIV test. The predominant stage was lack of awareness. The most frequently perceived barriers to testing were related to the health system and to the stigma. We also found that the psychosocial determinants studied differed depending on the respondents' stage of change. Perception of risk, perceived self-efficacy, proximity to people who had been tested, perceived benefits of knowing the diagnosis, and a positive instrumental and emotional attitude were positively associated with the decision and maintenance of testing behavior. However, unrealistic underestimation of the risk of HIV infection, stereotypes about the infection, and the perceived severity of HIV were associated with the decision not to be tested. There are various sociocognitive and motivational profiles depending on people's decision stage concerning HIV-testing. Knowing this profile may allow us to design interventions to influence the psychosocial determinants that characterise each stage of change.

  19. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  20. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  1. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  2. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Pattern among Spanish Adults Attending a Medical Centre: Nondiabetic Subjects and Type 1 and 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Vidal-Peracho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify adherence to Mediterranean diet among two groups of Spanish adults: diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Methods. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was measured by a 14-item screener (scale: 0–14; ≤5: low, 6–9: moderate, and ≥10: high in 351 volunteers. Results. Mean age was 50.97 ± 12.58 in nondiabetics (n=154 and 59.50 ± 13.34 in diabetics (n=197. The whole sample scored 8.77 ± 1.82. Score was 9.19 ± 1.84 in nondiabetic females (n=58 and 8.15 ± 1.79 in diabetic females (n=85 (p=0.003, due to lower consumption of olive oil (p=0.005 and nuts (p=0.000. Type 2 diabetic males (n=79; 8.76 ± 1.88 consumed less olive oil than healthy males (n=28; 9.36 ± 1.59 (p=0.046. Up to 30-year-old nondiabetics scored lower than more than 60-year-old nondiabetics (8.40 ± 1.5 versus 9.74 ± 2.03; p=0.047. The youngest ate less olive oil (p=0.002 and more pastries (p=0.007. Conclusions. The sample presented moderate adherence to Mediterranean diet in all subgroups. Scientific evidence about the benefits of Mediterranean diet, olive oil, and nuts supports the recommendation to increase consumption of olive oil and nuts in diabetic women and of daily olive oil in type 2 diabetic men, reducing consumption of red meat, butter, and pastries, and to promote Mediterranean diet among the youngest of the sample studied.

  3. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Pattern among Spanish Adults Attending a Medical Centre: Nondiabetic Subjects and Type 1 and 2 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Peracho, Concepción; Tricás-Moreno, José Miguel; Lucha-López, Ana Carmen; Camuñas-Pescador, Ana Cristina; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify adherence to Mediterranean diet among two groups of Spanish adults: diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Methods Adherence to Mediterranean diet was measured by a 14-item screener (scale: 0–14; ≤5: low, 6–9: moderate, and ≥10: high) in 351 volunteers. Results Mean age was 50.97 ± 12.58 in nondiabetics (n = 154) and 59.50 ± 13.34 in diabetics (n = 197). The whole sample scored 8.77 ± 1.82. Score was 9.19 ± 1.84 in nondiabetic females (n = 58) and 8.15 ± 1.79 in diabetic females (n = 85) (p = 0.003), due to lower consumption of olive oil (p = 0.005) and nuts (p = 0.000). Type 2 diabetic males (n = 79; 8.76 ± 1.88) consumed less olive oil than healthy males (n = 28; 9.36 ± 1.59) (p = 0.046). Up to 30-year-old nondiabetics scored lower than more than 60-year-old nondiabetics (8.40 ± 1.5 versus 9.74 ± 2.03; p = 0.047). The youngest ate less olive oil (p = 0.002) and more pastries (p = 0.007). Conclusions The sample presented moderate adherence to Mediterranean diet in all subgroups. Scientific evidence about the benefits of Mediterranean diet, olive oil, and nuts supports the recommendation to increase consumption of olive oil and nuts in diabetic women and of daily olive oil in type 2 diabetic men, reducing consumption of red meat, butter, and pastries, and to promote Mediterranean diet among the youngest of the sample studied. PMID:29527536

  4. Incidence of endocrine disorders in Indian adult male population

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    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 20 years in good health, and their morbidity data were derived from the medical records. We calculated the incidence rates as per person-years (py using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Our analysis includes 51,217 participants (median: age 33 years, range: 17–54 with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. Yearly evaluation of the data gave a cumulative follow-up duration of 613,925 py. The incidence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia was 0.41, 0.23, and 0.12 per 1000 py, respectively. The incidence of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and metabolic bone disorders was 3.9, 8.6, 1.6, 0.81, and 0.97 per 100,000 py, respectively. Conclusion: Our cohort had lower incidence rates of endocrine disorders when compared with the Western population. Long-term epidemiological studies are essential to identify the demographic trends of the endocrine disorders in India.

  5. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  6. [Psychometric validation of the OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales for the screening of patients with probable overactive bladder in the Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Francisco J; Angulo, Javier C; Ochayta, David; Rejas, Javier; Arumí, Daniel; Cañadas, Ana; Lizarraga, Isabel

    2014-12-23

    To perform the psychometric validation in the Spanish population of the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool (OAB-V8) scale and its abbreviated version OAB-V3 for screening patients with probable overactive bladder (OAB). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a population aged over 18 years, which was representative of the prevalence of OAB in Spain using an online methodology (Internet survey). Psychometric properties included feasibility, reliability, and validity. Subjects were classified according to the likelihood of OAB, using an automated algorithm validated previously. ROC curve analysis was performed, and the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were also assessed. A total of 2,035 subjects with a mean+SD age of 52.7+12.1 years were included (50.8%) men. In total 13.7% were classified as «Probable», 27.9% «Possible», and 58.3% «No» OAB. The internal consistency of both OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales was high (0.894 and 0.851, respectively). The item-total correlation coefficients were high; 0.87-0.88 and 0.71-0.83, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for OAB-V8 was 0.826 (confidence interval 95% 0.695-0.901) and it was 0.828 (confidence interval 0.623-0.922) for OAB-V3. The optimum cut-off value of OAB-V8 for detecting probable OAB was≥8 points (AUC=0.895, sensitivity 0.875, specificity 0.735), while for the OAB-V3 it was ≥ 3 (AUC=0.910, sensitivity 0.828, specificity 0.825). Both OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales were considered useful online self-administered screening tools, which were also feasible, reliable and valid for the detection of patients with probable OAB in the general population in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population: validation of the WHO FRAX ™ tool in Spain

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    Solà Sílvia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related bone loss is asymptomatic, and the morbidity of osteoporosis is secondary to the fractures that occur. Common sites of fracture include the spine, hip, forearm and proximal humerus. Fractures at the hip incur the greatest morbidity and mortality and give rise to the highest direct costs for health services. Their incidence increases exponentially with age. Independently changes in population demography, the age - and sex- specific incidence of osteoporotic fractures appears to be increasing in developing and developed countries. This could mean more than double the expected burden of osteoporotic fractures in the next 50 years. Methods/Design To assess the predictive power of the WHO FRAX™ tool to identify the subjects with the highest absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population, a predictive validation study of the tool will be carried out. For this purpose, the participants recruited by 1999 will be assessed. These were referred to scan-DXA Department from primary healthcare centres, non hospital and hospital consultations. Study population: Patients attended in the national health services integrated into a FRIDEX cohort with at least one Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA measurement and one extensive questionnaire related to fracture risk factors. Measurements: At baseline bone mineral density measurement using DXA, clinical fracture risk factors questionnaire, dietary calcium intake assessment, history of previous fractures, and related drugs. Follow up by telephone interview to know fragility fractures in the 10 years with verification in electronic medical records and also to know the number of falls in the last year. The absolute risk of fracture will be estimated using the FRAX™ tool from the official web site. Discussion Since more than 10 years ago numerous publications have recognised the importance of other risk factors for new osteoporotic fractures in addition to

  8. Components of the metabolic syndrome differ between young and old adults in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andrew D; Sardi, Gabriel L; Reed, James F

    2012-08-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is high in the United States and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The authors examined whether the prevalence of the MetS and its components differs across age groups. Data were analyzed from 4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys between the years 1999 and 2006. Prevalence of MetS as defined by the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel criteria and prevalence of associated cardiac risk factors were determined in 41,474 participants aged 18 years and older without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). All estimates were weighted. Prevalence of MetS among asymptomatic adults without CVD was 20.5% and remained stable for the total population during survey periods. Prevalence of MetS increased with age: 6.6% in young adults (age 18-29 years) and 34.6% in older adults (70 and older). Components of MetS differed between young and old adults. Young adults had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, less glucose intolerance, and less hypertension. This study provides an estimate of MetS prevalence in asymptomatic adults in the United States during an 8-year period revealing that MetS affects a large number of Americans. Components of MetS differ between young and old adults and may have important implications in their clinical management. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The temporal spectrum of adult mosquito population fluctuations: conceptual and modeling implications.

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    Yun Jian

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the

  10. Seroprevalence and disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population in South Korea.

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    Jin Gu Yoon

    Full Text Available Adult seroprevalence of HAV is decreasing in developed countries including South Korea, due to general sanitation improvement. Although hepatitis A vaccination was introduced in South Korea more than 20 years ago, recent infection rates have not decreased. In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG, and estimate the national disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population.Seroprevalence data were collected from health promotion center of Korea University Guro Hospital, in Seoul, Korea from 2010 to 2014. Data from adults (≥20-years being tested for anti-HAV IgG were included. In addition, epidemiological and clinical data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2009 to 2013, were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS and the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS database. Data were stratified and compared by age groups.A total of 11,177 subjects were tested for anti-HAV IgG from 2010 to 2014. Age-related seroprevalence showed relatively low seropositivity in young adults. Incidence of acute hepatitis A was highest in 2009 and lowest in 2013. When categorized by age group, adults in their 20s and 30s had more HAV infections and related-admissions than older adults. However, ICU admission rate and average insurance-covered cost was high in older adults.The anti-HAV IgG seropositivity in Korean younger adult population was low while the incidence of acute hepatitis A was high, especially in the 20-39 aged. However, a substantial number of older adults were infected, and required more intensive procedures and incurred higher insurance-covered medical costs.

  11. Population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults in Toronto.

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    Agron Plevneshi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of high-risk populations for serious infection due to S. pneumoniae will permit appropriately targeted prevention programs. METHODS: We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease and laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in homeless adults in Toronto, a Canadian city with a total population of 2.5 M, from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006. RESULTS: We identified 69 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease and 27 cases of laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in an estimated population of 5050 homeless adults. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults was 273 infections per 100,000 persons per year, compared to 9 per 100,000 persons per year in the general adult population. Homeless persons with invasive pneumococcal disease were younger than other adults (median age 46 years vs 67 years, P<.001, and more likely than other adults to be smokers (95% vs. 31%, P<.001, to abuse alcohol (62% vs 15%, P<.001, and to use intravenous drugs (42% vs 4%, P<.001. Relative to age matched controls, they were more likely to have underlying lung disease (12/69, 17% vs 17/272, 6%, P = .006, but not more likely to be HIV infected (17/69, 25% vs 58/282, 21%, P = .73. The proportion of patients with recurrent disease was five fold higher for homeless than other adults (7/58, 12% vs. 24/943, 2.5%, P<.001. In homeless adults, 28 (32% of pneumococcal isolates were of serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine, 42 (48% of serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine, and 72 (83% of serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Although no outbreaks of disease were identified in shelters, there was evidence of clustering of serotypes suggestive of transmission of pathogenic strains within the homeless population. CONCLUSIONS: Homeless persons are at high risk of serious pneumococcal infection. Vaccination, physical structure changes

  12. Spanish adaptation of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Francisca; Herrera, Antonio; Valor-Segura, Inmaculada; Herrera, M Carmen; Lozano, Luis M

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment is among the most serious forms of gender violence, and what all violent acts have in common are the many myths associated with them. Three studies were conducted to adapt a Spanish version of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance (ISHMA) scale, which assesses myths about sexual harassment. The first study aimed to, for the first time, present psychometric data on the Spanish version of the ISHMA. The participants were 339 college students. After adapting the items and measuring their content validity, we examined the test's dimensional structure, statistically analyzed the items, and determined the instrument's reliability (α = .91 for the total scale and between .77 and .84 for the different dimensions). Study 2 involved 326 adult participants from the general population and its objective was to evaluate the scale's dimensional structure through confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 143 = 244.860, p sexual harassment.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Li, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Wu, S.; Wu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In China, the rapid socioeconomic transition and the consequential traditional culture change had significant influences on Chinese older-adult depression. In the present study, the prevalence, the potential risk, and the protective factors of depression in the Chinese older population

  14. "Subtypes" in the Presentation of Autistic Traits in the General Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin J.; Paton, Bryan; Enticott, Peter G.; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the presentation of autistic traits in a large adult population sample (n = 2,343). Cluster analysis indicated two subgroups with clearly distinguishable trait profiles. One group (n = 1,059) reported greater social difficulties and lower detail orientation, while the second group (n = 1,284) reported lesser social…

  15. Effects of age and gender in quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy in a control adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladron de Guevara, David; Lobo, Gabriel; Perez, Andres; Jim ez, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Several factors influence MDP-Tc99m uptake by sacroiliac joint, and therefore the quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy index. Age and gender have been reported how not influencing SI/S ratio, although previous reports show discordant results. The aim of our study was evaluate the influence of age and gender in sacroiliac joint uptake in an adult control population (Au)

  16. Population attributable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes related to smoking in adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, A.; Kelly, Y.; Rizwan, S.; Attia, E.; Drammond, S.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how population-attributable risks (PAR) for adverse birth outcomes due to smoking differ in adolescent and adult pregnancies. METHODS: An analysis of community and hospital-based cross-sectional studies in Liverpool was undertaken to estimate the PAR values of low

  17. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In…

  18. Increasing prevalence of specific IgE to aeroallergens in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2000-01-01

    E to aeroallergens had increased in an adult general population over an 8-year period. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1998. A mailed screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms sent to random samples of 15- to 41-year-old subjects living in Copenhagen (Denmark) preceded both...

  19. Associations between dietary factors and markers of NAFLD in a general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Sluik, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The objective of this sudy was to assess the relationship between dietary intake and fatty liver as scored by the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in a large cross-sectional study among a general Dutch adult population. Diet is known to affect liver fat accumulation in

  20. Objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgersdijk, R.; Truin, G.J.; Kalsbeek, H.; Hof, M. van 't; Mulder, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess the objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population in 1986 a stratified sample of 2784 dentate persons, aged 15-74 yr, participated in the study. The aesthetics of anterior teeth and first premolars in the maxillary mandibular arch were

  1. APPEALING OF ADULT POPULATION TO TERRITORIAL DENTAL POLYCLINIC AND DEMAND FOR MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES

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    Анатолий Иванович Бабенко

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion. The presented information and analytical technology of the use of the personalized database of territorial dental polyclinic has allowed revealing not only the nature of appealing of adult population for the dental care, but also defining the demand for dental technologies of the general, therapeutic and surgical profiles, establishing the significance of separate types of technologies in quantitative expression.

  2. Problematic internet use and psychiatric co-morbidity in a population of Japanese adult psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Hille T; Nakamae, Takashi; Fukui, Kenji; Denys, D.; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate

  3. Occupational risk and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study in the United States adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Sofia; Wang, Chengwei; Qu, Wenchun

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations.

  4. Gender differences in the utilization of health-care services among the older adult population of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo-Sendino, Áurea; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Compared to men, women report greater morbidity and make greater use of health-care services. This study examines potential determinants of gender differences in the utilization of health-care services among the elderly. Methods Cross-sectional study covering 3030 subjects, representative of the non-institutionalized Spanish population aged 60 years and over. Potential determinants of gender differences in the utilization of health services were classified into predisposin...

  5. Problematic Video Game Play and ADHD Traits in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidi, Maria

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between problematic video game play (PVGP), video game usage, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in an adult population. A sample of 205 healthy adult volunteers completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), a video game usage questionnaire, and the Problem Video Game Playing Test (PVGT). A significant positive correlation was found between the ASRS and the PVGT. More specifically, inattention symptoms and time spent playing video games were the best predictors of PVGP. No relationship was found between frequency and duration of play and ADHD traits. Hyperactivity symptoms were not associated with PVGP. Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between ADHD traits and problematic video game play. In particular, adults with higher level of self-reported inattention symptoms could be at higher risk of PVGP.

  6. A review of the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ferrer, M; Piedra Martínez, E

    Adult dyslexia affects about 4% of the population. However, studies on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood are scarce compared to paediatric studies. This review investigates the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood. Using PsycINFO, a database of psychology abstracts, we identified 11 studies on genetics, 9 neurostructural studies, 13 neurofunctional studies and 24 neurophysiological studies. Results from the review show that dyslexia is highly heritable and displays polygenic transmission. Likewise, adult neuroimaging studies found structural, functional, and physiological changes in the parieto-occipital and occipito-temporal regions, and in the inferior frontal gyrus, in adults with dyslexia. According to different studies, aetiology in cases of adult dyslexia is complex. We stress the need for neurobiological studies of dyslexia in languages with transparent spelling systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Comorbidities in adults with asthma: Population-based cross-sectional analysis of 1.4 million adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherburn, C J; Guthrie, B; Mercer, S W; Morales, D R

    2017-10-01

    Comorbidity in people with asthma can significantly increase asthma morbidity and lower adherence to asthma guidelines. The objective of this study was to comprehensively measure the prevalence of physical and mental health comorbidities in adults with asthma using a large nationally representative population. Cross-sectional analysis of routine primary care electronic medical records for 1 424 378 adults in the UK, examining the prevalence of 39 comorbidities in people with and without asthma, before and after adjustment for age, sex, social deprivation and smoking status using logistic regression. Of 39 comorbidities measured, 36 (92%) were significantly more common in adults with asthma; 62.6% of adults with asthma had ≥1 comorbidity vs 46.2% of those without, and 16.3% had ≥4 comorbidities vs 8.7% of those without. Comorbidities with the largest absolute increase in prevalence in adults with asthma were as follows: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (13.4% vs 3.1%), depression (17.3% vs 9.1%), painful conditions (15.4% vs 8.4%) and dyspepsia (10.9% vs 5.2%). Comorbidities with the largest relative difference in adults with asthma compared to those without were as follows: COPD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.65, 95% CI 5.52-5.79), bronchiectasis (aOR 4.65, 95% CI 4.26-5.08), eczema/psoriasis (aOR 3.30, 95% CI 3.14-3.48), dyspepsia (aOR 2.20, 95% CI 2.15-2.25) and chronic sinusitis (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.99-2.26). Depression and anxiety were more common in adults with asthma (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.57-1.63, and aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.48-1.57, respectively). Physical and mental health comorbidities are the norm in adults with asthma. Appropriate recognition and management should form part of routine asthma care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...... occasions 8 years apart (1990 and 1998) for the presence of antibodies against C. difficile in serum. The overall seroprevalence of C. difficile increased significantly from 19% in 1990 to 27% in 1998 (P... was about four times higher in 1998 than in 1990. In conclusion, the observed increase in seroprevalence suggests a higher exposure to C. difficile in the general Danish adult population....

  9. Quantitative thoracic CT techniques in adults: can they be applied in the pediatric population?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soon Ho [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    With the rapid evolution of the multidetector row CT technique, quantitative CT has started to be used in clinical studies for revealing a heterogeneous entity of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is caused by a combination of lung parenchymal destruction and remodeling of the small airways in adults. There is growing evidence of a good correlation between quantitative CT findings and pathological findings, pulmonary function test results and other clinical parameters. This article provides an overview of current quantitative thoracic CT techniques used in adults, and how to translate these CT techniques to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  10. Modelling population effects of juvenile offshore fish displacement towards adult habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Wolfshaar, K.E.; Tulp, I.; Wennhage, H.

    2015-01-01

    consequences on population dynamics through changes in resource use and competition. To explore this, a conceptual stage-structured model was developed with 3 stages and 2 resources and allowing a move of large juveniles from the shallow to the deep habitat. Large juveniles compete with small juveniles...... in shallow waters and with adults in deeper waters. Alternative stable states occur, with one state dominated by small juvenile biomass and the other dominated by adult biomass. The model results show for both states that while large juvenile biomass responds to a change in time spent in the deep habitat...

  11. Social inequality in dynamic balance performance in an early old age Spanish population: The role of health and life style associated factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Lopez, Santiago; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Lund, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    of poor balance, also after adjustment for age, gender, obesity and physical activity. In addition, obesity and sedentary physical activity were related to poor dynamic balance. The findings suggest an independent effect of both SES and behavioral factors on poor balance performance in the older Spanish...

  12. Detailed Occupation and Years of School Completed by Age, for the Civilian Labor Force by Sex, Race, and Spanish Origin: 1980 Census of Population Supplementary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, John A.; And Others

    The report presents tabular data on occupation and years of school completed by age for the civilian labor force, by sex, race and Spanish origin, obtained from the 1980 Census/Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Special File. All tables list males and females separately for each category. Table 1 lists totals for 613 labor force categories, then…

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and loneliness among adults in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-03-01

    Research on the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loneliness is scarce even though factors which have been previously linked to loneliness, such as divorce and poorer mental health may be more prevalent among adults with ADHD. This study investigated the relation between ADHD symptoms/symptom severity and loneliness in the general adult population. Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403, aged ≥16years) were analyzed. ADHD symptoms and common mental disorders (CMDs) were assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener and the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, respectively. Loneliness was measured with a question from the Social Functioning Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations. In the fully adjusted model, an ASRS score ≥14 was strongly associated with loneliness (OR=2.48 95%CI=1.83-3.36). ADHD symptom severity was related to loneliness in a dose-response fashion. Over one-third of the association between ADHD symptoms and loneliness was explained by CMDs. Adults with more ADHD symptoms are at an increased risk of feeling lonely. Future research should determine how ADHD symptoms are linked to loneliness and if loneliness is affecting well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kotaro Ono,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Akiyoshi Shimura,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Hajime Tanabe,3 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, 3Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate school of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3 and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations: There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms

  15. Development of an easy-to-use Spanish Health Literacy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Bender, Deborah E; Ruiz, Rafael E; Cho, Young Ik

    2006-08-01

    The study was intended to develop and validate a health literacy test, termed the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA), for the Spanish-speaking population. The design of SAHLSA was based on the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), known as the most easily administered tool for assessing health literacy in English. In addition to the word recognition test in REALM, SAHLSA incorporates a comprehension test using multiple-choice questions designed by an expert panel. Validation of SAHLSA involved testing and comparing the tool with other health literacy instruments in a sample of 201 Spanish-speaking and 202 English-speaking subjects recruited from the Ambulatory Care Center at UNC Health Care. With only the word recognition test, REALM could not differentiate the level of health literacy in Spanish. The SAHLSA significantly improved the differentiation. Item response theory analysis was performed to calibrate the SAHLSA and reduce the instrument to 50 items. The resulting instrument, SAHLSA-50, was correlated with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, another health literacy instrument, at r=0.65. The SAHLSA-50 score was significantly and positively associated with the physical health status of Spanish-speaking subjects (peducation. The instrument displayed good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.92) and test-retest reliability (Pearson's r=0.86). The new instrument, SAHLSA-50, has good reliability and validity. It could be used in the clinical or community setting to screen for low health literacy among Spanish speakers.

  16. Consumo de drogas al ingreso en prisión: comparación entre población española y extranjera Drug use when entering prison: comparison between the spanish and foreign prison inmate population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rincón-Moreno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Hay pocos trabajos que comparen las pautas de consumo de drogas entre población autóctona e inmigrante en medio penitenciario. Método: Estudio descriptivo prospectivo. Se compara población española e inmigrantes que ingresan por primera vez en prisión entre 01-01-2005 y 31-12-2005. Se recogen variables descriptoras sociodemográficas y de hábitos tóxicos durante el último mes previo a su entrada en prisión. Se utiliza la X² para comparar variables cualitativas y la T de Student para las cuantitativas, con posterior regresión logística binaria para calcular Odds Ratio en las que resultaron estadísticamente significativas. Resultados: 246 incluidos, 230 (93,5% hombres. 89 (36% españoles y 157 (64% inmigrantes. Edad media 31,9 años (IC95%: 30,6-33,1, mayor en los españoles (33,9 vs 30,7; p=0,023. Fuman menos los españoles (79, 40,9% que los extranjeros (114, 59,1% p=0,003 y beben menos alcohol (51, 42,5% vs 69, 57,5%, p=0,044. El consumo de heroína, cocaína, cánnabis, drogas de síntesis y benzodiacepinas no prescritas, por separado o en combinación, era admitido por 68 individuos, 44 (64,7% españoles y 24 (35,3% extranjeros (OR: 5,4 ; IC95%: 2,9-9,9 ; pIntroduction: There are few studies comparing drug use behaviours between the local and immigrant prison populations. Method: Descriptive and prospective study. Comparisons were made between the Spanish and foreign population of prisoners who entered prison for the first time between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2005. Socio-demographic descriptive variables were attained along with data about drug use in the month prior to entry into prison. X² was used to compare qualitative variables and Student's t distribution for quantitative ones. Posterior binary logistic regression was used for calculating the Odds Ration for statistically significant variables. Results: 246 individuals were included, 230 (93.5% were men. 89 (36% were Spanish and 157 (64% foreigners. The average

  17. Occupational risk and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study in the United States adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinstein S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Rubinstein,1 Chengwei Wang,1 Wenchun Qu2 1Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY, USA; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Objective: Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. Materials and methods: This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. Results: After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. Conclusion: This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations. Keywords: CKD, risk factors, occupations

  18. Buen Viaje: Mutually Beneficial Tourism. A Four-Lesson Unit about Traveling with Care in Mexico for Grades 8-12 and Adult Learners in English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Alexandra; Ruiz, Octavio; Sommers, Meredith

    Intended for secondary students, this curriculum unit (in both English and Spanish) provides a look into Mexico's second largest industry, tourism. The curriculum unit of four lessons includes general information about tourism, maps, stories, and a code of behavior for travelers. The unit enumerates learner objectives, defines vocabulary and…

  19. Emotion regulation difficulties in disordered eating: Examining the psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and eating disorder severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eWolz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of the study were to 1 validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and 2 explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders, including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity Methods: 134 patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years with anorexia nervosa (n = 30, bulimia nervosa (n = 54, binge eating (n = 20, or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30 and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years reported on general psychopathology, eating disorder severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1. Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (Aim 2, differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. Results: Results support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness and eating disorder severity. Conclusions: Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to eating disorder pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties.

  20. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  1. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  2. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corseuil, M.W.; Schneider, I.J.C.; Orsi, E.; Hallal, P.C.; Corseuil, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walk ability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02-1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01-1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28-2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil

  3. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  4. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....... Specific IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) were measured in 3440 persons resulting in an age-standardized seroprevalence of 3·0% (95% confidence interval 1·9-4·7) using an IgG anti-PT cut-off of 75 IU/ml. By using antibody decay profiles from longitudinal data the estimated seroincidence was 143....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  5. Risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The article describes the relative frequency ok of risk and protective behaviors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs in adults residing in Viçosa, Brazil. A cross-section-al population-based study including 1,226 adults living in the municipality. We used a structured questionnaire containing questions sociodemographic and behavioral The risk and protection factors evaluated were: smoking, physical activity, excessive consumption of alcohol and food consumption. The proportion of risk and protection factors was calculated in the total population, according to gender, education and socioeconomic status. The studied population has a high frequency of risk factors for NCDs, such as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, habit of consuming whole milk, habit of eating meat with visible fat, regular consumption of soft drinks and 78.5% did not achieve the minimum recommendation for physical activity in leisure time. With regard to protective factors, 86.2% of the population reported regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, and 73%, of beans. It was found the highest frequency of risk factors in among males, in younger people and middle socioeconomic status. This population has an urgent need for public policy of municipal planning to change this current scenario.

  6. Assessment of the use in adults of four vaccines: a population survey in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vizzotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies for disease prevention. Argentina initiated the transition from child vaccination to family vaccination through the incorporation of an adult schedule. One of the difficulties with this last group is to assess the percentage of use (PU of the vaccines. With the aim of determining the PU of adult vaccines in Argentina, a vaccination module was included in the National Survey of Risk Factors carried out in 2013 by the National Ministry of Health. The sampling had a stratified multistage design. A total of 32 365 people = 18 year-old were surveyed about the use of four vaccines included in the National Vaccination Calendar: hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza, and pneumococcus. The entire population was surveyed for tetanus and hepatitis B while certain groups at risk were evaluated for influenza and pneumococcus, according to current recommendations. PU varied according to the vaccine analyzed: tetanus 49.8%, hepatitis B 21.7%, influenza 51.6% and pneumococcus 16.2%. The main information sources on adult vaccination were media (television, internet, etc. followed by health personnel (70.8% and 27.9%, respectively. The survey is a suitable tool to assess the use of vaccines by adults, identify low coverage populations, and to plan and implement strategies to improve coverage

  7. The third molar maturity index in indicating the legal adult age in Kosovar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Jeta; Cameriere, Roberto; Koçani, Ferit; Galić, Ivan; Mehmeti, Blerim; Vodanović, Marin

    2017-12-16

    The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.779 to 0.903) for intra-rater and for inter-rater agreement, respectively. The sample was divided into training dataset (800 OPTs) and test dataset (421 OPTs). The training dataset was used to generate the logistic regression model, while the test dataset was used to study the performance of the model. I 3M and gender as independent variables and adult age (≥ 18 years) or minor age (age. The results showed that only I 3M statistically significantly contributed to discriminating adults and minors. ROC analysis showed that the cut-off value of I 3M  age gradually increased. The performance of the cut-off value of I 3M  age in a Kosovar population.

  8. Gender Dependence in Mouth Opening Dimensions in Normal Adult Malaysians Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shaari, Ramizu; Hwa, Teoh Eng; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2011-01-01

    While measurement of mouth opening is an important clinica examination in diagnosis and management of oral disease, data on non-Western populations are limited. This study was therefore conducted to determine the range of mouth opening in normal Malaysian male and female adults. A total of 34 dental students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) were chosen randomly and their maximum mouth opening was measured after being asked to open their mouth sufficiently to accommodate three fingers. Measu...

  9. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS), round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines ...

  10. Judgement of irradiation-preserved food by the adult population in Hungary (preliminary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolnay, P.; Szabo, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A wide survey by questionnaires was started in 1997 in the subject area of Nutrition and Health. Part of this survey was directed toward the acceptance of preserved food by irradiation treatment by the public. The results have been evaluated here and presented. The main problem was to find out the differences of various segments of the Hungarian adult population in their judgement of irradiated food, and what is the general knowledge in relation with radiopreservation technology of food. (R.P.)

  11. Medical Cannabis in Serbia: The Survey of Knowledge and Attitudes in an Urban Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Prpic, Milica; Maric, Gorica; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija

    2017-01-01

    There are some indices in which legalization of medical cannabis in the Republic of Serbia might be considered. The purpose of this research was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards medical cannabis in an urban adult population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2015 and January 2016. A convenience sample of study participants comprised users of the Community Health Center. A total of 360 adults were invited to participate. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants (77.1%) answered correctly that cancer was indicative of medical cannabis treatment, while the remaining conditions were less frequently recognized. A total of 42% answered correctly that adverse effects of cannabis were hallucinations and dizziness. Persons who previously used cannabis were more knowledgeable on conditions for medical cannabis treatment (ρ = 0.155; p = 0.006). Study respondents expressed positive attitude towards legalization of medical cannabis (median 5 out of 5) and negative towards legalization of recreational cannabis (median 2 out of 5). In conclusion, the adult population in Belgrade had some knowledge of medical cannabis. The overall attitude of our population regarding legalization of medical cannabis was positive, while the attitude towards legalization of cannabis for recreational purposes was negative.

  12. Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Christian; Höhn, René; Kottler, Ulrike; Wild, Philipp; Blettner, Maria; Bühren, Jens; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    To study the distribution of refractive errors among adults of European descent. Population-based eye study in Germany with 15010 participants aged 35-74 years. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination according to a standardised protocol. Refractive error was determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey HARK 599) without cycloplegia. Definitions for the analysis were myopia +0.5 D, astigmatism >0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia >1.0 D difference in the spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criterion was previous cataract or refractive surgery. 13959 subjects were eligible. Refractive errors ranged from -21.5 to +13.88 D. Myopia was present in 35.1% of this study sample, hyperopia in 31.8%, astigmatism in 32.3% and anisometropia in 13.5%. The prevalence of myopia decreased, while the prevalence of hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia increased with age. 3.5% of the study sample had no refractive correction for their ametropia. Refractive errors affect the majority of the population. The Gutenberg Health Study sample contains more myopes than other study cohorts in adult populations. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of a generally lower prevalence of myopia among adults in Europe as compared with East Asia.

  13. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Cross-sectional study. This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households - 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at pinequalities contributed by differences in age, education, employment, marriage and the wealth status of the adult population.

  14. Relation of serum γ-glutamyl transferase activity with copper in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, You-Fan; Wang, Chun-Fang; Pan, Guo-Gang

    2017-10-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GGT) activity and serum copper in an adult population. We analyzed 281 adult subjects who regularly attended the physical examination center at the Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities. The demographic and laboratory data of the participants were divided into two groups according to the median of serum γ-GGT activity. Serum copper concentrations in individuals with higher γ-GGT levels were significantly increased compared with those with lower γ-GGT concentrations (9.9±2.41 vs. 11.2±3.36 μmol/L, pcopper in all eligible subjects (r=0.198, p=0.001). Further, serum γ-GGT maintained a positive correlation with serum copper in both males and females (r=0.322, pcopper after adjusting for multiple potential confounders (b=0.464, p=0.001). This study suggests that serum γ-GGT activity is correlated with copper in the study population, indicating that serum γ-GGT may be a biomarker to evaluate serum copper levels in an adult population.

  15. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004 and after (2012 legislation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues. In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds. The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05 and after the second law (2011-12. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012 of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles and salivary cotinine concentration. RESULTS: Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8 in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0 in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05 in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11 at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001 during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001 in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  16. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004) and after (2012) legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez, Cristina; Carabasa, Esther; López, María J; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011-12). Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years) non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles) and salivary cotinine concentration. Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8) in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0) in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05) in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11) at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001) during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001) in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001). Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  17. De Novo Advanced Adult-Onset Offending: New Evidence from a Population of Federal Correctional Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Tahja, Katherine N; Drury, Alan J; Elbert, Michael J; Caropreso, Daniel E; Heinrichs, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Adult antisocial behavior is almost always predated by delinquency during childhood or adolescence; however, there is also evidence of adult-onset criminal offending. This study examined this controversial subgroup of offenders using self-reported and official data from a total population of federal correctional clients selected from the Midwestern United States. Difference of means t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression models found that 11.7% of clients had an adult onset of offending and 2.7% of clients (n = 23) had an onset occurring at age 60 years or older. This group-introduced as de novo advanced adult-onset offenders-had high socioeconomic status, mixed evidence of adverse childhood experiences, and virtually no usage of drugs with the exception of alcohol. These offenders were primarily convicted of social security and white-collar crimes and evinced remarkably low psychopathology and criminal risk. More research is needed to replicate the phenomenon of de novo advanced adult-onset offending. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Brazilian adults' sedentary behaviors by life domain: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; da Silva, Inácio C M; Owen, Neville; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults. A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927). Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home). Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position. On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5) hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5-8) hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling. Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains.

  19. Brazilian adults' sedentary behaviors by life domain: population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégore I Mielke

    Full Text Available There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults.A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927. Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home. Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position.On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5 hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5-8 hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling.Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains.

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of imatinib mesylate and its metabolite in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon-Andersen, Divya; Mondick, John T; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Thompson, Patrick A; Blaney, Susan M; Bernstein, Mark; Bond, Mason; Champagne, Martin; Fossler, Michael J; Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for use in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia in adults and children and in gastrointestinal stromal tumors in adults. Population pharmacokinetic (PPK) studies evaluating the effect of population covariates on the pharmacokinetics of imatinib and its active metabolite have been developed in adults with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). However, this still remains to be described in children. The objectives of the analysis were to develop a PPK model of imatinib and its active metabolite, CGP74588, to describe exposure in children and young adults and to identify covariates that are predictors of variability in disposition. Plasma concentrations from 26 subjects with Philadelphia (Ph+) leukemia (Phase I study) and 15 subjects with refractory solid tumors (Phase II study), who received oral imatinib at doses ranging from 260 to 570 mg/m(2), were available for the PPK analysis in NONMEM. Blood samples were drawn prior to dosing and over 24-48 h on days 1 and 8 of the studies. Covariates studied included weight, age, albumin, alanine aminotransferase and the study population. The pharmacokinetics of imatinib and CGP 74588 were well described by one and two compartment models, respectively. Total body weight was the only covariate found to significantly affect Cl/F and V/F. The final imatinib-CGP 74588 model is summarized as follows: CL/F (imatinib) (L/h) = 10.8 x (WT/70)(0.75), V/F (imatinib) (L) = 284 x (WT/70) and D1(duration of zero order absorption,imatinib) (h) = 1.67 and CL/F (CGP 74588) (L/h) = 9.65 x (WT/70)(0.75), V1/F (CGP 74588) (L) = 11.6 x (WT/70), Q (CGP 74588) (L/h) = 2.9 x (WT/70)(0.75) and V2/F (CGP 74588) (L) = 256*(WT/70). Model evaluation indicated that the final model was robust and satisfactory. Current imatinib dosing guidelines in pediatrics is based on the achievement of exposures consistent with doses known to be

  1. Sensory Dysfunction and Sexuality in the U.S. Population of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Selena; Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; McClintock, Martha K

    2018-04-01

    first nationally representative study of sexuality and multisensory dysfunction in community-dwelling older adults. 4 of the 5 classic senses were measured with objective tests, and hearing was rated by interviewers in the context of their conversation. Medical and health care interventions that can reduce the burden of sensory dysfunction may improve older adults' sexual experience. Sensory dysfunction is associated with sexual inactivity, but not with sexual motivation. Among those who are sexually active, sensory dysfunction did not interfere with sexual expression. Improving the sexual experience of older adults requires a focus on sensory dysfunction as an impediment to sexual activity given that older adults remain sexually motivated. Zhong S, Pinto JM, Wroblewski KE, et al. Sensory Dysfunction and Sexuality in the U.S. Population of Older Adults. J Sex Med 2018;15:502-509. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Serrano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.

  3. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  4. Validity of Race, Ethnicity, and National Origin in Population-based Cancer Registries and Rapid Case Ascertainment Enhanced With a Spanish Surname List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lisa C; Rull, Rudolph P; Ayanian, John Z; Boer, Robert; Deapen, Dennis; West, Dee W; Kahn, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information regarding race, ethnicity, and national origins is critical for identifying disparities in the cancer burden. To examine the use of a Spanish surname list to improve the quality of race-related information obtained from rapid case ascertainment (RCA) and to estimate the accuracy of race-related information obtained from cancer registry records collected by routine reporting. Self-reported survey responses of 3954 participants from California enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and percent agreement. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of underreporting and overreporting of a race/ethnicity. Use of the Spanish surname list increased the sensitivity of RCA for Latino ethnicity from 37% to 83%. Sensitivity for cancer registry records collected by routine reporting was ≥95% for whites, blacks, and Asians, and specificity was high for all groups (86%-100%). However, patterns of misclassification by race/ethnicity were found that could lead to biased cancer statistics for specific race/ethnicities. Discordance between self-reported and registry-reported race/ethnicity was more likely for women, Latinos, and Asians. Methods to improve race and ethnicity data, such as using Spanish surnames in RCA and instituting data collection guidelines for hospitals, are needed to ensure minorities are accurately represented in clinical and epidemiological research.

  5. Validation of the Community Integration Questionnaire in the adult burn injury population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Paul; Kazis, Lewis E; Ryan, Colleen M; Shie, Vivian L; Holavanahalli, Radha; Lee, Austin; Jette, Alan; Fauerbach, James A; Esselman, Peter; Herndon, David; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2015-11-01

    With improved survival, long-term effects of burn injuries on quality of life, particularly community integration, are important outcomes. This study aims to assess the Community Integration Questionnaire's psychometric properties in the adult burn population. Data were obtained from a multicenter longitudinal data set of burn survivors. The psychometric properties of the Community Integration Questionnaire (n = 492) were examined. The questionnaire items were evaluated for clinical and substantive relevance; validation procedures were conducted on different samples of the population; construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis; internal consistency reliability was examined using Cronbach's α statistics; and item response theory was applied to the final models. The CIQ-15 was reduced by two questions to form the CIQ-13, with a two-factor structure, interpreted as self/family care and social integration. Item response theory testing suggests that Factor 2 captures a wider range of community integration levels. Cronbach's α was 0.80 for Factor 1, 0.77 for Factor 2, and 0.79 for the test as a whole. The CIQ-13 demonstrates validity and reliability in the adult burn survivor population addressing issues of self/family care and social integration. This instrument is useful in future research of community reintegration outcomes in the burn population.

  6. Dietary Energy Density in the Australian Adult Population from National Nutrition Surveys 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (Pdensity recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density density density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations. The change was largely due to increased energy density of older adult's diets, while young adults had high dietary energy density at both time points. These data suggest efforts now focus on the evaluation of the role of modifying energy density of the diet to reduce the risk of weight gain in adults. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In this book published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Spanish Nuclear Society, it is included a report on the Spanish Nuclear Industry. The Spanish Companies and Organizations in nuclear world are: CIEMAT, Empresarios Agrupados, ENRESA, ENUSA, ENDESA, Grupo Iberdrola, LAINSA, INITEC AND TECNATOM. Activities, history and research programs of each of them are included

  8. Contact dermatitis to hair dyes in a Danish adult population: an interview-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients is a well-known entity seen both in consumers using hair dyes and among hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis. Surveys show that consumers with even severe adverse skin reactions to hair dyes only rarely contact the healthcare services....... The frequency of hair dye-induced skin reactions in the consumer population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological investigation with the aim of establishing the proportion of hair dye-induced skin reactions was performed in a population-based sample. METHODS: A representative random sample (n = 4000......) was taken of the Danish adult population. Personal interview questions were asked regarding adverse skin reactions to hair dyes, either compatible with a classical allergic eczematous reaction with redness, scaling and itching or a severe allergic reaction with oedema of the forehead and face. The response...

  9. Variations in diabetes remission rates after bariatric surgery in Spanish adults according to the use of different diagnostic criteria for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhambra-Expósito, María R; Molina-Puerta, María J; Prior-Sánchez, María I; Manzano-García, Gregorio; Calañas-Continente, Alfonso; Gálvez-Moreno, María A

    2017-08-15

    There are multiple criteria to define remission of type 2 diabetes (DM2) after bariatric surgery but there is not a specific one widely accepted. Our objectives were to compare diagnostic criteria for DM2 remission after bariatric surgery: Criteria from Spanish scientific associations (SEEN/SEEDO/SED) and from the American Diabetes Association (ADA). We also aim to analyse the degree of correlation between these sets of criteria. Retrospective observational study in 127 patients undergoing bariatric surgery in a single centre (Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, Spain) between January 2001 and December 2009. We analysed DM2 remission following bariatric surgery comparing DM2 diagnostic criteria approved by Spanish scientific associations and ADA criteria. In total, 62.2% of patients were women; mean age was 47.1 years. Following surgery, 52% achieved complete remission according to ADA criteria, and 63.8% following the criteria approved by Spanish associations (p = 0.001);18.9 and 8.7%, respectively, showed partial remission (p = 0.007), and 29.1 and 27.6% no remission, according to the criteria approved by each association (p = 0.003). There was good correlation between both sets of criteria (Rho 0.781; p DM2 remission (ADA criteria) results in a lower rate of remission, although we found a a high degree of correlation between both sets of criteria.

  10. [Determining Factors in the Access to Mental Health Services by the Adult Colombian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega

    2016-12-01

    Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Influencing factors of the 6-min walk distance in adult Arab populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joobeur, Samah; Rouatbi, Sonia; Latiri, Imed; Sfaxi, Raoudha; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2016-05-01

    Background Walk tests, especially the 6-min walk-test (6MWT), are commonly used in order to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity. The primary outcome of the 6MWT is the 6-min walk-distance (6MWD). Numerous demographic, physiological and anthropometric factors can influence the 6MWD in healthy adults. Objective The purpose of the present review is to highlight and discuss the 6MWD influencing factors in healthy of the healthy adult Arab populations. Methods It is a review including a literature search, from 1970 to September 31th 2015 using the PubMed, the Science Direct databases and the World Wide Web on Google search engine. Reference lists of retrieved English/French articles were searched for any additional references. Results Six studies, conducted in Tunisia (n=2), Saudi Arabia (n=3) and Algeria (n=1) were included. All studies were conducted according to the 2002-American-thoracic-society guidelines for the 6MWT. In addition to anthropometric data (sex, age, height, weight, body mass index, lean mass), the following data were recognized as 6MWD influencing factors: schooling and socioeconomic levels, urban origin, parity, physical activity score or status, metabolic equivalent task for moderate activity, spirometric data, end-walk heart-rate, resting diastolic blood pressure, dyspnoea Borg value and niqab-wearing. Conclusion The 6MWD influencing factors in adult Arab populations are numerous and include some specific predictors such as parity, physical activity level and niqab-wearing.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in adult mouse cardiac side population cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushaj, Entela B.; Lozonschi, Lucian; Barnes, Maria; Anstadt, Emily; Kohmoto, Takushi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence and potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations in adult cardiac stem cells. Cardiac side population (SP) cells were isolated from 12-week-old mice. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen for the presence of mtDNA deletion mutations in (a) freshly isolated SP cells and (b) SP cells cultured to passage 10. When present, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutation was analyzed in single cell colonies. The effect of different levels of deletion mutations on SP cell growth and differentiation was determined. MtDNA deletion mutations were found in both freshly isolated and cultured cells from 12-week-old mice. While there was no significant difference in the number of single cell colonies with mtDNA deletion mutations from any of the groups mentioned above, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutations was significantly higher in the cultured cells, as determined by quantitative PCR. Within a single clonal cell population, the detectable mtDNA deletion mutations were the same in all cells and unique when compared to deletions of other colonies. We also found that cells harboring high levels of mtDNA deletion mutations (i.e. where deleted mtDNA comprised more than 60% of total mtDNA) had slower proliferation rates and decreased differentiation capacities. Screening cultured adult stem cells for mtDNA deletion mutations as a routine assessment will benefit the biomedical application of adult stem cells.

  13. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josune Olza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. Mean ± SEM (range total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day, 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day, 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day, and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day, respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  14. Knee complaints vary with age and gender in the adult population. Population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemyslaw T; Bergman, Stefan; Sundén-Lundius, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function and qual......Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function...... and quality of life with age and gender in the adult population and to establish population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)....

  15. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I

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    Horim Yi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  16. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  17. Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among the Urban Adult Population in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, M; Shalini, T; Balakrishna, N; Sudarshan, M; Lopamudra, P; Suryanarayana, P; Arlappa, N; Ravikumar, B P; Radhika, M S; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) leads to a wide spectrum of disorders that affect all age groups. However, reports on B12 and FA status in healthy adults in India are limited. Hence, we determined the plasma levels and dietary intake of B12 and FA in the adult population. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in an urban setup among 630 apparently healthy adults distributed into 3 age groups: 21-40, 41-60 and >60 years. Plasma concentrations of B12 and FA were analyzed by radio immunoassay and dietary intake by 24-hour recall method. The overall prevalence of FA deficiency was 12%, but there was no significant difference in plasma FA concentrations among the groups. While the overall prevalence of B12 deficiency was 35%, it was significantly higher in the 21-40 (44%) and 41-60 age groups (40%) when compared with the >60 group (30%). B12 deficiency was higher in vegetarians (54%) compared to those consuming mixed diet (31%), and the reverse was the case with FA. However, the dietary intakes of FA and B12 were not significantly different among the groups. These results indicate a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency in apparently healthy adults in an urban setup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  19. Cross-cultural validation of the parent-patient activation measure in low income Spanish- and English-speaking parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Leifheit, Kathryn; Shah, Harita; Valenzuela-Araujo, Doris; Sloand, Elizabeth; Polk, Sarah; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-12-01

    (1) To measure healthcare activation among low-income parents by language (English/Spanish); and (2) to assess the psychometrics of the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM) in the study population. We surveyed parents/guardians of publicly-insured children who were established patients at a pediatrics clinic for ≥6months. Surveys included the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM), a 13-item measure adapted from the well-validated Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Of 316 surveys, 68% were completed in Spanish. Mean activation score in the English-language survey group was 79.1 (SD 16.2); mean score in the Spanish-language group was 70.7 (SD 17.9) (pSpanish α=0.93). The P-PAM had acceptable test-retest reliability, but no previously reported PAM factor structure fit the study data adequately for either language. Healthcare activation among low-income parents was greater for parents surveyed in English compared with those surveyed in Spanish. The P-PAM has acceptable reliability and validity in English and Spanish, but a different factor structure than the PAM. Activation as measured by the P-PAM may not have the same associations with or impact on health/healthcare outcomes in pediatrics compared with adults owing to possible measure differences between the P-PAM and PAM. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and violence in the population of England: does comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A González

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population.We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007, a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders.ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01. Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03. Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology.The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders.

  1. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all Ptelevision viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  2. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the general adult population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R Brock; Farrer, Thomas J; Primosch, Mark; Hedges, Dawson W

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. To understand the extent of TBI, it is important to assess the prevalence of TBI in the general population. However, the prevalence of TBI in the general population can be difficult to measure because of differing definitions of TBI, differing TBI severity levels, and underreporting of sport-related TBI. Additionally, prevalence reports vary from study to study. In this present study, we used meta-analytic methods to estimate the prevalence of TBI in the adult general population. Across 15 studies, all originating from developed countries, which included 25,134 adults, 12% had a history of TBI. Men had more than twice the odds of having had a TBI than did women, suggesting that male gender is a risk factor for TBI. The adverse behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric effects associated with TBI coupled with the high prevalence of TBI identified in this study indicate that TBI is a considerable public and personal-health problem. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Television viewing and cardiovascular risk behaviors in the adult population of the French West Indies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrère, P; Atallah, A; Kelly-Irving, M; Lang, T; Inamo, J

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown a link between prolonged television viewing and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. We aimed to estimate the relationship between television viewing and CV risk behaviors and in the adult population of the French West Indies. We used data from Consant, a cross-sectional study carried out in 2007 on a representative sample of the adult Guadeloupean population (1005 subjects aged 25-74 years selected by stratified random sampling and interviewed at home by trained investigators working in pairs). Among respondents who reported watching television for 2 hours or more per day, 46.5% stated practicing no leisure time physical activity, compared with 35.6% among those who reported watching television for less than 2 hours per day. Adjusting for age, sex, education, income, family status, and perceived CV benefits of physical activity, the odds ratio of physical inactivity was estimated at 1.75 (Ptelevision for 2 hours or more per day, compared with other subjects. A similar relationship was observed when considering dieting to prevent weight gain. In this representative sample of a French Caribbean population, a strong and very significant relationship was observed between prolonged television viewing and CV risk behaviors. Prolonged television viewing seems common to a lifestyle that is characterized by little physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. This may play a role in social inequalities observed in CV diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Candice; Kress, Jeff; Schroeder, Jan; Donlin, Ayla; Rozenek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level activity participants (7,500 steps/day) in weight, age, and the number of medications reported. Males performed better than females on the two-footed jump test and reactive postural test FAB assessments. High-level activity participants performed significantly better than low-level activity participants on all FAB assessments except stand with feet together and eyes closed, reach forward to object, and walk with head turns.

  5. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Campbell MS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level activity participants (7,500 steps/day in weight, age, and the number of medications reported. Males performed better than females on the two-footed jump test and reactive postural test FAB assessments. High-level activity participants performed significantly better than low-level activity participants on all FAB assessments except stand with feet together and eyes closed, reach forward to object, and walk with head turns.

  6. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A. Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension.

  7. Taxonomic separation of hippocampal networks: principal cell populations and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelof Maarten evan Dijk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non

  8. Chilli consumption and the incidence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Riley, M; Taylor, A W; Page, A

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of spicy food intake has recently been associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association between chilli intake and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20-75 years in the China Health and Nutrition Survey were followed between 1991 and 2011. Dietary data were collected during home visits using a 3-day food record in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011. Cox regression was used in the analysis. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index ⩾25 kg m - 2 . A total 12 970 adults were followed for a median of 9 years. During 126 884 person-years of follow-up, 3203 subjects developed overweight/obesity. The absolute incidence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.4, 22.3, 24.4 and 20.5 per 1000 person-years among those who consumed no chilli or 1-20, 20.1-50, ⩾50.1 g per day, respectively. Chilli consumption was therefore inversely associated with the incidence of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for age, gender, energy and fat intake, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity, those whose cumulative average chilli intake was 0, 1-20, 20.1-50 and ⩾50.1 g per day had a hazard ratio for overweight/obesity of 1.00, 0.81 (95% confidence interval=0.73-0.89), 0.77 (0.69-0.86) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84); P for trend overweight/obesity. Chilli intake is inversely associated with the risk of becoming overweight/obese in Chinese adults.

  9. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Wei; Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J M; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F P; Lin, Raymond T P

    2017-12-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008-2009. Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.

  10. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity: Population-based study of 40,000 Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Berit Skretting; Halmøy, Anne; Engeland, Anders; Igland, Jannicke; Haavik, Jan; Klungsøyr, Kari

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining whether gender modified associations between ADHD and psychiatric comorbidities in adults. METHOD: We identified adults with ADHD by linking Norwegian national registries and compared them with the remaining adult population (born 1967-1997, ADHD and bipolar during 2004-2015, other psychiatric disorders 2008-2015). Prevalence differences (PDs) and prevalence ratios (PRs) of psychiatric disorders were determined by Poisson regression. Interaction by gender wa...

  11. Secular trends in child and adult sexual violence--one decreasing and the other increasing: a population survey in Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. METHODS: National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. RESULTS: C...

  12. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  13. An Outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis in Adults in Northern China, 2013: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Liang, Guodong

    2018-05-09

    A Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemic occurred in 2013 in China. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in adults occurring in 2013, as well as identify potential hotspots of incidences in the afflicted regions in China. To generate a spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in China, epidemiological and demographic data between 2011 and 2013 were collected. Our results indicate that the total number of JE cases in 2013 was significantly higher compared with those in 2011 and 2012. While the incidence of JE in individuals aged less than 15 years decreased in 2013, the incidence rate increased substantially in those aged 15 years and older. The population aged over 40 years was associated with the greatest increase of JE. Demographic analysis revealed a consistent increase in the proportion of JE cases aged 15 years and older in 2013 (42%) compared with that in 2012 (15%). In addition, JE cases from areas located between 35°N, 114°E and 40°N, 120°E in northern China were found to account for 27.17% of total JE cases nationwide in 2013, compared with 2.21% and 3.13% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. In these northern regions, the group aged 15 years and older represents the predominant population with JE, accounting for 73% of total cases. Further cluster analysis identified a large number of hotspots of JE in adults (>15 years of age) in northern China. Unlike the JE epidemics primarily in children below 15 years old in southern China, a significant outbreak of JE occurred in northern China in 2013, with the older age groups being the primary population affected. The increasing incidence of JE in adults has become an important public health issue and poses a new challenge to the successful prevention and control of JE in China, as well as other countries in East Asia.

  14. Association between Polyphenol Intake and Hypertension in Adults and Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Machado Miranda

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and diet has been identified as a modifiable factor for preventing and controlling hypertension. Besides, epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols and hypertension in a general population of Sao Paulo.Data came from the 'Health Survey of Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital' among 550 adults and older adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR. Usual intakes were calculated using the Multiple Source Method. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the Phenol-Explorer database. The associations between the hypertension and tertiles of the total and classes of polyphenols intake were tested by multivariate logistic regression analysis.After multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors the findings showed an inverse and linearly association between the hypertension and highest tertiles of tyrosols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.18, 0.64, alkylphenols (OR = 0.45; 95%CI 0.23, 0.87, lignans (OR = 0.49; 95%CI 0.25, 0.98, as well as stilbenes (OR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.36, 0.98, and other polyphenols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.14, 0.74. However, total polyphenol intake, and phenolic acids were significantly associated only in the middle tertile with hypertension and flavonoids were not significant associated.There is an inverse and linearly association between the highest tertile of some classes of polyphenols, such as, tyrosols, alkylphenols, lignans, stilbenes, other polyphenols and hypertension.

  15. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  16. Prayer Attendance and General Health in the Iranian Adult Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotodehasl, Nemat; Ghorbani, Raheb; Mahdavi-Nejad, Gholamhosein; Haji-Aghajani, Saeed; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between prayer attendance and general health among adult urban population in Iran. A total of 470 males older than 17 years, chosen by multistage sampling, were investigated. The results showed that people who did not perform prayers compared to those who said prayers on time and performed Nafilahs (supererogatory prayers) were 2.87 (OR 2.87, 95 % CI 1.23-6.70, p = 0.015) times at risk of general health problems. In conclusion, the findings show that increasing the degree of people's belief in prayer can lead to improve general health.

  17. Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H Susan J

    2017-07-01

    To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality. The study population consisted of 3695 adults aged 20 to 59 years at baseline. Five measurements of self-reported sleep duration were used to compose seven patterns from 1987 to 2012: persistent short (≤6 hours), moderate (7-8 hours), or long (≥9 hours) sleep duration and several changing patterns (varying and became short, moderate, or long sleepers). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to compare characteristics across sleep duration patterns. About 56% of the adults had persistent moderate sleep duration over 20 years. This group had a better sleep quality than the other groups. Of the adults who changed in their sleep duration (40%), 43% became a short sleeper. Sleep duration patterns that deviate from persistent moderate sleep duration were associated with physical inactivity during leisure time (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs] varied between 1.26 [1.04-1.53] and 1.58 [1.06-2.37]) and with poor self-rated health (ORs [95% CIs] varied between 1.50 [1.20-1.87] and 2.15 [1.48-3.12]). Nearly half of the adults did not have persistent moderate sleep duration over a 20-year period and more than one-sixth became short sleeper. This is reason for concern considering the adverse health status associated with short and long sleep duration. Leisure-time physical activity is a potential important target to prevent unfavorable changes in sleep duration over the life course. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  18. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  19. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  20. Validation of the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) in a population of Hispanic preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    There is a critical need for validation studies of questionnaires designed to assess the level of control of asthma in children younger than 5 years old. To validate the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) questionnaire in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. In a prospective cohort validation study, parents and/or caregivers of children younger than age 5 years and with symptoms consistent with asthma, during a baseline and a follow-up visit 2 to 6 weeks later, completed the information required to assess the content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, internal consistency reliability, and usability of the TRACK questionnaire. Median (interquartile range) of the TRACK scores were significantly different between patients with well-controlled asthma, patients with not well-controlled asthma, and patients with very poorly controlled asthma (90.0 [75.0-95.0], 75.0 [55.0-85.0], and 35.0 [25.0-55.0], respectively, P Spanish version of the TRACK questionnaire has excellent sensitivity to change and usability; adequate criterion validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability; and an acceptable internal consistency, when used in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Knowledge of electronic cigarettes and their perceived harmfulness among the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    To describe knowledge of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and their perceived harmfulness in the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014. We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult population in the city of Barcelona (n=736). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. Awareness of e-cigarette was 79.2%. The average level of knowledge was 4.4 points out of 10; there were statistically significant differences according to age, educational level, tobacco consumption, and nicotine dependence. Most participants had learned about e-cigarettes through traditional media (57.8%). Nearly half (47.2%) of the participants believed that e-cigarettes are less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Advertising of e-cigarettes in the media should be regulated because there is still scarce scientific evidence about the usefulness and harmful effects of these devices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  3. Awareness of eye donation in an adult population of southern India. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini Brinda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine "awareness of eye donation" and corneal transplantation in an adult population of southern India. Methods: 507 participants chosen by systematic random sampling were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Participants were selected among patients attending two community outreach programmes at different sites, and from patients presenting directly to the hospital. Results: 257 participants (50.69% were aware of eye donations. The major source of awareness was publicity campaigns (n=105. Only 22 (4.34% participants were aware that eye donation had to be done within 6 hours of death. Four hundred and three (79.50% participants were not aware of corneal transplantation. Illiteracy and rural residence were more likely predictors of ignorance. Conclusion: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations and corneal transplants, more innovative strategies have to be developed, especially to target illiterate and rural populations.

  4. The vascular health status of a population of adult Canadian Indigenous peoples from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, H J A; Bredin, S S D; Warburton, D E R

    2016-04-01

    Indigenous populations currently experience greater cardiovascular disease burdens. However, subclinical vascular structure and function among these populations is not well known. This investigation evaluated vascular structure and function among Canadian Indigenous populations. Blood pressure, body composition, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), arterial compliance and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Vascular measures were evaluated across sexes and age groups. Vascular assessments were conducted among 55 Indigenous adults (38±18 years, 29 Female), including both First Nations (N=36) and Métis (N=19) individuals. Some differences in vascular measures were found between males and females, respectively (spectral BRS: 9.6±6.8 ms mm Hg(-1) vs 16.9±10.0 ms mm Hg(-1), P=0.01; small arterial compliance: 8.9±3.7 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100 vs 6.4±2.3 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100, P=0.004), with similar measures of overall IMT (0.61±0.14 mm vs 0.57±0.08 mm, P=0.19) and central PWV (5.7±2.5 m s(-1) vs 5.1±2.3 m s(-1), P=0.58). Greater IMT, and lower BRS and arterial compliance were identified among older adults. This relatively healthy population demonstrated healthy vascular measures, with poorer measures among older individuals.

  5. PO-58 - Cardiovascular risk profile in survivors of adult cancer - results from the general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova-Noeva, M; Hermanns, I M; Schulz, A; Laubert-Reh, D; Zeller, T; Blankenberg, S; Spronk, H M; Münzel, T; Lackner, K J; Ten Cate, H; Wild, P S

    2016-04-01

    The advancements in cancer treatment and detection of early cancer have resulted in steady increase of adult cancer survivors over the years. However, due to the long term toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing in survivors. Identifying risk factors and interventions to reduce the excess burden of CVD in this vulnerable population is urgently needed. To investigate the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), inflammation and coagulation profile in cancer survivors from a large population-based study. Presence of CVRFs and laboratory markers have been compared in individuals with (n=1,359) and without (n=13,626) history of cancer. Standard laboratory profile, including blood glucose and lipid profile, has been evaluated in 15,010 individuals from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Coagulation factors, D-dimer and von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity were available in N=4,993. The individuals with history of cancer were older compared to no history of cancer with mean age of 61,5years and 54.4years, respectively (pprofile showed cancer survivors with lower erythrocyte, platelet and white blood cell counts and higher C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, HbA1c and triglycerides levels (pprofile in individuals with history of cancer from a well characterized population-representative adult sample. It gives evidence for higher prevalence of CVRFs, particularly diabetes in this vulnerable population. Markers of inflammation as CRP and fibrinogen and vWF activity were higher in cancer survivors independent of the cardiovascular risk profile. These results underline the increased risk of CVD and need for development of cardio-oncology programs offering cardiovascular prevention. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...

  7. Growth of the human lens in the Indian adult population: Preliminary observations

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    Ashik Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The eye lens grows throughout life by the addition of new cells inside the surrounding capsule. How this growth affects the properties of the lens is essential for understanding disorders such as cataract and presbyopia. Aims: To examine growth of the human lens in the Indian population and compare this with the growth in Western populations by measuring in vitro dimensions together with wet and dry weights. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the research wing of a tertiary eye care center in South India and the study design was prospective. Materials and Methods: Lenses were removed from eye bank eyes and their dimensions measured with a digital caliper. They were then carefully blotted dry and weighed before being placed in 5% buffered formalin. After 1 week fixation, the lenses were dried at 80 °C until constant weight was achieved. The constant weight was noted as the dry weight of the lens. Statistical Analysis Used: Lens parameters were analyzed as a function of age using linear and logarithmic regression methods. Results: Data were obtained for 251 lenses, aged 16-93 years, within a median postmortem time of 22 h. Both wet and dry weights increased linearly at 1.24 and 0.44 mg/year, respectively, throughout adult life. The dimensions also increased continuously throughout this time. Conclusions: Over the age range examined, lens growth in the Indian population is very similar to that in Western populations.

  8. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  9. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

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    Tsui Hi-Yi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009, the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94% adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1% were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females. Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.

  10. Successful weight maintainers among young adults-A ten-year prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2018-03-07

    To assess factors associated with successful weight maintenance over ten years in a prospective general population sample of young adults. Our study comprised 2452 women and 2227 men born in 1975-1979 (mean age at baseline 24 years, attrition 27.1%). Weight maintenance was defined as weight maintained within ±5% of baseline body mass index (BMI). We examined the role of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in successful weight maintenance. Relatively few young adults were able to maintain their weight over ten years (28.6% of women vs. 23.0% of men); net weight loss was uncommon (7.5% and 3.8%). Most participants gained weight (mean annual weight gain was 0.9 kg in women and 1.0 kg in men). Among women, exercise was associated with successful weight maintenance, but having two or more children, frequent use of sweet drinks, irregular eating, history of dieting (intentional weight loss) and low life satisfaction were associated with weight gain. Among men, higher baseline BMI and higher education were associated with successful weight maintenance, whereas irregular eating, history of dieting and smoking were associated with weight gain. Only about a quarter of young adults were able to resist weight gain. Regular eating and having no history of dieting were associated with successful weight maintenance in young women and men. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  12. Dental caries experience and treatment needs of an adult female population in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Folake; Alade, Omolola

    2017-09-01

    Experience and awareness of adult females concerning dental caries is important in its prevention particularly in children because of their natural role as care givers. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in an adult female Nigerian population. In this cross-sectional study, adult females attending outreach programmes were examined for dental caries using the Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth caries index (DMFT). Socio-demographic variables were also recorded and statistical analysis done with SPSS software. A total of 430 females aged 16 to 59 years participated in the outreach programme out of which 109 (25.3%) had a DMFT score > 0. Mean DMFT was 0.7 ± 1.6. Fifty-five (12.8%) participants had decayed teeth, 78 (18.1 %) had missing teeth and 10(2.3%) had filled teeth. The treatment need was 34.3%, restorative index was 13.3% and significant caries index was 2.0. There were significant differences in caries experience based on age, marital status and educational qualifications of participants p caries among the study group was low but the treatment need was high. Younger females, singles and those with lower educational qualifications had a higher dental caries experience.

  13. Cost/efficacy analysis of preferred Spanish AIDS study group regimens and the dual therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine for initial ART in HIV infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatell Artigas, Josep María; Arribas López, José Ramón; Lázaro Y de Mercado, Pablo; Blasco Bravo, Antonio Javier

    2016-01-01

    The National AIDS Plan and the Spanish AIDS study group (GESIDA) proposes "preferred regimens" (PR) of antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients. In 2013, the recommended regimens were all triple therapy regimens. The Gardel Study assessed the efficacy of a dual therapy (DT) combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus lamivudine (3TC). Our objective is to evaluate the GESIDA PR and the DT regimen LPV/r+3TC cost/efficacy ratios. Decision tree models were built. probability of having viral load cost: costs of ART, adverse effects, and drug resistance tests during the first 48 weeks. Cost/efficacy ratios varied between 5,817 and 13,930 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for the DT of LPV/r+3TC and tenofovir DF/emtricitabine+raltegravir, respectively. Taking into account the official Spanish prices of ART, the most efficient regimen was DT of LPV/r+3TC, followed by the triple therapy with non-nucleoside containing regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Factor associated with tobacco use among the adult population in Sarawak, Malaysia: a cross sectional study

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    Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of tobacco in any form is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality. The World Health Organization recommends that it should be monitored regularly.  This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among the rural adult population in Sarawak and factors associated with it.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the adult population in Sarawak. Data were collected from ten villages in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Division by face to face interview using modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Non-probability sampling method was adopted to select the villages. All the households of the villages were visited and an adult member was selected randomly from each house irrespective of the sex. After missing value imputation, 1000 data were analysed using statistical software SPSS 19.0 version.Results: Analysis showed that 30.9% of the respondents were current tobacco users and 11% were past tobacco users. The mean age (SD at starting tobacco was 18.1 (6.48 years. The frequency of tobacco use was 14 times per day.  Hierarchical Logistic regression analysis revealed that age with male sex (OR=1. 064, 95% CI: 1.052, 1.076, secondary education (OR=-2.712; 95% CI: 1.122, 6.555, higher secondary and above (OR=3. 571; 95% CI: 1.641,7.774, occupation as business (OR=3. 152; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.735 and environmental exposure such as smoking at working place (OR=2. 754;95% CI: 1.895,4.002, coffee house (OR=2. 274;95% CI: 1.32,3.919 and at home (OR=1. 827;95% CI: 1.242,2.687 appeared to be  important predictors of tobacco use (p<0.05.Conclusion: A large proportion of males use tobacco products. Though tobacco use was negligible among females, but they would be potential users. Environmental exposure to tobacco appeared to be important predictors. Tobacco control campaigns should target banning of tobacco use in closed and open areas and also to intensify the monitoring of all forms

  15. Populations of subplate and interstitial neurons in fetal and adult human telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Pletikos, Mihovil; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša

    2010-10-01

    In the adult human telencephalon, subcortical (gyral) white matter contains a special population of interstitial neurons considered to be surviving descendants of fetal subplate neurons [Kostovic & Rakic (1980) Cytology and the time of origin of interstitial neurons in the white matter in infant and adult human and monkey telencephalon. J Neurocytol9, 219]. We designate this population of cells as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons and describe their morphology and distribution in the postnatal and adult human cerebrum. Human fetal subplate neurons cannot be regarded as interstitial, because the subplate zone is an essential part of the fetal cortex, the major site of synaptogenesis and the 'waiting' compartment for growing cortical afferents, and contains both projection neurons and interneurons with distinct input-output connectivity. However, although the subplate zone is a transient fetal structure, many subplate neurons survive postnatally as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons. The fetal white matter is represented by the intermediate zone and well-defined deep periventricular tracts of growing axons, such as the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, internal and external capsule, and the fountainhead of the corona radiata. These tracts gradually occupy the territory of transient fetal subventricular and ventricular zones.The human fetal white matter also contains distinct populations of deep fetal interstitial neurons, which, by virtue of their location, morphology, molecular phenotypes and advanced level of dendritic maturation, remain distinct from subplate neurons and neurons in adjacent structures (e.g. basal ganglia, basal forebrain). We describe the morphological, histochemical (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase) and immunocytochemical (neuron-specific nuclear protein, microtubule-associated protein-2, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y) features of both deep fetal interstitial neurons and deep (periventricular

  16. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms: A Japanese general adult population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Konno, Chisato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Sakae; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between unhealthy lifestyles factors and depressive symptoms among the general adult population in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the Japanese general adult population. Data from 2334 people aged 20 years or older were analyzed. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. Participants completed a face-to-face interview about unhealthy lifestyle factors, including lack of exercise, skipping breakfast, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals, insufficient sleep, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and obesity. Presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a score of ≥ 16 on the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Relationships between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic variables and other unhealthy lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that insufficient sleep, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals and lack of exercise were significantly associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with odds ratios ranging from 1.56 for lack of exercise to 3.98 for insufficient sleep. Since this study was a cross-sectional study, causal relationships could not be determined. These results suggest that promoting a healthy lifestyle focused on sleep, food intake and exercise may be important for individuals with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between dry eye symptoms and suicidal ideation in a Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Sun-Bi; Yeom, Hyungseon; Kim, Na Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Hyung Keun; Suh, Il

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the association of dry eyes with depression and suicidal ideation in a Korean adult population. Data from 16408 participants (6972 men and 9436 women) aged ≥ 19 years included in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2010-2012, were analyzed. For dry eyes, surveys of previous diagnosis of dry eye disease (DED) by an ophthalmologist and experience of subjective dry eye symptoms were separately used. Diagnosis of depression and suicidal ideation were obtained via responses to an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, and questions were asked in a closed-ended response format. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dry eyes, depression, and suicidal ideation. DED diagnosis exhibited an odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.57) for depression and 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.48) for suicidal ideation compared to those without DED, after adjusting for sex, age, education, occupation, household income, body mass index, smoking behavior, alcohol consumption, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, thyroid diseases, major cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Similarly, the adjusted OR (95% CI) of dry eye symptoms was 1.50 (95% CI 1.30-1.73) for depression and 1.47 (95% CI 1.27-1.70) for suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that dry eyes (either DED diagnosis or dry eye symptoms) may be associated with the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation in the Korean adult population.

  18. Determining the Level of the Dural Sac Tip: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binokay, F.; Akgul, E.; Bicakci, K.; Soyupak, S.; Aksungur, E.; Sertdemir, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the variation in the location of the dural sac (DS) in a living adult population and to correlate this position with age and sex. Material and Methods: T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 743 patients were assessed to identify the tip of the DS. This location was recorded in relation to the upper, middle, or lower third of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent intervertebral disk. Results: Frequency distribution for levels of termination of the DS on MRI demonstrated that the end of the DS was usually located at the upper one-third of S2 (25.2%). The mean level in females was also the upper one-third of S2 (26.5%) and in males the lower one-third of S2 (24.1%). The overall mean DS position was mostly at the upper one-third of S2. No significant differences in DS position were seen between male and female patients or with increasing age. Conclusion: It is important to know the possible range for the termination level of the DS when performing caudal anesthesia and craniospinal irradiation in some clinical situations. The distribution of DS location in a large adult population was shown to range from the L5-S1 intervertebral disk to the upper third of S3 vertebrae

  19. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2018-06-01

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Increase in antidepressant medication in the US adult population between 1990 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin

    2008-01-01

    The rate of antidepressant treatment in the US has significantly increased in the past decade. There are, however, concerns about undertreatment among traditionally underserved groups and overtreatment in less severely ill individuals. This study examines trends in the prevalence of antidepressant drug treatment in two US general population surveys. The prevalence of antidepressant treatment within a 12-month period was compared in the US National Comorbidity Survey (1990-1992) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (2001-2003). Variations in trends across groups were examined using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. The rate of antidepressant drug treatment increased more than four times between early 1990s and early 2000s. The trend was similar across sociodemographic groups. Younger adults, men and racial/ethnic minorities continued to receive antidepressant treatment at a lower rate compared to middle-aged adults, women and non-Hispanic whites, respectively. The rate of antidepressant treatment increased more in the group of less severely ill individuals than in those with more severe psychopathology. Sociodemographic disparities in antidepressant treatment persisted over the last decade in the US, lending support to concerns about undertreatment among traditionally underserved groups, whereas the greater increase in the rate of antidepressant treatment in the less severely ill group lends support to concerns about antidepressant overtreatment in this population.

  1. Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ribeiro do Couto, Bruno; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    Sleep quality has a significant impact on health and quality of life and is affected, among other factors, by age and sex. However, the prevalence of problems in this area in the general population is not well known. Therefore, our objective was to study the prevalence and main characteristics of sleep quality in an adult population sample. 2,144 subjects aged between 43 and 71 years belonging to the Murcia (Spain) Twin Registry. Sleep quality was measured by self-report through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the results. The prevalence of poor sleep quality stands at 38.2%. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that women were almost twice as likely as men (OR: 1.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.54 to 2.28) to have poor quality of sleep. Age was directly and significantly associated with a low quality of sleep (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.06). The prevalence of poor sleep quality is high among adults, especially women. There is a direct relationship between age and deterioration in the quality of sleep. This relationship also appears to be more consistent in women. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of beverage consumption and associated caloric intake in adult Czech population. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Věra; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Zimmelová, Petra; Velemínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults. To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake. There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  3. Perception of a Regional Spanish Sound: The Case of /s/-Weakening

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Angela

    2014-01-01

    While taking foreign language classes or interacting in the target language community, language learners will be exposed to dialectal differences. This paper addresses how adult learners of Spanish in beginning, intermediate, and advanced Spanish courses at a large US university perceived a common sociolinguistic feature of Spanish, /s/-weakening,…

  4. The Acquisition of Clitic Pronouns in the Spanish Interlanguage of Peruvian Quechua Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Carol A.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of four adult Quechua speakers' acquisition of clitic pronouns in Spanish revealed that educational attainment and amount of contact with monolingual Spanish speakers were positively related to native-like norms of competence in the use of object pronouns in Spanish. (CB)

  5. Dental status, oral prosthesis and chewing ability in an adult and elderly population in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Alexandre; Schmidt, Jeanne Gabriele; Rech, Rafaela Soares; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the factors associated with inadequate chewing in an adult and elderly population of a city in the southern region of Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study based on a population home-based inquiry (DCH-POP) in southern Brazil. Individuals were interviewed by trained interviewers to create a standardized procedure. In a pilot study, the Questionnaire of Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP) was created and validated to identify self-reported speech and language, swallowing and hearing disorders. The outcome was dichotomized into either having adequate chewing or not, as assessed by a series of questions about chewing ability. Analyses of absolute and relative frequencies were measured according to the studied variables. A Poisson regression was applied at a significance level of 5%. A total of 1,246 people were interviewed. Inadequate chewing was found in 52 (5.6%) individuals, with a higher prevalence in the elderly (11.8%) than in adults (5.2%). In the final model, the following factors were associated with inadequate chewing: being 61 years of age or older (prevalence ratio or PR=9.03; 95% CI: 1.20-67.91), loss of teeth and use of unadjusted prosthesis (PR=3.50; 95% CI: 1.54-7.95), preference for foods of soft consistency (PR=9.34; 95% CI:4.66-8.70) and difficulty in nasal breathing (PR=2.82; 95% CI: 1.31-6.06). Age, oral health status through dental prosthesis, preference for foods of soft consistency and difficulty breathing through the nose were factors associated with chewing inability in adults and the elderly.

  6. Frailty transitions and types of death in Chinese older adults: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Xiao-feng; Shi, Yan; Hai, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the adverse effects of frailty transitions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the transitions between frailty states and examine their associations with the type of death among older adults in China, a developing country with a rapidly growing aging population. Methods We used data of 11,165 older adults (aged 65–99 years) from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Overall, 44 health deficits were used to construct frailty index (FI; range: 0–1), which was then categorized into a three-level variable: nonfrail (FI ≤0.10), prefrail (0.100.21). Outcome was four types of death based on bedridden days and suffering state (assessed in the 2008 wave of CLHLS). Results During the 3-year period, 3,394 (30.4%) participants had transitioned between different frailty states (nonfrail, prefrail, and frail), one-third transitioned to death, and one-third remained in previous frailty states. Transitions to greater frailty (ie, “worsening”) were more common than transitions to lesser frailty (ie, “improvement”). Among four categories of frailty transitions, “worsening” and “remaining frail” had increased risks of painful death, eg, with odds ratios of 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.41, 2.62) and 4.75 (95% CI =3.32, 6.80), respectively, for type 4 death (ie, ≥30 bedridden days with suffering before death). Conclusion This large sample of older adults in China supports that frailty is a dynamic process, characterized by frequent types of transitions. Furthermore, those who remained frail had the highest likelihood of experiencing painful death, which raises concerns about the quality of life in frail populations. PMID:29805253

  7. Prevalence of depression: Comparisons of different depression definitions in population-based samples of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2017-10-15

    Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adult-onset diabetes among Arabs and Jews in Israel: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter-Leibovici, O; Chetrit, A; Lubin, F; Atamna, A; Alpert, G; Ziv, A; Abu-Saad, K; Murad, H; Eilat-Adar, S; Goldbourt, U

    2012-06-01

    To study the age at presentation and factors associated with adult-onset diabetes (≥ 20 years) among Arabs and Jews in Israel. Participants (n = 1100) were randomly selected from the urban population of the Hadera District in Israel. The study sample was stratified into equal groups according to sex, ethnicity (Arabs and Jews) and age. Information on age at diabetes presentation, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics was obtained through personal interviews. Self reports of diabetes were compared with medical records and were found reliable (κ = 0.87). The risk for diabetes was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Factors associated with diabetes in both ethnic groups were studied using Cox proportional hazard model. The prevalence of adult-onset diabetes was 21% among Arabs and 12% among Jews. Arab participants were younger than Jews at diabetes presentation. By the age of 57 years, 25% of Arabs had diagnosed diabetes; the corresponding age among Jews was 68 years, a difference of 11 years (P Arabs was independent of lifestyle factors, family history of diabetes and, among women, history of gestational diabetes; adjusted hazard ratio 1.70; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.43. Arabs in Israel are at greater risk for adult-onset diabetes than Jews and are younger at diabetes presentation. Culturally sensitive interventions aimed at maintaining normal body weight and active lifestyle should be targeted at this population. Possible genetic factors and gene-environmental interactions underlying the high risk for diabetes among Arabs should be investigated. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  9. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  10. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  11. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Santric Milicevic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: То explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5, and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index. The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16-1.51, unemployment (1.36; 1.18-1.56, single status (1.34; 1.23-1.45, and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08-1.32 or poor (1.33; 1.21-1.47 were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59-0.89. Single (1.50; 1.26-1.78, unemployed (1.39; 1.07-1.80 and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10-1.83 had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married individuals, or

  12. Long-lasting cough in an adult German population: incidence, symptoms, and related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Raphael; Riffelmann, Marion; Kennerknecht, Nicole; Hülße, Christel; Littmann, Martina; O'Brien, Judith; von Kries, Rüdiger; von König, Carl Heinz Wirsing

    2018-04-01

    Studies of the incidence of pertussis in adults have shown that it accounts for only 5-15% cases of prolonged coughing. We assessed the burden of suffering related to prolonged coughing and tried to identify further causative agents. Based on a sentinel study with 35 general practitioners in two German cities (Krefeld, Rostock), with 3,946 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, we estimated the incidence of prolonged coughing in adults. In 975 of these outpatients, PCR and/or serology for adenovirus, Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus A and rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were performed. Treatment data were extracted for a subgroup of 138 patients. Descriptive statistics, including Kaplan-Maier curves were generated. Yearly incidence ranged between 1.4 and 2.1% per population in the two cities. Adult patients sought medical attention only after a median of 3 weeks of coughing. Irrespective of smoking and unrelated to the identified pathogens, the median duration of coughing was 6 weeks, with an interquartile range of 4-11 weeks. In 48.3% of patients, possible pathogens were identified, among which adenovirus (15.1%), RSV (7.5%), B. pertussis (5.6%), and influenza viruses (4.0%) were most often found. Symptoms were not indicative of a specific agent and a total of 64% of patients received antibiotics. Prolonged adult coughing requiring medical attention prompts substantial healthcare use. Apart from B. pertussis, a broad range of pathogens was associated with the symptoms. However, patients sought medical attention too late to guide efficacious therapeutic interventions using the diagnostic tests.

  13. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of oxaliplatin in adults and children identifies important covariates for dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanjam, Mina; Stewart, Clinton F; Takimoto, Chris H; Synold, Timothy W; Beaty, Orren; Fouladi, Maryam; Capparelli, Edmund V

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the determinants of variability for oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics including age, renal function, and hepatic func