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Sample records for adult social attachment

  1. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  2. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Vrticka

    2012-01-01

    Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using co...

  3. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Vrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  4. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented. PMID:27154381

  5. Time Course of Attention in Socially Anxious Individuals: Investigating the Effects of Adult Attachment Style.

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    Byrow, Yulisha; Chen, Nigel T M; Peters, Lorna

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical models of social anxiety propose that attention biases maintain symptoms of social anxiety. Research findings regarding the time course of attention and social anxiety disorder have been mixed. Adult attachment style may influence attention bias and social anxiety, thus contributing to the mixed findings. This study investigated the time course of attention toward both negative and positive stimuli for individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and assessed whether attachment style moderates this relationship. One hundred and thirty participants (age: M=29.03) were assessed using a semistructured clinical interview. Those meeting eligibility criteria for the clinical sample met DSM-IV criteria for SAD (n=90, age: M=32.18), while those in the control sample did not meet criteria for any mental disorder (n=23, age: M=26.04, 11 females). All participants completed self-report measures examining depression, social anxiety, adult attachment style, and completed an eye-tracking task used to measure the time course of attention. Eye-tracking data were analysed using growth curve analysis. The results indicate that participants in the control group overall displayed greater vigilance towards emotional stimuli, were faster at initially fixating on the emotional stimulus, and had a greater percentage of fixations towards the emotional stimulus as the stimulus presentation time progressed compared to those in the clinical group. Thus, the clinical participants were more likely to avoid fixating on emotional stimuli in general (both negative and positive) compared to those in the control group. These results support the Clark and Wells (1995) proposal that socially anxious individuals avoid attending to emotional information. Attachment style did not moderate this association, however anxious attachment was related to greater vigilance toward emotional compared to neutral stimuli. PMID:27423171

  6. Adult Attachment and Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietzschel, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the association between adult attachment and psychological therapy by examining attachment as an outcome variable of therapy, as well as a predictor of therapy outcome. The literature review systematically explores research that has examined changes in attachment representations during psychological therapy. The purpose of the review is to enhance understanding of change processes in adult attachment and to provide empirical support to the premises of attachment theory. I...

  7. Social Networking Sites Use and Psychological Attachment Need among Indonesian Young Adults Population

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The wide-spread use of online social networking sites has sparked many psychological issues and research around the globe. A unique phenomenon has come into existence in which people rely on Facebook to satisfy their attachment need. It is one of the very innately psychological needs that presents throughout a life span. The present study investigated the interaction between attachment style and social networking site use. The result showed that attachment style contributed significantly to t...

  8. Adult Attachment, Social Self-Efficacy, Self-Disclosure, Loneliness, and Subsequent Depression for Freshman College Students: A Longitudinal Study

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    Wei, Meifen; Russel, Daniel W.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…

  9. A neurocognitive model of borderline personality disorder: effects of childhood sexual abuse and relationship to adult social attachment disturbance.

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    Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a paradigmatic disorder of adult attachment, with high rates of antecedent childhood maltreatment. The neurocognitive correlates of both attachment disturbance and maltreatment are both presently unknown in BPD. This study evaluated whether dimensional adult attachment disturbance in BPD is related to specific neurocognitive deficits, and whether childhood maltreatment is related to these dysfunctions. An outpatient BPD group (n=43) performed nearly 1 SD below a control group (n=26) on short-term recall, executive, and intelligence functions. These deficits were not affected by emotionally charged stimuli. In the BPD group, impaired recall was related to attachment-anxiety, whereas executive dysfunction was related to attachment-avoidance. Abuse history was correlated significantly with executive dysfunction and at a trend level with impaired recall. Neurocognitive deficits and abuse history exhibited both independent and interactive effects on adult attachment disturbance. These results suggest that (a) BPD patients' reactivity in attachment relationships is related to temporal-limbic dysfunction, irrespective of the emotional content of stimuli, (b) BPD patients' avoidance within attachment relationships may be a relational strategy to compensate for the emotional consequences of frontal-executive dysregulation, and (c) childhood abuse may contribute to these neurocognitive deficits but may also exert effects on adult attachment disturbance that is both independent and interacting with neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:18211741

  10. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

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    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  11. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

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    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students. PMID:16996225

  12. Romantic adult attachment and basic personality structure

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    Jelena Zeleskov Djoric

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was localization of attachment dimensions in the space described by basic personality traits. Study purported to examine relations between attachment and basic personality structure, in a sample of 203 respondents. Romantic adult attachment was measured by the Experience in Close Relationship Scale, basic personality structure was assessed by the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, and Disintegration, which represents operationalization of Schizotypy as a basic personality trait, was estimated by the Delta 10 test. The results of Principal component analysis showed that attachment dimensions are not separate constructs in relation to basic personality traits. Furthermore, results indicate that attachment dimensions represent emotional dysregulation in close interpersonal relationships, because positive correlations are found between dimensions of Attachment and Mania (.35, Anxiety (.51 and Depression (.55. Negative correlations have been obtained between Attachment and Positive emotions (-.34 and Feelings (-.31. These results suggest that Attachment dimensions should be considered as an expression of basic personality traits in romantic adult's relationships.

  13. Comparative validity of the Adult Attachment Interview and the Adult Attachment Projective.

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    Jones-Mason, Karen; Allen, I Elaine; Hamilton, Steve; Weiss, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) purport to measure the same attachment classifications. The aims of this study were to determine the concurrent validity of the AAI and AAP, and to compare their ability to predict indicators of risk associated with socioeconomic status (SES), depression, and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Results indicated no agreement between AAI and AAP attachment classifications in a sample of late adolescents. As predicted, individuals classified as "unresolved" with regard to loss or trauma were significantly more likely to be of lower SES, have higher levels of depression, and have the 5-HTTLPR "ss" genotype than individuals with secure, preoccupied, or dismissing attachments. These associations, however, were only significant when attachment was classified with the AAI. Results suggest that the AAI and AAP measure different facets of attachment as a result of their unique methodologies and coding criteria. Further research is needed to support their comparability before investigators can assume that the AAP is a valid substitute for the AAI. PMID:26362584

  14. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences......, socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative and...

  15. Divergence in Siblings' Adult Attachment Security: Potential Contributors and Consequences

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    Fortuna, Keren

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed only modest concordance in attachment security between siblings during childhood and adolescence. The first goal of this dissertation was to estimate sibling concordance in adult attachment security and identify factors contributing to divergence. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to young adult…

  16. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

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    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  17. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

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    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  18. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon G. Caldwell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93 completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by thought suppression and poorer attentional control. Attachment-related anxiety also predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by rumination and poorer attentional control. The results suggest that in the context of insecure attachment relationships thought suppression and rumination defend against personal and interpersonal losses by deactivating (in the case of avoidance or hyperactivating (in the case of anxiety the attachment system. These habitual defensive patterns may be important links between adult attachment orientations and mindfulness.

  19. Correlation analysis of social support adult attachment and stress on depressive symptoms among undergraduates%大学生社会支持依恋及应激与抑郁的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 姚树桥; 代晖; 朱熊兆

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨社会支持、依恋和应激对大学生抑郁的影响,为大学生抑郁的干预和治疗提供理论依据.方法 采用整群抽样法,抽取湖南大学财经学院和中南大学二、三年级大学生647名进行调查.在完成了包含负性生活事件、社会支持、依恋和抑郁症状在内的首次测评1个月后完成负性生活事件和抑郁症状的追踪测评.结果 大学生社会支持网络大小、支持满意度和安全依恋与抑郁均呈负相关(r=-0.44~ -0.18,P值均<0.01),应激、不安全依恋与抑郁均呈正相关(r=0.20 ~0.44,P值均<0.01);路径分析显示,社会支持(满意度、网络大小、亲密性)、应激可通过不安全型依恋间接作用于抑郁,不安全型依恋是社会支持对抑郁作用的中介变量.结论 社会支持、依恋与应激的相互作用可以增强对大学生抑郁的预测性;不安全型依恋是社会支持、应激对抑郁作用的中介变量.%Objective To investigate the effects and prediction of social support, adult attachment and stress on depressive symptoms in undergraduates and to provide basis for intervention and improving their mental health. Methods A total of 647 undergraduate students were chosen by using clustered sampling method. All the participants were tested with General Social and Academic Hassles Scale for Students(GSASHS) , CES - D ( Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) , Social Support Scale(SSS) and Attachment Style Questionnaire) ASQ). The GSASHS and CES - D were follow-up assessed in 1 month later. Results The score of depressive symptom was significantly negatively correlated with the score of network of social relationship, secure attachment and support satisfaction) r = -0.44- -0. 18,P<0.01) ; and it was significantly positively correlatedwith stress, intimacy, insecure attachment (r = 0.20 -0.44,P <0.01). Path analysis showed that social support) network of social relationship, satisfaction, intimacy

  20. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Jon G.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93) completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower l...

  1. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): An Item Response Theory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2013-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6–16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item resp...

  2. Models of social networks based on social distance attachment

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    Boguñá, Marián; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2004-11-01

    We propose a class of models of social network formation based on a mathematical abstraction of the concept of social distance. Social distance attachment is represented by the tendency of peers to establish acquaintances via a decreasing function of the relative distance in a representative social space. We derive analytical results (corroborated by extensive numerical simulations), showing that the model reproduces the main statistical characteristics of real social networks: large clustering coefficient, positive degree correlations, and the emergence of a hierarchy of communities. The model is confronted with the social network formed by people that shares confidential information using the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption algorithm, the so-called web of trust of PGP.

  3. Adult Attachment and Developmental Personality Styles: An Empirical Study

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    Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C. Millon,…

  4. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  5. Interpersonal and genetic origins of adult attachment styles: a longitudinal study from infancy to early adulthood.

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    Fraley, R Chris; Roisman, Glenn I; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Holland, Ashley S

    2013-05-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that individual differences in adult attachment styles emerge from individuals' developmental histories. To examine this assumption empirically, the authors report data from an age 18 follow-up (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2012) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal investigation that tracked a cohort of children and their parents from birth to age 15. Analyses indicate that individual differences in adult attachment can be traced to variations in the quality of individuals' caregiving environments, their emerging social competence, and the quality of their best friendship. Analyses also indicate that assessments of temperament and most of the specific genetic polymorphisms thus far examined in the literature on genetic correlates of attachment styles are essentially uncorrelated with adult attachment, with the exception of a polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A rs6313), which modestly predicted higher attachment anxiety and which revealed a Gene × Environment interaction such that changes in maternal sensitivity across time predicted attachment-related avoidance. The implications of these data for contemporary perspectives and debates concerning adult attachment theory are discussed. PMID:23397970

  6. Experienced Therapists' Approach to Psychotherapy for Adults with Attachment Avoidance or Attachment Anxiety

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    Daly, Katherine D.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with therapists (N = 12) nominated by peers as especially effective in working with clients with adult interpersonal problems. Open-ended questions asked how these therapists would approach 2 adult clients described in brief vignettes as having high attachment avoidance or anxiety. A coding team used a grounded theory…

  7. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

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    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning. PMID:26759960

  8. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

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    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches. PMID:27056466

  9. Adult Attachment and Longterm Effects in Survivors of Incest.

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    Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.; Brand, Bethany; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Grelling, Barbara Z.; Kretz, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-two adult female incest survivors were interviewed and completed measures of current functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that adult attachment behavior was significantly associated with personality structure, depression, and distress; and abuse severity was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and…

  10. The connection between adult partner attachment and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jurič

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975. These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old and their style of parenting their 14- to 15-years-old adolescent. The participants were the primary school pupils of Gorenjska and Ljubljana regions. Adult attachment style was measured with Experience in Close Relationship Questionnaire - Revised (Fraley, Waller in Brennan, 2000. The children completed 30-item Parental Authority Questionnaire for the Mother's and Father's Parenting Style (Buri, 1991. We expected that the parents with low results in Anxiety and Avoidance were the ones who mostly used the authoritative parenting style compared to the parents with higher results of Anxiety and Avoidance in their relationship. The second hypothesis was that high results in Anxiety in parental relationship would mean a more authoritarian parenting style. The results confirmed our assumptions. Parents with a secure mutual relationship mainly raised their children in an authoritative manner with lots of warmth, support and appropriate borders. The second hypothesis was confirmed for fathers only. Fathers with high Anxiety in partner relationship (fear of abandonment, feelings of uncompetency mostly raised their children in an authoritarian manner. The authoritarian manner consists of many strict borders, a lot of control and obedience. The connection of Anxiety in partnership and authoritarian parenting style was not significant for mothers.

  11. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

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    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  12. Associations between adult attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour

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    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted. PMID:21165372

  13. The connection between adult partner attachment and parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Jurič

    2009-01-01

    The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975). These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old) and their sty...

  14. Adult Attachment Styles: Relations with Emotional Well-Being, Marriage, and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L.; Notaro, Paul C.; Larsen, Joelle J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the pairings of adult attachment styles among married couples raising young children. There was no relation between adult attachment styles, parenting behavior, and the security of infant/parent attachments. Future work would benefit by focusing on the dyadic constellations of adult attachment styles and their implications for family…

  15. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  16. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores. PMID:24033268

  17. Attachment and God Representations among Lay Catholics, Priests, and Religious: A Matched Comparison Study Based on the Adult Attachment Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview…

  18. Attachment, forgiveness, and physical health quality of life in HIV + adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luci A; Vosvick, Mark; Riggs, Shelley A

    2012-01-01

    Research aims to help HIV + individuals improve and maintain a healthy quality of life, while managing a chronic illness. Using Lazarus and Folkman's model of stress and coping, we examined the main and interactive effects of attachment style and forgiveness on physical health quality of life of HIV + adults. Participants (n=288, 49% women) were recruited in Dallas/Fort Worth and self-identified as African-American (52%), European-American (32%), Latino(a) (12%), and other (4%), with an average age of 41.7 (SD=8.6). The average number of years participants reported being HIV + was 7.6 (SD=5.4). Participants completed medical and demographic information, measures assessing attachment anxiety and avoidance, forgiveness of self and others, and five quality of life scales (physical functioning, pain, role functioning, social functioning, and health perceptions). Significant correlations revealed that attachment anxiety was inversely related to physical health quality of life, while forgiveness of self was associated with greater quality of life. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that attachment anxiety and avoidance, forgiveness of self and others, as well as interactions between attachment style and forgiveness, were related to the physical health quality of life of HIV + adults. Interpretation of the interactions identified that for individuals who endorsed greater attachment anxiety, forgiveness of others was associated with greater pain, while forgiveness of self was associated with a greater perception of health. Research has indicated that forgiveness interventions lead to positive health outcomes for most individuals; however, in HIV + adults, whether an outcome is health promoting may be dependent on attachment style. PMID:22292903

  19. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  20. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s “inner working model”. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described “social aversion network” including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the “social aversion network”, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by

  1. Dismissing attachment characteristics dynamically modulate brain networks subserving social aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda eKrause

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s ‘Inner Working Model’. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described ‘social aversion network’ including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the ‘social aversion network’, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule. Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of direct

  2. The Development of Father-Child Attachment: Associations between Adult Attachment Representations, Recollections of Childhood Experiences and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…

  3. Attachment Styles, Social Skills, and Depression in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Van Buren, Amy; Cole, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Attachment styles, social skills, and depression were studied in 3 college women using the Relationship Questionnaire (K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz, 1991), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), and the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M. T. Wittenberg, & H. T. Reis,…

  4. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  5. Type of Attachment and Social Cognition Characteristics in Orphans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakian T.V.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Violations of social cognition significantly reduce quality of life. Studies of social cognition in orphans are rare while the data are conflicting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the type of attachment and peculiarities of social cognition in orphans. The author hypothesized that it will be difficult task for the orphans to recognize emotions. The study involved 57 people. The main group included 39 orphans living in an orphanage (25 boys, 14 girls. The average age was 14 years. The control subjects were 18 secondary school students living in the birth families (12 boys and 6 girls. The average age - 14 years. The results show that adolescent orphans have more difficulty interacting with other people, experience less pleasure from communicating, often use avoidance strategy. The number of orphans with avoidant attachment type is 1.5 times greater than in the control group. It is concluded that the type of attachment plays an important role in forming of social cognition. The results could be useful in basic and additional training of young people of this category

  6. Adult Attachment; Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity; and Sexual Attitudes of Nonheterosexual Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Schale, Codi L.; Broz, Kristina K.

    2010-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students from 12 university campuses (N = 177) participated in this study that examined the relationships between adult attachment, LGB identity, and sexual attitudes. Findings indicated that adult attachment was significantly related to LGB identity and sexual attitudes and that an LGB identity variable…

  7. The Association between Adult Attachment Styles and Conflict Resolution in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether adult attachment was predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Both adult attachment dimensions, Avoidance and Anxiety, were predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and relationship satisfaction. Gender differences existed in conflict resolution behaviors, but they were not as…

  8. Attachment States of Mind and the Quality of Young Adults' Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict resolution…

  9. Adult Attachment States of Mind: Measurement Invariance across Ethnicity and Associations with Maternal Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.; Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Supple, Andrew J.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Plamondon, André

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental significance of mothers' adult attachment representations assessed prenatally with the Adult Attachment Interview in relation to observed maternal sensitivity at 6 months postpartum in an ethnically diverse sample (N = 131 African American; N = 128 European American). Multiple-group confirmatory factor…

  10. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  11. Co-Occurrence of Eating Disorders and Incest: The Role of Attachment, Family Environment, and Social Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined childhood attachment, family environment, and adult social competencies to explain the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders (EDs). Females (n=154) filled out surveys that assessed parental bonds, sexual abuse history, self-efficacy, and other factors. Significant associations were found between family environment, incest,…

  12. The relationship between adult attachment style and post-traumatic stress symptoms: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, S.; Ayers, S; Field, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N = 9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρ =-.27), and a medium...

  13. Emotional Awareness as a Pathway Linking Adult Attachment to Subsequent Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Although research links insecure adult attachment with depression, the emotional processes accounting for this association over time remain relatively unexplored. To address this gap, this study investigated whether deficits in emotional awareness serve as one explanatory process. Adult females caregivers (N = 417, M age = 37.83) completed questionnaires annually for three years. As anticipated, attachment avoidance exerted an indirect effect on depression via emotional awareness. Attachment ...

  14. Attachment Competences in Children With ADHD During the Social-Skills Training and Attachment (SOSTRA) Randomized Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria Annette Annelie; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of social-skills training and a parental training program on children with ADHD as measured by the children's attachment competences. Method: The SOSTRA trial is a randomized, parallel-group, outcome-assessor-blinded, superiority trial evaluating 8 weeks social......-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone for 8- to 12-year old children with ADHD. Results: There were no significant differences in attachment competences at 6 months between the experimental (n = 25) and the control (n = 22) groups (odds ratio = 1.06, 95......% confidence interval = [0.31, 3.58], p = .91). In total, 17 children (36%) changed their entry status, 1 (2%) from secure to insecure attachment, while 16 (34%) changed from insecure to secure attachment. Conclusion: The experimental treatment does not seem to affect attachment competences compared with...

  15. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  16. Structure of reflective functioning and adult attachment scales: overlap and distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Wong, Maria S; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2016-04-01

    This investigation examined the structure of reflective functioning (RF) - an understanding of the links between mental states and behaviors - and adult attachment scales. Both RF and traditional adult attachment scales were coded based on 194 prebirth Adult Attachment Interviews (AAI). Correlational and factor analyses indicated considerable overlap between RF and traditional AAI coding. Exploratory factor analyses of RF and AAI state-of-mind scales indicated that RF loaded, along with coherence of mind, on the primary factor distinguishing between individuals categorized as secure and dismissing. These findings indicate substantial overlap between RF and AAI scales; however, the magnitude of the correlations between these scales indicates that they are not redundant. PMID:26754258

  17. Attachment and Parenting in Adult Patients with Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Gennaro, Giancarlo Di; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comor...

  18. The associations between adult attachment, posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Arikan, Gizem; Stopa, Lusia; Carnelley, Katherine B.; Karl, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Individual differences after trauma vary considerably and can range from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to posttraumatic growth (PTG). Current theoretical models cannot fully explain this variability. Therefore, we integrated attachment theory with Ehlers and Clark’s model of PTSD to understand whether attachment style is associated with negative appraisals of a traumatic event(s), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), and PTG. Our aim was to test this integrat...

  19. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Ináncsi; András Láng; Tamás Bereczkei

    2015-01-01

    Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship) and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample ...

  20. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-05-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan and Shaver's (1987) Adult Attachment Style measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Parent Stress Inventory; observations of parenting data were made from 10-minute free play interactions. Consistently avoidant mothers were less sensitive with their infants than consistently secure mothers; however, this effect was limited to avoidant mothers who experienced elevated levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that the association between insecure adult attachment style and insensitive parenting behavior is moderated by concurrent psychosocial stress. Clinical implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:24855326

  1. Stress regulation in adolescents: physiological reactivity during the adult attachment interview and conflict interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Juffer, F.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT

  2. An Investigation of Adult Attachment and Coping with Exam-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Kingswell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Students differ in how they cope with and manage stress associated with university life. This study investigates associations between adult attachment and coping strategies for exam-related stress. Fifty-seven students at a university in the north of England completed online questionnaires to assess attachment anxiety and avoidance, helpful and…

  3. Interpersonal and Genetic Origins of Adult Attachment Styles: A Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Holland, Ashley S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that individual differences in adult attachment styles emerge from individuals’ developmental histories. To examine this assumption empirically the authors report data from an age 18 follow-up (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2012) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal investigation that tracked a cohort of children and their parents from birth to age 15. Analyses indicate that individual differences in adult attac...

  4. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan a...

  5. Emotional awareness as a pathway linking adult attachment to subsequent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jennifer D; Rudolph, Karen D

    2014-07-01

    Although research links insecure adult attachment with depression, the emotional processes accounting for this association over time remain relatively unexplored. To address this gap, this study investigated whether deficits in emotional awareness serve as one explanatory process. Adult female caregivers (N = 417, Mage = 37.83) completed questionnaires annually for 3 years. As anticipated, attachment avoidance exerted an indirect effect on depression via emotional awareness. Attachment anxiety directly predicted subsequent depression, but the indirect effect through emotional awareness was nonsignificant. These results suggest that an avoidant attachment style interferes with the effective processing of emotions, thereby placing women at risk for depression. This research implicates emotional awareness as a potential target for interventions aimed at reducing depressive symptoms in mothers with avoidant attachment styles. PMID:25019541

  6. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hiebler-Ragger

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD, spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB, and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18 in 481 (76% female young adults (age range: 18-30 years who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended.

  7. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Falthansl-Scheinecker, Johanna; Birnhuber, Gerhard; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD), spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB), and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18) in 481 (76% female) young adults (age range: 18-30 years) who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended. PMID:27336471

  8. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. PMID:25143437

  9. Adult attachment and mental representations of significant others

    OpenAIRE

    Alfasi, Yitshak

    2011-01-01

    According to attachment theory, the infant shapes perceptions on self and significant others based on his or her experience with the primary caregiver. These perceptions include thoughts and beliefs regards the extent to which the self is worthy of love, and the extent to which others are reliable sources of love and protection. Thoughts and beliefs about the self are defined as working models of self, thoughts and belief about others are defined as working models of others. To date, att...

  10. Facing danger: How do people behave in times of need? The case of adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsachi eEin-Dor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bowlby’s (1982 attachment theory has generated an enormous body of research and conceptual elaborations. Although attachment theory and research propose that attachment security provides a person with many adaptive advantages, during all phases of the life cycle, numerous studies indicate that almost half of the human species can be classified as insecurely attached or insecure with respect to attachment. It seems odd that evolution left humans in this vulnerable position, unless there are some advantages to individuals or groups, under at least some conditions, of anxious and avoidant attachment styles. I argue that a social group containing members with different attachment patterns may be more conducive to survival than a homogeneous group of securely attached individuals because each attachment disposition has specific adaptive advantages that promote the survival of the individual and people around him or her when facing threats and perils. In making this argument, I extend the scope of attachment theory and research by considering a broader range of adaptive functions of insecure attachment strategies, and present data to support my argument.

  11. Predictors of Level of Voice in Adolescent Girls: Ethnicity, Attachment, and Gender Role Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theran, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study empirically examined predictors of level of voice (ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization) in a diverse sample of 108 14-year-old girls. Structural equation modeling results indicated that parental attachment predicted level of voice with authority figures, and gender role socialization predicted level of voice with…

  12. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to…

  13. Attachment and Autonomy as Predictors of the Development of Social Skills and Delinquency During Midadolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Marsh, Penny; McFarland, Christy; MCELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN; Land, Deborah J.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Peck, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    This study examined adolescent attachment organization as a predictor of the development of social skills and delinquent behavior during midadolescence. Delinquent activity and skill levels were assessed for 117 moderately at-risk adolescents at ages 16 and 18, and maternal and adolescent attachment organization and autonomy in interactions were assessed at age 16. Adolescent attachment security predicted relative increases in social skills from age 16 to 18, whereas an insecure–preoccupied a...

  14. The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolya Calisir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation with this, many of the empirical studies in the adult literature states on how internal models and cognitive representations have an influence on emotional reactions. According to various studies, reporting different attachment styles and individuals who has probably different internal models, differs in each others’ emotional reactions and how they behave according to these reactions. In view of attachment literature, individual makes a decision in terms of making affect regulation for maintaining proximity seeking and this process evokes the activation of secondary attachment strategies which are named as hyper and deactivating strategies. From the framework of this review, the relationship between major depression and adult attachment styles, affect regulation strategies is examined. Firstly, Bowlby’s attachment theory is mentioned shortly and adult attachment styles are introduced. Secondly, affect regulation strategies, which are thought to be related with major depression as a mood disorder are identified and finally, the empirical research findings relevant to the topic are represented.

  15. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. PMID:23330631

  16. Social integration of adults with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Uldall, Peter; Hansen, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    Social integration and independence is the ultimate goal of habilitation and social support for patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Having a partner and having children provide support for social integration of adults with or without a disability. We studied 416 participants with CP born between 1...

  17. Development of Attachment in Romantic Relationship of Young Adults with Different Love Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Karandashev; Megan Benton; Candace Edwards

    2012-01-01

    This study reconstructed the participants’ retrospective experience of how attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety developed during the course of romantic relationships in young adults. Participants (290 undergraduate students) recalled their stories of love relationships that occurred approximately between the ages of 15and19. The feelings of avoidance and anxiety, which were experienced as a result of the events that occurred throughout the relationships, were analyzed. The general dyna...

  18. Teenage pregnancy, attachment style, and depression : a comparison of teenage and adult pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bifulco, A.; Pacheco, Alexandra P.; Raquel A. Costa; Magarinho, Rute

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this portuguese study is to compare the experience of pregnancy in teenage years and later adulthood and to examine insecure attachment style as a risk factor for depression during pregnancy. The Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco, Moran, Ball & Bernazzani, 2002) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky, 1987) were administered to 66 pregnant adolescents and 64 adult women. Pregnant teenagers were found to be nearly three times more likely t...

  19. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  20. The self-esteem roller coaster: Adult attachment moderates the impact of daily feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Hepper, E.; Carnelley, KB

    2012-01-01

    People with different attachment orientations rely on different sources of self-esteem. This 14-day diary study examined the impact of different types of feedback on self-esteem for adults of different attachment orientations. Consistent with theory, higher (vs. lower) anxious participants’ daily self-esteem fluctuated more with daily interpersonal feedback conveying rejection or coming from a romantic partner; they also self-reported stronger reactions to idiosyncratic negative interpersonal...

  1. Attachment, recalled parental rearing, and ADHD symptoms predict emotion processing and alexithymia in adults with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Edel, Susanne; Krüger, Marie; Assion, Hans-Jörg; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the aricle is to study the relationship between attachment, parental rearing behavior, and (infant and current) ADHD symptoms with emotion processing and alexithymia in adults with ADHD. Methods Attachment, parental behavior, and ADHD variables were tested for predictive value regarding emotion processing and alexithymia in the total sample, the pooled ADHD groups (with inattentive type and combined type, each with n = 26) and a control group (n = 26). Comparisons were p...

  2. Effects Of Family Conflict, Divorce, And Attachment Patterns On The Psychological Distress And Social Adjustment Of College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum,James W.; Dvorak,Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-five freshmen completed measures of attachment, family conflict, family structure, psychological distress, and social adjustment. Attachment to mother predicted less psychological distress and attachment to father and structure predicted better social adjustment. Conflict reduced attachment and predicted psychological distress. Attachment…

  3. The Emergence of Attachment following Early Social Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Mliner, Shanna B.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the formation and quality of attachment of 65 post-institutionalized (PI) toddlers with their parents at 1-3 and 7-9 months post adoption compared to 52 non-adopted (NA) children. The formation of attachment relationships of PI children with adoptive parents occurred relatively quickly. Children exposed to greater pre-adoption adversity took longer to form an attachment to their adoptive parents, although by 7-9 months post adoption, nearly all (90%) of the children achiev...

  4. ADULT ATTACHMENT, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER FEATURES IN YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural e...

  5. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  6. The Influence of Adult Attachment on Patient Self-Management in Primary Care--The Need for a Personalized Approach and Patient-Centred Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Brenk-Franz

    Full Text Available Self-management strategies are essential elements of evidence-based treatment in patients with chronic conditions in primary care. Our objective was to analyse different self-management skills and behaviours and their association to adult attachment in primary care patients with multiple chronic conditions.In the apricare study (Adult Attachment in Primary Care we used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the association between adult attachment and self-management in primary care patients with multimorbidity. The attachment dimensions avoidance and anxiety were measured using the ECR-RD. Self-management skills were measured by the FERUS (motivation to change, coping, self-efficacy, hope, social support and self-management-behaviour by the DSMQ (glucose management, dietary control, physical activity, health-care use. Clinical diagnosis and severity of disease were assessed by the patients' GPs. Multivariate analyses (GLM were used to assess the relationship between the dimensions of adult attachment and patient self-management.219 patients in primary care with multiple chronic conditions (type II diabetes, hypertension and at least one other chronic condition between the ages of 50 and 85 were included in the study. The attachment dimension anxiety was positively associated with motivation to change and negatively associated with coping, self-efficacy and hope, dietary control and physical activity. Avoidance was negatively associated with coping, self-efficacy, social support and health care use.The two attachment dimensions anxiety and avoidance are associated with different components of self-management. A personalized, attachment-based view on patients with chronic diseases could be the key to effective, individual self-management approaches in primary care.

  7. Attachment in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Attachment Scale-Third Party Observational Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penketh, Victoria; Hare, Dougal Julian; Flood, Andrea; Walker, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Manchester Attachment Scale-Third party observational measure (MAST) was developed to assess secure attachment style for adults with intellectual disabilities. The psychometric properties of the MAST were examined. Materials and Methods: Professional carers (N = 40) completed the MAST and measures related to the construct of…

  8. Pre-adjustment of adult attachment style to extrinsic risk levels via early attachment style is neither specific, nor reliable, nor effective, and is thus not an adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Honekopp, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism proposed by Del Giudice by which adult attachment style is adapted to the extrinsic risk in the local environment via attachment style during the early years does not fulfill important criteria of an adaptation. The proposed mechanism is neither specific, nor developmentally reliable, nor effective. Therefore, it should not be considered an adaptation.

  9. Rearing Styles, Parents' Attachment Mental State,and Children's Social Abilities: The Link to Peer Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Attili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discriminant effect of mothers' and fathers' attachment working models, the quality of their relationships in everyday settings, and children's social abilities on children's peer acceptance. Participants were thirty-four 7–9 year olds, their mothers, and fathers. Interactions were observed at home and coded on global measures of positive, negative, controlling, disconfirming, correcting behaviors, and neutral conversation. Parents' IWM were assessed by the AAI. Children's peer acceptance and behavioral orientations as a measure of a child's social competence at school were assessed by sociometric techniques. By using both traditional statistical analyses and a multidimensional scaling approach (MDS, in terms of “similarity structure analysis (SSA” and the “external variables as points technique,” it emerged that children's lack of success among peers associated with social behaviors which were linked to parents' rejecting/neglecting and directive interactive styles, mainly to negative, disconfirming, and a few positive interactions. These parenting styles were significantly affected by adults' insecure IWM.

  10. Brain Mechanisms Underlying the Impact of Attachment-Related Stress on Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nolte

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mentalizing, in particular the successful attribution of complex mental states to others, is crucial for navigating social interactions. This ability is highly influenced by external factors within one’s daily life, such as stress. We investigated the impact of stress on the brain basis of mentalization in adults. Using a novel modification of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET-R we compared the differential effects of two personalized stress induction procedures: a general stress induction (GSI and an attachment-related stress induction (ASI. Participants performed the RMET-R at baseline and after each of the two inductions. Baseline results replicated and extended previous findings regarding the neural correlates of the RMET-R. Additionally, we identified brain regions associated with making complex age judgments from the same stimuli. Results after stress exposure showed that the ASI condition resulted in reduced mentalization-related activation in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS, left inferior frontal gyrus and left temporoparietal junction. Moreover, the left middle frontal gyrus and left anterior insula showed greater functional connectivity to the left posterior STS after the ASI. Our findings indicate that attachment-related stress has a unique effect on the neural correlates of mentalization.

  11. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed. PMID:9760740

  12. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults' Parental Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (M age = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the "liking" of infants, the second and third components entail the "wanting" of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  13. Beginnings and Endings in Social Work Supervision: The Interaction between Attachment and Developmental Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susanne; Deal, Kathleen Holtz

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of attachment processes and stages of social work student development within the field supervisory relationship and suggests ways supervisors can modify interactions with students. Attachment theory and research provide a framework for understanding innate capacities of students and the relational dynamics of…

  14. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  15. Behavioural Precursors of Attachment Representations in Middle Childhood and Links with Child Social Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Jean-Francois; Moss, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Concordance between age-6 attachment behaviour and age-8 doll play attachment representations during the school-age period, and associations between these measures and child social adaptation at school were examined. One hundred and twenty-nine 6-year-olds and their mothers participated in a separation/reunion protocol. Two years later, 104…

  16. Attachment and separation-individuation process among young adults as volunteers in the field of psychosocial help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonida Kobal Možina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Distinctions among different attachment styles often appear to be unclear. These distinction inadequacies also result from superficial knowledge of psychodynamic factors of the attachment system, which the concept of internal working models often neglects. In my research I have examined the appearance of specific object relations characteristics in the adulthood period. In other words, I have examined the solution of the separation-individuation process according to the internal working models of self and other, which exist in the background of the attachment system. Twenty-one young adult volunteers included in this research took part in a psychotherapeutic camp in order to help children and adolescents with psychosocial problems. Information was gathered with the Interpersonal Relations Questionnaire (Bartholomew in Horowitz, 1991, the Test of Object Relations (Žvelc, 1998 and with two semi-structured interviews. Among volunteers with a negative self-model, dimensions of symbiotic merging, egocentrism, separation anxiety and social isolation were more evident, whereas volunteers with a negative other-model expressed fear of engulfment more clearly. Results have confirmed that volunteers with prevailingly insecure attachment styles have problems with separation-individuation process and with achieving reciprocal autonomy.

  17. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  18. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  19. Adult Attachment, Shame, Depression, and Loneliness: The Mediation Role of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Shaffer, Philip A.; Young, Shannon K.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined basic psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) as a mediator between adult attachment (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) and distress (i.e., shame, depression, and loneliness). A total of 299 undergraduates from a Midwestern university participated. Results from structural equation…

  20. Adult attachment and the perceived cost of housework and child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Sommer, Dion; Mathias, Lasgaard;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the link between new mothers’ attachment orientation and the perceived cost of sole responsibility in housework and child care. Background: The transition to motherhood can be very stressful, and according to the Vulnerability Stress Adaptation Model (VSA model......), the way it affects the couple relationship is likely to depend on interacting factors from different domains of risk (e.g. individual and couple level). We expected interactions to appear between domains of attachment and labour division. The hypothesis was that sole responsibility in child care...... and housework would predict lower relationship satisfaction, particularly among mothers who were high on attachment insecurity. Methods: Data from self-report measures of adult attachment, child care, housework and relationship satisfaction were collected from 255 first-time mothers at six months postpartum...

  1. Attachment and social preferences in cooperatively-reared cotton-top tamarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostan, Karen M; Snowdon, Charles T

    2002-07-01

    In many primate species a close attachment between mother and infant provides a secure base for the infant when the infant is frightened or under stress. In cooperatively breeding primates infant carrying is divided among several individuals in the group, with the mother often doing little more than nursing. In these species it is not clear which individual would best serve as a secure base for the infant. We studied eight infant cotton-top tamarins from birth through 20 weeks of age, noting who carried the infant during the first 100 days, who transferred food with the infants, and, as infants became independent, with whom they associated during social play and affiliative behavior. From week 9 to week 20, when infants were independent of carriers most of the time, we presented families with six trials (once every 2 weeks) with a threatening stimulus (a human dressed in a lab coat and wearing an animal mask). Infants played primarily with their twin or youngest sibling and had affiliative interactions with many family members. However, in fearful situations, infants ran to those who had carried them and transferred food with them the most-their father or oldest brother (never to the mother). Although adults increased rates of mobbing calls in response to the threat, infants significantly reduced their vocalization rate. For these cooperatively breeding monkeys, the attachment object for infants is the family member that invested the most effort in carrying the infant and transferring food with the infant. These results parallel and extend results from bi-parental infant care species in which the father serves as the primary attachment figure. PMID:12111679

  2. Child Social Maladjustment and Adult Employment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sciulli, Dario

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of social maladjustment at age 11 on adult employment probability. Social maladjustment is measured according to the British Social Adjustment Guide score provided by the National Child Development Study that also provides information on cohort-members both in childhood and adulthood, including current employment status and past working history. The econometric method consists in a dynamic probit model with unobserved heterogeneity accounting for true state ...

  3. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to investigate these links both longitudinally and concurrently in middle childhood. Children in grades 3 and 5 (N = 74) completed measures of secure, a...

  4. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…

  5. The Prototype Hypothesis and the Origins of Attachment Working Models: Adult Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gretchen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used Current Relationship Interview (CRI) to examine correspondence between adults' models of their current love relationships and generalized attachment models accessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Found that early experience influences later relationships, but little support for the idea that a working model formed by caregiver-child…

  6. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions. PMID:26244914

  7. Internet Addiction in Relation to Adult Attachment: A Study of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Aydın

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and Internet addiction among university students. 344 students from different undergraduate programs of Fatih Faculty of Education in Karadeniz Technical University comprised the sample of the study. Of these students, 236 (%68.6 were female and 108 (%31.4 were male. Demographic Data Form, Adult Attachment Scale and Internet Addiction Scale were used as data collection instruments. In the analysis of the data, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis were utilized. Pearson product-correlation coefficient yielded a significant and positive relationship between Internet addiction and pre-occupied attachment style, on the other hand there were no significant relationship between Internet addiction and other attachment styles. According to the results of multiple linear regression analysis, pre- occupied attachment style emerged as a significant predictor of Internet addiction. These findings were discussed in line with the relevant literature and some recommendations were made.

  8. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Ináncsi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals.

  9. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship) and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals. PMID:27247647

  10. Social Literacy: A Social Skills Seminar for Young Adults with ASDs, NLDs, and Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mary Riggs

    2011-01-01

    All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…

  11. Adult attachment styles, the desire to have children, and working models of parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rholes, W S; Simpson, J A; Blakely, B S; Lanigan, L; Allen, E A

    1997-06-01

    College students who had yet to marry and begin a family were asked about their desire to have children and their beliefs and expectations about themselves as parents (Study 1) and the characteristics of their prospective children (Study 2). Persons with more avoidant and anxious-ambivalent models of close adult relationships harbored more negative models of parenthood and parent-child relationships. These findings indicate that working models of parenting and parent-child relationships form well before marriage and the birth of children and that these models are systematically associated with attachment styles in adult relationships. The findings also suggest ways in which insecure attachments between child and parent may be influenced by the caregiver's models of parenting and parent-child relationships. PMID:9226942

  12. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close ...

  13. Attachment, emotion regulation and coping in Portuguese emerging adults: a test of a mediation hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Joana; de Matos, Paula; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality of parent-adolescent emotional bonds has consistently been proposed as a major influence on young adult's psycho-emotional functioning, the precise means by which these bonds either facilitate or impede adaptive coping are not well-understood. In an effort to advance this inquiry, the present study examined interrelationships among measures of parental attachment, emotion regulation processes, and preferred coping strategies within a sample of 942 college freshmen. Struct...

  14. Development of foster mother-child attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, J

    2014-01-01

    The impact of early attachment relationships and child-adult attachment relationships to children’s social and emotional development has been recognised for a long time. Since the pioneering attachment theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth highlighting the importance of secure child-adult attachments, many other theories from various perspectives have risen to fill in the gaps. These theories are examined with the framework of foster care in mind. In Finland, the primary solution fo...

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Adult Attachment States of Mind and Parenting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current evidence regarding the associations between attachment states of mind and parenting quality is based on concurrent or short-term longitudinal studies with samples of adults. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation, we examined the predictive significance of the coherence of participants’ discourse during the Adult Attachment Interview, assessed at ages 19 and 26 years, for parenting quality measured using observations (administered when participants’ children were 24 and 42 months old) and interview ratings (collected when parents were 32 years old). Results indicated that associations between AAI coherence and parenting quality varied based on when adult attachment was assessed, as well as when and how parenting quality was assessed. Coherence of mind measured at age 19 years predicted observed supportive parenting when it was assessed when participants were in their late-20s and early-30s, a developmental period when parenting can be conceptualized as a salient developmental task, but not before. In contrast, coherence of mind measured at age 26 years predicted both observed and interview-ratings of supportive parenting. PMID:25316283

  16. The contribution of social rank and attachment theory to depression in a non clinical sample of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Puissant, Sylvia Pinna; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Van Oirbeek, R. KUL

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution of the overall quality of attachment to the mother, to the father and to peers (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment scales), the style of attachment towards peers (Attachment Questionnaire for Children scale), the social rank variables (submissive behavior and social comparison), and sex and age variables in predicting the depression score (Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) on a non-psychiatric sample of 13-18 year old adoles...

  17. Evolved mechanisms in depression: the role and interaction of attachment and social rank in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, L; Gilbert, P; Hasey, G

    2003-04-01

    Evolved mechanisms underpinning attachment and social rank behavior may be the basis for some forms of major depression, especially those associated with chronic stress. We note the heterogeneity of depression, but suggest that some of its core symptoms, such as behavioral withdrawal, low self-esteem and anhedonia, may have evolved in order to regulate behavior and mood and convey sensitivity to threats and safety. Focusing on the evolved mental mechanisms for attachment and social rank helps to make sense of (1) depression's common early vulnerability factors (e.g., attachment disruptions, neglect and abuse), (2) the triggering events (e.g., loss of close relationships, being defeated and/or trapped in low socially rewarding or hostile environments), and (3) the psychological preoccupations of depressed people (e.g., sense of unlovableness, self as inferior and a failure). This focus offers clues as to how these two systems interact and on how to intervene. PMID:12706512

  18. Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad J

    2011-05-15

    Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748

  19. Evolved Mechanisms in Adolescent Anxiety and Depression Symptoms: The Role of the Attachment and Social Rank Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, C.; Gilbert, P.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty adolescent students were assessed on measures of attachment, social rank (social comparison and submissive behaviour), and depression and anxiety symptoms. Secure attachment was significantly correlated with positive social comparison and inversely with submissive behaviour, depression and anxiety symptoms. In contrast,…

  20. Effects of Social Support by a Dog on Stress Modulation in Male Children with Insecure Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    AndreaBeetz; DennisTurner; KurtKotrschal

    2012-01-01

    Up to 90% of children with special education needs and about 40% of children in the general population show insecure or disorganized attachment patterns, which are linked to a diminished ability to use social support by others for the regulation of stress. The aim of the study was to investigate if children with insecure-avoidant/disorganized attachment can profit more from social support by a dog compared to a friendly human during a stressful task. We investigated 47 male children (age 7–11...

  1. Attachment and Social Cognition in borderline personality disorder: specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Beeney, Joseph E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Scott, Lori N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ellison, William D.; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, due, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms a...

  2. Adult attachment in the context of refugee traumatisation: the impact of organized violence and forced separation on parental states of mind regarding attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haene, Lucia; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine

    2010-05-01

    Starting from an outline of the refugee experience as a process of cumulative traumatisation, we review research literature on mental health outcomes in refugees. Next, an integration of findings on relational processes in refugee families documents the role of the family unit as a key interactive context patterning the impact of sequential traumatisation. Relating these trauma- and migration-specific family processes to their central dimension of provision or disruption of emotional availability in a context of chronic adversity, we aim to explore the development of unresolved and insecure parental states of mind regarding attachment during forced migration. Starting the research report, a method discussion on the administration of 11 Adult Attachment Interviews with adult refugees as part of an explorative multiple case study integrates deontological and technical reflections on the use of the Adult Attachment Interview in a context of ongoing traumatisation. The paper then presents findings on adult attachment in refugees and highlights representational processes involved in the potential disruption of caregiver availability during refugee traumatisation. PMID:20473796

  3. Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. PMID:24117437

  4. Social attachment in juvenile monkeys with neonatal lesion of the hippocampus, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goursaud, Anne-Pierre S; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2007-01-10

    Non-human primates, like humans, develop and maintain social relationships and attachments throughout their life. The first and most crucial relationship in a primate life is that with its mother. Yet, in absence of their biological mother, infant primates form attachment to surrogate mothers. Although, this early attachment is critical for the development of normal species-typical social and emotional skills, the neural substrates underlying the formation of social relationships in primates are still unclear. The present study assessed, in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) reared by human caregivers and social interactions with peers, the effects of bilateral neonatal (1-2 weeks of age) ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala and hippocampus (N=6 in each group), aspiration lesions of the orbital frontal cortex (N=6) or sham lesions (N=5) on the development of a social attachment with the principal human caregiver. A specific preference for the later was assessed at 11 months of age, in a two-choice discrimination task, opposing the principal human caregiver to another familiar human, in a familiar environment. None of the lesions impaired the expression of preferential responses toward the principal human caregiver. Nevertheless, lesions of the orbital frontal cortex led to a weaker preference, suggesting that this structure may play a role in the quality and/or strength of the infant/mother relationships. The present non-human primate findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for autism. PMID:17084912

  5. Self-Acceptance and Self-Disclosure of Sexual Orientation in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adults: An Attachment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    A model linking attachment variables with self-acceptance and self-disclosure of sexual orientation was tested using data from 489 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. The model included the following 4 domains of variables: (a) representations of childhood attachment experiences with parents, (b) perceptions of parental support for sexual…

  6. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  7. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  8. [Developing the Japanese version of the Adult Attachment Style Scale (ECR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Tatsuma; Kato, Kazuo

    2004-06-01

    This study attempted to adapt into Japanese the Adult Attachment Style Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory) that was constructed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998), based on 14 existing scales. Of 387 respondents, 231 who reported having been or are currently involved in romantic relationships were employed for final analysis. We examined validities of the Japanese version of ECR in the two ways: (1) Examining the correlations between "Anxiety" and Self-esteem scale by Rosenberg (1965) which were theoretically related to Self-view, and the correlations between "Avoidance" and Other-view scale by Kato (1999b) which were theoretically related to Other-view; (2) whether or not ECR represents the features of four attachment styles as classified by Relationship Questionnaire (RQ; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The results supported our expectations. This Japanese version of ECR was demonstrated to have adequate psychometric properties in validity and reliability. PMID:15747547

  9. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown. PMID:20452044

  10. Examining the social porosity of environmental features on neighborhood sociability and attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Hipp

    Full Text Available The local neighborhood forms an integral part of our lives. It provides the context through which social networks are nurtured and the foundation from which a sense of attachment and cohesion with fellow residents can be established. Whereas much of the previous research has examined the role of social and demographic characteristic in relation to the level of neighboring and cohesion, this paper explores whether particular environmental features in the neighborhood affect social porosity. We define social porosity as the degree to which social ties flow over the surface of a neighborhood. The focus of our paper is to examine the extent to which a neighborhood's environmental features impede the level of social porosity present among residents. To do this, we integrate data from the census, topographic databases and a 2010 survey of 4,351 residents from 146 neighborhoods in Australia. The study introduces the concepts of wedges and social holes. The presence of two sources of wedges is measured: rivers and highways. The presence of two sources of social holes is measured: parks and industrial areas. Borrowing from the geography literature, several measures are constructed to capture how these features collectively carve up the physical environment of neighborhoods. We then consider how this influences residents' neighboring behavior, their level of attachment to the neighborhood and their sense of neighborhood cohesion. We find that the distance of a neighborhood to one form of social hole-industrial areas-has a particularly strong negative effect on all three dependent variables. The presence of the other form of social hole-parks-has a weaker negative effect. Neighborhood wedges also impact social interaction. Both the length of a river and the number of highway fragments in a neighborhood has a consistent negative effect on neighboring, attachment and cohesion.

  11. Trait and Social Influences in the Links among Adolescent Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lakey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Attachment insecurity and maladaptive coping are associated with depression in adolescence; however, it is unclear whether these links primarily reflect stable individual differences among teens (trait influences), experiential differences in their interactions with relationship partners (social influences) or both. In this study, teens (ages…

  12. Paternal/Maternal Attachment, Peer Support, Social Expectations of Peer Interaction, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how paternal and maternal attachment might relate to adolescents' peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms; 1,144 8th graders in Taiwan participated in the study. The relationships were examined through a structural equating modeling. Consistent with theoretical…

  13. Understanding Aggression through Attachment and Social Emotional Competence in Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Kim, Ann Y.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increase in adolescent crime in the Republic of Korea has put adolescent aggression in the spotlight. This study examines whether the quality of attachment to parents and peers influences aggressive behaviors and whether social emotional competencies serve as significant mediators for middle school students. These relationships…

  14. Neurofeedback, Affect Regulation and Attachment: A Case Study and Analysis of Anti-Social Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sebern F.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…

  15. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  16. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety. PMID:25705979

  17. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND NEUROGENESIS IN THE ADULT MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis—the formation of new neurons in adulthood—has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. Most recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult-adult (e.g., mating, conspecific, and chemosensory signal exposure and adult-offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant-subordinate interactions on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed.

  18. Social media use of older adults: a mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background. Maintaining social relationships has been defined as a core element of aging well. With a considerable amount of older adults living alone, social media provides the possibility to engage in meaningful social contact, e. g., by joining online social networks and online discussion forums. Objective. The review encompasses current knowledge of prerequisites in social media use of older adults such as functional capacity, ICT-related knowledge, and favorable attitudes towards social ...

  19. The Role of Attachment Representation in the Relationship between Depressive Symptomatology and Social Withdrawal in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Ollendick, Thomas H.; King, Neville J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationships among attachment representation, social withdrawal, and depressive symptomatology in childhood. A total of 326 children aged 8 to 10 years participated in the study. Children completed a family drawing procedure to assess attachment representation, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Social Withdrawal…

  20. Pathways to Self-Esteem in Late Adolescence: The Role of Parent and Peer Attachment, Empathy, and Social Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students ("Mage" = 18.6 years, s.d. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour,…

  1. Mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings predict preschool children's IQ following domestic violence exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Amy L; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2010-11-01

    This study examined links between mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003) and their preschool children's IQ among 70 families who had experienced domestic violence. As predicted, children displayed significantly stronger verbal and perceptual-organizational abilities when their mothers exhibited more secure, i.e. coherent, states of mind regarding attachment. Mothers' coherence of mind on the AAI explained 18% of the variance in children's Verbal IQ and 12% of the variance in children's Performance IQ, after controlling for maternal education. Mothers' attachment security also was related to children's total IQ score, but this association was accounted for by effects on children's Verbal IQ. Children whose mothers were rated as unclassifiable on the AAI and those whose mothers were unresolved/insecure had lower IQ scores. Although mothers who appeared more secure on the AAI were more sensitively responsive toward their children, mediational analyses suggested that there was a direct link between mothers' security and children's IQ that was not explained by sensitive parenting. This suggests that clinical interventions for children exposed to domestic violence should include helping their mothers achieve coherent ways of thinking about their own childhood experiences, including past trauma. PMID:20931412

  2. How Adult Attachment and Personality Traits are Related to Marital Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Nilforooshan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore the role of General Factor of Personality (GFP and adult attachment dimensions in marital quality through relationship attributions and emotional reactions. The sample consisted of 261 couples who were married at least more than one year and had no major stressful events in their lives up to the time of the study. In this study, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-Revised (ECR-R, the Relationship Attribution Measure (RAM, the Geneva Emotion Wheel (GEW, and the Perceived Relationship Quality Components (PRQC were used for collecting the data. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to analyze the data. The results suggest that attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance and GFP directly and indirectly, through relationship attributions and emotional reactions, were related to marital quality. In addition, relationship attributions are antecedent to emotional reactions. Based on the findings, an intrapersonal-situational model of marital quality is suggested.

  3. Attachment of adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC) on laminin and two laminin fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Schneidemann, S; Gehr, P; Rutishauser, B; Eppenberger, H M

    1994-01-01

    Adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC) were cultivated on five different substrates: gelatin, fibronectin, laminin-nidogen complex (laminin), the E8 laminin fragment, and the E1 laminin fragment. Comparative cell attachment assays have shown that ARC prefer adhesion to E8 laminin fragment and laminin. It were shown by video time-lapse (VTL) studies that, during the redifferentiation process of ARC in culture, the morphology of ARC grown on laminin, fibronectin, and gelatin is indistinguishable, whereas the size of ARC grown on the E8 fragment is larger, and when grown on the E1 fragment definitely smaller than ARC on the whole laminin protein. Immunostaining for vinculin combined with reflection contrast microscopy were used to visualize the focal contacts of ARC on these substrates. Quantitative measurements, done with the help of a test line system, show that the lengths of adhesion plaques/micron2 on gelatin, fibronectin, and laminin are about the same. On the E8 fragment more attachment sites/micron2 and on the E1 fragment fewer attachment sites/micron2 were counted than on whole laminin protein. This suggests that substrates influence the number of focal contacts. Correlating these results with the observations made in the VTL recording system, one can suggest that the length of adhesion sites/micron2 increases in very flat and large cells. PMID:7718361

  4. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women. PMID:25778405

  5. Social networking sites in romantic relationships: attachment, uncertainty, and partner surveillance on facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored. PMID:23952623

  6. Effects of social support by a dog on stress modulation in male children with insecure attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBeetz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to 90% of children with special education needs and about 40% of children in the general population show insecure or disorganized attachment patterns, which are linked to a diminished ability to use social support by others for the regulation of stress. The aim of the study was to investigate if children with insecure-avoidant/disorganized attachment can profit more from social support by a dog compared to a friendly human during a stressful task. We investigated 47 male children (age 7-11 with insecure-avoidant or disorganized attachment. Social stress was elicited via the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C. For one group of children a friendly therapy-dog (N=24 was present, for one control group a friendly human (N=10 and for the other control group a toy dog (N=13. Stress levels were measured via salivary cortisol before, during, and after the TSST-C and subjective reports. The physiological stress response was significantly lower in the dog condition in comparison to the two other support conditions. Cortisol levels correlated negatively with the amount of physical contact between child and dog. We conclude that male children with insecure-avoidant or disorganized attachment profit more from the presence of a therapy-dog than of a friendly human under social stress. Our findings support the assumption that the increasing practice of animal-assisted education is reasonable and that dogs can be helpful assistants in education/special education, since stress interferes with learning and performance in students.

  7. 老年人夫妻依恋的测量及与一般依恋的关系%The Assessment of Marital Attachment and Its Relationship with General Attachment among Older Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大华; 杨小洋; 王岩; Richard B. Miller

    2015-01-01

    通过对697名60岁以上、配偶健在的老年人进行调查,对《老年人夫妻依恋问卷》进行修订及信效度的检验,并应用该问卷对老年人的夫妻依恋风格进行划分,考察夫妻依恋风格与一般依恋之间的吻合程度。结果显示修订后的《老年人夫妻依恋问卷》具有稳定的三维度结构以及良好的信效度;聚类分析显示老年人夫妻依恋以安全型和专注型为主,而一般依恋以安全型和冷漠型居多。在老年人中仅有39.9%的个体具有相同类型的夫妻依恋与一般依恋,呈现出较低的一致性。%According to attachment theory, during interactions with their caregivers infants build their “internal working models”, which shape their perception and reflection of social information in their future life. Collins and Read (1994) propose a hierarchical model to illustrate adults’ multiple attachment models and the differences between the general attachment model and the relationship-specific attachment model. Because marital relationships play an important role in later life, an investigation of older adults’ marital attachment and its relationship with the general attachment formed during childhood would increase the understanding of life-span development of attachment. The Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale (OAMAS) was recently developed targeting both the specific relationship, as well as the specific age period, and the developers have demonstrated its applicability. However, more evidence is needed using different samples to prove its reliability and validity. As a result, the current study aimed, firstly, at validating the scale, and, secondly, at investigating the association between marital attachment and general attachment among older adults. A total of 697 older adults, over 60 years old, dwelling in communities in Beijing participated in the current study. The participants completed the Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale

  8. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M

    1980-07-01

    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community. PMID:7446566

  9. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  10. Impact of Choice on Social Outcomes of Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Margaret H.; Tassé, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores social outcomes for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to adults with developmental disabilities other than ASD by investigating the relationships between the constructs Social Participation and Relationships, Social Determination, and Personal Control. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a…

  11. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  12. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model: Understanding the Role of Adult Attachment in the Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Calebs, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men. In addition, we highlight where future research can expand upon the presented model in order to better understand the developmental processes through which attachment and sexual minority stress influences health and health behaviors among sexual minority boys and men. PMID:27337620

  13. Perceived Parenting Styles Fail to Mediate Between Anxiety and Attachment Styles in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E

    2016-09-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed. PMID:27418335

  14. Teenage pregnancy, attachment style, and depression: a comparison of teenage and adult pregnant women in a Portuguese series

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Barbara; Bifulco, Antonia; Pacheco, Alexandra; Costa, Raquel; Magarinho, Rute

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this Portuguese study is to compare the experience of pregnancy in teenage years and later adulthood and to examine insecure attachment style as a risk factor for depression during pregnancy. The Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco, Moran, Ball, & Bernazzani, 2002) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky, 1987) were administered to 66 pregnant adolescents and 64 adult women. Pregnant teenagers were found to be nearly ...

  15. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics. PMID:24946387

  16. Adult Attachment Interview differentiates adolescents with Childhood Sexual Abuse from those with clinical depression and non-clinical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; Speekenbrink, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    Although attachment representation is considered to be disturbed in traumatized adolescents, it is not known whether this is specific for trauma, as comparative studies with other clinical groups are lacking. Therefore, attachment representation was studied by means of the Adult Attachment Interview in adolescents with Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA) (N = 21), clinical depression (N = 28) and non-clinical controls (N = 28). Coherence of mind and unresolved loss or trauma, as well as the disorganized attachment classification differentiated the CSA group from the clinical depression group and controls, over and above age, IQ, and psychiatric symptomatology. In the current era of sustained criticism on criteria-based classification, this may well carry substantial clinical relevance. If attachment is a general risk or vulnerability factor underlying specific psychopathology, this may guide diagnostic assessment as well as treatment. PMID:26047034

  17. Social Participation Among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special educ...

  18. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  19. The Influence of Adult Attachment on Patient Self-Management in Primary Care - The Need for a Personalized Approach and Patient-Centred Care

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Brenk-Franz; Bernhard Strauss; Fabian Tiesler; Christian Fleischhauer; Paul Ciechanowski; Nico Schneider; Jochen Gensichen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-management strategies are essential elements of evidence-based treatment in patients with chronic conditions in primary care. Our objective was to analyse different self-management skills and behaviours and their association to adult attachment in primary care patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods In the apricare study (Adult Attachment in Primary Care) we used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the association between adult attachment and self-management...

  20. Being Close and Being Social: Peer Ratings of Distinct Aspects of Young Adult Social Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Justine J.; Whitton, Sarah W.; HAUSER, STUART T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of young adult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with young adult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the hypothesis that close relationship competence aligns more closely than social group competence with young adult funct...

  1. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  2. Attachment representations and early interactions in drug addicted mothers: a case study of four women with distinct Adult Attachment Interview classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio ePorreca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children.This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing and U-unresolved/with losses. Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985, while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008.As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  4. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  5. Volunteer Client Adult Attachment, Memory for In-Session Emotion, and Mood Awareness: An Affect Regulation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Gelso, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined relations between volunteer client adult attachment and both (a) memory for negative affect occurring within the first session of therapy and (b) mood awareness (mood labeling and mood monitoring). Participants were 80 volunteer clients (students with a personal issue who volunteered to participate in the…

  6. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory. PMID:25948552

  7. Adult Attachment as Mediator between Recollections of Childhood and Satisfaction with Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, C.; Sanderman, R.; Sprangers, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of

  8. The Role of Adult Attachment Style in Forgiveness Following an Interpersonal Offense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler-Row, Kathleen A.; Younger, Jarred W.; Piferi, Rachel L.; Jones, Warren H.

    2006-01-01

    The role of attachment style in relation to forgiveness was investigated in 2 betrayal interviews. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed, along with attachment style, forgiveness, empathy, and emotional expressiveness. Securely attached individuals were more forgiving of the specific offense, had higher levels of trait forgiveness, and…

  9. The model of the adult attachment in the disturbance of the emotional regulation and the emotional links of the hospitalized women suffering from depression

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to show that the model of adult attachment constitute a factor of psychological vulnerability that explain women depression and its evolution on two levels: the disturbance of the emotional regulation (attachment strategies) and the insecurity of the representation of the past links of attachment (parental experiences), and the current ones (love and interpersonal attachment). The aim is also to determine the existing links between the personality of the depress...

  10. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  11. The Relationship Between Maternal Attachment, Perceived Social Support and Breast-Feeding Sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal attachment, perceived social support and breast-feeding sufficiency. Study Design: Descriptive correlational design. Place and Duration of Study: A state hospital and two family health centers in Sakarya, Turkey, between June to December 2011. Methodology: The sample was 122 voluntary mothers who had healthy babies of 1 - 2 months old. The data were collected by a Personal Information Form, Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The data collected were analysed by percentage distribution, mean square, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 25.01 ± 2.2 years, and 48.4% of them were primary school graduates. BSESSF was 61.02 ± 8.44 (16 - 70), MAI was 99.07 ± 7.19 (56 - 100) and MSPSS was 66.40 ± 13.58 (37 - 84). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total scores of BSES-SF and MAI (r=0.370, p < 0.001). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of BSES-SF and the score from family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.255, p < 0.01).There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of MAI and the total score of family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.339, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Successful maternal attachment and familial support positively affected the breast-feeding sufficiency of the mother. (author)

  12. Attachment to employment and education before work disability pension due to a mental disorder among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Backround We examined attachment to employment and education among young adults before they were granted a fixed-term work disability pension due to psychiatric diagnosis, and the factors associated with this attachment. Methods The data comprised all persons aged 18–34 who received a new-onset fixed-term disability pension compensation due to a mental disorder in Finland in 2008 (N = 1163). The data were derived from pension applications and the enclosed medical records, and were linked to e...

  13. Brain mechanisms underlying the impact of attachment-related stress on social cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Nolte; Caitlin Hudac; Peter Fonagy

    2013-01-01

    Mentalizing, in particular the successful attribution of complex mental states to others, is crucial for navigating social interactions. This ability is highly influenced by external factors within one's daily life, such as stress. We investigated the impact of stress on the brain basis of mentalization in adults. Using a novel modification of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET-R) we compared the differential effects of two personalized stress induction procedures: a general stress i...

  14. Interpretive biases in socially anxious adults

    OpenAIRE

    Godfree, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Social phobia is a highly prevalent and debilitating anxiety disorder that can significantly impact quality of life and produce extreme distress in social situations. Cognitive models of social phobia suggest that information-processing biases are involved in the maintenance of social anxiety. Treatment typically involves a course of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Recent advancements in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying social anxiety have led to specific adjunctive treatme...

  15. The Effect of Group Attachment and Social Position on Prosocial Behavior. Evidence from Lab-in-the-Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Baldassarri; Guy Grossman

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer...

  16. An Ideological Framework in Adult Education: Poverty and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jo-Anne

    1981-01-01

    Posits that the basic system of values and beliefs held by adult educators influences their stance on social problems. Examples of responses to the problem of poverty illustrate four basic ideological positions: liberalism, conservatism, liberal radicalism, and Marxism. (JOW)

  17. Joint Attention, Social-Cognition, and Recognition Memory in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwanguk; Mundy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention (JA), or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that JA affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of JA in adults, Initiating J...

  18. Animal-to-robot social attachment: initial requisites in a gallinaceous bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, L; Pittet, F; Caudal, J-P; Mouret, J-B; Houdelier, C; Lumineau, S; de Margerie, E

    2016-02-01

    Animal-Robot Interaction experiments have demonstrated their usefulness to understand the social behaviour of a growing number of animal species. In order to study the mechanisms of social influences (from parents and peers) on behavioural development, we design an experimental setup where young quail chicks, after hatching, continuously live with autonomous mobile robots in mixed triadic groups of two chicks and one robot. As precocial birds are subject to imprinting, we compare groups where chicks meet the robot as their very first social partner, on their first day after hatching (R chicks), with groups where chicks meet a real conspecific first (C chicks), and the robot later (on the second day after hatching). We measured the behavioural synchronization between chicks and robot over three days. Afterwards, we directly tested the existence of a possible social bond between animal and robot, by performing separation-reunion behavioural tests. R chicks were more synchronized with the robot in their daily feeding-resting activities than C chicks. Moreover, R chicks emitted numerous distress calls when separated from the robot, even in the presence of another chick, whereas C chicks emitted calls only when separated from the other chick. Whether the observed chick-robot attachment bond reflects filial, or sibling-imprinting of chicks towards the robot remains unclear, as the latter process is not fully understood in natural familial groups. Still, these results reveal the necessary initial conditions for stable, cohesive mixed groups of chicks and robots, a promising tool to experiment on the long-term dynamics of social behaviour. PMID:26845286

  19. Dissociation and Variability of Adult Attachment Dimensions and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Sexual and Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability…

  20. Conflictual Independence, Adult Attachment Orientation, and Career Indecision among Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…

  1. Association between Adult Romantic Attachment Styles and Family-of-Origin Expressive Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon D.; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between attachment quality and perceived family-of-origin expressive atmosphere (FOEA) in a convenience sample of 279 participants. Multivariate analysis of variance (MAN-OVA) was used to examine the associations between attachment style and FOEA, and hierarchical regression was used to analyze FOEA as a…

  2. Disentangling the Effects of Depression Symptoms and Adult Attachment on Emotional Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Angela M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Sauer, Eric M.; Florczak, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with high levels of depression symptoms and individuals with insecure attachment orientations have been shown to limit their use of emotional disclosure as a means of emotion regulation. However, little is known about how depression symptoms and insecure attachment orientations might jointly predict whether individuals engage in…

  3. Social Class and Self-Esteem among Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Morris; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of two studies examining the relationship of social class to self-esteem. Two groups were involved, children ages eight to 18 and adults 18 to 65. Four principles of self-esteem development were advanced to account for the results. The principles were said to apply equally to adults and children. (BC)

  4. Leaving the Parental Nest: Adjustment Problems, Attachment Representations, and Social Support during the Transition from High School to Military Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2011-01-01

    Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two…

  5. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  6. The social networks of teens and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...

  7. Perceptions of Social Networks by Adults Who Are Deafblind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Katrina; Parker, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Findings are presented from a descriptive qualitative study of 10 adults who were deafblind who were interviewed about their social lives. Additional data were collected from a discussion board and e-mails from the study participants. Three findings emerged from the data: (a) Navigating adaptations was a significant part of socialization. (b) Gaps existed in work, family, and formal support networks. PMID:27477042

  8. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  9. The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders from the perspective of adult attachment: a study in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    To assess how the maladaptive personality domains and facets that were included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorders relate to adult attachment styles, 480 Italian nonclinical adults were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). To evaluate the uniqueness of the associations between the PID-5 scales and the ASQ scales, the participants were also administered the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Multiple regression analyses showed that the ASQ scales significantly predicted both PID-5 domain scales and BFI scales; however, the relationships were different both qualitatively and quantitatively. With the exception of the PID-5 risk taking scale (adjusted R(2) = 0.02), all other PID-5 trait scales were significantly predicted by the ASQ scales, median adjusted R(2) value = 0.25, all ps < 0.001. Our findings suggest that the maladaptive personality domains and traits listed in the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders show meaningful associations with adult attachment styles. PMID:25756706

  10. Functional Social Skills of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Sukumaran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aimed to find the level of functional social skills of adults with intellectual disability, and attempted to analyse these skills with respect to gender, level of disability, type of school attended and number of years of schooling.Method: Descriptive method of research was employed for the study. The study sample consisted of 100 adults with intellectual disability, randomly selected through various special schools which provide vocational training in Kottayam district of Kerala state, in South India. Data on social skills of these individuals were collected through a standardised Functional Social Skills Assessment Scale developed by the authors.  The data were analysed through arithmetic mean, standard deviation, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance.Results: The results indicated that only 48% of the adults with intellectual disability in the study sample possessed functional social skills.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.76

  11. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. Profiling the Buzz Agent: Product Referral and the Study of Social Community and Brand Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The buzz agent is any consumer perceived by others as a source of product referral. Previous literature in word of mouth (WOM has looked into characteristics of individuals who successfully persuade others to choose a brand. While there have been studies in this field, the literature is still scattered and little has been done to profile the consumer playing the buzz-agent role. We aim to deepen our understanding about the consumer who must be recruited as a buzz agent by a firm in a WOM marketing (WOMM initiative. The proposed profile is comprised of three key characteristics: the consumer’s position in the social community, nature of ties in the community and brand attachment. We tested our hypotheses with a survey of 542 consumers from a controlled population. Rather than relying on self-reported questions about referral behavior, we asked respondents in the population to name the individuals to whom the respondents go to obtain information to help pick a brand. This accurately pinpoints which individuals fit the profile of a buzz agent. Results show that buzz agents are popular in their social community (friends and tech experts, carry dissimilar brands as target consumers and are product experts. Our study identifies a profile of consumers that helps firms select buzz agents for WOMM initiatives.

  13. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  14. Don't get your hopes up: avoidantly attached individuals perceive lower social reward when there is potential for intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Stephanie S; Maxwell, Jessica A; Macdonald, Geoff; Baratta, Patricia L

    2013-02-01

    We examine whether lower expectations for social reward selectively applied to high intimacy contexts may help avoidantly attached individuals minimize distress from reward loss. Studies 1, 2, and 4 demonstrated that avoidant attachment was negatively associated with perceived intimacy potential in relationships involving approach of closeness (current/future partners), but not for relationships less associated with approach of closeness (ex-partners). Studies 3 and 5 manipulated the potential for intimacy among dating prospects. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with romantic interest in high intimacy targets but not low intimacy targets. This effect was mediated by perceived responsiveness. Studies 4 and 5 rule out perceived dissimilarity to responsive targets as a mechanism. Study 6 demonstrated that avoidants' lower expectations for connection are associated with less anticipated distress from reward loss. These results suggest that avoidant individuals may circumvent attachment system activation by perceiving lower opportunity for connection when there is potential for intimacy. PMID:23386658

  15. Romantic Partner Monitoring After Breakups: Attachment, Dependence, Distress, and Post-Dissolution Online Surveillance via Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Tokunaga, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Romantic relationship dissolution can be stressful, and social networking sites make it difficult to separate from a romantic partner online as well as offline. An online survey (N = 431) tested a model synthesizing attachment, investment model variables, and post-dissolution emotional distress as predictors of interpersonal surveillance (i.e., "Facebook stalking") of one's ex-partner on Facebook after a breakup. Results indicated that anxious attachment predicted relational investment but also seeking relationship alternatives; avoidant attachment was negatively related to investment but positively related to seeking alternatives. Investment predicted commitment, whereas seeking alternatives was negatively related to commitment. Commitment predicted emotional distress after the breakup. Distress predicted partner monitoring immediately following the breakup, particularly for those who did not initiate the breakup, as well as current partner monitoring. Given their affordances, social media are discussed as potentially unhealthy enablers for online surveillance after relationship termination. PMID:26348808

  16. Patterns and peculiarities of romatic attachment in adults from 62 cultural regions. Are "Model of Self" and "Model of Other" pancultural constructs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ, a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the “Model of Self” and “Model of Other” scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within the most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that Secure romantic attachment was normative in 79% of cultures, and Preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies. 

  17. Intragroup Socialization for Adult Korean Adoptees: A Multigroup Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Langrehr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to test a model of socialization among a sample of adult Korean adoptees. Based on the tenants of homophily and social identity theory, it was hypothesized that participants’ early racial and ethnic socialization experiences would account for their current intragroup friendships as adults, and that this relationship would be mediated by early intragroup contact and moderated by early ethnic identity status. The two ethnic and racial socialization variables (i.e., ethnic heritage activities and racial in-exposure significantly accounted for participants’ relationships with other Korean adoptees and nonadopted Koreans, and the effects were partially explained by early intragroup contact. Results of multigroup testing indicated the proposed socialization model was non-invariant across groups, such that the effects of ethnic heritage activities on intragroup contact and the effect of racial in-exposure on friendships with Korean adoptees were significantly different based on early ethnic identity status.

  18. Social cognition and communication skills in Asperger syndrome young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Figueira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare patients with Asperger syndrome (AS and control participants on social cognition tasks and communication skills. Twenty young adults were assessed in three social cognition domains; recognition of basic emotions, recognition of complex emotions and Theory of Mind (ToM. In addition participants completed a self-report questionnaire as a measure of social communication skills. The results indicate that adults with AS perform below neurotypical control participants in emotion processing, ToM and communication skills. There were no significant correlations between the variables of social cognition and communication skills in the group of AS. Taken together, results suggest that people with a diagnosis of AS present a deficit in ToM and emotional processing as well as in communication skills. However, it was not possible to identify a significant association between the variables of social cognition and communication skills.

  19. Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

    2010-01-01

    A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety: Associations with Friendship Skills and Peer Competence of Arab Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Rousseau, Sofie; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the joint and distinct contribution of attachment security and social anxiety to Arab children's peer competence in middle childhood. We focused on Arab children as very little research has examined close relationships for this group. A sample of 404 third-, fourth- and fifth-grade Arabic students (203 boys and…

  1. Social Support and Attachment to Teachers: Relative Importance and Specificity Among Low-Income Children and Youth of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Kosty, Derek; Hauser-McLean, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of researchers are examining how teacher-student relationships contribute to child and adolescent development. Much of this work is based on two distinct theoretical perspectives: social support and attachment. The current study investigates the importance of teacher-student relationships from each of these perspectives among…

  2. Mother-Stranger Comparisons of Social Attention in Jealousy Context and Attachment in HFASD and Typical Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zvieli, Nirit; Kugelmass, Dana Shoham

    2013-01-01

    Affective bonding, social attention, and intersubjective capabilities are all conditions for jealousy, and are deficient in autism. Thus, examining jealousy and attachment may elucidate the socioemotional deficit in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Jealousy was provoked in 30 high-functioning children with ASD (HFASD) and 30 typical children (ages…

  3. Attachment Style, Social Support, and Coping as Psychosocial Correlates of Happiness in Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lisa; Catalano, Denise; Sung, Connie; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the roles of attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. Participants: 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries. Outcome Measures: Happiness…

  4. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  5. Adult attachment, intimacy and psychological distress in a clinical and community sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, SB; Luteijn, F; Arrindell, WA

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals' later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The present study examined the role of intimacy in the current romantic relationship as a possible mediator of the relationship

  6. Attachment and Individuation of Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Amatzia; Kamara, Ahiya

    2005-01-01

    This study examined differences between deaf/hard-of-hearing (D/HH) and hearing persons with regard to two interrelated and continuous developmental processes: attachment (Bowlby, 1969) and individuation (Mahler, 1963). The study also examined intergroup differences in two personal variables assumed to be influenced by these processes: self-esteem…

  7. The association of family support and wellbeing in later life depends on adult attachment style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Consedine, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the association between family support and wellbeing in the elderly, paying particular attention to the possible moderating role of attachment style. Data from a community-dwelling, ethnically diverse, elderly sample (N ¼ 1118) were analyzed to determine the best linear co

  8. Joint attention, social cognition and recognition memory in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanguk Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attention in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA. Distinguishing these types of joint attention in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67% than in a RJA (58% condition, η2 = .57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of joint attention on adult social-cognition are discussed.

  9. Social Work with Older Adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    This article examines ageing services in the United States, which are provided and financed through a mixed economy of care that includes government, the voluntary sector, and the private market. Because of substantial unmet needs, poorly coordinated systems, and social and economic disparities among older adults in the United States, social-work services have an important role to play in overcoming barriers to optimal functioning and emotional well-being in later life. Existing evidence sugg...

  10. Determinants of social participation of visually impaired older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Alma, Manna A.; Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Groothoff, Johan W; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess determinants of social participation among visually impaired older adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included visually impaired persons (≥55 years; n = 173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation center. Determinants (i.e., sociodemographic, physical, social and psychological factors, and personal values) of participation were identified in four domains of participation: (1) domestic life; (2) interpersonal interactions and relationships; (3) major life ar...

  11. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function

    OpenAIRE

    Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defe...

  12. Social Integration and Functional Skills in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Diana María Durán; Laura Juliana Orbegoz Valderrama; Ana Fernanda Uribe-Rodríguez; Juan Maximo Uribe Linde

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the relationship between variables: functional abilities and social integration of older persons and to know whether there were differences according to sex, age and marital status. The results show significant differences in social integration on the basis of marital status, being higher in the elderly unmarried and widowed; Depending on age there are significant differences in functional abilities, being higher in adults between 60 and 65 years. Th...

  13. Joint attention, social cognition and recognition memory in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kwanguk Kim

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR) paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attenti...

  14. Parents bereaved by infant death: Sex differences and moderation in PTSD, attachment, coping, and social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Olff, Miranda; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    lost an infant either late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life. Participants filled out questionnaires between 1.2 months and 18 years after the loss (M=3.4 years). Results: Mothers reported significantly more PTSD symptoms, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping and feeling let...... down, but significantly lower levels of attachment avoidance than fathers. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and emotion-focused coping were significantly more strongly associated with PTSD severity in mothers than fathers, but only when examined alone. When all variables and time since the loss...

  15. Long-term effects of infant attachment organization on adult behavior and health in nursery-reared, captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, A.; Bloomsmith, M.; Bard, Kim; Maple, T. L.; Marr, M J

    2015-01-01

    This research traces the long-term effects on health, well-being, personality, and behavior of adult chimpanzees as a function of their attachment to a primary human caregiver assessed when they were 1 year of age (van IJzendoorn, Bard, Bakermans-Kranenburg & Ivan, 2009). Of the 46 chimpanzees assessed at 1 year of age, we assessed health in 43 individuals, adult behavior in 20 individuals, and adult well-being and personality in 21 individuals. Attachment disorganization was found to be a si...

  16. The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Manolya Calisir

    2009-01-01

    According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation ...

  17. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype moderates the effect of disorganized attachment on social development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygen, Beate Wold; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Children with histories of disorganized attachment exhibit diverse problems, possibly because disorganization takes at least two distinctive forms as children age: controlling-punitive and controlling-caregiving. This variation in the developmental legacy of disorganization has been attributed primarily to variations in children's rearing experiences. Here an alternative explanation of these divergent sequelae of disorganization is evaluated: one focused on genotype. Structural equation modeling was applied to data on 704 Norwegian children to test whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype moderates the effect of disorganized attachment, which was measured dimensionally at 4 years of age using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, on changes in aggressive behavior and social competence from ages 4 to 6. Children who scored high on disorganization and were homozygous for the valine allele displayed significantly greater increases in aggression and decreases in self-oriented social skills (e.g., self-regulation and assertiveness) over time than did their disorganized counterparts carrying the methionine allele, whereas disorganized children carrying the methionine allele increased their other-oriented social skill (e.g., cooperation and responsibility) scores more than did valine-homozygous children. These results are consistent with the controlling-punitive and controlling-caregiving behaviors observed in disorganized children, suggesting that the children's genotype contributed to variations in the social development of disorganized children. PMID:24914507

  18. Determinants of social participation of visually impaired older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess determinants of social participation among visually impaired older adults. This cross-sectional study included visually impaired persons (a parts per thousand yen55 years; n = 173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation center. Determinants (i.e., sociodemographic, physical, soci

  19. Legitimacy and Social Class in Catalan Language Education for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frekko, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…

  20. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  1. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  2. Compassion fatigue and the adult protective services social worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Dara Bergel

    2009-04-01

    Compassion fatigue is a relatively new term that describes the symptoms that are experienced by social workers and other helping professionals who work with clients experiencing trauma. This article defines the concept of compassion fatigue and relates compassion fatigue to Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers. It is proposed that APS social workers may be susceptible to the deleterious effects of compassion fatigue due to the nature of their work and environment. Suggestions for avoidance of compassion fatigue are also discussed, including self-care strategies and the need for continuing education regarding this phenomenon. PMID:19308828

  3. Access to Technology in Transnational Social Fields: Simultaneity and Digital Literacy Socialization of Adult Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueron-Liu, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Some studies of technology use by immigrants have explored the role of digital media in their maintenance of affiliations with their nations of origin. However, the potential for transnational social networks to serve as "resources" that facilitate digital literacy socialization for adult immigrant learners remains unexplored. In this study, I…

  4. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior. PMID:25772427

  5. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV. PMID:26278329

  6. Gender as a Moderator Between Adult Attachment and Job Performance in Chinese Employees%性别在企业员工成人依恋与工作绩效关系中的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨安博; 任真; 陶晓春

    2012-01-01

    本研究探讨了依恋关系对员工工作绩效的影响以及性别在其中的调节作用。通过采用亲密关系经历量表(ECR)、关系问卷(RQ)和工作绩效问卷三个研究工具,对110名不同职业和岗位员工依恋与工作绩效的关系进行调查,结果发现:1.倾注型被试在情境绩效上的得分显著得低于安全型被试和害怕型被试。2.依恋焦虑与任务绩效和情境绩效均呈显著正相关。3.依恋焦虑可以预测情境绩效。4.通过进一步分析,发现男性和女性在情境绩效和任务绩效上有所不同,说明性别在依恋关系和工作绩效之间起调节作用。%Freud has said that the goal of psychotherapy is to allow the patient to love and to work ( Erikson, 1963 ). Just as studies of love generally ignore its relation to work, so studies of work tend to ignore its relation to love. Research on work has focused primarily on aspects of the work environment that influences job satisfaction, for the most part ignoring possible links between satisfaction with work and satisfaction with relationships. Work life and love life have been treated largely as non-overlapping, a perspective called the "myth of separate worlds. " Hazen and Shaver have argued that work is functionally similar to what Bowbly calls "exploration", that adult attachment supports work activity just as infant attachment supports exploration, and that the love/work balance marks healthy functioning in adulthood. According to Bowlby, attachment and exploration are linked as follows: to learn about and become competent at interacting with the physical and social environment, one must explore. But exploration can be tiring and even dangerous, so it is desirable to have a protector nearby, a haven of safety to which one can retreat. According to the attachment theory, the tendency to form an attachment to the protector and the tendency to explore the environment are innate

  7. Parental attachment as a mediator between parental social support and self-esteem as perceived by Korean sports middle and high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwook; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho; Park, Seungha

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether parental attachment mediates the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem in Korean middle and high school athletes. 591 sports athletes attending middle and high schools that specialize in sport volunteered. Parental social support and parental attachment had a significant positive effect on self-esteem; parental attachment had a greater effect on self-esteem. In the structural relationship, direct effects of parental social support on self-esteem were weak, but indirect effects through parental attachment were strong. Therefore, parental attachment complementally mediated the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by sex, region, and school level, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups. PMID:25621525

  8. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Herrera Ponce

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate.

  9. Direct observation as a measuring instrument in caregiver-and-child attachment : a social work investigation / by Lindie Nell

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Lindie

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation 9 social workers working in Pretoria, Gauteng Province were interviewed. The focus of these interviews was regarding the use of direct observation as a measuring instrument for the purpose of assessing attachment of the caregiver-and-child's relationship. This information jointly with a two-fold literature study served as the foundation for a proposed preliminary practise framework. The completed research is described in the article format in two articles. Article 1 c...

  10. Attachment and Personality Disorders: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzini, N.; Fonagy, P

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory is a biopsychosocial model referring to a person’s characteristic ways of relating in close relationships, such as with parents, children, and romantic partners. These ways of relating are learned during early infancy and mold subsequent intimate relationships. An adult who is securely attached has internalized a reliable relationship to his/her caregivers in infancy, and thus is capable of adapting to different social contexts and, more importantly, of maintaining an adequa...

  11. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults

    OpenAIRE

    María Soledad Herrera Ponce; Raúl Pedro Elgueta Rosas; María Beatriz Fernández Lorca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression m...

  12. An Examination of the Social Networks and Social Isolation in Older and Younger Adults Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…

  13. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education Through Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled “New Roles for the Teacher—Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility,” which sought to reduce nonattendance and dropout rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving...... reducing drop-out rates. As a consequence, the teachers acted more consistently and purposefully to prevent dropout, and a positive effect of the intervention on drop-out rates was documented....

  14. Social Determinants of Economic Behavior of Older Adults in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Youssim, Iaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the growing economic literature which studies effects of social and cultural variables on economic behavior of older adults in Europe. Landes, cited in Guiso et al. (2006), states that "if we learn anything from the history of economic development, it is that culture makes all the difference” (p. 29). Indeed, in the recent years economists put an effort to apply their analytical frameworks and empirical tools to study the role of culture on economic outcomes (Gu...

  15. Childhood origins of teenage antisocial behaviour and adult social dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrington, D P

    1993-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to investigate the childhood predictors (age 8-10 years) of teenage antisocial behaviour (age 18 years) and adult social dysfunction (age 32 years). A sample of 411 London males was followed up from age 8 years to age 32 years. The most important childhood predictors of both outcomes (and of convictions) were measures of economic deprivation, poor parenting, an antisocial family and hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention deficit. However, childhood nervousness a...

  16. Mentalising and social problem solving in adults with Asperger's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Channon, S; Crawford, S; Orlowska, D.; Parikh, N.; Thoma, P.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n=21) were compared with healthy control participants (n=21...

  17. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  18. The utilisation of attachment theory by social workers in foster care supervision / by Wezet Botes

    OpenAIRE

    Botes, Wezet

    2008-01-01

    Attachment Theory and its practical application have re-emerged in recent years as a critical factor in understanding and determining the quality of relationships between the primary caregiver and the child. The reasons for disruptions in foster care placements have also been linked to problems with attachment. Foster care, in turn, has also become more prominent as a placement option in South Africa as we try to deal with the effect of HIV and AIDS on our communities. It would seem that the ...

  19. Attachment behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that there is a relationship between specific types of insecure attachment and specific types of psychiatric disorders. Next, a reinterpretation of the literature on social preference experiments in rodent...

  20. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Gundel, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Summary Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an experimental session. Within each session, a single dose of oxytocin or placebo was administered, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. In both conditions, subjects completed an attachment task based on the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Thirty-two AAP picture system presentations depicted attachment-related events (e.g. illness, solitude, separation, loss), and were each accompanied by four prototypical phrases representing one secure and three insecure attachment categories. In the oxytocin condition, a significant proportion of these insecure subjects (N = 18; 69%) changed their rankings of “secure attachment” phrases towards the more appropriate for the AAP picture presentation, and the same subjects decreased in overall rating of the “insecure attachment” phrases. In particular, there was a significant decrease in the number of subjects ranking the pictures with “insecure-preoccupied” phrases from the placebo to the oxytocin condition. We find that a single dose of intranasally administered oxytocin is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the experience of attachment security in adults classified previously as insecure. PMID:19457618

  1. To Shape the Future: Towards a Framework for Adult Education Social Policy Research and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, B. Allan

    1993-01-01

    Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)

  2. Barriers to social participation among lonely older adults: the influence of social fears and identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C Goll

    Full Text Available Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England.An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed.Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity.It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples' beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided.

  3. Young Children's God Concepts: Influences of Attachment and Religious Socialization in a Family and School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Simone A.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution offers an overview of two studies testing two attachment theoretical correspondence hypotheses in the prediction of individual differences in young children's God concepts. The correspondence hypothesis supposes that people's view on God parallels their images of their early caregiver-child relationship. The revised…

  4. Emotion Socialization as a Framework for Understanding the Development of Disorganized Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeOliveira, Carey Anne; Bailey, Heidi Neufeld; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of accounts of the origins of the Disorganized attachment relationship in early mother-infant interaction, each building on the pioneering work of Main and Hesse--dysfunctional emotional processes figure prominently in all these accounts. This paper applies a framework based on two complementary theories of…

  5. Social-Emotional Adjustment and Attachment in Children Adopted from China: Processes and Predictors of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the processes and predictors of change in maternal ratings of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and attachment security in 70 infant girls adopted from China at a mean age of 13.5 months. These children's mental and language development were also directly assessed. The adopted children were assessed within the first…

  6. Social Integration and Functional Skills in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Durán

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the relationship between variables: functional abilities and social integration of older persons and to know whether there were differences according to sex, age and marital status. The results show significant differences in social integration on the basis of marital status, being higher in the elderly unmarried and widowed; Depending on age there are significant differences in functional abilities, being higher in adults between 60 and 65 years. There were no significant differences according to sex. The conclusion is that the autonomy andfunctional abilities of the Elderly are closely related to the frequency of physical activities and social integration, which promotes the quality of life of older people and hampering the emergence of significant biopsychosocial changes in this stage of life.

  7. Psychological Basis of the Relationship Between the Rorschach Texture Response and Adult Attachment: The Mediational Role of the Accessibility of Tactile Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Kazunori; Ogawa, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    This study clarifies the psychological basis for the linkage between adult attachment and the texture response on the Rorschach by examining the mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Japanese undergraduate students (n = 35) completed the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale for General Objects (Nakao & Kato, 2004) and a lexical decision task designed to measure the accessibility of tactile knowledge. A mediation analysis revealed that the accessibility of tactile knowledge partially mediates the association between attachment anxiety and the texture response. These results suggest that our hypothetical model focusing on the response process provides a possible explanation of the relationship between the texture response and adult attachment. PMID:26569020

  8. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  9. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  10. Alone in the crowd: How adults with learning difficulties cope with social networks problems

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Bob; Swain, John; Gillman, Maureen; Handyside, Elizabeth C.; Newman, Wendy

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between perceived social support and mental health has been the subject of a large quantitative research effort. However, quantification leads to inevitable oversimplification of multidimensional, intersubjective and contextual features of social support. The present paper explores qualitatively the social networks of six adults with learning difficulties (adults), selected from a sample of 32 because of the strategies they used to manage their social worlds. Three adults, wh...

  11. Social Work with Older Adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharlach, Andrew E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ageing services in the United States, which are provided and financed through a mixed economy of care that includes government, the voluntary sector, and the private market. Because of substantial unmet needs, poorly coordinated systems, and social and economic disparities among older adults in the United States, social-work services have an important role to play in overcoming barriers to optimal functioning and emotional well-being in later life. Existing evidence suggests that the ability of social work to meet the needs of a growing ageing population is hampered by insufficient numbers of social workers with adequate training and competence in ageing. The article analyses and discusses recent advances in social work education in the United States designed to produce greater numbers of ageing-competent social work professionals, including initiatives in aging-related curriculum development, training, organisational development, and scholarship.Este artículo examina los servicios de asistencia a los mayores en los Estados Unidos. Estos servicios se prestan y se financian por medio de un sistema de atención que incluye al gobierno, al sector del voluntariado y al mercado privado. A causa de las necesidades básicas no satisfechas, de los sistemas mal coordinados y de las disparidades sociales y económicas entre los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, los servicios de asistencia social desempeñan un papel importante en la superación de las dificultades para alcanzar el funcionamiento óptimo y el bienestar emocional en la edad avanzada. La insuficiencia de trabajadores sociales con una adecuada formación y competentes en envejecimiento reduce la capacidad del Trabajo Social para satisfacer las necesidades de un número creciente de población mayor. El artículo analiza y discute los avances recientes en la formación de los trabajadores sociales en los Estados Unidos, avances que tienden a aumentar el número de

  12. Kindergarteners’ Self-Reported Social Inhibition and Observed Social Reticence: Moderation by Adult-Reported Social Inhibition and Social Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Kristin A. Buss; Molitor, Joseph G.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children’s perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children’s self-reports remains unclear. The current st...

  13. Triadic closure dynamics explains scaling-exponents for preferential attachment-, degree- and clustering distributions in social multiplex data

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Social networks exhibit scaling-laws for several structural characteristics, such as the degree distribution, the scaling of the attachment kernel, and the clustering coefficients as a function of node degree. A detailed understanding if and how these scaling laws are inter-related is missing so far, let alone whether they can be understood through a common, dynamical principle. We propose a simple model for stationary network formation and show that the three mentioned scaling relations follow as natural consequences of triadic closure. The validity of the model is tested on multiplex data from a well studied massive multiplayer online game. We find that the three scaling exponents observed in the multiplex data for the friendship, communication and trading networks can simultaneously be explained by the model. These results suggest that triadic closure could be identified as one of the fundamental dynamical principles in social multiplex network formation.

  14. Social Media in Adult Education: Insights Gained from Grundtvig Learning Partnership Project “Institutional Strategies Targeting the Uptake of Social Networking in Adult Education (ISTUS)”

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhelmina Vaičiūnienė; Viktorija Mažeikienė

    2013-01-01

    Purpose—the focus of this article is the role of social media in adult education and their impact on adult students in regards to their educational needs and specific personal situations within the frame of the learning partnership project. The Grundtvig learning partnership project “Institutional Strategies Targeting the Uptake of Social Networking in Adult Education (ISTUS) is an international partnership that includes partners from 7 EU countries. The aim of the research presented i...

  15. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  16. Attachment and Social Preferences in Cooperatively-Reared Cotton-Top Tamarins

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTAN, KAREN M.; SNOWDON, CHARLES T.

    2002-01-01

    In many primate species a close attachment between mother and infant provides a secure base for the infant when the infant is frightened or under stress. In cooperatively breeding primates infant carrying is divided among several individuals in the group, with the mother often doing little more than nursing. In these species it is not clear which individual would best serve as a secure base for the infant. We studied eight infant cotton-top tamarins from birth through 20 weeks of age, noting ...

  17. Social Interaction with Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Having Fun and Hanging Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…

  18. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  19. Characteristics of Social Skills for Adults with Intellectual Disability, Autism and PDD-NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Dempsey, Timothy; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    Social skills deficits and excesses are defining characteristics of intellectual disability (ID). Despite this, there is an unfortunate lack of research on the patterns and profiles of social behavior, particularly with adults who are severely intellectually disabled. This paper provides an analysis of social skill patterns for adults living in…

  20. Sex-Specific Relationships among Attachment Security, Social Values, and Sensation Seeking in Early Adolescence: Implications for Adolescents' Externalizing Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarracino, Diego; Presaghi, Fabio; Degni, Silvia; Innamorati, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In early adolescence, attachment security reflects not only the quality of ongoing relationships with parents, but also how adolescents process social relationships with "others"--that is, their "social value orientation"--with possible implications for adolescents' risk-taking. In this study, a sample of Italian early adolescents were…

  1. Understanding individuals’ attachment to social networking sites: An empirical investigation of three theories

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Eric Tze Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are a pervasive phenomenon in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled via web technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge geographical and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences, socializing with others and much more. This thesis therefore endeavors to shed light on this problem by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bond-based and com...

  2. Corticosterone may interact with peripubertal development to shape adult resistance to social defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latsko, Maeson S; Farnbauch, Laure A; Gilman, T Lee; Lynch, Joseph F; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-06-01

    Studies of social stress in adult mice have revealed two distinct defeat-responsive behavioral phenotypes; "susceptible" and "resistant," characterized by social avoidance and social interaction, respectively. Typically, these phenotypes are observed at least 1day after the last defeat in adults, but may extend up to 30days later. The current study examined the impact of peripubertal social defeat on immediate (1day) and adult (30day) social stress phenotypes and neuroendocrine function in male C57BL/6 mice. Initially, peripubertal (P32) mice were resistant to social defeat. When the same mice were tested for social interaction again as adults (P62), two phenotypes emerged; a group of mice were characterized as susceptible evidenced by significantly lower social interaction, whereas the remaining mice exhibited normal social interaction, characteristic of resistance. A repeated analysis of corticosterone revealed that the adult (P62) resistant mice had elevated corticosterone following the social interaction test as juveniles. This was when all mice, regardless of adult phenotype, displayed equivalent levels of social interaction. Peripubertal corticosterone was positively correlated with adult social interaction levels in defeated mice, suggesting early life stress responsiveness impacts adult social behavior. In addition, adult corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was elevated in all defeated mice, but there were no differences in CRF mRNA expression between the phenotypes. Thus, there is a delayed appearance of social stress-responsive phenotypes suggesting that early life stress exposure, combined with the resultant physiological responses, may interact with pubertal development to influence adult social behavior. PMID:27108196

  3. How do relationships support parenting? Effects of attachment style and social support on parenting behavior in an at-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol

    2007-09-01

    The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed. PMID:17610062

  4. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Alarcón Patricia; Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo; Doubova (Dubova) Svetlana; Flores-Hernández Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the ...

  5. Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: The internet encyclopedia Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocci, A.; Servedio, V. D. P.; Colaiori, F.; Buriol, L. S.; Donato, D.; Leonardi, S.; Caldarelli, G.

    2006-09-01

    We present an analysis of the statistical properties and growth of the free on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia. By describing topics by vertices and hyperlinks between them as edges, we can represent this encyclopedia as a directed graph. The topological properties of this graph are in close analogy with those of the World Wide Web, despite the very different growth mechanism. In particular, we measure a scale-invariant distribution of the in and out degree and we are able to reproduce these features by means of a simple statistical model. As a major consequence, Wikipedia growth can be described by local rules such as the preferential attachment mechanism, though users, who are responsible of its evolution, can act globally on the network.

  6. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  7. Addressing Social Determinants of Health by Integrating Assessment of Caregiver-Child Attachment into Community Based Primary Health Care in Urban Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Racheal Nduku Ndambuki; Paul Campbell Erwin; Susanna Williams; Bryant, Nancy H.; Bryant, John H.

    2012-01-01

    A principle strategic insight of the Final Report for WHO’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) is that the nurturant qualities of the environments where children grow up, live, and learn matter the most for their development. A key determinant of early childhood development is the establishment of a secure attachment between a caregiver and child. We report initial field-tests of the integration of caregiver-child attachment assessment by community health workers (CHWs) as a r...

  8. Phobias of attachment-related inner states in the psychotherapy of adult survivors of childhood complex trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    The clinical case described in this article illustrates the value of taking into account the dynamics of disorganized attachment in the assessment of attachment-related phobias (phobia of attachment and phobia of attachment loss) during the psychotherapy of chronically traumatized patients. These seemingly opposite phobias typically coexist in the same patient, appear as phobias of both inner states (affect phobias) and relational experiences, and are linked to dissociated representations of self-with-other. Theory and research on attachment disorganization provide a clinician-friendly conceptual framework for capturing both the intrapsychic (e.g., intrusive and nonintegrated mental states) and the relational (e.g., dramatic unsolvable dilemmas in interpersonal exchanges) aspects of the attachment-related phobias. The therapeutic strategy and the key interventions that logically follow from a case formulation based on this conceptual framework are examined. PMID:24037602

  9. Rethinking Social Justice and Adult Education for Welcoming, Inclusive Communities: Synthesis of Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth; Baillie Abidi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the key themes across the articles on transnational migration, social inclusion, and adult education, using Nancy Fraser's framework of redistributive, recognitive, and representational justice.

  10. Social Support Seeking in Relation to Parental Attachment and Peer Relationships among Victims of Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševcíková, Anna; Machácková, Hana; Wright, Michelle F.; Dedková, Lenka; Cerná, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Victims use social support seeking (SSS) to buffer the negative effects of cyberbullying. It is unknown whether cybervictims' perceptions of harm and having poor peer and parental relationships influence SSS. Using a sample of 451 cyberbullying-victims, aged 12-18, 68% girls, this study examined relationships of gender, harm, peer rejection,…

  11. The Effectiveness of Social Stories[TM] to Develop Social Interactions with Adults with Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Rachel; Stansfield, Jois

    2012-01-01

    Most research into the effectiveness of Social Stories has focused on children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examines the use of Social Stories with four adults with learning disabilities and social communication impairments characteristic of ASD. This study employed an N = 1 multiple-baseline, across-participant, AB design with…

  12. Indicators of Youth Social Capital: The Case for Not Using Adult Indicators in the Measurement of Youth Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    Social capital is a difficult concept to define, and the task of defining the social capital of youth is even more complicated. The concept has not only been poorly researched but is also imperfectly understood. This article examines the problems faced in the use of adult indicators in youth social capital research and explores current…

  13. Social isolation, C-reactive protein, and coronary heart disease mortality among community-dwelling adults

    OpenAIRE

    Heffner, Kathi L.; Waring, Molly E.; Mary B. Roberts; Charles B Eaton; Gramling, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Social isolation confers increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and mortality. In two recent studies, low levels of social integration among older adults were related to higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, suggesting a possible biological link between social isolation and CHD. The current study examined relationships among social isolation, CRP, and 15-year CHD death in a community sample of US adults aged 40 years and older without a prior his...

  14. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found tha...

  15. Demographic and social characteristics of adults with cystic fibrosis in the United Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, S.; Britton, J.; Hodson, M E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To obtain information about social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle of adult patients with cystic fibrosis, including those who do not attend major specialist clinics. DESIGN--Confidential self completion postal questionnaire to adult patients with cystic fibrosis, asking about social and demographic characteristics, social class and occupation, employment, education, insurance and social security benefits, symptom severity, and medical care. SETTING--National associat...

  16. Children and Adults use Attractiveness as a Social Cue in Real People and Avatars

    OpenAIRE

    Principe, Connor P.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2013-01-01

    Observing social interactions between children and adults is a major method in the toolkit of psychologists who examine social development and social relationships. Although this method has revealed many interesting phenomena, it cannot determine the effect of behavior independent of other traits. Research on the role of attractiveness in social development provides an example of this conundrum: Are attractive and unattractive children/adults treated differently because of their attractivenes...

  17. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Germine; Dunn, Erin C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in ch...

  18. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-bas...

  19. "I'm attached, and I'm a good guy/gal!": how character attachment influences pro- and anti-social motivations to play massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas David; Schultheiss, Daniel; Schumann, Christina

    2012-03-01

    One's feelings of intimacy and connectedness with distal, fictional media characters are referred to as parasocial interactions. Video games have challenged this concept, as the distance between game players and characters is greatly reduced, if not completely removed, in virtual environments. Games encourage the internalization and psychological merging of a player's and a character's mind, a multidimensional concept known as character attachment (CA). Data from our study suggest that dimensions of CA are useful in understanding both pro- and anti-social gaming motivations. Pro-social gamers feel a greater sense of control over their characters, while anti-social gamers are more likely to suspend their disbelief of the game environment and not take responsibility for their virtual actions. Pro-social gaming was more prevalent in older gamers, and younger male game characters were motivated by anti-social reasons. PMID:22339552

  20. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  1. Social Competence of Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with Severe Deprivation History: I. An Individual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…

  2. PREDICTORS OF A CHILDâS SOCIAL SKILLS ASIT RELATES TO MOTHER ATTACHMENT STYLES AND MOTHER ANXIETY LEVELS AMONG STUDENTS IN GRADES (1-3)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaeld Shaker Alsaraireh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the predictors of a childâs social skills from mother attachment styles and anxiety levels among students in (1-3) grades in Amman city. A sample of (250) mothers for students in (1-3) grades in Amman city were selected through purposive sampling methods. Three instruments were used (Attachment Style Questionnaire, Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) and Trait Anxiety Inventory) to measure the study variable. The study results revealed that most of the attachm...

  3. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  4. Adult separation anxiety in treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders: delineation of the syndrome and exploration of attachment-based psychotherapy and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin

    2016-04-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (pbrief, manualized, attachment-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, potentially supporting the clinical relevance of attachment dysfunction in this

  5. The influence of family, friend, and coworker social support and social undermining on weight gain prevention among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Examine longitudinal associations between sources of social support and social undermining for healthy eating and physical activity and weight change. Design and Methods Data are from 633 employed adults participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Primary predictors included social support and social undermining for two types of behaviors (healthy eating and physical activity) from three sources (family, friends, and coworkers) obtained via...

  6. The influence of family, friend, and coworker social support and social undermining on weight gain prevention among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine longitudinal associations between sources of social support and social undermining for healthy eating and physical activity and weight change. Design and Methods Data are from 633 employed adults participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Primary predictors included social support and social undermining for two types of behaviors (healthy eating and physical activity) from three sources (family, friends, and coworkers) obtained via ...

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

  8. The Social Outcomes of Older Adult Learning in Taiwan: Evaluation Framework and Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older…

  9. Developmental effects of vasotocin and nonapeptide receptors on early social attachment and affiliative behavior in the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Sklar, Nathan C; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Zebra finches demonstrate selective affiliation between juvenile offspring and parents, which, like affiliation between pair partners, is characterized by proximity, vocal communication and contact behaviors. This experiment tested the hypothesis that the nonapeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homologue of vasopressin) and nonapeptide receptors play a role prior to fledging in the development of affiliative behavior. Zebra finch hatchlings of both sexes received daily intracranial injections (post-hatch days 2-8) of either AVT, Manning Compound (MC, a potent V1a receptor antagonist) or saline (vehicle control). The social development of both sexes was assessed by measuring responsiveness to isolation from the family and subsequent reunion with the male parent after fledging. In addition, we assessed the changes in affiliation with the parents, unfamiliar males, and unfamiliar females each week throughout juvenile development. Compared to controls, MC subjects showed decreased attachment to the parents and MC males did not show the normal increase in affiliative interest in opposite sex individuals as they reached reproductive maturity. In contrast, AVT subjects showed a sustained affiliative interest in parents throughout development, and males showed increased interest in opposite sex conspecifics as they matured. These results provide the first evidence suggesting that AVT and nonapeptide receptors play organizational roles in social development in a bird. PMID:26476409

  10. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented...

  11. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women. PMID:25051319

  12. I am resting but rest less well with you. The Moderating Effect of Anxious Attachment Style on Alpha Power during EEG Resting State in a Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.M.I. Verbeke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A or together (T. We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants’ cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T versus A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants’ anxious attachment style.

  13. Integrating intention and context: assessing social cognition in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Baez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS. Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adults diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind, empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. Executive functions did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome.

  14. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  15. Mind-Mindedness as a Multidimensional Construct: Appropriate and Nonattuned Mind-Related Comments Independently Predict Infant-Mother Attachment in a Socially Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; de Rosnay, Marc; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; Turner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In a socially diverse sample of 206 infant-mother pairs, we investigated predictors of infants' attachment security at 15 months, with a particular emphasis on mothers' tendency to comment appropriately or in a non-attuned manner on their 8-month-olds' internal states (so-called mind-mindedness). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed…

  16. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  17. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  18. Cell attachment to frozen sections of injured adult mouse brain: effects of tenascin antibody and lectin perturbation of wound-related extracellular matrix molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laywell, E D; Friedman, P; Harrington, K; Robertson, J T; Steindler, D A

    1996-06-01

    Previous studies describing the use of cryoculture methods have focused on the efficacy of the method for studying neuron attachment and neurite outgrowth on intact sections of nerve, and rodent and even human brain. The cryoculture method has shown promise for determining the presence of cell attachment- and neurite-growth-inhibiting molecules in such specimens, and some studies have also attempted to neutralize such molecules with antibodies to myelin inhibitory proteins, nerve growth factor, or factors present in conditioned media that may counteract the repulsiveness of some of these molecules preserved in sections of, for example, myelinated nerves or adult brain white matter. The present study describes the novel use of lesioned central nervous system cryocultures as substrates for investigating the attachment of embryonic neurons and PC12 cells. In addition to demonstrating the use of this novel scar substrate to extend previous 'scar-in-a-dish' models (David et al. (1990) Neuron, 5:463-469; Rudge and Silver (1990) J. Neurosci., 10: 3594-3603; Rudge et al. (1989) Exp. Neurol., 103: 1-16), the present study also describes antibody and lectin perturbations of putative inhibitory molecules that result in an enhanced attachment of cells to cryosection cultures of brain and spinal cord wounds. PMID:8835793

  19. Psychological, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated With Utilization of Senior Centers Among Older Adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Shik; Miyashita, Masashi; Harada, Kazuhiro; PARK, JONG-HWAN; So, Jae-Moo; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among the psychological, social, and environmental factors influencing the utilization of senior centers among older adults in Korea. Methods A questionnaire survey was administered to two types of older adults who lived in Seoul, Korea: 262 older adults who used senior centers (3 places) and 156 older adults who did not use senior centers. Results Our results showed clearly that the utilization of the senior centers in Kore...

  20. Intergenerational Transfers to Adult Children in Europe: Do Social Policies Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves…

  1. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  2. The Relationship of Perceived Social Support with Well-Being in Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…

  3. The Importance of Emotional and Social Isolation to Loneliness among Very Old Rural Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Elizabeth; Kivett, Vira R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relative importance of emotional and social isolation to loneliness among very old rural adults (n=119). Found that emotional isolation, specifically loss of spouse, accounted for more loneliness than did social isolation. Hearing acuity and visits with siblings (social isolation variables) also were significant predictors of loneliness.…

  4. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  5. "'I Am Canada': Exploring Social Responsibility in Social Studies Using Young Adult Historical Fiction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores educating for democratic citizenship with a focus on the intersection between reading and values, specifically the nurturing of social responsibility. Using a pre-designed framework for teaching for social responsibility, excerpts from a young adult historical fiction series are used to consider learning possibilities in the…

  6. Participation and Social Inclusion in Adults with Aphasia: Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rodríguez Riaño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the scope and status of related research with the participation and social inclusion of adults with aphasia connected with the published literature. Materials and Methods: Descriptive analytic study on publications registered in Medline/PubMed, EBSCO and EMBASE from 2005 to 2013, 97 related documents were selected and classified into, eight common vari­ables for its study and were analyzed according to the article distribution by thematic core, year of publication and database. Results: The most represented core theme was inclusion, participa­tion, access and rights of persons with aphasia and their families and environments; production of these documents is increased between 2010 and 2011. Documents related to inclusive intern­ships for people with aphasia represented the second more representative thematic focus. Conclu­sions: Literature recognizes that elements related to family and their immediate environments are essential to ensure participation and independence of people with aphasia. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF should become the rehabilitation log for professionals to guide therapeutic actions, aimed at the inclusion and participation of people with aphasia in different contexts, and mainly to promote a successful return to a productive daily life. This rehabilitation opportunity toward independence and autonomy promotes self-esteem, identity and inclusion opportunities.

  7. Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

    2010-04-01

    Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites. PMID:20528274

  8. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  9. Social participation reduces depressive symptoms among older adults: An 18-year longitudinal analysis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botticello Amanda L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little empirical attention has focused on the association between social participation and depressive symptoms amongst older adults in Asian nations, where persons over the age of 65 represent a rapidly growing segment of the population. This study explores the dynamic relationship between participation in social activities and trajectories of depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese adults surveyed over 18 years. Methods Data are from a nationally representative sample of 1,388 adults aged 60-64 first surveyed in 1989 and followed over an 18-year time period for a total of six waves. Individual involvement in social activities was categorized into continuous participation, ceased participation before age 70, initiating participation in older adulthood, never participated, and dropped out before age 70. Two domains of depressive symptoms--negative affect and lack of positive affect--were measured using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Results Analyses using growth curve modeling showed that continuously participating or initiating participation in social activities later life is significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese adults, even after controlling for the confounding effects of aging, individual demographic differences, and health status. Conclusions These findings suggest that maintaining or initiating social participation in later life benefits the mental health of older adults. Facilitating social activities among older adults is a promising direction for programs intended to promote mental health and successful aging among older adults in Taiwan.

  10. Social embeddedness as a mechanism for linking social cohesion to well-being among older adults: moderating effect of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momtaz YA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,1 Sharifah Azizah Haron,2 Rahimah Ibrahim,3 Tengku Aizan Hamid3 1Institute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Institute of Gerontology, Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Institute of Gerontology, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Background: The positive effect of social cohesion on well-being in older adults has been well documented. However, relatively few studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms by which social cohesion influences well-being. The main aim of the current study is to identify social pathways in which social cohesion may contribute to well-being. Methods: The data for this study (taken from 1,880 older adults, aged 60 years and older were drawn from a national survey conducted during 2008–2009. The survey employed a two-stage stratified sampling process for data collection. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediating and moderating analyses. Results: The proposed model documented a good fit to the data (GFI =98; CFI =0.99; RMSEA =0.04. The findings from bootstrap analysis and the Sobel test revealed that the impact of social cohesion on well-being is significantly mediated by social embeddedness (Z=5.62; P<0.001. Finally, the results of a multigroup analysis test showed that social cohesion influences well-being through the social embeddedness mechanism somewhat differently for older men than women. Conclusion: The findings of this study, in addition to supporting the importance of neighborhood social cohesion for the well-being of older adults, also provide evidence that the impact of social cohesion towards well-being is mediated through the mechanism of social embeddedness. Keywords: aged, social embeddedness, social cohesion, well-being

  11. Marijuana Use Motives and Social Anxiety among Marijuana Using Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2007-01-01

    Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M age = 18.74, SD = 1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interest...

  12. Immigration, Transition into Adult Life and Social Adversity in Relation to Psychological Distress and Suicide Attempts among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Hellner-Gumpert, Clara; Fredlund, Peeter; Dalman, Christina; Hallqvist, Johan; Isacsson, Goran; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people is a major concern in many Western countries. The causal mechanisms underlying these trends are not well established, but factors influenced by current societal changes ought to be implicated. Such factors include immigration and social adversity as well as the timing of taking on adult social roles (e.g. gainful employment, parenthood and own housing tenure). We therefore examined relationships between these fa...

  13. An Examination of Three Models of the Relationships between Parental Attachments and Adolescents' Social Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2008-01-01

    Three models of attachment relationships--the hierarchy model, the integrative model and the independent model--were compared in order to elucidate which best described the relationship between attachments to fathers versus mothers and its developmental consequences among 1,289 eighth grade students in Taiwan. These consequences included…

  14. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    OpenAIRE

    Juen Florian; Arnold Lisa; Meissner Dominik; Nolte Tobias; Buchheim Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attach...

  15. Reactivity to Exclusion Prospectively Predicts Social Anxiety Symptoms in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Langer, Julia K.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization leads to negative outcomes such as increased anxiety and depression. The prospective relationship between peer victimization and social anxiety in children and adolescents is well established, and adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are more likely than individuals with other anxiety disorders to report a history of teasing. However, a crucial bridge between these findings (peer victimization in young adults) is missing. We manipulated perceptions of peer exclusion in...

  16. Show me your friends, and I shall show you who you are: the way attachment and social comparisons influence body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Lilac; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar; Zohar, Ada H

    2014-11-01

    Women with attachment insecurity have greater eating disorder symptoms and poorer prognosis. Socio-cultural agents, such as peers and family, are predictive of the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID). The present study examines the association of insecure attachment styles and direct and indirect social comparisons of body image to women's BID and drive to thinness. Two hundred and eighty three women aged 18-42 years completed online self-reports concerning attachment styles, body mass index (BMI), drive for thinness, body image satisfaction, the Figure Rating Scale (FRS), as well as a modified FRS comparing self to mother, to sister closest in age and to best friend. Hierarchical Linear Models reveal that anxious-ambivalent, but not avoidant attachment style, along with indirect and direct comparisons to best friend and to sister influence drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, even after controlling for BMI and age. Of all social comparisons, feeling one's best friend is thinner than yourself is the most detrimental to body ideal. PMID:25257536

  17. Social Media & Mobile Internet Use among Teens and Young Adults. Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Purcell, Kristen; Smith, Aaron; Zickuhr, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, blogging has dropped among teens and young adults while simultaneously rising among older adults. As the tools and technology embedded in social networking sites change, and use of the sites continues to grow, youth may be exchanging "macro blogging" for microblogging with status updates. Blogging has declined in popularity among both…

  18. Adult Education, Social Change and Development in Post-Colonial Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Shermaine Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to demonstrate how adult education enabled the process of economic and social change, and national development in Jamaica through a critical review of two cases of adult education provisions in Jamaica since the country gained independence in 1962. Content analysis of various documents from primary…

  19. The Social and Recreational Characteristics of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Pica Living in Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Melody; Hirdes, John P.; Martin, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the social life of adults with intellectual disability (ID) who engage in pica behaviour (i.e., ingestion of non-food items). Secondary analyses were conducted on the population of adults residing in Ontario's three remaining specialized institutions for persons with ID (N = 1008); 220 individuals (21.8%) had pica. All…

  20. Facial Emotion Processing and Social Adaptation in Adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Rojahn, Johannes; Zaja, Rebecca H.; Jodra, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and individuals with intellectual disabilities without ASD have limited facial emotion recognition abilities, which may adversely impact social adjustment and other adaptive behavior. This study was designed to examine this relationship in adults with and without ASD. Two groups of adults with…

  1. Adults' Social Cues Facilitate Young Children's Use of Signs and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Solomon, Tracy L.; Teoh, Yee-San

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effect of an adult's social cues on 2- and 3-year-old children's ability to use a sign or symbol to locate a hidden object. Results showed that an adult's positive, engaging facial expression facilitated children's ability to identify the correct referent, particularly for 3-year-olds. A neutral facial expression…

  2. Health Literacy and Social Capital: What Role for Adult Literacy Partnerships and Pedagogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen; Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for adult literacy (including numeracy) practitioners to play a greater role in health literacy initiatives in Australia. The paper draws on data from a national research project that investigated adult literacy partnerships and pedagogy viewed from a social capital perspective. The primary purpose of the project was to…

  3. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…

  4. Childhood Trauma and Current Psychological Functioning in Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Janice R.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. P...

  5. Perceived Stress and Social Networks among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Gerds, Thomas Alexander;

    Individuals reporting high stress are engaging in social interactions more frequently via calls and text messages, and they appear to spend shorter time in social interactions meeting face-to-face with fellow students. This pattern is also reflected in the self-reported social interactions where ...

  6. Teaching Social Living Skills; Adult Basic Education, a Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Herbert

    A variety of methods in instructing adults is presented in this teacher's manual which also mentions the availability of packets of instructional materials and lists the subject areas covered. To this is added comments on the background material for the adult teacher, and on the importance of aims, motivation, and development in lesson plans for…

  7. Adolescent Social Defeat Induced Alterations in Social Behavior and Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Mice: Effects of Developmental Stage and Social Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Sanna; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using “resident-intruder” stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In Experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, postnatal days [PND] 28–37), late adolescence (LA, PND 38–47), and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70–79) and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST), were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning (RL) on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) in adulthood but not during adolescence. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress) on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in Experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive

  8. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SusanCJohnson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors—their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers—are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred and seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1976. The A allele at OXTR rs2254298 was associated with attachment security in the non-Caucasian infants (p < .005. These findings underscore the importance of oxytocin in the development of human social behavior and support its role in social stress-regulation and the development of trust.

  9. Social context, social abstention, and problem recognition correlated with adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Gitte Wrist; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, Lisbeth Bach;

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to describe types of social contexts and abstention from social activity in women reporting urinary incontinence (UI); to identify social contexts and social abstention specifically associated with clinical UI subtypes; to relate clinical type of UI, social context and social abstention...

  10. SOME ASPECTS OF THE SOCIAL REHABILITATION OF THE DISABLED ADULT PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris PARIZOV

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Social rehabilitation is very important process in the integration of the disabled adult persons in the environment of their living.Bearing this in mind, in this work with accomplished questionnaire andinterview in which are enclosed the questions like: family status, relations in the family and in the environment, possibility for communication, kind of the cares, architectural barriers and etc. With this research are received definite awareness for the situation of the disabled adult persons. On the basis of received information,here are given measures and suggestions for improvement the social rehabilitation of the disabled adult persons and for successful integration in the living ambient.

  11. Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man

    2012-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…

  12. The Social Value of Community-Based Adult Education in Limerick City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Patricia; O'Dwyer, Maria; Power, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This article documents the findings of a qualitative study into the social value of community-based adult education in Limerick City. The article demonstrates that participants experience significant improvements in numerous facets of their lives and we argue that it is crucial that we recognise the multiple and inter-connected social impacts that…

  13. Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

  14. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  15. Perceptions of Preservice Early Educators: How Adults Support Preschoolers' Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaMattera, Julie N.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that for preschool-age children, social skills can have a profound effect on, and be a predictor of, future societal success and school achievement. Therefore, it is essential that young children develop appropriate social behaviors. To do this, preschoolers need support and guidance from the adults in their life: parents, family, and…

  16. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  17. [Social continuity of changes in the demographic behavior of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharova, V; Petrova, I

    1997-01-01

    The authors review population trends among young adults in the Czech Republic using 1996 survey data, with a focus on the influence of social connections on family formation and reproductive behavior. Aspects considered include social and economic conditions, variety of life styles, marriage postponement, and fertility decline. (ANNOTATION) PMID:12321324

  18. Adult learning and social inequalities: Processes of equalisation or cumulative disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Vono de Vilhena, Daniela; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2015-08-01

    Adult learning is an increasingly important form of education in globalised and aging societies. While current policy recommendations tend to focus on increasing participation rates, the authors of this article argue that higher participation rates do not necessarily lead to lower social/educational inequalities in participation. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between social inequalities and adult learning by exploring cross-national patterns of participation in different adult learning activities and the consequences of participation on individual labour market trajectories. The empirical basis of the paper is an analysis of 13 country studies (as well as two cross-national analyses) brought together by the international comparative research project "Education as a lifelong process - comparing educational trajectories in modern societies" ( eduLIFE). Despite wide variations in participation rates across countries, mechanisms of social/educational inequality in engagement in job-related adult learning tend to be relatively similar across countries, in particular with regard to non-formal learning. Effects tend most frequently to be a presence of cumulative advantage, though in some countries a certain degree of equalisation is noticeable with regard to formal adult education. The authors conclude that it is relatively clear that currently almost no country is truly able to reduce social inequalities through adult learning. Their recommendation is that public policy makers should place greater emphasis on making adult learning more accessible (in terms of entry requirements, affordability as well as motivation) to underrepresented groups, in particular those who are educationally disadvantaged.

  19. Childhood and adult social conditions and risk of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Armin J.; Ling, Paul; Palm, Frederik; Urbanek, Christian; Becher, Heiko; Buggle, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic conditions may strongly influence the risk of stroke. We tested the hypotheses that indexes of social status in different life periods including childhood are inversely associated with stroke risk and that there is a cumulative effect of social conditions during lifetime on the risk of stroke. Furthermore, we investigated whether social advancement compared to the parental generation is associated with reduced stroke risk. Methods: In a case-control study, we assesse...

  20. Impact of robot responsiveness and adult involvement on children's social behaviours in human-robot interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, David; Fernando, Samuel; Collins, Emily; Millings, Abigail; Moore, Roger; Sharkey, Amanda; Prescott, Tony

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in developing engaging social robots is creating convincing, autonomous and responsive agents, which users perceive, and treat, as social beings. As a part of the collaborative project: Expressive Agents for Symbiotic Education and Learning (EASEL), this study examines the impact of autonomous response to children's speech, by the humanoid robot Zeno, on their interactions with it as a social entity. Results indicate that robot autonomy and adult assistance during HRI can subs...

  1. Overview of outcome measurement for adults using social care services and support

    OpenAIRE

    Netten, Ann

    2011-01-01

    What is meant by outcome inevitably varies depending on the context and scope of what is under consideration. This review discusses the measurement of outcome for individuals and their carers for research purposes, particularly the type of research which evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of social care for adults and which has implications for social care practice. The review discusses what is meant by outcome in social care, presenting a model that describes different ‘types...

  2. Speech Presentation Cues Moderate Frontal EEG Asymmetry in Socially Withdrawn Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Claire; Zapp, Daniel J.; Nelson, S. Katherine; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2011-01-01

    Socially withdrawn individuals display solitary behavior across wide contexts with both unfamiliar and familiar peers. This tendency to withdraw may be driven by either past or anticipated negative social encounters. In addition, socially withdrawn individuals often exhibit right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry at baseline and when under stress. In the current study we examined shifts in frontal EEG activity in young adults (N=41) at baseline, as they viewed either an anxiety-pro...

  3. Impact of Interpersonal Trauma on the Social Functioning of Adults With First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stain, H. J.; Brønnick, K.; Hegelstad, W.T.V.; Joa, I.; Johannessen, J.O.; Langeveld, J.; Mawn, L.; Larsen, T.K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Social functioning is an important treatment outcome for psychosis, and yet, we know little about its relationship to trauma despite high rates of trauma in people with psychosis. Childhood trauma is likely to disrupt the acquisition of interpersonal relatedness skills including the desire for affiliation and thus lead to impaired social functioning in adulthood. Aims: We hypothesized that childhood trauma would be a predictor of poor social functioning for adults with psychosis a...

  4. The Development of a Social Anxiety Measure for Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    OpenAIRE

    Kreiser, Nicole Lyn

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous studies documenting the high prevalence of social anxiety in children and adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD), there has been little empirical investigation into methods for the assessment of social anxiety in this population. The purpose of this study was to create an empirically derived screening instrument to measure subjective feelings of social anxiety in adolescents and adults with HFASD. Based on a thorough review of the literature in t...

  5. Study on the Adult Attachment Styles of the Outpatients with Anxiety Disorder%门诊焦虑障碍患者的成人依恋类型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛莹; 杨蕴萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:探索精神科门诊焦虑障碍患者的成人依恋类型特点.方法:对符合简要国际神经精神科访谈工具(MINI)中文版诊断的123名焦虑障碍患者和123名健康人予以亲密关系体验问卷中文版修订版(ECR-R)、状态-特质焦虑量表(STAI)测试.结果:①焦虑障碍组不安全依恋类型比例(57%)、ECR-R焦虑维度、回避维度及STAI分值显著高于正常对照组.②不安全依恋类型者罹患焦虑障碍的风险是安全型的4.88倍,其中恐惧型风险最大,是安全型的15.02倍,迷恋型者是4.38倍,淡漠型是3.76倍.③不同依恋类型的焦虑障碍患者STAI分值差异显著,其中恐惧型患者的焦虑水平最高.病例组安全型被试的STAI分值显著高于对照组安全型.结论:焦虑障碍患者中不安全依恋类型占多数,不安全依恋类型是罹患焦虑障碍的重要危险因素,其中恐惧型的风险最大.%Objective: To study the trait of the adult attachment styles of the outpatients with anxiety disorders. Methods: Anxiety disorders of 123 outpatients meeting the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were assessed by Experience of Close Relationship-Revised Version(ECR-R), State-trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI). Results: ①Compared with control group, social anxiety disorders group had higher rate of insecure adult attachment styles, higher scores in E-CR-R anxiety and avoidance and the STAI. ②Insecure style had 4.88 times of the risk of the anxiety disorders, fearful style had the highest risk (15.02 times), preoccupied style had 4.38 times and dismissing style had 3.76 times. ③There were significant difference of STAI on the adult attachment within case group, fearful style with the highest level of anxiety. The score of STAI was higher of the participant with secure style in case group than control group. Conclusion: Insecure adult attachment styls are majority among anxiety disorder patients and it is the important risk factor of the

  6. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition –the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships– is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger’s syndrome (AS (DSM-V. However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a assess multiple social cognition domains, (b examine executive functions, (c follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012 addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients’ performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia. Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing.

  7. Children and adults use attractiveness as a social cue in real people and avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Connor P; Langlois, Judith H

    2013-07-01

    Observing social interactions between children and adults is a major method in the toolkit of psychologists who examine social development and social relationships. Although this method has revealed many interesting phenomena, it cannot determine the effect of behavior independent of other traits. Research on the role of attractiveness in social development provides an example of this conundrum: Are attractive and unattractive children/adults treated differently because of their attractiveness (independent of their behavior), do they behave differently and thus elicit differential treatment, or both? Virtual world and avatar-based technologies allow researchers to control the social behaviors of targets; however, whether children and adults use the facial attractiveness of avatars as a social cue in the same way as they do with real peers is currently unknown. Using Mii avatars from the popular Nintendo Wii video game console, Study 1 found that the facial attractiveness ratings of real people strongly predicted the attractiveness ratings of avatar faces based on the former group. Study 2 revealed that adults (n=46) and children (n=42) prefer attractive avatars as social partners. The results of this set of methodological studies may help to clarify future research on the relationship between attractiveness and behavior throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, the use of avatars may allow studies to experimentally examine the effects of attractiveness in situations where such research is not ethical (e.g., peer victimization). PMID:23399311

  8. Mothers' attachment styles and their children's self-reported security, as related to maternal socialization of children's positive affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Black, Katelyn R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how mothers' attachment was related to their responses to their own and their children's positive events and positive affect (PA). Ninety-seven mothers reported on their attachment and their responses to their own and their 7-12-year-old children's positive events and emotions. Children reported on their mothers' responses to the children's positive events and their attachment security with their mothers. The results indicated that more avoidant mothers reported less intense PA in response to their own and their children's positive events. More avoidant mothers also were less likely to encourage their children to savor positive events (through expressing PA, reflecting on PA or themselves, giving rewards, and affectionate responses). Mothers higher on anxiety reported greater likelihood of dampening (e.g., minimizing the event's importance) their own positive events and reported being more likely to feel discomfort and to reprimand their children for expressing PA. Children's security was predicted by mothers' lower likelihood of encouraging children's dampening and of reprimanding children for PA displays. This study advances the literature on how mothers' attachment is related to the ways in which they regulate their own and their children's PA, which may have implications for children's attachment and developing PA regulation. PMID:26095911

  9. Revisiting the causes of stress in social work:sources of job demands, control and support in personalised adult social care

    OpenAIRE

    Wilberforce, Mark; Jacobs, Sally; Challis, David; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin; Jasper, Rowan; Fernandez, Jose-Luis; Glendinning, Caroline; Jones, Karen; Knapp, Martin; Moran, Nicola Elizabeth; Netten, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Social workers in adult social care are at particular risk of job-related stress, although the contribution of different organisational and policy changes to this phenomenon is subject to debate. This paper explores a theoretical framework from the occupational psychology literature (the Job Demand/Control Model) to identify the characteristics of those most at risk of stress, in a sample of 249 social workers and other care managers working in English adult social services from the Individua...

  10. Neonatal melanocortin receptor agonist treatment reduces play fighting and promotes adult attachment in prairie voles in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Catherine E; Modi, Meera E; Zhang, Billy C; Walum, Hasse; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J

    2014-10-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) system has been studied extensively for its role in feeding and sexual behavior, but effects on social behavior have received little attention. α-MSH interacts with neural systems involved in sociality, including oxytocin, dopamine, and opioid systems. Acute melanotan-II (MTII), an MC3/4R agonist, potentiates brain oxytocin (OT) release and facilitates OT-dependent partner preference formation in socially monogamous prairie voles. Here we examined the long-term impact of early-life MCR stimulation on hypothalamic neuronal activity and social development in prairie voles. Male and female voles were given daily subcutaneous injections of 10 mg/kg MTII or saline between postnatal days (PND) 1-7. Neonatally-treated males displayed a reduction in initiated play fighting bouts as juveniles compared to control males. Neonatal exposure to MTII facilitated partner preference formation in adult females, but not males, after a brief cohabitation with an opposite-sex partner. Acute MTII injection elicited a significant burst of the immediate early gene EGR-1 immunoreactivity in hypothalamic OT, vasopressin, and corticotrophin releasing factor neurons, when tested in PND 6-7 animals. Daily neonatal treatment with 1 mg/kg of a more selective, brain penetrant MC4R agonist, PF44687, promoted adult partner preferences in both females and males compared with vehicle controls. Thus, developmental exposure to MCR agonists lead to a persistent change in social behavior, suggestive of structural or functional changes in the neural circuits involved in the formation of social relationships. PMID:24923239

  11. Depression, Social Isolation, and the Lived Experience of Dancing in Disadvantaged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Graor, Christine Heifner

    2016-02-01

    This qualitative study described the lived experience of dancing as it related to depression and social isolation in 16 disadvantaged adults who completed a 12-week dance intervention. It is the first qualitative study to explore the experience of dance as an adjunct therapy, depression, and social isolation. A descriptive phenomenological framework consisted of two focus groups using semi-structured interviews. A Giorgian approach guided thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) dance for myself and health, (2) social acceptance, (3) connection with others: a group, and (4) not wanting to stop: unexpected benefits from dancing. As the participants continued to dance, they developed a sense of belonging and group identity, which may have maintained group involvement and contributed to reducing depression and social isolation. Thus, dancing is a complementary therapy that should be considered when working with adults with depression and social isolation. PMID:26804498

  12. An Examination of the Political and Social Literacy of Adult Citizens in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nili Ahmadabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Literacy is a fundamental right and a springboard not only for achieving "education for all", but also for eradicating poverty and increasing participation in society. Political and social literacy is about understanding how politics and social behaviors shape our daily lives. In order to improve the political and social literacy process, it is highly important to recognize effective factors in shaping People's awareness. This study is performed to determine students' points of view concerning such factors. Responsible citizens respect others and participate in political, economic, social and cultural life. The present study aims at examining the level of political and social literacy of adult citizens participating in unofficial adults training centers in Isfahan city. Material & Methods According to the purpose of the research which was to measure the extent of social and political literacy of adults, the research method in this study is descriptive. Research population include 2572 adults (above 35 years old, who attended in instructional programs of the training centers of Isfahan's public agencies in 2011. The estimated number of sample size is 380 who were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling method. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire comprising of 29 items which is designed in two political and social dimensions, with an acceptable level of reliability test (0.84, via Cronbach’s Alpha. The collected data were analyzed through one-sample T-test and ANOVA. Discussion of Results & Conclusions Findings showed that: 1 adults’ social literacy is higher than political literacy, 2 in a significant way, the political literacy of adults is not in good shape, 3 there is a significant difference between averages of political and social literacy in terms of education of adult citizens, 4 there is a significant difference between the averages of political and social literacy in terms of sex: level of

  13. European Adult and Lifelong Education in Times of Crisis: Where is Social Justice when the Social Dimension turns into Social Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    Four years on from the 2010 debt crisis, economists claim that Europe has still not recovered from the recession that worsened social inequality. This raises the important question of whether social inequality can be tackled by social justice. The concept of social justice emphasises the idea tha...... question their social justice underpinnings and argue that, in the aftermath of the 2010 debt crisis (and with the subsequent concern with social cohesion), economics prevailed over social justice within the social dimension in European integration.......Four years on from the 2010 debt crisis, economists claim that Europe has still not recovered from the recession that worsened social inequality. This raises the important question of whether social inequality can be tackled by social justice. The concept of social justice emphasises the idea that...... of society; for example, in terms of access to, benefit from and success in education and employment. In this contribution, I adopt a social justice perspective to examine the redistributive function of the European Union and the role it attributes to adult and lifelong education in alleviating...

  14. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population – the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants – happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, freq...

  15. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population – the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants – happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, freq...

  16. Social sustainability and activation strategies with unemployed young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemeersch, Danny; Weil, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes some of the main findings resulting from a research project which was set up in six European countries about the ‘activation’ of unemployed youth. The research analysed in depth the attempts in twelve cases to enhance the labour market participation of young people who encountered important problems to find a sustainable job. Finding a balance between biographical, social and instrumental competencies was found to be of major importance for socially sustainable projects...

  17. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of participatio

  18. Social Capital, Neighbourhood Attachment and Participation in Distressed Urban Areas. A Case Study in The Hague and Utrecht, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, Karien

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, academic interest in residents’ participation in maintaining the quality of life in distressed urban areas has risen. Many articles seeking to explain why people participate relate the social networks dimension of social capital to participation. However, according to Putnam’s definition of social capital, not only social networks, but also norms and trust give people the tools they need for participation. Other authors concentrate on the relationship between neighbour...

  19. Social Influences, Social Context, and Health Behaviors among Working-Class, Multi-Ethnic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention…

  20. Profiles of Peer Competence in the Preschool: Interrelations between Measures, Influence of Social Ecology, and Relation to Attachment History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFreniere, Peter J.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1985-01-01

    Peer competence in preschool children in two classes was assessed via (a) teacher rankings of social competence, (b) peer sociometrics, and behavioral measures of (c) social participation, and others. Affective expression and social behavior were temporally stable and consistent across contexts for both classes; however, patterns of…

  1. Product Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and the relationship between product attachment and product lifetime. In addition, we studied which determinants may affect the strength of the emotional bond with products and uncovered the role of the ...

  2. Influence of the environment on participation in social roles for young adults with down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty-Rose Foley

    Full Text Available The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment.Families ascertained from the Down syndrome 'Needs Opinion Wishes' database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults' social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE. The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression.Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45 than in social roles (mean 5.17 (range 0 to 9. When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively. The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI -0.40, 1.24 and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI -0.47, 0.87 environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account.We found that young adults' participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention.

  3. Depression in Homebound Older Adults: Problem-Solving Therapy and Personal and Social Resourcefulness

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Namkee G.; Marti, C. Nathan; Bruce, Martha L.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of problem-solving therapy is to teach patients systematic coping skills. For many homebound older adults, coping skills must also include both personal and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibi...

  4. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Snyder AL; Nimon JP; Arciero PJ

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley1,2, Amanda L Snyder1, Joseph P Nimon1, Paul J Arciero1,21Healthy Aging and Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA; 2Health and Exercise Sciences Department, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USAAbstract: This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start...

  5. Social instability stress differentially affects amygdalar neuron adaptations and memory performance in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Feng Tsai; Chia-Yuan Chang; Lung Yu; Yu-Min Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old) and adult (8-week-old) rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the a...

  6. Effects of a Social Cognitive Theory Based Hip Fracture Prevention Website for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Barker, Bausell; Resnick, Barbara; Covington, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based, Structured Hip Fracture Prevention Website (TSW) for older adults and conduct a preliminary evaluation of its effectiveness. The TSW is comprised of learning modules and a moderated discussion board. A total of 245 older adults recruited from two websites and a newspaper advertisement were randomized into the TSW and the Conventional Websites (CW) groups. Outcomes included (1) knowledge (hip fractures and osteop...

  7. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed. PMID:7287599

  8. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit;

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships.......To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  9. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicts social anxiety symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Langer, Julia K; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-09-01

    Peer victimization leads to negative outcomes such as increased anxiety and depression. The prospective relationship between peer victimization and social anxiety in children and adolescents is well established, and adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are more likely than individuals with other anxiety disorders to report a history of teasing. However, a crucial bridge between these findings (peer victimization in young adults) is missing. We manipulated perceptions of peer exclusion in a young adult sample (N=108) using the Cyberball Ostracism Task. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicted social anxiety symptoms at a 2-month follow-up, whereas self-reported teasing during high school and current relational victimization did not. This research suggests that reactions to peer victimization may be a worthwhile target for clinical interventions in young adults. Targeting how young adults react to stressful social interactions such as exclusion may help prevent the development of SAD. Future research should test if reactivity to exclusion plays a role in the relationship between other disorders (e.g., depression) and peer victimization. PMID:23768673

  10. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  11. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  12. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  13. Adult Numeracy Teaching--An Australian Focus on Social Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald

    In the context of math education, students should achieve transferable understanding and skills that allow students to use math flexibly (such as understanding a percentage in a newspaper article), functional performance (such as being able to take medicine or use public transportation), and social knowledge (concepts necessary to interpret and…

  14. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785. ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2014

  15. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  16. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol...

  17. Current social functioning in adult-onset schizophrenia and its relation with positive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Partha S.; Sinha, Vinod K.; Paul, Sarita E.; Pushpal Desarkar

    2013-01-01

    Background: In schizophrenia, relation exists between psychopathology and social functioning. Aim and Objectives: Determining relationship of positive symptoms with current social functioning in adult-onset (≥19 years) schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Eighty schizophrenia patients [ICD-10-DCR], of both sexes (18-60 years), on follow-up for ≥6 months, with no change of diagnosis and without co-morbidities, having onset of illness ≥19 years of age, accompanied by informants having contact ...

  18. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by ho...

  19. Does social class affect nutrition knowledge and food preferences among Chinese urban adults ?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthieu CLEMENT (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Céline BONNEFOND

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the influence of social class on nutrition knowledge and food preferences among Chinese urban adults with an emphasis on the middle class. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. First, we propose a multidimensional definition of social class that combines income, occupation and education to highlight the heterogeneity of the Chinese middle class. We identif...

  20. Puppy parties and beyond: the role of early age socialization practices on adult dog behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Howell TJ; King T; Bennett PC

    2015-01-01

    Tiffani J Howell, Tammie King, Pauleen C Bennett School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: The most common role of a domestic dog in the developed world currently is that of companion. Puppy socialization practices play a large role in the development of well-adjusted adult dogs that display few undesirable behaviors, and which can establish a positive, lifelong relationship with their owner. Age-appropriate socialization practices should ...

  1. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger’s syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Agustin Ibanez

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition—the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships—is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneo...

  2. Migration and adult education: social movement learning and resistance in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Grayson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on data and evidence from a project of ‘activist research’ in migrant and refugee social movements in South Yorkshire U.K. The article argues that migrants’ social movements have been neglected as important in the development of popular adult education in the U.K. The history of migrants’ social movements from 1945 is sketched to demonstrate social movement influences on the content and ideological assumptions of state provision of adult education. The history also suggests a similar trajectory to ‘old’ contentious social movements like trades unions. The current research in migrants and asylum rights movements reported in the article suggests that migrants social movements are active and proficient in developing popular adult education initiatives including critical analysis of racist political and power discourses. The importance of these movements is demonstrated in a case study of a high profile campaign against the privatisation of asylum housing in Yorkshire by the world’s largest security company G4S.

  3. Social Capital, Neighbourhood Attachment and Participation in Distressed Urban Areas. A Case Study in The Hague and Utrecht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Karien

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, academic interest in residents’ participation in maintaining the quality of life in distressed urban areas has risen. Many articles seeking to explain why people participate relate the social networks dimension of social capital to participation. However, according to Putnam’

  4. Education, Adult Skills and Social Outcomes: Empirical evidence from the Survey on Adult Skills (PIAAC 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; CAETANO RODRIGUES JORGE RODRIGUES FERRO MARIA MARGARIDA; VERA TOSCANO MARIA ESPERANZA; WEBER ANKE

    2014-01-01

    It has widely been acknowledged that education is a major source of economic prosperity and social well-being. Education is not only an important factor in the productivity and innovative capacity of an economy, but is also a prerequisite for social and cultural changes in patterns of consumption and leisure behaviour to achieve a sustainable lifestyle. It puts people in a position to take well-informed decisions about the future, to assume responsibility for these decisions and to judge how ...

  5. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  6. The Role of International Non-Governmental Organisations in Promoting Adult Education for Social Change: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Lutz; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) in adult education as one instrument of global civil society to effect social change. Postcolonial theory is utilized to explore the complex relationships between the concepts of "globalisation", "global civil, society", and "adult education for social change". In…

  7. Personality and attachment to romantic partners

    OpenAIRE

    Marušić, Iris; Kamenov, Željka; Jelić, Margareta

    2007-01-01

    Since Hazan and Shaver formulated their theory of adult romantic attachment in the late 1980's (Hazan & Shaver, 1987), attachment theory has become one of the principal theoretical frameworks for the study of intimate relationships in adulthood. It conceptualizes romantic love, or couple bonding, as an attachment process that reflects the same kinds of individual differences as infant-parent attachment. However, this idea is not a new one. Although attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969) was origina...

  8. Educating the People: "Cours d'adultes" and Social Stratification in France, 1830-1870

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the formation, operation, and social effects of adult education classes in France during the nineteenth century. These classes were created and operated prior to the formation of France's national education system and were part of the expansion of primary schooling for the working class, or more generally for "the people". The…

  9. The Influence of Social Background on Participation in Adult Education:Applying the Cultural Capital Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincinnato, Sebastiano; De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the issue of participation in adult education building on the cultural capital framework. This theoretical framework suggests that (educational) practices are affected by one's social background and, more precisely, by the cultural resources handed down in the family context. To examine the validity of this theoretical…

  10. Transformative Adult Learning in New Social Movement – a Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čubajevaitė Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New social movements in South Africa could play a prominent role in mobilizing the communities to reflect critically and address the repercussions of the neo-liberal agenda which manifests itself in perpetual exclusion of under-educated adults and provision of poor quality education.

  11. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  12. Understanding Associations of Control Beliefs, Social Relations, and Well-Being in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2006-01-01

    Control beliefs and social relationships have been individually assessed in relation to adaptation to chronic illness, although only rarely together. Further, some control scales show psychometric limitations in older adult samples. To address these concerns, a scale assessing external control was created by factor analyzing the items from…

  13. On the Role of Personality Traits and Social Skills in Adult Economic Attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mueller

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe research reported on these pages analyzes the influence of personality traits and interpersonal skills in adult economic attainment, with particular focus on earnings. The purpose is to bring together ideas from economics, social-psychology, and related disciplines in order to contri

  14. Communication, Academic, and Social Skills of Young Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Durieux-Smith, Andree; Olds, Janet; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Duquette, Cheryll; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on data collected as part of a larger research study designed to investigate factors that facilitate the integration of children with hearing loss into mainstream environments. Aspects of communicative, academic, and social functioning for 43 adolescents and young adults were examined using questionnaires. In addition,…

  15. Residential Characteristics, Social Factors, and Mortality among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Transitions out of Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar; Freels, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which residential characteristics and social factors are associated with mortality, after controlling for personal characteristics, among adults with intellectual disabilities who have resided in nursing homes (facilities providing skilled care and related services) at baseline in the Chicago area. Initial…

  16. Social Networking Site Use Predicts Changes in Young Adults' Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined youths' friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer-report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for…

  17. Personalisation of Adult Social Care: Self-Directed Support and the Choice and Control Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Sophie; Cameron, Ailsa

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, "self-directed support" was introduced in adult social care in England to establish choice and control--in the assessment process itself and over service provision--for "all" service users. The personalisation agenda is underpinned by a range of ideologies, particularly a civil rights empowerment approach and…

  18. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…

  19. A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

    2013-01-01

    Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

  20. Unmet Healthcare and Social Services Needs of Older Canadian Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Naghipur, Saba; Zhang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The authors sought to create a demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related profile of older (40+) Canadian adults with developmental disabilities (DD) residing in their communities, and to enhance current knowledge of their unmet health and social support services needs. They provide a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2001…

  1. Effects of Social Support and Coping of Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Musil, Carol M.; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Wykle, May L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of demographic characteristics, contextual factors, social support, and coping on health outcomes of family caregivers of older adults with dementia in Taiwan. This study also examined caregiving stress and whether support moderated the effects of caregiver stress on health. Lazarus and…

  2. Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Functioning among Adults with Borderline Intelligence Living in Private Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassiotis, A.; Strydom, A.; Hall, I.; Ali, A.; Lawrence-Smith, G.; Meltzer, H.; Head, J; Bebbington, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-eighth of the population will have DSM-IV borderline intelligence. Various mental disorders and social disability are associated with it. Method: The paper uses data (secondary analysis) from a UK-wide cross-sectional survey of 8450 adults living in private households. Data were collected on psychiatric disorders,…

  3. The Future for Social Work in Juvenile and Adult Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary C. Sarri

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Critical contemporary issues in juvenile and adult criminal justice are identified followed by an examination of particular issues for social workers, including the increase in incarceration, the over representation of people of color, and the numerous negative effects on children. The various roles for social workers in the criminal justice systems are presented and discussed. The paper also addresses the decline of social work professionals in the criminal justice systems and why it is imperative that the pattern be reversed now that there is growing interest in the rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders.

  4. The effects of psychotherapy for adult depression on social support: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mijung; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Social support is an important extra-therapeutic context of depression treatment, yet no overall estimate is available on how depression treatment affects social support or the size of such an effect. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials of psychotherapy for depression that reported results for social support at post-treatment. A total of 1,579 adults with depression from 11 trials comparing psychotherapy to care-as-usual or waiting list were included. The majority of these studies...

  5. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction:insights from neuroimaging

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    Delia eLenzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the attachment-caregiving social bond (Bowlby, 1969. We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e. those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction.

  6. Social Media in Adult Education: Insights Gained from Grundtvig Learning Partnership Project “Institutional Strategies Targeting the Uptake of Social Networking in Adult Education (ISTUS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhelmina Vaičiūnienė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—the focus of this article is the role of social media in adult education and their impact on adult students in regards to their educational needs and specific personal situations within the frame of the learning partnership project. The Grundtvig learning partnership project “Institutional Strategies Targeting the Uptake of Social Networking in Adult Education (ISTUS is an international partnership that includes partners from 7 EU countries. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to define cases of the uptake of technologies and applications by MRU students; thus, the objectives of the research are 1 to review literature pertaining to the field of social media in adult education context and 2 to analyse the respondents’ insights as regards learning/teaching practices, resources, and facilities that affect their learning in relation to social networking and media use (taking into consideration both personal and educational perspectives. Design/methodology/approach—the research paper adopts qualitative research approach. Findings—students perceive SM mainly as online communication means (usually informal communication is implied. SM is firstly associated by learners with pastime venue, not educational resource. Thus, methods of teaching/learning in SM and with the help of SM have to be developed and improved. They have to be considered in line with the necessity to develop critical and reflexive thinking skills and media and information literacy skills. The respondents have pointed out both positive and negative aspects of social media use for learning/teaching. Creation of an inner institutional SM type involving qualified people with expertise in SM use for education has been suggested. Research limitations/implications—this article is focused only on the attitudes of MRU students though 105 interviews in total have been conducted within the framework of the project and not only students, but also teachers and

  7. Social Media in Adult Education: Insights Gained from Grundtvig Learning Partnership Project “Institutional Strategies Targeting the Uptake of Social Networking in Adult Education (ISTUS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhelmina Vaičiūnienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—the focus of this article is the role of social media in adult education and their impact on adult students in regards to their educational needs and specific personal situations within the frame of the learning partnership project. The Grundtvig learning partnership project “Institutional Strategies Targeting the Uptake of Social Networking in Adult Education (ISTUS is an international partnership that includes partners from 7 EU countries. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to define cases of the uptake of technologies and applications by MRU students; thus, the objectives of the research are 1 to review literature pertaining to the field of social media in adult education context and 2 to analyse the respondents’ insights as regards learning/teaching practices, resources, and facilities that affect their learning in relation to social networking and media use (taking into consideration both personal and educational perspectives.Design/methodology/approach—the research paper adopts qualitative research approach.Findings—students perceive SM mainly as online communication means (usually informal communication is implied. SM is firstly associated by learners with pastime venue, not educational resource. Thus, methods of teaching/learning in SM and with the help of SM have to be developed and improved. They have to be considered in line with the necessity to develop critical and reflexive thinking skills and media and information literacy skills. The respondents have pointed out both positive and negative aspects of social media use for learning/teaching. Creation of an inner institutional SM type involving qualified people with expertise in SM use for education has been suggested.Research limitations/implications—this article is focused only on the attitudes of MRU students though 105 interviews in total have been conducted within the framework of the project and not only students, but also teachers and

  8. Development of the SIT, an Instrument to Evaluate the Transfer Effects of Adult Education Programs for Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greef, Maurice; Segers, Mien; Verte, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    To date, hardly any evidence is available on the quality of adult education programs for vulnerable adults. Evaluation instruments or models mostly focussed on regular education and less on programs of adult education aiming to enhance social inclusion. This study presents a first exploration of the construct validity of a newly developed…

  9. Immigration, transition into adult life and social adversity in relation to psychological distress and suicide attempts among young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kosidou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people is a major concern in many Western countries. The causal mechanisms underlying these trends are not well established, but factors influenced by current societal changes ought to be implicated. Such factors include immigration and social adversity as well as the timing of taking on adult social roles (e.g. gainful employment, parenthood and own housing tenure. We therefore examined relationships between these factors and the risks of psychological distress as well as suicide attempts in young adults, with a focus on gender differences. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study including 10,081 individuals aged 18-29, recruited in 2002 and 2006 in Stockholm, Sweden. Data were collected by record linkage and questionnaires. RESULTS: Non-European immigrants had an increased risk of distress, and female non-European immigrants had a markedly higher risk of suicide attempts. Both early parenthood (≤ 24 years and not being a parent, being a student and the lack of own housing tenure were associated with distress, but only in women. In both sexes, financial strain was associated with the increased risk of distress and suicide attempts, while unemployment was only associated with distress. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration from outside Europe and social adversity are associated with mental health problems in young adults, especially females. Postponed transition into adulthood is associated with poor mental health in young women. These factors are influenced by current societal changes, and may have contributed to the increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people in Western countries.

  10. Relationship between Normal College Students' Adult Attachment and Parenting Style%师范大学生成人依恋与父母教养方式关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小琴; 张进辅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the present status of adult attachment and the relationship with parenting style. Methods Relationship Questionnaire, ECR and EMBU were conducted to survey a random sampling of 500 normal college students of 3 universities in Chongqing. Results ①Adult attachment pattern had a significant discrepancy on gender (X2 = 5. 364,P=0. 016),and in terms of the ratio of fearful adult attachment,boys' was higher than girls. ②Adult attachment anxiety of normal college students was positively correlated with their father's excessive interference, over protection, sever punishment, mother's preference (P< 0.05),and adult attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with parents' emotional warmth(r=-0. 104,P<0. 05). ③ Father's sever punishment was significant predictor of their children's avoidance of adult attachment(B= 0. 251,P=0. 001),and father's excessive interference was negative predictor of their children's avoidance of adult attachmen(B = 0. 161,P=0. 034),and father's over protection was significant predictor of their children's anxiety of adult attachment (B = 0. 185,P = 0. 013),and father's emotional warmth was negative predictor of their children's anxiety of adult attachment (B= -0. 283,P=0. 000). Conclusion The parenting style has a limited effect on adult attachment.%目的 了解师范大学生的依恋状况及其与父母教养方式的关系.方法 运用关系问卷(RQ)、亲密关系经历量表(ECR)和父母教养方式问卷(EMBU)对重庆市3所师范院校随机抽取500名在校师范专业的大学生进行调查.结果 ①师范大学生依恋类型在性别上存在显著差异(x2=5.364,P=0.016),其中不安全依恋类型女生所占的比重要高于男生;②师范大学生依恋焦虑与父亲过分干涉、父亲过度保护、父亲惩罚严厉、母亲偏爱被试存在显著正相关(P<0.05),而与父母情感温暖理解呈显著负相关(r=-0.104,P<0.05);师范大学生依恋回避与父亲惩罚

  11. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

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    Espinosa-Alarcón Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1 To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2 To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3 To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348. The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%, diverse without community participation (44.3%; widowed (32.0%; nonfriends-restricted (7.6%; nonfamily-restricted (4.0%. Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1. Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates.

  12. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Christine McKibbin; Aaron Lee; Bernard A. Steinman; Catherine Carrico; Katelynn Bourassa; Andrea Slosser

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. ...

  13. Social influences on young adults' alcohol consumption: norms, modeling, pressure, socializing, and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostveen, T; Knibbe, R; de Vries, H

    1996-01-01

    This study aims to assess which types of social influence are correlated with young people's (15-24 years) heavy drinking (six or more glasses) in public drinking places during the weekend. Drinking in public drinking places can be defined as a "timeout" situation. Therefore we assumed that situational factors (e.g., importance of socializing and direct pressures on drinking) would contribute more to the explained variance than variables indicating cognitive social influences (e.g., social norms and modeling). Stepwise regression analyses showed that in total 25% of the variance was explained by social norms of family and peers (15%), importance of socializing in drinking situations (7%), modeling (2%) and group size (1%). The results show that both a cognitive factor and a situational factor appear to be most strongly correlated with young people's frequency of heavy drinking in public drinking places. Within the category of situational influences those variables indicating direct social pressures were only weakly related or not significant. Studies focusing on measuring the impact of social influences may profit from including the concept of the importance of socializing and conformity as an additional factor. PMID:8730520

  14. Investigating the role of social-affective attachment processes in cradling bias: the absence of cradling bias in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Lea-Ann; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that leftward cradling bias may facilitate mother-infant relationships, as it preferentially locates the infant in the mother's left hemi-space, which is specialized for several social-affective processes. If leftward cradling bias is mediated by social-affective attachment processes, it should be reduced in humans who are deficient in such processes. Individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) constitute a population with known deficits in social and emotional relating. A pilot study confirmed reduced bias in this group, and in the present study, we elaborated methods to assess also the impact of higher cognitive processes on cradling bias. Direct systematic observation was used to investigate the occurrence of cradling bias in ASD, non-ASD intellectually disabled children and typically developing children. Ninety-three participants aged 5-15 years cradled a life-like doll on four separate occasions. Intelligence and executive functions were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that ASD diagnosis was the only significant predictor of atypical cradling preference. While intellectually disabled and typically developing children clearly preferred to cradle to the left, no preference was evident in the ASD group. Results support the hypothesis that leftward cradling bias is associated with basic social-affective capacities. PMID:25131653

  15. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults. PMID:27159187

  16. ‘Get Your Life Back’: process and impact evaluation of an asthma social marketing campaign targeting older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Uwana; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma in older adults is underdiagnosed and poorly self-managed. This population has little knowledge about the key symptoms, the prevalence among older adults, and the serious consequences of untreated asthma. The purpose of this study was to undertake a multifaceted evaluation of a social marketing campaign to increase asthma awareness among older adults in a regional Australian community. Methods A cohort of older adults in an intervention region (n = 316) and a control region ...

  17. Social priming improves cognitive control in elderly adults--evidence from the Simon task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aisenberg

    Full Text Available We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task, which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person: 1 negative--characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2 neutral--characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3 positive--excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities.

  18. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  19. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001. Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  20. Social care networks and older LGBT adults: challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed. PMID:24313252

  1. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  2. Pet Therapy: Enhancing Social and Cardiovascular Wellness in Community Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A; Kolassa, John

    2016-01-01

    Pet therapy can be therapeutic for older adults living in the community. A crossover design was used to examine changes in blood pressure and heart rate before and after a pet therapy visit versus a volunteer-only visit in 28 community dwelling older adults. Relationships among stress, pet attitude, social support, and health status were also examined. Study findings supported that pet therapy significantly decreased blood pressure and heart rate. Ultimately, the findings supported the notion that community health nurses should consider developing and implementing pet therapy programs in the communities they serve. Further implications for community health nurses are discussed. PMID:26813050

  3. Effect of chronic social defeat stress on behaviors and dopamine receptor in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Xu, Yu-Ming; Li, Hao; Lv, Lu-Xian

    2016-04-01

    Victims of bullying often undergo depression, low self-esteem, high anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The social defeat model has become widely accepted for studying experimental animal behavior changes associated with bullying; however, differences in the effects in susceptible and unsusceptible individuals have not been well studied. The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on behavior and the expression of dopamine receptors D1 and D2 in the brains of adult mice. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10days of social defeat stress. Behavioral tests were conducted, and protein levels in the brains were assessed by Western blotting. The results indicate that all mice undergo decreased locomotion and increased anxiety behavior. However, decreased social interaction and impaired memory performance were only observed in susceptible mice. A significantly decreased expression of D1 was observed in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of susceptible mice only. No significant differences in D2 expression were shown between control and defeated mice in any area studied. These data indicate that depression-like behavior and cognition impairment caused by social defeat stress in susceptible mice may be related to changes in the dopamine receptor D1. PMID:26655446

  4. Aggression, recognition and qualification : On the social psychology of adult education in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Weber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the emotional aspects of a professional training process in the light of the participants’ experienced societal status. A detailed text analysis of interviews with a group of social pedagogue staff in Danish Youth clubs focuses on a particular vulnerability and their aggressive perception of other students with social problems, and interprets it partly as a reaction on the paradoxical situation adults in continuing education, and partly in the perspective of their experience of not being recognized as a profession. The last section of the article further explains the deep hermeneutic text analysis applied, which combines psychoanalytical concepts of socialisation with a language game approach.

  5. Relationship between adult social phobia and childhood anxiety Relação entre fobia social na vida adulta e ansiedade na infância

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Gus Manfro; Luciano Isolan; Carolina Blaya; Sandra Maltz; Elizeth Heldt; Pollack, Mark H

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of traumas and the presence of childhood anxiety disorders in adult patients with social phobia and investigate their influence on the presentation of the disorder. METHODS: Twenty-four adult patients with social phobia were asked about the presence of trauma before the age of 16. The K-SADS-E and the DICA-P interviews were used to assess these patients regarding childhood anxiety disorders. RESULTS: Twelve (50%) patients reporte...

  6. WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT “ATTACHMENT DISORDERS” IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia VELOTTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current nosology describes reactive attachm­ent disorder as represented by two distinct disorders: reactive attachment disorder, characterized by markedly inhibited and emotionally withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers, minimally seeking comfort or minimally responding to comfort in time of distress, and disinhibited social engagement disorder, which is represented by an indiscriminate social behavior, sanctioned from culture and which crosses social boundaries, in the presence of unfamiliar adults. Both disorders, despite their different phenotypes, are caused by a pathogenic caregiving environment, repeated changes of attachment figures, social neglect and deprivation in the first years of life.The article examines recent diagnostic criteria reported in the literature comparing diag­nostic classifications and attempting to understand the etiology of the disorder. Unresolved questions exist in current nosology, which means that the quality of the evidence supporting the diagnostic criteria needs to be improved. This review concludes that, despite the currently available diagnostic classifications, future longitudinal studies should be conducted to assess the evolution of reactive attachment disorder over the time and to discriminate its features from other psychopathologies.

  7. Neuro- and social-cognitive clustering highlights distinct profiles in adults with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Bethany; Musiat, Peter; Lose, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Broadbent, Hannah; Kenyon, Martha; Loomes, Rachel; Watson, Charlotte; Ghelani, Shreena; Serpell, Lucy; Richards, Lorna; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Boughton, Nicky; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the neuro- and social-cognitive profile of a consecutive series of adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) when compared with widely available age and gender matched historical control data. The relationship between performance profiles, clinical characteristics, service utilization, and treatment adherence was also investigated.METHOD: Consecutively recruited outpatients with a broad diagnosis of AN (restricting subtype AN-R: n = 44, binge-purge su...

  8. The role of photos in social media interactions of adult Arabs with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mashat, Alaa; Wald, Mike; Parsons, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face difficulties in everyday life with their communication and interaction skills. Due to preferences for visual stimuli, photos have been used to support communication and to teach interaction and social skills. In Arab countries, adults on the autism spectrum experience the same difficulties in addition to dealing with other issues, such as stigma within society, a lack of services, cultural rules and the inability to sufficiently bene...

  9. Eating Behaviors and Social Capital are Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Rural Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in rural areas. This study examined the relationship between demographics, socioeconomic status, social capital, eating behaviors, and fruit and vegetable intake for a large rural sample. Data from 1220 rural adults participating in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment Survey were used. Multivariable regression results demonstrated eating a regular breakfast (p-value ≤ 0.001) was positively and drinking sugar...

  10. Social Support and Its Correlation with Loneliness: A Cross-Cultural Study of Nepalese Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Hom Nath; Kai, Ichiro; Saito, Tami

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the situation of social support exchange among elderly men and women and to study the cross-cultural validity of predictors of loneliness in two Nepalese castes/ethnicities of older adults. Data for this study were taken from a cross-sectional study of the elderly at least 60 years old living in one ward of…

  11. Designing Meaningful Play within the Psycho-Social Context of Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    De Schutter, Bob; vanden Abeele, Vero

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a qualitative study, investigating the meaning of digital games in the lives of older adults. Using a combination of semi-structured interviews and observations (n=35) we researched the meaning of digital games from a lifespan perspective, and explored the specific role of playing digital games in a social setting. We conclude that the meaning of these games is derived from the extent to which games are perceived to 1) foster connectedness, 2) cultivate oneself and ...

  12. Investigating Social Cognition in Infants and Adults Using Dense Array Electroencephalography (dEEG)

    OpenAIRE

    Akano, Adekemi J.; Haley, David W.; Dudek, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Dense array electroencephalography (dEEG), which provides a non-invasive window for measuring brain activity and a temporal resolution unsurpassed by any other current brain imaging technology1,2, is being used increasingly in the study of social cognitive functioning in infants and adults. While dEEG is enabling researchers to examine brain activity patterns with unprecedented levels of sensitivity, conventional EEG recording systems continue to face certain limitations, including 1) poor sp...

  13. Prevalence of Mental and Social Disorders in Adults Attending Primary Care Centers in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Broers, Teresa; Hodgetts, Geoffrey; Batić-Mujanović, Olivera; Petrović, Verica; Hasanagić, Melida; Godwin, Marshall

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of mental and social disorders in adults who attend primary care health centers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: Sixty-nine family physicians from the Primary Care Research Network in Bosnia and Herzegovina each invited 20 randomly selected patients from their practices to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), which consists of 26-58 questions about symptoms and signs of depression, anxiety, somatization disorder, eating disorders, and alcohol...

  14. The Influence of Medical Students'Adult Attachment and Their Sensitivity to Interpersonal Relations on Interpersonal Perplexity%医学生成人依恋、人际关系敏感对人际困扰的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵四平

    2015-01-01

    为探讨医学生成人依恋、人际关系敏感对人际困扰的影响,采用SCL-90 的人际关系敏感测验、成人依恋测验和人际关系综合诊断量表对309名医学生进行测量. 发现:女生表现出较少的人际困扰、交谈困扰、待人接物困扰、异性交往困扰和人际关系敏感;与异性交往困扰,成人依恋焦虑和成人依恋回避在不同恋爱状态上呈显著差异;成人依恋和人际关系敏感是影响医学生人际困扰的重要因素.%To explore the effect of medical students' adult attachment and their sensitivity to interpersonal relations on their interpersonal perplexity, a survey was conducted among a totality of 309 medical students through questionnaires based on Interpersonal Sensitivity from the SCL-90, Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory and Interpersonal Rela-tionship. The conclusions are as follows:firstly,the girl students show fewer problems than the boys in interpersonal perplex-ity, conversation perplexity, and perplexity of interpersonal skills,specific communication problems and interpersonal sensi-tivity. Secondly,interpersonal sensitivity、adult attachment anxiety and adult attachment avoidance of medical students varied in different states of love. Lastly,adult attachment and interpersonal sensitivity are important influencing factors attributing to interpersonal perplexity of medical students.

  15. Impulsive social influence increases impulsive choices on a temporal discounting task in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M Gilman

    Full Text Available Adolescents and young adults who affiliate with friends who engage in impulsive behavior are more likely to engage in impulsive behaviors themselves, and those who associate with prosocial (i.e. more prudent, future oriented peers are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of peer influence vs. peer selection (i.e., whether individuals choose friends with similar traits when interpreting social behaviors. In this study, we combined a novel social manipulation with a well-validated delay discounting task assessing impulsive behavior to create a social influence delay discounting task, in which participants were exposed to both impulsive (smaller, sooner or SS payment and non-impulsive (larger, later or LL payment choices from their peers. Young adults in this sample, n = 51, aged 18-25 had a higher rate of SS choices after exposure to impulsive peer influence than after exposure to non-impulsive peer influence. Interestingly, in highly susceptible individuals, the rate of non-impulsive choices did not increase after exposure to non-impulsive influence. There was a positive correlation between self-reported suggestibility and degree of peer influence on SS choices. These results suggest that, in young adults, SS choices appear to be influenced by the choices of same-aged peers, especially for individuals who are highly susceptible to influence.

  16. Puppy parties and beyond: the role of early age socialization practices on adult dog behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell TJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tiffani J Howell, Tammie King, Pauleen C Bennett School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: The most common role of a domestic dog in the developed world currently is that of companion. Puppy socialization practices play a large role in the development of well-adjusted adult dogs that display few undesirable behaviors, and which can establish a positive, lifelong relationship with their owner. Age-appropriate socialization practices should begin within a few days of birth, and should extend well into adulthood. These practices should aim to provide exposure to many of the types of experiences, people, and objects that the dog is likely to encounter over the course of its life, in a controlled and pleasant way. Dogs that are appropriately socialized as puppies are less likely to exhibit behavioral problems as adults, including aggression and fearfulness. They are more likely to engage in positive social behaviors with humans, and can learn how to play games with humans better than dogs without proper socialization. However, the evidence in support of puppy socialization classes is less clear. There is some evidence that puppy classes positively impact adult behavior, but other studies show no clear benefit. Since socialization should begin early in a puppy's life, it is the responsibility of the breeder and the owner. Breeders can ensure that puppies are exposed to age-appropriate experiences while in the litter, and owners must ensure that the dog continues to have varied experiences throughout its life. Veterinarians are also an important part of this process, and are heavily relied upon by owners to provide information about health and behavior. Since veterinarians often see puppies during vaccinations, owners can be educated about proper socialization practices at those visits. Future research should aim to determine the minimum amounts of socialization required for a puppy, and whether

  17. Attachment patterns and Mentalization in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    nærværende projekt bestod af de patienter i moderforsøget, som var arabisktalende (N=68). Måleredskaber består i The Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale, Working Alliance Inventory og Feeling Word Checklist-58. PTSD, depressions- og angstsymptomer...

  18. Obesity-related behaviors among poor adolescents and young adults: Is social position associated with risk behaviors?

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub; Fernald, Lia C.H.; Elizabeth eGoodman; Sylvia eGuendelman; Nancy eAdler

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban househ...

  19. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult p...

  20. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  1. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898

  2. Young adults, social networks, and addiction recovery: post treatment changes in social ties and their role as a mediator of 12-step participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social factors play a key role in addiction recovery. Research with adults indicates individuals with substance use disorder (SUD benefit from mutual-help organizations (MHOs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, via their ability to facilitate adaptive network changes. Given the lower prevalence of sobriety-conducive, and sobriety-supportive, social contexts in the general population during the life-stage of young adulthood, however, 12-step MHOs may play an even more crucial recovery-supportive social role for young adults, but have not been investigated. Greater knowledge could enhance understanding of recovery-related change and inform young adults' continuing care recommendations. METHODS: Emerging adults (N = 302; 18-24 yrs; 26% female; 95% White enrolled in a study of residential treatment effectiveness were assessed at intake, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months on 12-step attendance, peer network variables ("high [relapse] risk" and "low [relapse] risk" friends, and treatment outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent; Percent Days Heavy Drinking. Hierarchical linear models tested for change in social risk over time and lagged mediational analyses tested whether 12-step attendance conferred recovery benefits via change in social risk. RESULTS: High-risk friends were common at treatment entry, but decreased during follow-up; low-risk friends increased. Contrary to predictions, while substantial recovery-supportive friend network changes were observed, this was unrelated to 12-step participation and, thus, not found to mediate its positive influence on outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult 12-step participation confers recovery benefit; yet, while encouraging social network change, 12-step MHOs may be less able to provide social network change directly for young adults, perhaps because similar-aged peers are less common in MHOs. Findings highlight the importance of both social networks and 12-step MHOs and raise further questions as to how young adults benefit

  3. Effects of the Relationship Enhancement® Program on Social Skills, Empathy and Social Support for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    An important area of research is emerging for adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with respect to the challenges they face in their social relationships. Social relationships include those that are romantic in nature such as dating, cohabitation and marriage. Researchers suggest that engaging in a healthy and happy romantic…

  4. The influence of incisal malocclusion on the social attractiveness of young adults in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerosuo, H; Hausen, H; Laine, T; Shaw, W C

    1995-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of dentofacial appearance on the perceived social attractiveness of young adults in Finland. The dental arrangements studied were incisal crowding, median diastema, protruding incisors, and ideal incisal occlusion. Facial photographs of six young adults were obtained and modified, so that for each face, four different dental arrangements could be portrayed. The photographs were shown to 1007 Finnish students to estimate social and personal characteristics of the person in the photograph. Dental arrangement had a significant influence on the perceived beauty and success of the persons. Test faces with incisal crowding and median diastema were ranked as significantly less intelligent, beautiful and sexually attractive, and judged to belong to lower social class than the same faces with ideal occlusion. Protruded incisors did not affect the ratings compared to ideal occlusion. On the average, female test faces were judged more favourably than the male ones. The results indicate that among Finnish students conspicuous incisal crowding or spacing represent a social disadvantage compared to normal or protruded incisors. PMID:8682167

  5. Predictors of the Availability and Variety of Social Care Services for Older Adults: Comparison of Central European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehmann, Štěpánka; Havlíková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2015), s. 113-132. ISSN 0148-8376 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Older adults * social care services * availability Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2014

  6. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  7. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  8. Design Considerations for Technology Interventions to Support Social and Physical Wellness for Older Adults with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenay M. Beer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social and physical wellness are important considerations for maintaining one’s health into older age and remaining independent. However, some segments of the older adult population, such as those aging with disability, are at increased risk for loneliness and reduced physical activity, which could result in negative health consequences. There is a critical need to understand how to deploy social and physical wellness interventions for people aging with disability. We provide an overview of constructs related to social and physical wellness, as well as evidence-based interventions effective with older populations. Our review yields considerations for how interventions may need to be developed or modified to be efficacious for this population segment. Technology may be a key component in adopting interventions, particularly tele-technologies, which we define and discuss in depth.

  9. The Conditional Effect of Parental Drug Use on Parental Attachment and Adolescent Drug Use: Social Control and Social Development Model Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Mosher, Clayton

    2007-01-01

    The effect of parental deviance on adolescent deviance has been a source of considerable debate in the criminological literature. Classic theoretical explanations of the relationships between parental and adolescent deviance posit additive effects of parental deviance on youth behavior. Proponents of the Social Development Model have hypothesized…

  10. A descriptive social and health profile of a community sample of adults and adolescents with Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tantam Digby; Balfe Myles

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about the health and social profile of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) living in the community. We conducted a study to describe the living, employment and psycho-social situation of a community sample of forty two adults and adolescents with AS, and to describe these indivdiuals' experiences of accessing health services and taking medication. Findings Most respondents (including those over eighteen years of age) lived at home with their ...

  11. Social transmission of food handling in the context of triadic interactions between adults and young canaries (Serinus canaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Cadieu, Nicole; Winterton, P.; Cadieu, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    International audience We studied the factors that enhance food recognition and consumption in young canaries when confronted with adults. In contrast to previous studies on canaries in which social transmission of food habits was studied in the context of dyadic interactions (one juvenile – one adult), we proposed a more realistic framework in which young canaries were studied in the context of triadic interactions, free or not, with adults of both sexes. We found that during free interac...

  12. The influence of dentofacial appearance on the social attractiveness of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W C; Rees, G; Dawe, M; Charles, C R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the social attractiveness of a young adult would be influenced by his or her dentofacial appearance. Black and white photographs of an attractive male, an unattractive male, an attractive female, and an unattractive female were obtained and modified so that, for each face, five different photographic versions were available. In each version, the face was standardized except that a different dentofacial arrangement was demonstrated. These were normal incisors, prominent incisors, absence of upper left lateral incisor, severely crowded incisors, and unilateral cleft lip. Eight hundred young adults were shown one of the twenty photographs and asked to estimate the represented individual's social characteristics along a number of bipolar scales. Each photograph was viewed by a different group of forty young adults, equally divided as to sex. Their impressions of the depicted individuals' social attractiveness were recorded on visual analogue scales. The experimental procedure was such that the effect and interaction of different levels of facial attractiveness, different dentofacial arrangements, sex of the photographed individual, and sex of the judge could be analyzed. Faces displaying a normal incisor relationship gained the most favorable ratings for eight of the ten characteristics examined, and in four of these differences across the range of dental conditions were statistically significant. These were perceived friendliness, social class, popularity, and intelligence. The prominent incisor condition was rated highest for compliance and honesty, while the condition representing a unilateral cleft consistently attracted low ratings. Background facial attractiveness of either the male or female stimuli was often more assertive than the individual dental condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3855347

  13. Social support, locus of control, and parenting in three low-income groups of mothers: black teenagers, black adults, and white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J H

    1988-06-01

    Mother's social support, their instrumental use of extended family members and of professionals for help, and their sense of personal control were examined as predictors of parenting skill in 3 groups of low-income women. Separate regression models were generated for black adult mothers, white adult mothers, and black teen mothers, all of whom had at least 1 infant. Black teen and white adult mothers who sought help with child-rearing problems from extended family members were more skillful parents. Among white mothers, use of professionals for help with child-rearing problems and mothers' sense of internal control were also significant predictors. Black adult mothers' parenting skill was predicted only by locus of control. These prediction models suggest that in 2 of the groups, social ties to significant others were the linkages through which child-rearing information flowed to affect parenting behavior. PMID:3383672

  14. Social Media Use and Perceived Emotional Support Among US Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Lin, Liu Yi; Bowman, Nicholas D; Primack, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Low emotional support is associated with poor health outcomes. Engagement with face-to-face social networks is one way of increasing emotional support. However, it is not yet known whether engagement with proliferating electronic social networks is similarly associated with increased emotional support. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between social media use and perceived emotional support in a large, nationally-representative sample. In October 2014, we collected data from 1796 U.S. adults ages 19-32. We assessed social media use using both total time spent and frequency of visits to each of the 11 most popular social media platforms. Our dependent variable was perceived emotional support as measured by the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) emotional support scale. A multivariable model including all sociodemographic covariates and accounting for survey weights demonstrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of time on social media, being in the highest quartile (spending two or more hours per day) was significantly associated with decreased odds of having higher perceived emotional support (AOR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). However, compared with those in the lowest quartile, being in the highest quartile regarding frequency of social media use was not significantly associated with perceived emotional support (AOR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.45, 1.09). In conclusion, while the cross-sectional nature of these data hinder inference regarding directionality, it seems that heavy users of social media may actually feel less and not more emotional support. PMID:26613936

  15. Attachment discontinuity in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated complex patterns of attachment discontinuity across time in 133 individuals from the Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaptation. In addition to individuals who were either insecure or secure across infancy, late adolescence, and adulthood (Stably Insecure and Stably Secure, respectively), we found three additional groups: Infant/Adolescent Secure, Infant/Adult Secure, and Infant-only Secure. Changes in attachment representations in these groups across time corresponded to stresses and supports in the socio-emotional context. The two groups classified as secure in adulthood (Stably Secure and Infant/Adult Secure) experienced more positive relationship-based outcomes than the other three groups. Our results suggest that continuity may be a reflection of a stable social context as much as it is an artifact of early working models, and illustrate "homeorhetic" pathways of development, in which not only the direction but the length of a developmental pathway can constrain future developmental trajectories. PMID:21718224

  16. LEARNING TO CHOOSE AMONG SOCIAL FORAGING STRATEGIES IN ADULT HOUSE SPARROWS (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmaker, Amos; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2012-11-01

    Social foragers may be regarded as being engaged in a producer-scrounger game in which they can search for food independently or join others who have discovered food. Research on the producer-scrounger game has focused mainly on the different factors influencing its ESS solution, but very little is known about the actual mechanisms that shape players' decisions. Recent work has shown that early experience can affect producer-scrounger foraging tendencies in young house sparrows, and that in nutmeg mannikins learning is involved in reaching the ESS. Here we show that direct manipulation of the success rate experienced by adult sparrows when following others can change their strategy choice on the following day. We presented to live sparrows an experimental regime, where stuffed adult house sparrows in a feeding position were positioned on a foraging grid that included two reward regimes: a positive one, in which the stuffed models were placed near food, and a negative one, in which the models were placed away from food. There was a significant increase in joining behavior after the positive treatment (exhibited by 84% of the birds), but no change after the negative treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that sparrows more frequently used the strategy with which they were more successful (usually joining), and that differences in strategy use were correlated with differences in success. These results suggest that adult birds can monitor their success and learn to choose among social foraging strategies in the producer-scrounger game. PMID:23226911

  17. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb affects social interaction but not maternal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.

  18. Adult Attachment, Love Styles, Relationship Experiences and Subjective Well-Being: Cross-Cultural and Gender Comparison between Americans, Portuguese, and Mozambicans

    OpenAIRE

    Galinha, Iolanda Costa; Oishi, Shigehiro; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Wirtz, Derrick; Esteves, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Attachment security, love styles, and romantic relationship experiences are closely associated with subjective well-being (SWB). A few studies have empirically observed significant relations between these variables. However, no studies have included all of these predictors to analyze the unique contribution of each to SWB, and no cross-cultural studies have analyzed these variables simultaneously. This article examined (a) the relations between attachment security, love styles, romantic relat...

  19. Alexithymia, emotion perception, and social assertiveness in adult women with Noonan and Turner syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Freriks, Kim; Verhaak, Chris M; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2015-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes include short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and a webbed neck, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative differences in affective information processing and social assertiveness between adult women with NS and TS. Twenty-six women with NS, 40 women with TS, and 40 female controls were matched on age and intelligence, and subsequently compared on (1) alexithymia, measured by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, (2) emotion perception, evaluated by the Emotion Recognition Task, and (3) social assertiveness and social discomfort, assessed by the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior. Women with TS showed higher levels of alexithymia than women with NS and controls (P-values recognizing angry facial expressions in comparison with controls (P = 0.01). No significant group differences were found for the frequency of social assertiveness and the level of social discomfort. Women with NS and TS demonstrated different patterns of impairment in affective information processing, in terms of alexithymia and emotion perception. The present findings suggest neuropsychological phenotyping to be helpful for the diagnosis of specific cognitive-affective deficits in genetic syndromes, for the enhancement of genetic counseling, and for the development of personalized treatment plans. PMID:25711203

  20. MDMA-assisted therapy: A new treatment model for social anxiety in autistic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Alicia L; Struble, Christopher M; Yazar-Klosinski, Berra; Grob, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    The first study of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted therapy for the treatment of social anxiety in autistic adults commenced in the spring of 2014. The search for psychotherapeutic options for autistic individuals is imperative considering the lack of effective conventional treatments for mental health diagnoses that are common in this population. Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) involving the administration of MDMA in clinical trials have been rare and non-life threatening. To date, MDMA has been administered to over 1133 individuals for research purposes without the occurrence of unexpected drug-related SAEs that require expedited reporting per FDA regulations. Now that safety parameters for limited use of MDMA in clinical settings have been established, a case can be made to further develop MDMA-assisted therapeutic interventions that could support autistic adults in increasing social adaptability among the typically developing population. As in the case with classic hallucinogens and other psychedelic drugs, MDMA catalyzes shifts toward openness and introspection that do not require ongoing administration to achieve lasting benefits. This infrequent dosing mitigates adverse event frequency and improves the risk/benefit ratio of MDMA, which may provide a significant advantage over medications that require daily dosing. Consequently, clinicians could employ new treatment models for social anxiety or similar types of distress administering MDMA on one to several occasions within the context of a supportive and integrative psychotherapy protocol. PMID:25818246

  1. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley1,2, Amanda L Snyder1, Joseph P Nimon1, Paul J Arciero1,21Healthy Aging and Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA; 2Health and Exercise Sciences Department, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USAAbstract: This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “cybercycle;” a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness X time (pre- to post-avatar interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003. Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.Keywords: exercise, aging, virtual reality, competitiveness, social facilitation, exercise intensity

  2. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942388

  3. Familism, Social Network Characteristics, and Well-being among Older Adults in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Antonucci, Toni C

    2016-03-01

    Familism, is a cultural value considered to be central to Mexican culture. Older generations are thought to more strongly adhere to familistic values; however, little is known about the implications of familism in late-life. The goal of the current study was to examine links between familism, social network characteristics, and well-being among Mexican older adults. A sample of 556 older adults (50-99 years old) was drawn from the Study of Social Relations and Well-being in Mexico. Various aspects of social network characteristics and familism varied by age, gender, and education status. Familism was correlated with contact frequency and geographic proximity, but not proportion of family in network. Regression analyses indicated higher familism was associated with better psychological and physical well-being, yet familism interacted with proportion of family to predict both self-rated health and chronic conditions indicating that a discrepancy between familistic values and actual family support may be detrimental for older Mexicans' physical health. The discussion highlights the complex interrelationships and potential protective effects of familism. Future research should continue to examine the implications of familism and family relationships in the Mexican context; in particular, how generational shifts in familism influence intergenerational relations and well-being. PMID:26814696

  4. 大学生成人依恋与童年期经历的关系研究%A Research on the Relationship between Undergraduate Adult Attachment and Childhood Trauma Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪岩娟; 赵冰洁

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between adult attachment and childhood trauma experience is explored in 513 undergraduates with questionnaire. The results demonstrate that: the unsafe attachment of undergraduates who have high trauma experience level is higher than that of undergraduates who have low trauma experience level; there is significant difference between high and low attachment avoidance in emotional abuse, body neglect and emotional neglect; there is significant difference between high and low attachment anxiety in all factors of childhood trauma experience; the regression coefficient to adult attachment is 0.81. Adult attachment can be hypothesized by their childhood trauma experience.%文章采用自陈依恋量表(ECR-R)和童年期经历问卷(CTQ-SF)法,对513名大学生进行问卷调查,旨在探讨大学生成人依恋类型及其童年期创伤经历的关系。结果发现:童年高、低创伤经历得分的大学生在依恋回避和依恋焦虑两个维度得分上均有显著差异;高、低依恋回避组在情感虐待、躯体忽视和情感忽视三个因子上存在显著差异;高、低依恋焦虑得分的大学生在童年创伤经历各因子上均有显著差异;大学生童年期创伤经历对成人依恋的回归分析结果显著,回归系数为0.81。由此得出结论:大学生童年创伤经历对其成人依恋关系具有预测作用;可通过对童年期创伤经历的心理重构,重塑安全和健康的成人依恋关系。

  5. Exploring the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, H.C.M.; Verhoeven, E.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social fun

  6. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  7. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)-- Initial Results in a German Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163…

  8. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  9. Effects of adolescent social defeat on adult amphetamine-induced locomotion and corticoaccumbal dopamine release in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Forster, Gina L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Roberts, Christina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Maturation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems occurs during adolescence, and exposure to social stress during this period results in behavioral dysfunction including substance abuse disorders. Adult male rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence exhibit reduced basal dopamine tissue content in the medial prefrontal cortex, altered dopamine tissue content in corticoaccumbal dopamine regions following acute amphetamine, and increased amphetamine conditioned place preference follo...

  10. Social Support and Well-Being at Mid-Life among Mothers of Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of social support on the psychological well-being of mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 269). Quantity of support (number of social network members) as well as valence of support (positive support and negative support) were assessed using a modified version of the "convoy model" developed by…

  11. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  12. "Learning in Fellowship": Encounters between Christian Socialists and Social Democratic Influences in Adult Education, 1900-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Barry J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the meeting ground between Christian Socialist and Social Democratic ideas and practices in the development of adult education between 1900 and 1930 in the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, focusing on cross-cultural dissemination and reception of Christian Socialism and the influence of the Woodbrooke Settlement in the United Kingdom and…

  13. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  14. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult…

  15. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security

    OpenAIRE

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Gundel, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an ex...

  16. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Carol; Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse de; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online s...

  17. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  18. Factors That Drives Young Adult Consumers’ Online Purchase Intention in Social Media Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zahari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the drivers of online purchase intentions using social media as a medium. This study was able to obtain a sample size of 232 respondents using the stratified sampling method. The data collected then was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, a reliability test, and the multiple regressions. In the proposed model, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust, enjoyment, and perceived security are postulated to influence the online purchase intention. It is found that perceived security and trust plus with perceived usefulness and enjoyment have positively influence the online purchase intention among young adults. However, perceived ease of use has no significant influence on online purchase intention. The findings in this study can be adopted as outlines for businesses as well as individuals who intent to exploit online business through social media.

  19. The relationship of adult attachment and emotion regulation strategies among college students%大学生成人依恋类型与情绪调节策略的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 杨博; 邱慧卉; 何娟娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of adult attachment and emotion regulation strategies among col-lege students. Methods 120 college students were randomly chosen to complete Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory (ECR).Results There were no significant gender differences in adult at-tachment types,but the score of strategy of expression suppression in boys were significant higher than that in girls (t=14.590,P<0.01).There was significant correction between adult attachment and emotion regulation strategies.Specially, attachment avoidance had significant negative correlation with cognitive reappraisal (r=-0.45 ,P<0.05 ) and positive correlation with expression suppression (r=0.55,P<0.05).Attachment anxiety had significant positive correlation with cognitive reappraisal (r=0.74,P<0.05)and negative correlation with expression suppression (r=-0.34,P<0.05). Students with attachment avoidance significantly used more cognitive reappraisal methods (t=-9.350,P<0.01 ),and students with attachment anxiety significant used more expression suppression method (t=2.644,P<0.01).Conclusion Adult attachment has significant correlation with emotion regulation strategies.%目的:探究大学生成人依恋类型与情绪调节策略的关系。方法采用情绪调节策略量表(ERQ)与亲密关系经历量表(ECR)对随机抽取的120名大学生进行调查。结果大学生成人依恋类型在性别上差异无统计学意义,情绪调节策略在性别上差异有统计学意义,表现在男性的表达抑制得分显著高于女性(t=14.590, P<0.01)。大学生成人依恋类型与情绪调节策略存在显著相关,回避型依恋与认知重评呈显著负相关(r=-0.45,P<0.05),与表达抑制显著正相关(r=0.55,P<0.05);焦虑型依恋与认知重评呈显著正相关(r=0.74,P<0.05),与表达抑制呈显著负相关(r=-0.34,P<0.05);依恋回

  20. Development and Measurement through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale (YASB): An Assessment of Relational Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…

  1. Genetic, spatial, and social relationships among adults in a group of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Katharine; Nolin, David A; Ellis, Kelsey; Lozier, Jeffrey; Sandel, Brody; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-04-01

    Kinship plays an important role in the social behavior of many primate species, including patterns of intra-group affiliation and cooperation. Within social groups, kinship is strongly affected by dispersal patterns, with the degree of relatedness among group-mates expected to decrease as the tendency to disperse increases. In primate species characterized by bisexual dispersal, relatedness among adult group-mates is predicted to be low, with social interactions shaped largely by factors other than kinship. To date, however, few studies have examined the role of kinship in social interactions in bisexually dispersing species. Accordingly, we collected genetic, spatial and behavioral data on all adult members (three males, six females) in a group of free-ranging mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) - a bisexually dispersing species of atelid primate - from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Analyses of microsatellite variation revealed that relatedness was greater among adult males in this group (mean pairwise relatedness = 0.32 for males versus 0.09 for females). Relatedness among individuals, however, was not associated with either spatial proximity or frequency of social interactions. Instead, sex was a better predictor of both of these aspects of social behavior. While relatedness among adults had no discernible effect on the intra-group social interactions documented in this study, we postulate that kinship may facilitate affiliative and cooperative behaviors among male group-mates when interacting competitively with neighboring howler groups over access to food or potential mates. PMID:26935548

  2. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice. PMID:20651044

  3. Social networks and social integration panel
    A longitudinal survey. The processes of entering adult life, starting work and developing social networks : Hypotheses, development of the survey and follow-up of the panel

    OpenAIRE

    Bidart, Claire

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the principles, hypothesis, methods and collection of the data of a longitudinal survey about the social networks and transitions to adult life of a panel of young French people.

  4. Social class and BMI among Canadian adults: a focus on occupational prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Godley, Jenny

    2009-02-01

    The objective was to examine BMI of working-age Canadian adults in relation to occupational prestige, adjusting for other aspects of social class including household income and respondent's education. We analyzed data from 49,252 adults (age 25-64) from Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional self-report survey conducted in 2003. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relation between BMI and occupational prestige, adjusting for other sociodemographic variables. For women, higher ranking occupations showed lower average BMI relative to the lowest ranking occupations, but this effect was largely eliminated when adjusting for education. For men, occupation effects endured in adjusted models and we detected some evidence of a pattern whereby men in occupations characterized by management/supervisory responsibilities were heavier than those in the lowest ranking occupations (i.e., elemental sales and service). Results are interpreted in light of the symbolic value of body size in western culture, which differs for men and women. Men in positions of management/supervision may benefit from the physical dominance conveyed by a larger body size, and thus occupational prestige rankings may help us to understand the gender differences in the patterning of BMI by different indicators of social class. PMID:19039314

  5. Effects of a social cognitive theory-based hip fracture prevention web site for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Barker, Bausell; Resnick, Barbara; Covington, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site for older adults and conduct a preliminary evaluation of its effectiveness. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site is composed of learning modules and a moderated discussion board. A total of 245 older adults recruited from two Web sites and a newspaper advertisement were randomized into the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site and the conventional Web sites groups. Outcomes included (1) knowledge (hip fractures and osteoporosis), (2) self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and (3) calcium intake and exercise and were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (2 weeks), and follow-up (3 months). Both groups showed significant improvement in most outcomes. For calcium intake, only the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group showed improvement. None of the group and time interactions were significant. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group, however, was more satisfied with the intervention. The discussion board usage was significantly correlated with outcome gains. Despite several limitations, the findings showed some preliminary effectiveness of Web-based health interventions for older adults and the use of a Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site as a sustainable Web structure for online health behavior change interventions. PMID:20978408

  6. Adult attachment styles and family function of obsessive-compulsive disorder%强迫障碍患者的成人依恋类型与家庭功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 史占明; 黄建军; 杨蕴萍

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the adult attachment styles and family function of obsessive compulsive disorder(OCD),and provide evidence for developing targeted intervention.[Methods] A total of 75 OCD patients and 75 healthy people were investigated by the Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ) and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale second edition (FACESII-CV).[Results] The adult attachment style in 2 groups had significant difference (P < 0.001).The proportion of unsecure attachment styles in OCD group was higher than that in normal control group,The proportions of preoccupied attachment style (38.7%) and dismissing-avoidant attachment style (33.3%) were higher than that of fearful avoidant attachment style(12.0%) in OCD group.[Conclusion] The proportion of secure attachment styles in OCD group is lower than that in normal control group.Family actual adaptability and cohesion in OCD group is lower than that in normal control group.The results indicate the mental health management on OCD patients,especially psychological intervention and prevention,should be implemented on adult attachment styles and family function.%目的 了解强迫障碍(OCD)患者的成人依恋类型和家庭功能,为制定OCD干预措施提供依据.方法 对75名OCD患者及75名健康对照组(NC)采用成人依恋量表一关系评定问卷(RSQ)及家庭亲密度和适应性量表中文修订版(FACESⅡ-CV)问卷调查.结果 OCD组与NC组的成人依恋类型差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),OCD组不安全依恋类型比例高于NC组,OCD组中迷恋型(38.7%)和淡漠型(33.3%)比例高于恐惧型(12.0%).OCD组与NC组在家庭实际亲密度和适应性方面差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 OCD组安全性依恋类型比例低于NC组,家庭实际亲密度和适应性低于NC组.提示从成人依恋类型及家庭功能的角度开展对OCD患者的心理健康管理,尤其是在心理干预和预防上具有重要启示.

  7. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  8. The effects of social connectedness and need satisfaction on wellbeing in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Moore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Research has established the importance of social connectedness, or relatedness, in contributing to wellbeing in older adults. However, there is strong evidence, informed by the Basic Psychological Needs Theory, that satisfaction of autonomy and competence needs is equally important. Drawing on this theoretical framework, we investigated its relevance to the wellbeing of older adults living independently in the community. Method: Phase 1: Wellbeing measures in an online survey were validated by a university population sample (n=178. The university sample was made up of 38 men and 106 women with a mean age of 38 years. Phase 2: Adults aged 60 and over (n=89 completed a paper survey. Of these, 31 participants were men and 55 were women, with a mean age of 71 years. Measures included the Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs, Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Scale of Positive and Negative Affect. Results: For both population samples, satisfaction with life and positive affect were most highly correlated with relatedness. However, the importance of the contribution to wellbeing of each of the three needs changed with age. In the university sample, the contributions of autonomy and competence to a composite wellbeing variable (life satisfaction and positive affect increased for participants aged 47 and over. For the over 60 age group, the contribution of competence increased further. There was also a significant interaction between competence and relatedness in relation to wellbeing. At both low and average levels of relatedness, competence made a significant contribution to wellbeing. Conclusions: These findings suggest that experiences of competence are important to older adults. We discuss the implications of this for optimising wellbeing in this age group.

  9. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children--A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stine; Breivik, Kyrre; Heiervang, Einar R; Havik, Toril; Havik, Odd E

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the external correlates of RAD/DSED in this sample? The study sample included 122 foster children aged 6-10 years. Foster parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the RAD/DSED-scale from the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment. Child protection caseworkers completed a questionnaire regarding exposure to maltreatment and placement history. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the RAD/DSED items identified a good fit for a model with a two-factor structure, which is congruent with the DSM-5 definition of RAD and DSED. A new CFA model, which included the RAD and DSED factors together with the four problem factors of the SDQ (emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention, and peer problems), also demonstrated a good fit with our data. RAD and DSED were associated with the SDQ Impact scale and help seeking behavior. This was partly explained by the SDQ externalizing and peer problem subscales. Our findings lend support for the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD and DSED as separate dimensions of child psychopathology. Thus, the assessment of RAD and DSED provides information beyond other mental health problems. PMID:26126635

  10. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  11. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in Adult BTBR T+tf/J Mice During Three Types of Social Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social deficits and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. We previously reported an unusual pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR pups that may represent a behavioral homologue to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, impaired communication. The present study investigated the social and vocal repertoire in adult BTBR mice, to evaluate the role of ultrasonic vocalizations in multiple social situations at the adult stage of development. Three different social contexts were considered: male-female, male-male (resident-intruder) and female-female interactions. Behavioral responses and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for BTBR and for the highly social control strain C57BL/6J (B6). No episodes of overt fighting or mating were observed during the short durations of the three different experimental encounters. BTBR displayed lower levels of vocalizations and social investigation in all three social contexts as compared to B6. In addition, the correlation analyses between social investigation and USVs emission rate revealed that in B6 mice the two variables were positively correlated in all the three different social settings, whereas in BTBR mice the positive correlation was significant only in the male-female interactions. These findings strongly support the value of simultaneously recording two aspects of the mouse social repertoire, social motivation and bioacoustic communication. Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared to B6. PMID:20618443

  12. Social conditions and urban environment associated with participation in the Ciclovia program among adults from Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Gómez; Janeth Mosquera; Olga Lucia Gómez; José Moreno; Jose D. Pinzon; Enrique Jacoby; Magda Cepeda; Diana Celmira Parra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Ciclovia program (CP) has emerged as an effective initiative to promote active living in urban spaces in Latin America. This study assessed the association between social conditions, the urban environment and participation in the CP among adults living in the city of Cali, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 among 719 adults aged 18 to 44. Urban environment measures were obtained using Geographic Information Systems. A multilevel logistic regression w...

  13. The relationship between computer gaming hours and depression or social phobia in adults. An international online survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Radeke

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past decades, there was a worldwide increase in people playing video games. Researchers have started to conduct studies and identified positive and negative associations with video gaming. Comparable studies have been done.   Aim: The aim is to analyse, if there is an association between the average hours an adult participant has played computer games per day and depression or social phobia.   Methods: Data from 4,936 adults who voluntarily participated in an online survey ...

  14. Demographic, Psychological, and Social Characteristics of Self-Identified Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in a US Probability Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Herek, Gregory M; Norton, Aaron T.; Allen, Thomas J.; Sims, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a US national probability sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports population parameter estimates for a variety of demographic, psychological, and social variables. Special emphasis is given to information with relevance to public policy and law. Compared with the US adult population, respondents were younger, more highly educated, and less likely to be non-Hispanic White, but differences were observed between gender and sexua...

  15. Can’t get No Satisfaction?: How do social and spatial factors in early childhood affect adult well-being?

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on inequalities in health from birth has provided increasing evidence to support the lifecourse perspective on health inequalities. Studies from the field of health geography have also highlighted the role of birthplace in adult health outcomes. In this paper, these two threads are combined by taking an ecological approach to how both social and spatial factors in the first few years of life affect adult well-being. The outcome indicator in this case is satisfaction ...

  16. Attachment at work: its construct, discriminant, and predictive validity.

    OpenAIRE

    Neustadt, E.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with Attachment Theory (e.g. Bowlby, 1969/82 1973 1980) as it may apply to adults at work, with particular attention to the bearing of attachment orientation on management style and job performance. Chapter 1 provides an overview of attachment theory, existing measures and salient measurement issues Chapter 2 examines the literature, with a particular focus on adult attachment. Chapters 3-9 present a series of studies that entail testing the construct, discrimin...

  17. The relation between adverse childhood experiences and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adult romantic relationships: A study of pregnant Norwegian women

    OpenAIRE

    Lindboe, Ingrid Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies over the last five decades have reported an association between adverse childhood experiences and non-optimal mental health outcomes. Although recent research has explored the impacts of adverse childhood experiences on interpersonal relationships later in life, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the consequences of adverse childhood experiences on attachment behaviours in romantic relationships in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to inve...

  18. Neonatal melanocortin receptor agonist treatment reduces play fighting and promotes adult attachment in prairie voles in a sex-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Catherine E.; Modi, Meera E.; Zhang, Billy C.; Walum, Hasse; Inuoe, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) system has been studied extensively for its role in feeding and sexual behavior, but effects on social behavior have received little attention. α-MSH interacts with neural systems involved in sociality, including oxytocin, dopamine, and opioid systems. Acute melanotan-II (MTII), an MC3/4R agonist, potentiates brain oxytocin (OT) release and facilitates OT-dependent partner preference formation in socially monogamous prairie voles. Here we examined the long-term...

  19. Attachment and Dependency in Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Distinguishes between attachment (the relationship between infant and caregiver) and dependency (the reliance of the child on adults for nurturance, attention, or assistance). Assesses preschool children with varying attachment histories and suggests that the roots of overdependency lie in the quality of the early infant-caregiver relationship.…

  20. Gender differences in the social pathways linking neighborhood disadvantage to depressive symptoms in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Bassett

    Full Text Available Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (n(ct = 300 and individuals within those tracts (ni = 2707. Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.55. Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.003-0.04, p<0.05. Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs.