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  1. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  2. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.

  3. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  4. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older ... may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even ...

  5. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents.

  6. Adolescent Light Cigarette Smoking Patterns and Adult Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Light cigarette smoking has had limited research. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between light smoking in adolescence with smoking in adulthood. Methods. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, Waves I and IV, were analyzed. Previous month adolescent smoking of 1–5 cigarettes/day (cpd (light smoking; 6–16 cpd (average smoking; 17 or more cpd (heavy smoking; and nonsmoking were compared with the outcome of adult smoking. Results. At baseline, 15.9% of adolescents were light smokers, 6.8% were average smokers, and 3.6% were heavy smokers. The smoking patterns were significantly related to adult smoking. In logistic regression analyses, adolescent light smokers had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.00, 3.00 of adult smoking; adolescent average or heavy smokers had AOR of 5.57 (95% CI: 4.17, 7.43 and 5.23 (95% CI: 3.29, 8.31, respectively. Conclusion. Individuals who initiate light cigarette smoking during adolescence are more likely to smoke as young adults. Practical Implications. When screening for tobacco use by adolescents, there is a need to verify that the adolescents understand that light smoking constitutes smoking. There is a need for healthcare providers to initiate interventions for adolescent light smoking.

  7. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  8. Tobacco Use in Racial and Ethnic Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking Facts Tobacco Use in Racial and Ethnic Populations Tobacco use is much higher in some communities ... disparities. Adult Smoking Rates among Racial and Ethnic Populations 1 Race/Ethnicity Total Men Women Whites 19. ...

  9. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter? ... insurance coverage differ by race and ethnicity for young adults? More than one-half of Hispanic young adults ...

  10. Narrative and Ethnic Identity Exploration: A Longitudinal Account of Emerging Adults' Ethnicity-Related Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this longitudinal study was to investigate further the link between ethnic identity processes and content through an examination of emerging adults' narratives of ethnicity-related experiences. Seventy ethnically diverse college students completed an ethnic identity exploration index and told an ethnicity-related narrative on 2…

  11. Determinants of daily smoking in Turkish young adults in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); J. van der Ende (Jan); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); I.M.A. Joung (Inez)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As little is known about the determinants of smoking in large ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and other Western European countries, we studied the determinants of smoking young adult offspring of Turkish migrants to the Netherlands. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 439

  12. Depressive symptoms and smoking among young Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Z. Acarturk; V. Nierkens; C. Agyemang; K. Stronks

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although evidence indicates a strong association between depressive symptoms and smoking among host and migrant adults, less is known about this relationship among young ethnic minority groups in Europe. This paper aims to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and

  13. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  14. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  15. Does ethnic ancestry play a role in smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA S.T. DE SOUZA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The higher proportion of smokers among Black people in Brazil has been attributed to socioeconomic disparities, but genetic factors could also contribute for this finding. This study aimed at investigating associations between smoking status with genetically defined ethnic ancestry and socioeconomic features in Brazilians. Blood samples were collected from 448 volunteers (66.7% male; age: 37.1±11.4 years classified as current smokers (CS: 60.9%, former smokers (FS: 8.9% and never smokers (NS: 30.1%. Individual interethnic admixtures were determined using a 48 insertion-deletion polymorphisms ancestry-informative-marker panel. CS showed a lower amount of European ancestry than NS (0.837±0.243 X 0.883±0.194, p≤0.05 and FS (0.837±0.243 X 0.864±0.230, p≤0.05, and a higher proportion of African Sub-Saharan ancestry than FS (0.128±0.222 X 0.07±0.174, p≤0.05 and NS (0.128±0.222 X 0.085±0.178, p≤0.05. NS reported a higher number of years in school than CS (11.2±3.7 X 8.9±3.8, p≤0.001. CS were less common in economic Class A (30% and more common in Class B (56.8%. In multivariate analysis, only lower number of school years and lower economic class were associated with higher chances for CS. The use of genetic molecular markers for characterizing ethnic background confirmed that socioeconomic disparities are the main determinants of higher smoking rates among Blacks in Brazil.

  16. Determinants of daily smoking in Turkish young adults in the Netherlands

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    Verhulst Frank C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As little is known about the determinants of smoking in large ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and other Western European countries, we studied the determinants of smoking young adult offspring of Turkish migrants to the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 439 Turkish adults (18–28 y in 2003. Smokers were compared with never smokers for five groups of determinants: demographic and socioeconomic factors, behavioral and emotional problems, psychosocial factors, and cultural factors. Associations were measured by prevalence rate ratios. Results Prevalences for men were 51% for daily smoking, 12% for former smoking, and 38% for never smoking. For women they were 44%, 11%, and 47%, respectively. Without adjustment for other determinants, higher prevalence was associated with: emotional problems, boredom, life events, and being male; and, specifically among women, with low self-esteem and having children. The strongest determinants of daily smoking In multivariate models were alcohol use and demographic and socio-economic factors. Of the cultural factors only strong Muslim identification was associated with lower smoking prevalence. Conclusion The high prevalence of smoking warrants action. Many of the well-known determinants of smoking in Western countries were also important among young adults from ethnic minorities. Women with children and people of a low educational level deserve special attention.

  17. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Smoking Prevalence: Evidence from a National Survey of Teens

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    Hosanna A. Asfaw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS, a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.

  18. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Narrative and ethnic identity exploration: a longitudinal account of emerging adults' ethnicity-related experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this longitudinal study was to investigate further the link between ethnic identity processes and content through an examination of emerging adults' narratives of ethnicity-related experiences. Seventy ethnically diverse college students completed an ethnic identity exploration index and told an ethnicity-related narrative on 2 occasions 18 months apart. Results indicated that (a) participants who increased in exploration over time were more likely to change their narrative theme than participants who decreased or remained stable in exploration and (b) these changes were more likely to be to stories of experience of prejudice or connection to culture. This study highlights the costs and benefits of ethnic identity and provides evidence for a linkage between ethnic identity process and content in emerging adulthood.

  20. Occlusal status in Asian male adults : Prevalence and ethnic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soh, J; Sandham, John; Chin, Yeen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 1722 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1% (

  1. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  2. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Sandra E; Gundersen, Daniel A; Manderski, Michelle T B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18-34 years of age (n = 873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  3. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Bello, Mariel S; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Pang, Raina D; Hendricks, Peter S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community (32.2% women; non-Hispanic African American [n = 175], non-Hispanic White [n = 109], or Hispanic [n = 26]) completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender-by-ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. These findings suggest that gender, ethnicity, and their intersectionality should be considered in research on cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities.

  4. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  5. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

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    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  6. The Connections between Latino Ethnic Identity and Adult Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vasti; Martinez, Sylvia; Wallace, Lisa D.; Medrano, Christianne I.; Robledo, Andrea L.; Hernandez, Ebelia

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the influence of adult experiences on the development of Latino ethnic identity. Using purposeful and snowball sampling, adult participants responded to open-ended questions about their understanding of being Latino. Analysis indicated that changes in the environment or life circumstances had the greatest effect on the…

  7. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gendall

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies.Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05. The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18 with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  8. Movie smoking and youth initiation: parsing smoking imagery and other adult content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To isolate the independent influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on youth smoking uptake. METHODS: We used discrete time survival analysis to quantify the influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on transitioning from (1 closed to open to smoking; (2 never to ever trying smoking; and (3 never to ever hitting, slapping, or shoving someone on two or more occasions in the past 30 days. The latter is a comparative outcome, hypothesized to have no correlation with exposure to smoking in the movies. RESULTS: Assessed separately, both exposure to smoking imagery and exposure to adult content were associated with increased likelihood of youth becoming open to smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15 and OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04-1.17 and having tried smoking (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.13. Both measures were also separately associated with aggressive behavior (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14 and OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15. A very high correlation between the two measures (0.995, p<0.000 prevented an assessment of their independent effects on smoking initiation. CONCLUSION: Although exposure to smoking in the movies is correlated with smoking susceptibility and initiation, the high correlation between exposure to smoking in the movies and other adult content suggests that more research is needed to disentangle their independent influence on smoking.

  9. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  10. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI.

  11. Adult Tobacco Use Among Racial and Ethnic Groups Living in the United States, 2002–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Gfroerer, BA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionU.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups.MethodsWe used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002–2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1 use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes during the 30 days before each survey and 2 cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey.ResultsThe prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites.ConclusionThese results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.

  12. Socio-economic and Psychosocial Determinants of Smoking and Passive Smoking in Older Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong Mei; HU Zhi; ORTON Sophie; WANG Jia Ji; ZHENG Jian Zhong; QIN Xia; CHEN Ruo Ling

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with active and passive smoking in older adults. Methods Using a standard interview method, we examined random samples of 6071 people aged≥60 years in 5 provinces of China during 2007-2009. Results World age-standardised prevalence for current and former smoking in men was 45.6% and 20.5%, and in women 11.1%and 4.5%. Current smoking reduced with older age but increased with men, low socioeconomic status (SES), alcohol drinking, being never-married, pessimistic and depressive syndromes. Former smoking was associated with men, secondary school education, a middle-high income, being a businessman, being widowed, less frequencies of visiting children/relatives and friends, and worrying about children. Among 3774 never-smokers, the prevalence of passive smoking was 31.5%, and the risk increased with women, low SES, alcohol drinking, being married, having a religious believe, and daily visiting children/relatives. There were sex differences in the associations, and an interaction effect of education and income on smoking and passive smoking. Conclusion Older Chinese had a higher level of smoking and passive smoking than those in high income countries, reflecting China’s failures in controlling smoking. The associations with low SES and different psychosocial aspects and sex differences suggest preventative strategies for active and passive smoking.

  13. Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  14. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  15. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  16. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  17. Exposure to Smoke During Development: Fetal Programming of Adult Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergen Hugo T

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well established that smoking has potent effects on a number of parameters including food intake, body weight, metabolism, and blood pressure. For example, it is well documented that 1 there is an inverse relationship between smoking and body weight, and 2 smoking cessation is associated with weight gain. However, there is increasing evidence that smoking can exert deleterious effects on energy balance through maternal exposure during fetal development. Specifically, there appears to be an increased incidence of metabolic disease (including obesity, and cardiovascular disease in children and adults that were exposed to smoke during fetal development. The present review will examine the relationship between maternal smoke and adult disease in offspring. The epidemiological studies highlighting this relationship will be reviewed as well as the experimental animal models that point to potential mechanisms underlying this relationship. A better understanding of how smoking effects changes in energy balance may lead to treatments to ameliorate the long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to smoke as well as increasing the health benefits associated with smoking cessation.

  18. Smoking and All-cause Mortality in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality...... risk factor for premature mortality in older individuals and cessation remains beneficial even at advanced ages. Efforts to support smoking abstinence at all ages should be a public health priority....... in people aged ≥60 years. METHODS: Relative mortality and mortality rate advancement periods (RAPs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for the population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe and the U.S. (CHANCES [Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the U...

  19. Adult smoking in the home environment and children's IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D L; Swank, P R; Baldwin, C D; McCormick, D

    1999-02-01

    In a sample of 3- and 5-yr.-old children, smoking in the home was found to be significantly and inversely related to IQ. Children of normal birth weight and without neurological impairment had been enrolled in a longitudinal study of child development. Analyses were conducted with sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, educational stimulation in the home, day care, and mother's intelligence controlled. Significant results were obtained for scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at age three years and on the major Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition scales at ages three and five years. All effects were for the mother, not the father, smoking in the home.

  20. An Updated Global Picture of Cigarette Smoking Persistence among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, Jonathan P.; Barondess, David A.; Storr, Carla L.; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee N.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Takeshima, Tadashi; Tomov, Toma; Williams, David R.; Anthony, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cross-national variance in smoking prevalence is relatively well documented. The aim of this study is to estimate levels of smoking persistence across 21 countries with a hypothesized inverse relationship between country income level and smoking persistence. Methods Data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative were used to estimate cross-national differences in smoking persistence–the proportion of adults who started to smoke and persisted in smoking by the date of the survey. Result There is large variation in smoking persistence from 25% (Nigeria) to 85% (China), with a random-effects meta-analytic summary estimate of 55% with considerable cross-national variation. (Cochran's heterogeneity Q statistic=6,845; p<0.001). Meta-regressions indicated observed differences are not attributable to differences in country income level, age distribution of smokers, or how recent the onset of smoking began within each country. Conclusion While smoking should remain an important public health issue in any country where smokers are present, this report identifies several countries with higher levels of smoking persistence (namely, China and India). PMID:23626929

  1. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  2. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  3. The contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position to adult obesity and smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Chris; Graham, Hilary; Due, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US.......Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US....

  4. Quitting Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann; Schauer, Gillian; Asman, Kat; Jamal, Ahmed

    2017-01-06

    Quitting cigarette smoking benefits smokers at any age (1). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration-approved medications increase quit rates (1-3). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 objectives of increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who attempt to quit smoking cigarettes to ≥80.0% (TU-4.1), and increasing recent smoking cessation success to ≥8.0% (TU-5.1),* CDC assessed national estimates of cessation behaviors among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). During 2015, 68.0% of adult smokers wanted to stop smoking, 55.4% made a past-year quit attempt, 7.4% recently quit smoking, 57.2% had been advised by a health professional to quit, and 31.2% used cessation counseling and/or medication when trying to quit. During 2000-2015, increases occurred in the proportion of smokers who reported a past-year quit attempt, recently quit smoking, were advised to quit by a health professional, and used cessation counseling and/or medication (psmoking. As of 2015, 59.1% of adults who had ever smoked had quit. To further increase cessation, health care providers can consistently identify smokers, advise them to quit, and offer them cessation treatments (2-4). In addition, health insurers can increase cessation by covering and promoting evidence-based cessation treatments and removing barriers to treatment access (2,4-6).

  5. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  6. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and reproductive hormones in adult sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Ernst, E; Andersen, C Y; Bonde, J P

    2008-12-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to alter levels of reproductive hormones in adult sons. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected according to their exposure to tobacco smoke in foetal life. From February 2005 to January 2006, a blood sample from each young man (18-21 years) was collected and analysed for reproductive hormones. There were no apparent trends of increasing or decreasing hormonal levels with increased exposure to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Only the free testosterone/free estradiol ratios increased with increased maternal smoking during pregnancy (p for trend = 0.05). No trends for increasing odds ratios for high follicle-stimulating hormone (> or =25 percentile) or low inhibin B (hormones later in life, but the data may suggest a shift in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis towards higher androgenicity. This result was, however, of only borderline significance and could be because of chance.

  7. Allergic Sensitization, Rhinitis and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in US Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Shargorodsky

    Full Text Available Tobacco exposure has been linked with sinonasal pathology and may be associated with allergic sensitization. This study evaluates the association between exposure to active smoking or secondhand smoke (SHS and the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization in the US adult population.Cross-sectional study in 4,339 adults aged 20-85 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Never smoking was defined as reported lifetime smoking less than 100 cigarettes and serum cotinine levels 10 ng/mL. Self-reported rhinitis was based on symptoms during the past 12 months, and allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to any of the 19 specific IgE antigens tested.Almost half of the population (43% had detectable levels of IgE specific to at least one inhaled allergen and 32% reported a history of rhinitis. After multivariate adjustment, there was a statistically significant association between the highest serum cotinine tertile and rhinitis in active smokers (OR 1.42; 95%CI 1.00-2.00. The association between active smoking and rhinitis was stronger in individuals without allergic sensitization (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.44-4.23. There was a statistically significant association between increasing cotinine tertiles and decreased odds of inhaled allergen sensitization (p-trend <.01.Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with increased prevalence of rhinitis symptoms, but not with allergic sensitization. The results indicate that the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and sinonasal pathology in adults may be independent of allergic sensitization.

  8. The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult: Measurement of Smoking Outcome Expectancies of Experienced Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Amy L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two versions of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire for adults were developed and tested with 407 smokers and nonsmokers. The version with probability items appeared to have greater construct validity than the version with subjective expected utility items. The scale reflects the refinement of smokers' outcome expectancies with experience. (SLD)

  9. Parents who quit smoking and their adult children's smoking cessation: a 20-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricker, J.B.; Otten, R.; Liu, J.L.; Peterson, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Extending our earlier findings from a longitudinal cohort study, this study examines parents' early and late smoking cessation as predictors of their young adult children's smoking cessation. Design - Parents' early smoking cessation status was assessed when their children were aged 8 years;

  10. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  11. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, David J; de Vlas, Sake J; van Empelen, Pepijn; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-02-16

    Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study, longitudinal data of 4623 adults participating in the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social sciences (LISS) panel were collected in March 2013 with a follow-up in 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of smokers in social networks, and (1) smoking cessation (n=762) and (2) smoking relapse (n=1905). Analyses were adjusted for the size of the network, age, sex, and education. Respondents with the largest proportion of smokers in their social network were less likely to quit smoking (OR=0.25; 95% CI=0.11-0.66) and more likely to experience a relapse (6.08; 3.01-12.00). Smoking cessation and relapse were most strongly associated with the proportion of smokers among household members and friends. The proportion of smokers in family outside the household was not related to smoking cessation and smoking relapse. In conclusion, smoking behavior in social networks, especially among household members and friends, is strongly associated with smoking cessation and relapse. These findings further support the spread of smoking within social networks, and provide evidence for network-based interventions, particularly including household members and friends.

  12. IMPACT OF SMOKING ON ADULTS LUNG AGE AND VENTILATORY FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Farouk Helal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a large body of evidence exists on the effect of smoking on lung age and pulmonary function, much less attention has been dedicated to using these effects as an effective strategy in smoking cessation. Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of smoking on lung age and ventilatory function in adult Saudi in order to use these effects in a future strategy for smoking cessation. Methods: Eighty one smoker students with their mean age 23.88 ± 2.7 years were enrolled in this study. Every student performed a ventilatory function tests in order to measure lung age, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at the end of the first second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and peak expiratory flow rate PEFR. Results: The result showed significant deterioration in the mean value of FEV1, PEFR and the estimated lung age and a non-significant difference in the mean values of FVC. Conclusion: Smoking has a significant effect on ventilaroty function and deteriorating estimated lung age.

  13. Patterns of adolescent smoking and later nicotine dependence in young adults: A 10-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.O.M. van de; Greenwood, P.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Olsson, C.A.; Patton, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: There is considerable variability in progression from smoking initiation to established smoking. This paper addresses the extent to which different patterns of adolescent smoking, including periods of cessation, predict smoking status in young adults. Study design: Ten-year, eight-wave p

  14. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan Palipudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9% (male-58.2% and female-51.7%, in workplace (63% (male-67.8% and female-30.4%, and in any public place (57.8% (male-90.4% and female-25.1% 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3% and health care facilities (5.8%; however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%, and restaurants (27.6%. SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on

  15. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  16. Dose-response associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent childhood obesity: effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity in a low-income US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Andrea J; Cogswell, Mary E; Li, Ruowei

    2008-11-01

    Studies suggest that children exposed to cigarette smoke in utero are at risk of becoming obese. Few researchers have evaluated the dose-response association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity or whether this association varies by maternal race/ethnicity. The authors obtained retrospective cohort data by linking records from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System and the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System on 155,411 low-income children born during 1995-2001 in 9 US states and 2 tribal nations. The authors examined maternal smoking status, duration of smoking, quantity of smoking, and both duration and quantity combined. Childhood obesity was based on a body mass index greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for sex and age, assessed at age 2-4 years. Maternal race/ethnicity modified the association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. Among non-Hispanic White mothers, both duration and quantity of smoking were positively associated with childhood obesity in a dose-response manner. Among non-Hispanic Black mothers, only heavy smoking was positively associated with childhood obesity. Among Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians/Pacific Islanders, smoking was not associated with childhood obesity. The inconsistent association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity across race/ethnicity categories merits further investigation into potential explanations for this variation, which may include confounding, reporting bias, or unexplored biologic mechanisms.

  17. Smoking Status and Metabolic Syndrome in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlin Ivan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current smoking is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance but its association with the metabolic syndrome (metS, particularly with sufficiently sampled African American representation, has not been clearly established. Objective To assess whether a metS is associated with smoking; b any increased risk of metS among smokers is independent of body mass index (BMI compared with non-smokers; c smoking status is differentially associated with the metS and its components across different ethnic groups. Methods Cross sectional analysis of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA a community population-based sample free of cardiovascular disease. Results Current smokers (N = 769 had higher risk of metS (odds ratio [OR, 95% confidence interval]: 1.4, 1.1-1.7 versus never (reference, N = 2981 and former smokers (1.0, 0.8-1.1, N = 2163 and for metS components: high waist circumference (WC (OR:1.9, 1.2-2.1, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (1.5, 1.3-1.8, elevated plasma triglycerides (TG (OR:1.4, 1.2-1.7 as well as high C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammatory marker concentration (OR: 1.6,1.3-2.0 compared to never and former smokers after adjustment for BMI. A smoking status by ethnicity interaction occurred such that African American current and former smokers had greater likelihood of low HDL-C than White counterparts. Conclusions This study found that smoking is associated with the metS and despite the lower BMI of current smokers the prevalence of low HDL-C, elevated TG and CRP is higher among them than among non-smokers. African Americans generally have higher HDL-C than Whites but smoking wipes out this advantage. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00005487

  18. Effects of smoking on the Lipoprotein levels among Mauritian of different ethnic groups and their preponderance to cardiovascular threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dhunnoo Yuvrajsing

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease progression and initiation has since long been known to be influenced by smoking and also genetic variability, owing to ethnic differences. Past studies conducted among Mauritian, have reported certain genetic preponderance to diseases. In the current study, effect of smoking on various cardiovascular parameters in two different ethnic groups of Mauritius was studied. Smokers and non-smokers volunteers were recruited from ethnic Asian and African population and blood sample collected by venipuncture. Myeloperoxidase, APOA1, OxLDL, HDL, TG, LDL, and cholesterol were assessed The level of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, myeloperoxidase, APO A1, and OxLDL was 5.56±1.09, 2.13±1.70, 0.67±0.11, 4.07±0.93, 145.90±9.59, 0.42±0.13 and 74.55±13.73 mmol/L respectively in Asian smokers. Corresponding values in African smokers were respectively 4.65±0.88, 1.17±0.78, 1.18±0.42, 2.33±0.67, 172.50±15.55, 0.47±0.88 and 65.11±7.38. Results of our study indicate a significant difference (p<0.05 in cardiovascular parameters between Asian and African smokers. Furthermore, Asians were also observed to be prone to dyslipidaemia. On the other hand, smoking did not seem to influence cardiovascular parameters among African smokers, but rather seemed to have an underlying genetic protective effect against the deleterious effects of smoking.

  19. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Gendall; Janet Hoek; Richard Edwards; Stanton Glantz

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young ...

  20. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  1. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  2. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Smoking-related attitudes and perceptions among young adults in Malta and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Catriona; Hamilton-West, Kate

    2010-05-01

    Although youth smoking in Europe has been highlighted as a significant public health concern, there is little data available to guide development of population-specific smoking prevention measures. In this study, we examined smoking-prevalence and smoking-related attitudes and perceptions among 118 young adults in Malta (a country for which there is little existing data), with comparison data from a sample of young adults in the UK (N = 112). To ensure that samples were demographically similar (e.g. in terms of age, level of education, and social status) we obtained data from university students. Only students of Maltese nationality (in Malta), or British nationality (in the UK) were invited to participate. Participants completed measures of smoking behavior, perceived risks of smoking, subjective norms, temptation to smoke, and attitudes towards smoking cessation. Almost half (46%) of the Maltese students were current smokers, compared to 25% of the British students. British students were more aware of the risks of smoking than their Maltese counterparts, perceived greater social pressure not to smoke and held more positive attitudes towards smoking cessation; Maltese students reported greater temptation to smoke and were around others who smoke more often than the British students. Attitudes and perceptions were associated with smoking behavior in both samples although the relative importance of psychological determinants of smoking varied between the two samples. Our data indicate higher smoking prevalence and more pro-smoking attitudes/ perceptions among students in Malta, consistent with data for other Southern European countries. Findings also indicate that the influence of smoking-related attitudes and perceptions varies between populations and the influence of social norms in particular may be moderated by nationality.

  4. Effect of Smoking on Cognitive Functioning in Young Saudi Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shahid; Alghamdi, Faisal; Alhussien, Ahmed; Alohali, Meshal; Alatawi, Abdullah; Almusned, Tariq; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. Material/Methods We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18–29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The cognitive functions outcome variables were the response time (attention-switching task [AST]), and the percentage of correct response (pattern recognition memory [PRM] task). Clinical, demographic, blood markers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E) were assessed between groups. Results The 2 groups were matched for age and educational status. In comparison to the control group, smokers showed significant cognitive impairments in AST-Latency (p=0.001), AST-Congruent (p=0.001), and AST-Incongruent condition (p=0.001). There was not significant difference in BDNF APOE serum level between the 2 groups. Conclusions These results indicate that attention and alertness were significantly impaired in smokers compared to non-smokers. PMID:28223681

  5. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-05-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  6. Does Race/Ethnicity Really Matter in Adult Neurogenics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence suggests that race/ethnicity is a variable that is critical to outcomes in neurological disorders. The purpose of this article was to examine the proportion of studies published in the "American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP)" and the "Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (JSLHR)" that were…

  7. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

  8. Medication Use Among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Williams, Christine L; Newman, David; Tappen, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    As primary consumers of health care and prescription medication, older adults are more susceptible to potential drug-related adverse effects and medication interactions. With growing diversity among the older adult population, understanding ethnic differences in medication use becomes increasingly important. The current study describes polypharmacy and the occurrence of underprescribing among community-dwelling, low-income individuals 55 and older from four ethnic groups: (a) African American, (b) Afro-Caribbean, (c) European American, and (d) Hispanic American. Results revealed that number of illnesses, income level, and age were three major predictors associated with polypharmacy. No underprescription was identified. Overall, prevalence of polypharmacy was 47.5%. European American individuals had the highest prevalence followed by Hispanic American, African American, and Afro-Caribbean individuals. When caring for older adults from various ethnic groups, nurses should focus their efforts on those who have multiple illnesses and sufficient income to purchase medications to reduce the risk of polypharmacy.

  9. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...... was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. Subjects. A total of 1163 (61% women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age...... of 38.6 (range: 18–68) years, volunteered to participate. Results. Dietary patterns and food groups contributing to EI differed significantly among the ethnic groups. Mean EI ranged from 5.8 to 8.6 MJ/d among women and from 7.2 to 10.5 MJ/d among men, with carbohydrates contributing between 55.7% and 74...

  10. Older and Wiser: Adult Learning and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadzie, Stella

    1993-01-01

    The British "Older and Wiser" project demonstrated the need for educational opportunities for older adults from minority groups. The double barriers of ageism and racism faced by these adults must be addressed. (SK)

  11. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior.

  12. Emerging issues in smoking among adolescent and adult cancer survivors: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Tyc, Vida L; Garces-Webb, Danette M; Buscemi, Joanna; Klesges, Robert C; Hudson, Melissa M

    2007-12-01

    The number of cancer survivors is significantly increasing, thereby prioritizing the importance of identifying and preventing adverse health outcomes within this high-risk population. Cigarette smoking is of particular salience as it places both adolescents and adults with a cancer history at risk for various health problems, including second malignancies. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the smoking literature as it relates to adolescents and adults on-treatment and surviving cancer. In particular, the article reviews the prevalence, risk factors, and health outcomes associated with smoking, in addition to the prevention and smoking cessation interventions available to adolescent and adult oncology patients. Furthermore, efficacious cessation strategies have recently emerged from the smoking literature in healthy populations, and their application to oncology populations is discussed.

  13. Influence of genes and family environment on adult smoking behavior assessed in an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Holst, C; Prescott, E;

    2001-01-01

    Twin studies suggest that genetic factors influence smoking behavior. However, in these studies, genetic and environmental influences may be confounded. We examined whether smoking behavior of adoptees is associated with smoking behavior in adoptive and biological relatives in a design in which...... was not associated with adoptive or biological parents' status as current smokers. This study of smoking behavior in adult adoptees and their biological and adoptee family supports the finding in twin studies of a genetic influence on smoking within the same generation........1-14.3]), current (OR = 4.0[1.9-8.6]) and heavy (OR = 2.0[1.0-4.2]) smoking. Compared with current smokers, adoptee ex-smokers had full-siblings who were ex-smokers more often (OR = 3.5 [1.0-11.6]), current (OR = 0.4 [0.2-0.8]), and heavy (OR = 0.3 [0.1-0.9]) smokers less often. Adoptees' smoking behavior...

  14. Multiple Social Identities and Adjustment in Young Adults from Ethnically Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    A person-centered approach was used to determine how identification across multiple social domains (ethnic, American, family, religious) was associated with distinct identity clusters. Utilizing data from 222 young adults from European, Filipino, Latin, and Asian American backgrounds, four clusters were found (Many Social Identities, Blended/Low…

  15. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on…

  16. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  17. What distinguishes successful from unsuccessful tobacco smoking cessation? Data from a study of young adults (TEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Khati

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Work and family circumstances, co-occurring substance use and psychological difficulties may influence smoking cessation in young adults. These characteristics should be considered by individual and collective interventions aiming to help young smokers quit successfully.

  18. Vital Signs – Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This podcast is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  19. Beyond Smoking Prevalence: Exploring the Variability of Associations between Neighborhood Exposures across Two Nested Spatial Units and Two-Year Smoking Trajectory among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenadenik, Adrian E; Frohlich, Katherine L; Gauvin, Lise

    2016-01-06

    Young adults have the highest prevalence of smoking amongst all age groups. Significant uptake occurs after high school age. Although neighborhood exposures have been found to be associated with smoking behavior, research on neighborhood exposures and the smoking trajectories among young adults, and on the role of geographic scale in shaping findings, is scarce. We examined associations between neighborhood exposures across two nested, increasingly large spatial units and smoking trajectory over two years among young adults living in Montreal, Canada. A sample of 2093 participants aged 18-25 years from the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (ISIS) was surveyed. The dependent variable was self-reported smoking trajectory over the course of two years. Residential addresses, data on presence of tobacco retail outlets, and the presence of smoking accommodation facilities were coded and linked to spatial units. Three-level multinomial models were used to examine associations. The likelihood of being a smoker for 2+ years was significantly greater among those living in larger spatial unit neighborhoods that had a greater presence of smoking accommodation. This association was not statistically significant at the smaller spatial units. Our findings highlight the importance of studying young adults' smoking trajectories in addition to static smoking outcomes, and point to the relevance of considering spatial scale in studies of neighborhoods and smoking.

  20. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  1. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  2. Social Network Characteristics and Daily Smoking among Young Adults in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have shown that friends’ smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual’s own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends’ smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends’ other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695 with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one’s network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54 if 76%–100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00 if 76%–100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems: positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily

  3. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  4. Socioeconomic position and smoking behaviour in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Holstein, B; Avlund, K;

    2001-01-01

    . Logistic regression was used to analyse the influence of education and occupation on smoking behaviour controlling for sex and birth cohort. RESULTS: In cohorts born after 1930 ever and current smoking were related to years of school education and current occupation. The prevalences of ever and current......AIMS: The associations between smoking and various socioeconomic indicators may have different implications and causes, which may also vary according to sex and birth cohort. This study analyses how two dimensions of socioeconomic position, an individual (education) and a structural (occupation......) indicator, are associated with ever, current and ex-smoking. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were collected in five cross-sectional surveys of random samples of the general Danish population aged 20 years or more at intervals between 1982 and 1994. In total, 8,054 men and 8,281 women participated...

  5. National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian

    2016-08-31

    Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6%) and noncombustible-only users (30.0%) than any combustible users (21.3%). The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45-64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments.

  6. National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6%) and noncombustible-only users (30.0%) than any combustible users (21.3%). The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45–64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments. PMID:27589779

  7. Stages of smoking cessation among Malaysian adults--findings from national health morbidity survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Ibrahim, Normala; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Tee, Eng Ong; Lai, Wai Yee; Nik Mohamad, Mohd Haniki; Sidek, Sherina Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.

  8. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  9. Evaluation of smoking genotoxicity in Turkish young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse G Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that cigarette smoke is a DNA damage causitive agent on exfoliative buccal mucosa and urothelial cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes of young smokers, but it has most destructive effect on urothelial cells.

  10. Factors Related to Smoking in College and Not in College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, John; Pederson, Linda; Zhang, Xiaohe

    2006-01-01

    This study sought variables associated with current smoking for young adult males and females in college compared with those not in college. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 1,270 young adults (ages 20-24) who have been followed from grade 6 for 10 years. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses of demographic…

  11. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  12. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N; Pebley, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by ho...

  13. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  14. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaan Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker, the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others, and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  15. Exploring the Next Frontier for Tobacco Control: Nondaily Smoking among New York City Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sacks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Among current smokers, the proportion of Nondaily smokers is increasing. A better understanding of the characteristics and smoking behaviors of Nondaily smokers is needed. Methods. We analyzed data from the New York City (NYC Community Health Survey to explore Nondaily smoking among NYC adults. Univariate analyses assessed changes in Nondaily smoking over time (2002–2010 and identified unique characteristics of Nondaily smokers; multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of Nondaily smoking in 2010. Results. The proportion of smokers who engage in Nondaily smoking significantly increased between 2002 and 2010, from 31% to 36% (P=0.05. A larger proportion of Nondaily smokers in 2010 were low income and made tax-avoidant cigarette purchases compared to 2002. Smoking behaviors significantly associated with Nondaily smoking in 2010 included smoking more than one hour after waking (AOR=8.8, 95% CI (5.38–14.27; buying “loosies” (AOR=3.5, 95% CI (1.72–7.08; attempting to quit (AOR=2.3, 95% CI (1.36–3.96. Conclusion. Nondaily smokers have changed over time and have characteristics distinct from daily smokers. Tobacco control efforts should be targeted towards “ready to quit” Nondaily smokers.

  16. Can Public Policy Deter Smoking Escalation among Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of significant budget shortfalls, 37 states and the District of Columbia have recently increased cigarette excise taxes to boost revenues. This study examines the impact of increasing the price of cigarettes, which will occur as a consequence of cigarette excise tax increases, and implementing restrictions on smoking in private…

  17. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  18. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012

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    Christina E. Miyawaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice.

  19. Racial-ethnic related clinical and neurocognitive differences in adults with gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting approp...... memory task. These findings suggest that the clinical and neurocognitive presentation of gambling disorder different between racial-ethnic groups....... appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) participants were compared on demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. Young black adults with gambling...... disorder reported more symptoms of gambling disorder and greater scores on a measure of compulsivity. In addition they exhibited significantly higher total errors on a set-shifting task, less risk adjustment on a gambling task, greater delay aversion on a gambling task, and more total errors on a working...

  20. Smoking and Risk of Breast Cancer in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Population of Mainly Women Who Do Not Drink Alcohol: The MEC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Inger T; Park, Song-Yi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Wilkens, Lynne R; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-12-01

    We prospectively examined the association between smoking and the risk of breast cancer in a racially/ethnically diverse population comprising mainly women who did not drink alcohol. From 1993 to 2010, we followed 83,300 women who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study at 45-75 years of age. We identified cancer cases via linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registries that covered the states of Hawaii and California through December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for confounders that were decided a priori. During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 4,484 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared with parous never smokers, women who had smoked for more than 20 pack-years and initiated smoking more than 5 years before their first childbirth had an overall risk of breast cancer that was 35% higher (hazard ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.63). Among women who did not drink alcohol, the risk was 40% higher (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.81). This higher risk did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups (P(interaction) = 0.82). We found that various measures of smoking exposure were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, especially smoking initiated many years before first childbirth, and that risk did not differ by alcohol consumption (yes vs. no) or racial/ethnic group.

  1. Perceptions of parents' ethnic identities and the personal ethnic-identity and racial attitudes of biracial adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie T; Sanchez, Diana T; Handy, Phillip E

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of perceived parental closeness and parental ethnic identity on personal ethnic identity and colorblindness beliefs in 275 part-White biracial Americans (M age = 23.88). Respondents completed online measures of their personal ethnic identity (minority, White, and multiracial), perceived parental ethnic identity, parental closeness, and attitudes about the state of race relations and the need for social action in the United States. Using path modeling, results show that part-White biracial individuals perceive their ethnic identity to be strongly linked to their parental racial identities, especially when they had closer parental relationships. Moreover, stronger minority identity was linked to less colorblind attitudes, and greater White identity was linked to greater colorblind attitudes suggesting that patterns of identity may influence how biracial individuals view race-relations and the need for social action. Implications for biracial well-being and their understanding of prejudice and discrimination are discussed.

  2. Younger smokers continue to smoke as adults: implications for raising the smoking age to 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A review article published in Pediatrics assesses the evidence that smoking is particularly harmful the younger a smoker begins (1. Not only do youths tend to accumulate more pack-years but they have more difficulty quitting. The recent shift in smoking trends from tobacco cigarettes to e-cigarettes may not be helpful since both contain the addictive component, nicotine. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as a smoking cessation tool, there is no strong evidence to support these claims, the authors report."I think most people realize nicotine is addictive, but I don't know if there's an understanding of just how addictive it is – particularly for youths," said Lorena M. Siqueira, MD, MSPH, lead author of the report (2. Evidence shows that the earlier in life a person is exposed to nicotine, the more likely they will consume greater quantities and the less likely they will be able to quit (1,2. The vast majority …

  3. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

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    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  4. Gender and the association of smoking with sleep quantity and quality in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, Alem; Weir, Nargues A; Gillum, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and gender are known risk factors for sleep disorders. Studies of samples from Norway and Japan have suggested stronger associations between smoking and disrupted sleep in women; therefore, we examined, gender differences in the association in the U.S. population. We analyzed data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined the associations between smoking and self-reported measures of sleep disorders (i.e., snoring, short sleep, long sleep, poor sleep, and health care provider diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing) using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as measures of association. We also assessed whether the associations varied by gender using a gender x smoking interaction term. Compared to never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher odds of self-reported snoring (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.56-2.56), short sleep (OR 1.68; 95% CI = 1.35-2.10) and poor sleep (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.09-1.74). A dose-response relationship was observed between the amount smoked and sleep symptoms. In multivariate analyses, no significant gender x smoking interaction was observed for snoring, short sleep or poor sleep. Current smoking was independently associated with increased odds of snoring, short sleep, and poor sleep in women and men among U.S. adults.

  5. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  6. Mapping Engagement in Twitter-Based Support Networks for Adult Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Pechmann, Cornelia; Wang, Cheng; Pan, Li; Delucchi, Kevin; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-08-01

    We examined engagement in novel quit-smoking private social support networks on Twitter, January 2012 to April 2014. We mapped communication patterns within 8 networks of adult smokers (n = 160) with network ties defined by participants' tweets over 3 time intervals, and examined tie reciprocity, tie strength, in-degree centrality (popularity), 3-person triangles, 4-person cliques, network density, and abstinence status. On average, more than 50% of ties were reciprocated in most networks and most ties were between abstainers and nonabstainers. Tweets formed into more aggregated patterns especially early in the study. Across networks, 35.00% (7 days after the quit date), 49.38% (30 days), and 46.88% (60 days) abstained from smoking. We demonstrated that abstainers and nonabstainers engaged with one another in dyads and small groups. This study preliminarily suggests potential for Twitter as a platform for adult smoking-cessation interventions.

  7. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Young Adults with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgess Dowdell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common, serious chronic diseases in pediatric and young adult populations. Health-risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking and alcohol use, may exacerbate chronic diseases and complicate their management. The aim of this study was to longitudinally analyze rates of cigarette smoking and alcohol use in adolescents and young adults who have asthma and those who do not have asthma. A secondary analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was undertaken. Individuals with asthma were found to exhibit increasing rates of cigarette smoking and alcohol use as they aged. When an adolescent with a chronic health issue begins health-risk-taking behaviors, behavior change interventions must be planned. Pediatric nurses, practitioners, and clinicians are uniquely positioned to assess for health-risk behaviors in youth with asthma and to intervene with plans of care that are tailored for the needs of this vulnerable population.

  8. Trends in Smoking among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United Kingdom: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults in the UK and to identify any developments in health education theory and practice relating to adolescent tobacco use since 2000. The implications of such research are discussed. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was…

  9. Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Dennis, Michelle F; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Paul A; Brightwood, Amy; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2014-09-01

    The current study assessed antecedents and consequences of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adult smokers with ADHD (n = 17) completed 870 smoking and 622 nonsmoking electronic diary entries over a 7-day observation period of their naturalistic smoking behavior. Data collection occurred from 2011 to 2012. Generalized estimating equations indicated that ADHD smokers were more likely to smoke when urge to smoke, negative affect, boredom, stress, worry, and restlessness were elevated. In addition, participants were more likely to smoke in situations that elicited higher levels of nervousness and frustration. ADHD symptoms, in general, did not differ between smoking and nonsmoking contexts, though hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were elevated prior to smoking in frustrating situations. Additional situational antecedent variables were associated with smoking, including being in the presence of others smoking, being in a bar or restaurant, while outside, and while consuming caffeinated or alcoholic beverages. Participants also reported a significant improvement in urge to smoke, negative affect, stress, hunger, and ADHD symptoms after smoking a cigarette. Findings suggest certain contextual factors that may maintain ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with ADHD and identify potential treatment targets in smoking cessation interventions for this at-risk group. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  10. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Takao [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO{sub 2} inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO{sub 2} inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO{sub 2}, CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO{sub 2} and PaCO{sub 2} during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  11. Smoking In Pregnancy Linked to Adult Male Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Conlon; 丁良富

    1999-01-01

    吸烟的危害是个老话题,然而,这个老话题总是在“抖”出新意。本文以调查研究后所得到的可靠的数据,再次向世人发出警告:女性在妊娠期吸烟,其所生的男婴多有暴力倾向,这种倾向延伸至其成年期! 这个结论并非耸人听闻之言,更无哗众取宠之意。因为: The finding was consistent with earlier studies that linked prenatal(出生以前的)smoking by women not only to lawbreaking by their offspring but to impulsive(冲动的)behavior and attention deficit(注意力不足)problems. 初步判断的原因是: …damage done by smoking to the central nervous system of the fetus(胎儿). 而且,文章还断言:此调查结论适用于不同人种: …these findings may be generalizable to other populations. 读者同志,当我国女性吸烟人数不幸呈上升趋势时,此文的现实意义也就不言而喻了!

  12. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  13. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  14. Religion, Race/Ethnicity, and Norms of Intergenerational Assistance among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G. Ellison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data on adults ages 55 and over from the second wave of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH-2, this study models the main and interactive effects of religious involvement and race/ethnicity on four items of attitudes towards intergenerational assistance. Results indicate that African Americans and Hispanics tend to express stronger support for intergenerational assistance than non-Hispanic Whites. Conservative Protestants, Mormons, and Catholics are more likely than others to believe that adult children should offer co-residence to their aging parents. In addition, theological conservatism is positively associated with support for each type of intergenerational aid, and the net effect of theological conservatism is stronger for African Americans than for non-Hispanic Whites. However, religious attendance is statistically unrelated to norms of intergenerational assistance. It is concluded that religious factors are important in shaping norms of intergenerational support, particularly within minority communities.

  15. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  16. Cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among young adults: a national record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors affect tooth loss in older age including cigarette smoking; however, evidence regarding the association between smoking and tooth loss during young adulthood is limited. The present study examined the association between cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among adults aged 20–39 years using linked data from two national databases in Japan. Methods Two databases of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS and the Survey of Dental Diseases (SDD, which were conducted in 1999, were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare with permission for analytical use. In the NNS, participants received physical examinations and were interviewed regarding dietary intake and health practices including cigarette smoking, whereas in the SDD, participants were asked about their frequency of daily brushing, and received oral examinations by certified dentists. Among 6,805 records electronically linked via household identification code, 1314 records of individuals aged 20 to 39 years were analyzed. The prevalence of 1+ tooth loss was compared among non-, former, and current smokers. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed including confounders: frequency of tooth brushing, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and intake of vitamins C and E. Results Smoking rates differed greatly in men (53.3% and women (15.5%. The overall prevalence of tooth loss was 31.4% (31.8% men and 31.1% women. Tooth loss occurred more frequently among current smokers (40.6% than former (23.1% and non-smokers (27.9%. Current smoking showed a significant association with 1+ tooth loss in men (adjusted OR = 2.21 [1.40–3.50], P = 0.0007 and women (1.70 [1.13–2.55], P = 0.0111. A significant positive exposure-related relationship between cigarette smoking status and tooth loss was observed (P for trend Conclusion An association between cigarette smoking and tooth loss was evident among young adults throughout Japan. Due to

  17. Integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults: a pilot efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steven C; Pokorny, Steven B; Schroeder, Darrell R; Tan, Winston; Werch, Chudley E

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in young adults. The primary aim of this investigation was to complete a pilot evaluation of the efficacy of an integrated intervention that targets both cigarette smoking and binge drinking on the cigarette smoking and binge behavior of young adults at 6-month follow-up. Participants were 95 young adult (M=24.3; SD=3.5 years) smokers (≥1 cigarettes per day) who binge drink (≥1 time per month) and who were randomly assigned to standard treatment (n=47) involving six individual treatment visits plus eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy or the identical smoking cessation treatment integrated with a binge drinking intervention (integrated intervention; n=48). Using an intent-to-treat analysis for tobacco abstinence, at both 3 month end of treatment and 6 month follow-up, more participants who received integrated intervention were biochemically confirmed abstinent from tobacco than those who received standard treatment at 3 months (19% vs. 9%, p=0.06) and 6 months (21% vs. 9%, p=0.05). At 6 months, participants who completed the study and who received integrated intervention consumed fewer drinks per month (psmoking cessation and reduces binge drinking compared to standard treatment.

  18. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

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    Rendon MI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marta I Rendon,1 David A Rodriguez,2 Ariane K Kawata,3 Arnold N Degboe,4 Teresa K Wilcox,3 Caroline T Burk,5 Selena R Daniels,4 Wendy E Roberts6 1Rendon Center for Dermatology and Aesthetic Medicine, Boca Raton, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Associates and Research, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 3Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 5Health Outcomes Consultant, Laguna Beach, CA, USA; 6Generational and Cosmetic Dermatology, Rancho Mirage, CA, USA Background: Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective: Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions. Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results: Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years, comprising black (30.8%, Hispanic (17.6%, Asian/other (17.3%, and white (34.3%. More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%. Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC (47.4% versus prescription medications (16.6%. OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05. The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA (34.3% and benzoyl peroxide (BP (32.1%. Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05, Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0

  19. Specific dimensions of impulsivity are differentially associated with daily and non-daily cigarette smoking in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dustin C; Peters, Jessica R; Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults.

  20. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

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    Steven Moylan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette

  1. Point-of-care urine tests for smoking status and isoniazid treatment monitoring in adult patients.

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    Ioana Nicolau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to isoniazid (INH preventive therapy (IPT is an impediment to effective control of latent tuberculosis (TB infection. TB patients who smoke are at higher risk of latent TB infection, active disease, and TB mortality, and may have lower adherence to their TB medications. The objective of our study was to validate IsoScreen and SmokeScreen (GFC Diagnostics, UK, two point-of-care tests for monitoring INH intake and determining smoking status. The tests could be used together in the same individual to help identify patients with a high-risk profile and provide a tailored treatment plan that includes medication management, adherence interventions, and smoking cessation programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 200 adult outpatients attending the TB and/or the smoking cessation clinic were recruited at the Montreal Chest Institute. Sensitivity and specificity were measured for each test against the corresponding composite reference standard. Test reliability was measured using kappa statistic for intra-rater and inter-rater agreement. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore possible covariates that might be related to false-positive and false-negative test results. IsoScreen had a sensitivity of 93.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 80.3, 98.2 and specificity of 98.7% (94.8, 99.8. IsoScreen had intra-rater agreement (kappa of 0.75 (0.48, 0.94 and inter-rater agreement of 0.61 (0.27, 0.90. SmokeScreen had a sensitivity of 69.2% (56.4, 79.8, specificity of 81.6% (73.0, 88.0, intra-rater agreement of 0.77 (0.56, 0.94, and inter-rater agreement of 0.66 (0.42, 0.88. False-positive SmokeScreen tests were strongly associated with INH treatment. CONCLUSIONS: IsoScreen had high validity and reliability, whereas SmokeScreen had modest validity and reliability. SmokeScreen tests did not perform well in a population receiving INH due to the association between INH treatment and false-positive Smoke

  2. 'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data

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    Spallek Jacob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239 of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%. In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%. Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after

  3. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

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    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  4. Parental smoking in pregnancy and the risks of adult-onset hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Layla L; Harris, Holly R; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Willett, Walter C; Forman, Michele R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Michels, Karin B

    2013-02-01

    Fetal exposure to parental smoking may lead to developmental adaptations and promote various diseases in later life. This study evaluated the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the daughter in adulthood, and assessed whether these associations are explained by birth weight or body weight throughout life. We used data on 33086 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II and the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with the nurse daughter, with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension from 1989 until 2007. Overall, 8575 (25.9%) mothers and 18874 (57.0%) fathers smoked during pregnancy. During follow-up, 7825 incident cases of adult-onset hypertension were reported. Both maternal and paternal smoking of ≥ 15 cigarettes/d during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of hypertension (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.29; and rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25, respectively) in the age-adjusted models. Further adjustment for birth weight did not affect the effect estimates appreciably, whereas additional adjustment for body shape and weight until age 18, or current body mass index, attenuated the associations with both maternal and paternal smoking (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.98-1.16; and rate ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12, respectively). The associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the offspring were largely explained by body weight throughout life, suggesting that these associations may not reflect direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  5. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

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    B. Routy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8 vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented.

  6. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routy, B.; Hoang, J.; Gruber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8) vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:25789184

  7. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, pAdolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, psmoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence.

  8. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p smoke. β = -7.13, 95% CI [-9.39, -4.86] (p smoking period, β = 211.76, 95% CI [32.54, 390.98] (p = .02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings, β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.43] (p = .045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 0.04, 95% CI [0.01, 0.08] (p = .02), and reduced time to first cigarette, β = -163.00, 95% CI [-323.50, -2.49] (p = .047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative.

  9. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  10. Effect of Shisha (Waterpipe Smoking on Lung Functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO among Saudi Young Adult Shisha Smokers

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    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shisha (waterpipe smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers. The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM range 17–33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73 of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM range 18–28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75–85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group.

  11. Improving smoking cessation policy by assessing user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service in adult psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kathy; Creamer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among people with mental health conditions compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical, mental and financial well-being, and interacts with psychotropic drugs. An inpatient admission provides an opportunity to engage and support smokers in smoking cessation. Compliance with Trust/NICE smoking cessation guidelines was assessed in two inpatient wards, and a questionnaire evaluated user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service. A need for improved documentation of smoking status to identify and treat smokers routinely was revealed. A new electronic health form was designed and introduced, and a clear pathway for onward referrals was developed. This intervention preceded the introduction of the Trust-wide smoke free policy from October 2014. The intervention doubled rates of documentation of smoking status, cessation advice and offer of NRT/referral. There were large differences between the two wards, highlighting the need for a tailored approach.

  12. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of

  13. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-06

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  14. Predictors of intention to quit waterpipe smoking: a survey of arab americans in houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Essien, E James; Abughosh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking has been described as "the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette." Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  15. Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqa Athamneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has been described as “the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette.” Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  16. Identifying "social smoking" U.S. young adults using an empirically-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2017-07-01

    The phenomenon of "social smoking" emerged in the past decade as an important area of research, largely due to its high prevalence in young adults. The purpose of this study was to identify classes of young adult ever smokers based on measures of social and contextual influences on tobacco use. Latent class models were developed using social smoking measures, and not the frequency or quantity of tobacco use. Data come from a national sample of young adult ever smokers aged 18-24 (Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, N=1564). The optimal models identified three latent classes: Class 1 - nonsmokers (52%); Class 2 - social smokers (18%); and Class 3 - smokers (30%). Nearly 60% of the "social smoker" class self-identified as a social smoker, 30% as an ex-smoker/tried smoking, and 12% as a non-smoker. The "social smoker" class was most likely to report using tobacco mainly or only with others. Past 30-day cigarette use was highest in the "smoker" class. Hookah use was highest in the "social smoker" class. Other tobacco and e-cigarette use was similar in the "social smoker" and "smoker" classes. Past 30-day tobacco and e-cigarette use was present for all products in the "non-smoker" class. Young adult social smokers emerge empirically as a sizable, distinct class from other smokers, even without accounting for tobacco use frequency or intensity. The prevalence of hookah use in "social smokers" indicates a group for which the social aspect of tobacco use could drive experimentation and progression to regular use.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy.

  18. “It Is Our Exercise Family”: Experiences of Ethnic Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chun Chiang, RN, MS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEnhanceFitness (EF (formerly the Lifetime Fitness Program is an evidence-based community exercise program for older adults. From 1998 to 2005, participation of ethnic older adults increased significantly. However, little research is available about what ethnic older adults want or need to continue participation in exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to examine how physical environment, social environment, and individual biology and behavior influence adherence to exercise for ethnic older adults participating in EF.MethodsSix focus groups were conducted with 52 older adults participating in EF. Facilitators asked questions about factors that helped participants continue exercising in EF. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis.ResultsFocus group participants were Chinese (n = 21, 40%, African American (n = 18, 35%, white (n = 10, 19%, and Japanese (n = 3, 6%. Mean (SD age was 76 years (7.4. Participants had, on average, participated in EF for 44 months (SD = 37.8. Results revealed four themes related to adherence. First, environmental factors that promoted adherence were location of the classes, transportation, weather, and the facility. Second, design of the exercise program that encouraged adherence included exercise content and type of delivery. Third, social support factors that encouraged adherence were the socializing and support between class participants and support from family, health care providers, and the class instructors. Finally, individual factors that encouraged adherence were personality traits and feelings, past physical activity experience, health benefits, and mental stimulation.ConclusionFindings from this study suggest strategies for developing community-based physical activity programs for older adults from ethnically diverse communities.

  19. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years...... attainment, smoking status and intention to quit smoking in restaurants and across smoking status for smoking bans in workplaces and bars. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the public's attitude towards smoking in public arenas has changed after the implementation of a comprehensive smoking...

  20. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

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    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  1. Adult onset asthma and interaction between genes and active tobacco smoking: The GABRIEL consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, D. S.; Moffatt, M. F.; Jarvis, D.; Ramasamy, A.; Wjst, M.; Omenaas, E. R.; Bouzigon, E.; Demenais, F.; Nadif, R.; Siroux, V.; Polonikov, A. V.; Solodilova, M.; Ivanov, V. P.; Curjuric, I.; Imboden, M.; Kumar, A.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Ogorodova, L. M.; Puzyrev, V. P.; Bragina, E. Yu; Freidin, M. B.; Nolte, I. M.; Farrall, A. M.; Cookson, W. O. C. M.; Strachan, D. P.; Koppelman, G. H.; Boezen, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic associations for asthma, but without taking into account the role of active tobacco smoking. This study aimed to identify novel genes that interact with ever active tobacco smoking in adult onset asthma. Methods We performed a genome-wide interaction analysis in six studies participating in the GABRIEL consortium following two meta-analyses approaches based on 1) the overall interaction effect and 2) the genetic effect in subjects with and without smoking exposure. We performed a discovery meta-analysis including 4,057 subjects of European descent and replicated our findings in an independent cohort (LifeLines Cohort Study), including 12,475 subjects. Results First approach: 50 SNPs were selected based on an overall interaction effect at p<10−4. The most pronounced interaction effect was observed for rs9969775 on chromosome 9 (discovery meta-analysis: ORint = 0.50, p = 7.63*10−5, replication: ORint = 0.65, p = 0.02). Second approach: 35 SNPs were selected based on the overall genetic effect in exposed subjects (p <10−4). The most pronounced genetic effect was observed for rs5011804 on chromosome 12 (discovery meta-analysis ORint = 1.50, p = 1.21*10−4; replication: ORint = 1.40, p = 0.03). Conclusions Using two genome-wide interaction approaches, we identified novel polymorphisms in non-annotated intergenic regions on chromosomes 9 and 12, that showed suggestive evidence for interaction with active tobacco smoking in the onset of adult asthma. PMID:28253294

  2. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  3. Snus use and smoking behaviors: preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study among US Midwest young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Naomi; Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The effect of snus use on smoking behaviors among US young adults is largely unknown. Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected in 2010 to 2011 and 2011 to 2012 (participants aged 20-28 years) showed that young adult nonsmokers who had tried snus were subsequently more likely than those who had not tried snus to become current smokers (n = 1696; adjusted odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 3.14). Snus use was not associated with subsequent smoking cessation or reduction among young adult current smokers (n = 488; P > .46).

  4. Gender differentials in the evolution of cigarette smoking habits in a general European adult population from 1993–2003

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    Lopez Alan D

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Describe the recent evolution of cigarette smoking habits by gender in Geneva, where incidence rates of lung cancer have been declining in men but increasing in women. Methods Continuous cross-sectional surveillance of the general adult (35–74 yrs population of Geneva, Switzerland for 11 years (1993–2003 using a locally-validated smoking questionnaire, yielding a representative random sample of 12,271 individuals (6,164 men, 6,107 women. Results In both genders, prevalence of current cigarette smoking was stable over the 11-year period, at about one third of men and one quarter of women, even though smoking began at an earlier age in more recent years. Older men were more likely to be former smokers than older women. Younger men, but not women, tended to quit smoking at an earlier age. Conclusion This continuous (1993–2003 risk factor surveillance system, unique in Europe, shows stable prevalence of smoking in both genders. However, sharp contrasts in age-specific prevalence of never and former smoking and of ages at smoking initiation indicate that smoking continues a long-term decline in men but has still not reached its peak in women.

  5. Vitamin D intakes by children and adults in the United States differ among ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolyn E; Murphy, Mary M; Holick, Michael F

    2005-10-01

    Concerns about vitamin D status in the United States have resurfaced due to increasing reports of insufficiency and deficiency. Few foods contain vitamin D naturally, and currently few foods are fortified in the United States. Intakes of vitamin D in the United States from food and food plus supplements by age, sex, and race/ethnicity group were estimated. Individuals > or = 1 y old who participated in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2000) were included in the analysis. Vitamin D intake by non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and all individuals in the United States was estimated and compared with recommended levels. Vitamin D intakes were highest among children and teenagers, and lowest in the oldest age categories. Among children age 1-8 y, adequate intake (AI) levels for vitamin D from food were met or exceeded by 69% of Mexican American, 59% of NH white, and 48% of NH black subpopulations. Among adults > or = 51 y old, only 4% met or exceeded the AI from food alone. Few women 19-50 y old or men and women > or = 51 y old were estimated to consume recommended vitamin D levels from food. Mean dietary intakes of vitamin D from food plus supplements were consistently highest among NH white populations, although only small proportions of all those > or = 51 y old had intakes above the recommended levels. The large discrepancy between vitamin D intake by older individuals from food plus supplements and recommended levels, especially for NH black and Mexican American adults, warrants intervention.

  6. Predictors of tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh

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    K M Palipudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To examine predictors of current tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among the adult population in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: We used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS in Bangladesh consisting of 9,629 adults aged ΃15 years. Differences in and predictors of prevalence for both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were analyzed using selected socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that included gender, age, place of residence, education, occupation, and an index of wealth. Results: The prevalence of smoking is high among males (44.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.5-47.0 as compared to females (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1, whereas the prevalence of smokeless tobacco is almost similar among both males (26.4%, 95% CI: 24.2-28.6 and females (27.9%, 95% CI: 25.9-30.0. Correlates of current smoking are male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 41.46, CI = 23.8-73.4, and adults in older age (ORs range from 1.99 in 24-35 years age to 5.49 in 55-64 years age, less education (ORs range from 1.47 in less than secondary to 3.25 in no formal education, and lower socioeconomic status (ORs range from 1.56 in high wealth index to 2.48 in lowest wealth index. Predictors of smokeless tobacco use are older age (ORs range from 2.54in 24-35 years age to 12.31 in 55-64 years age, less education (ORs range from 1.44 in less than secondary to 2.70 in no formal education, and the low (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.0-1.7 or lowest (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.1-1.9 socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Implementation of tobacco control strategies needs to bring special attention on disadvantaged group and cover all types of tobacco product as outlined in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and WHO MPOWER to protect people′s health and prevent premature death.

  7. Effect of smoke-free legislation on adult smoking behaviour in England in the 18 months following implementation.

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    John Tayu Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE. In total there are 54,333 respondents from 2003-2008. Logit and linear regression models were used to examine the effect of the legislation on smoking prevalence and the number of cigarettes smoked daily among continuing smokers which took the underlying trend into account. Our finding suggest that smoking prevalence (current smoker decreased from 25% in 2003 to 21% in 2008 (AOR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, P<0.01 and the mean number of cigarettes consumed daily by smokers decreased from 14.1 in 2003 to 13.1 in 2008 (coefficient for time trend = -0.28±0.06 SE cig/day per year, P<0.01. After adjusting for these trends the introduction of smoke-free legislation was not associated with additional reductions in smoking prevalence (AOR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.94-1.11, P = 0.596 or daily cigarette use in smokers (0.42±0.28 SE; P = 0.142. The percentage of respondents reporting smoking 'at work' and 'inside pubs or bars' decreased significantly from 14% to 2% (p<0.001 and from 34% to 2% (p<0.001, respectively, after the legislation. The percentage reporting smoking 'inside restaurants, cafes, or canteens' decreased significantly from 9% to 1% (p<0.001 and 'inside their home' decreased significantly from 65% to 55% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: There is widespread compliance with the smoke-free legislation in England, which has led to large drops in indoor smoking in all venues, including at home. Declines in smoking prevalence and consumption continued along existing trends; they

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination among Adults with Chronic Medical Conditions Vary by Age in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Degan; Qiao, Yanru; Brown, Natalie E.; Wang, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Background People living with chronic health conditions exhibit higher risk for developing severe complications from influenza according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Although racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been documented, it has not been comprehensively determined whether similar disparities are present among the adult population with at least one such condition. Objective To study if racial and ethnic disparities in relation to influenza vaccination are present in adults suffering from at least one chronic condition and if such inequalities differ between age groups. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2011–2012) was used to study the adult population (age ≥18) who had at least one chronic health condition. Baseline differences in population traits across racial and ethnic groups were identified using a chi-square test. This was conducted among various age groups. In addition, survey logistic regression was utilized to produce odds ratios of receiving influenza vaccination annually between racial and ethnic groups. Results The total sample consisted of 15,499 adults living with at least one chronic health condition. The numbers of non-Hispanic whites (whites), non-Hispanic blacks (blacks), and Hispanics were 8,658, 3,585, and 3,256, respectively. Whites (59.93%) were found to have a higher likelihood of self-reporting their receipt of the influenza vaccine in comparison to the black (48.54%) and Hispanic (48.65%) groups (Pinfluenza vaccine coverage than the white population (59.22%, 77.89) (both P0.05). After controlling for patient characteristics, the difference in influenza vaccine coverage between whites and the minority groups were no longer significant for adults aged 50–64 years. However, the difference were still statistically significant for those aged ≥65 years. Conclusions In the United States, there are significant disparities in influenza vaccination by race and ethnicity for

  9. Ethnic Pride and Cardiovascular Health among Mexican American Adults along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; Balcazar, Hector G; Lee Rosenthal, E.; Cardenas, Victor M; Schulz, Leslie O.

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed the association between items from the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and cardiovascular health. Specifically, we assessed whether ethnic pride was associated with health outcomes after controlling for items regarding language, place where the childhood was spent, and ethnic interaction. The study was a cross-sectional…

  10. The role of ethnicity in clinical psychopathology and care pathways of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-04-27

    The objective of this study was to explore whether people with intellectual disability from ethnic minority groups have higher rates of mental health problems and access different care pathways than their White counterparts. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected for 806 consecutive new referrals to a specialist mental health service for people with intellectual disabilities in South London. Referrals were grouped according to their ethnic origin. The analyses showed that there was an over-representation of referrals from ethnic minority groups with diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In addition, Black participants were more likely to have an autistic spectrum disorder. Referrals of ethnic minority groups were considerably younger than White referrals, and less likely to be in supported residences. The results are discussed in the context of cultural and familial factors in particular ethnic groups that may play an important role in accessing and using mental health services.

  11. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  12. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  13. Pericardial fat and myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

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    Tina E Brinkley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pericardial fat has adverse effects on the surrounding vasculature. Previous studies suggest that pericardial fat may contribute to myocardial ischemia in symptomatic individuals. However, it is unknown if pericardial fat has similar effects in asymptomatic individuals. METHODS: We determined the association between pericardial fat and myocardial blood flow (MBF in 214 adults with no prior history of cardiovascular disease from the Minnesota field center of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (43% female, 56% Caucasian, 44% Hispanic. Pericardial fat volume was measured by computed tomography. MBF was measured by MRI at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperemia. Myocardial perfusion reserve (PR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to resting MBF. RESULTS: Gender-stratified analyses revealed significant differences between men and women including less pericardial fat (71.9±31.3 vs. 105.2±57.5 cm(3, p<0.0001 and higher resting MBF (1.12±0.23 vs. 0.93±0.19 ml/min/g, p<0.0001, hyperemic MBF (3.49±0.76 vs. 2.65±0.72 ml/min/g, p<0.0001, and PR (3.19±0.78 vs. 2.93±0.89, p = 0.03 in women. Correlations between pericardial fat and clinical and hemodynamic variables were stronger in women. In women only (p = 0.01 for gender interaction higher pericardial fat was associated with higher resting MBF (p = 0.008. However, this association was attenuated after accounting for body mass index or rate-pressure product. There were no significant associations between pericardial fat and hyperemic MBF or PR after multivariate adjustment in either gender. In logistic regression analyses there was also no association between impaired coronary vasoreactivity, defined as having a PR <2.5, and pericardial fat in men (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.82-1.70 or women (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.68-1.82. CONCLUSIONS: Our data fail to support an independent association between pericardial fat and myocardial perfusion in adults without symptomatic

  14. Smoking is associated with lower performance in WAIS-R Block Design scores in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Katiane L S; Bau, Claiton H D; Grevet, Eugenio H; Sousa, Nyvia O; Garcia, Christiane R; Victor, Marcelo M; Fischer, Aline G; Salgado, Carlos A I; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo

    2008-04-01

    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predisposed to smoking, but the neuropsychological correlates of this association have not been elucidated so far. The present study evaluates possible associations between cognitive performance and smoking and other comorbidities in adults with ADHD. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) patients were evaluated in the adult ADHD outpatient clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The diagnoses were based on the DSM-IV criteria and interviews were performed with the Portuguese version of K-SADS-E for ADHD and oppositional-defiant disorder. Axis I psychiatric comorbidities were evaluated with the SCID-IV and the cognitive performance with the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The evaluation of the influence of the WAIS-R scores on each dependent variable was performed with logistic regression analyses. Lower scores in the Block Design subtest of WAIS-R were associated with smoking and the presence of anxiety disorder. These results suggest that a subgroup of ADHD patients with lower Block Design subtest scores may be at increased risk of smoking as a cognitive enhancement. Our findings also confirmed the previously suggested association between anxiety and lower Block Design scores.

  15. Adolescent Psychological and Social Predictors of Young Adult Smoking Acquisition and Cessation: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Bricker, J.B.; Liu, J.M.; Comstock, B.A.; Peterson, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A 10-year follow-up study to test the extent to which theory-based adolescent psychological and social factors directly predict and moderate the prediction of young adult smoking acquisition and cessation. Design: A prospective community-based sample. A total of 2,970 adolescents particip

  16. Arterial waveform parameters in a large, population-based sample of adults: relationships with ethnicity and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, J D; Hughes, A D; Thom, S A McG; Lowe, A; Camargo, C A; Hametner, B; Wassertheurer, S; Parker, K H; Scragg, R K R

    2016-12-22

    Little is known about how aortic waveform parameters vary with ethnicity and lifestyle factors. We investigated these issues in a large, population-based sample. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of 4798 men and women, aged 50-84 years from Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were 3961 European, 321 Pacific, 266 Maori and 250 South Asian people. We assessed modifiable lifestyle factors via questionnaires, and measured body mass index (BMI) and brachial blood pressure (BP). Suprasystolic oscillometry was used to derive aortic pressure, from which several haemodynamic parameters were calculated. Heavy alcohol consumption and BMI were positively related to most waveform parameters. Current smokers had higher levels of aortic augmentation index than non-smokers (difference=3.7%, Pwaveform parameters, controlling for demographics, antihypertensives, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), were higher in non-Europeans than in Europeans. Further adjustment for brachial BP or lifestyle factors (particularly BMI) reduced many differences but several remained. Despite even further adjustment for mean arterial pressure, pulse rate, height and total:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared with Europeans, South Asians had higher levels of all measured aortic waveform parameters (for example, for backward pressure amplitude: β=1.5 mm Hg; Pwaveform parameters varied with ethnicity in line with the greater prevalence of CVD among non-white populations. Generally, this was true even after accounting for brachial BP, suggesting that waveform parameters may have increased usefulness in capturing ethnic variations in cardiovascular risk. Heavy alcohol consumption, smoking and especially BMI may partially contribute to elevated levels of these parameters.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 22 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jhh.2016.78.

  17. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  18. Associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms among young adults: The moderating role of racial-ethnic minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Discrimination is theorized to set in motion a neuroendocrine response, which includes cortisol secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Repeated exposure to perceived discrimination is thought to contribute to alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms and to have implications for health. Discrimination may have particularly strong effects on racial/ethnic minority individuals, based on histories of past exposure and/or greater perceived implications of discriminatory events. Utilizing an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young adults (N=140; Mage=22.8 years) and a multiple-day naturalistic cortisol protocol, the present study examined associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms, and whether this relation was moderated by racial/ethnic minority status. Results revealed that self-reported discrimination predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for racial/ethnic minority individuals only. These findings align with theory suggesting that discrimination experiences are important among racial/ethnic minorities.

  19. Disseminating a smoking cessation intervention to childhood and young adult cancer survivors: baseline characteristics and study design of the partnership for health-2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnership for Health-2 (PFH-2 is a web-based version of Partnership for Health, an evidence-based smoking cessation intervention for childhood cancer survivors. This paper describes the PFH-2 intervention and baseline data collection. Methods 374 childhood and young adult cancer survivors were recruited from five cancer centers and participated in the baseline assessment. At baseline, participants completed measures of their smoking behavior, self-efficacy and stage of change for quitting smoking as well as psychological and environmental factors that could impact their smoking behavior. Results At baseline, 93% of survivors smoked in the past seven days; however, 89% smoked a pack or less during this period. Forty-seven percent were nicotine dependent, and 55% had made at least one quit attempt in the previous year. Twenty-two percent of survivors were in contemplation for quitting smoking; of those 45% were somewhat or very confident that they could quit within six months. Sixty-three percent were in preparation for quitting smoking; however, they had relatively low levels of confidence that they could quit smoking in the next month. In multivariate analyses, stage of change, self-efficacy, social support for smoking cessation, smoking policy at work and home, fear of cancer recurrence, perceived vulnerability, depression, BMI, and contact with the healthcare system were associated with survivors' smoking behavior. Discussions/Conclusions A large proportion of the sample was nicotine dependent, yet motivated to quit. Individual- interpersonal- and environmental-level factors were associated with survivors' smoking behavior. Smoking is particularly dangerous for childhood and young adult cancer survivors. This population may benefit from a smoking cessation intervention designed to build self-efficacy and address other known predictors of smoking behavior.

  20. Joint Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Body Mass Index on White Blood Cell Count in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Ra; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Shin-Hye; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background White blood cell count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several lifestyle and metabolic factors such as cigarette smoking and obesity are known to be associated with an elevated white blood cell count. However, the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count has not yet been fully described. Methods We explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding variables in a population-based, cross-sectional study of 416,065 Korean adults. Results Cigarette smoking and body mass index have a dose-response relationship with a higher white blood cell count, but no synergistic interaction is observed between them (men, P for interaction=0.797; women, P for interaction=0.311). Cigarette smoking and body mass index might have an additive combination effect on high white blood cell count. Obese male smokers were 2.36 times more likely and obese female smokers 2.35 times more likely to have a high white blood cell count when compared with normal body mass index non-smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking and body mass index are independently associated with an elevated white blood cell count in both men and women. PMID:28360982

  1. Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Berg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B, end of treatment (EOT, and six-week followup (FU. We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P<.001 in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P<.05; however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population.

  2. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adults in Randomized Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Thompson, Douglas R.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Davis, Angela; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Roehrig, James P.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin M.; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that binge eating disorder (BED) is as prevalent among African American and Hispanic Americans as among Caucasian Americans; however, data regarding the characteristics of treatment-seeking individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic…

  3. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  4. The Role of Ethnicity in Clinical Psychopathology and Care Pathways of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikos, Elias; McCarthy, Jane; Kravariti, Eugenia; Fearon, Paul; Bouras, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether people with intellectual disability from ethnic minority groups have higher rates of mental health problems and access different care pathways than their White counterparts. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected for 806 consecutive new referrals to a specialist mental health service…

  5. Variation in vitamin D supplementation among adults in a multi-race/ethnic health plan population, 2008

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    Gordon Nancy P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D may have a role in many chronic conditions in addition to bone health. Nutritional surveys among Americans have reported high levels of vitamin D insufficiency, especially among Blacks and Latinos. Our study examined variation in vitamin D supplementation practices in an adult health plan population by age, gender, and race-ethnicity. Methods Self-report data from a 2008 general health survey in a large Northern California health plan were used to characterize number and types of sources of vitamin D supplementation (multivitamin, calcium with D, singular D among women and men aged 25-85, overall, by race-ethnicity, and for obese, diabetic, and hypertensive subgroups. Results In this population, 40% of women and 54% of men ≤ 50, and 24% of women and 53% of men aged 51-85 get no vitamin D from dietary supplements. Higher vitamin D supplementation among women > 50 is associated with higher reported intake of calcium with D. Black and Latina women aged 25-85 and Filipinas in the ≤ 50 age group were significantly less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to get vitamin D from supplements, whereas vitamin D supplementation practices among Chinese women did not significantly differ from non-Hispanic Whites. Among men, Latinos aged 25-85 and Black and Chinese ≤ 50 were significantly less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to get vitamin D from supplements. Similar race-ethnic differences in vitamin D supplementation patterns were observed for people in the obese, diabetic, and hypertensive groups. Conclusions Our survey results suggest that in 2008, a large percentage of women and an even larger percentage of men in a large Northern California health plan get no vitamin D from dietary supplements, and that Blacks and Latinos and obese adults, who are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency, are also the least likely to get any vitamin D from dietary supplements.

  6. Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough in adults

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    Smit Lidwien AM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient receptor potential (TRP vanilloid and ankyrin cation channels are activated by various noxious chemicals and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cough. The aim was to study the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in TRP genes and irritant exposures on cough. Methods Nocturnal, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic and 2046 non-asthmatic adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and/or fumes were assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Fifty-eight tagging SNPs in TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 were tested under an additive model. Results Statistically significant associations of 6 TRPV1 SNPs with cough symptoms were found in non-asthmatics after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were consistent across the eight countries examined. Haplotype-based association analysis confirmed the single SNP analyses for nocturnal cough (7-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.8 × 10-6 and usual cough (9-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.5 × 10-6. Cough symptoms were associated with exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p TRPV1 further increased the risk of cough symptoms from irritant exposures in asthmatics and non-asthmatics (interaction p Conclusions TRPV1 SNPs were associated with cough among subjects without asthma from two independent studies in eight European countries. TRPV1 SNPs may enhance susceptibility to cough in current smokers and in subjects with a history of workplace exposures.

  7. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    menstrual cycles or until a clinically recognized pregnancy. At enrollment and each month throughout the follow-up, both partners completed a questionnaire that asked them about their smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of caffeinated beverages. The effect of current smoking and smoking exposure...

  8. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  9. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

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    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  10. Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ah-Young; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Shin, Jin-Young; Lee, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults. Methods The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used ...

  11. Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: a cross-sectional study

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    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim: To estimate the impact of smoking restrictions in homes and schools, and tobacco advertising and information on smoking initiation by young people in Ukraine. Methods Data of 609 young people aged 15–29 was taken from the national representative survey conducted in June 2005. Outcome measures: The reported age of cigarette initiation was used to characterize the start of smoking experimentation, and the reported age of daily smoking initiation was considered to be a characteristic of established smoking. Analysis: survival analysis Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Age of smoking initiation was reported by 87% of young men and 61% of young women, the beginning of daily smoking by 71% and 33% respectively. Being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke and having no household smoking restrictions was associated with a higher risk of earlier smoking initiation both for men and women. For women, this risk was associated with age, HR = 0.95, (95% CI 0.91–0.98, that is, younger girls were more likely to smoke their first cigarette earlier in their lifetime. Those women had a higher risk of early smoking initiation who reported to receive tobacco-related information from magazines, HR = 1.40 (1.01–1.92, and outdoor tobacco advertising, HR = 1.99 (1.45–2.75. With both men and women, the risk of establishing daily smoking was higher in those with lower levels of tobacco-related knowledge and less household smoking restrictions. For women, the risk was higher in those who live in larger cities HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.86, and who received information about tobacco smoking from colleagues or friends HR = 1.83 (1.13–2.95. Conclusion Encouraging people to eliminate their homes of tobacco smoke and tobacco advertising bans can be effective measures in preventing the initiation of smoking among young people. Young female smoking initiation is of special concern in Ukraine, since they are more responsive

  12. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  13. The Relationship Between Young Adult Smokers' Beliefs About Nicotine Addiction and Smoking-Related Affect and Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R; Peterson, Laurel M; Muscanell, Nicole L; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Stock, Michelle L

    2016-06-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (n = 333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use.

  14. An Examination of the Association between Seeing Smoking in Films and Tobacco Use in Young Adults in the West of Scotland: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002-04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994-95) were…

  15. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered.

  16. Relationship of Smokefree Laws and Alcohol Use with Light and Intermittent Smoking and Quit Attempts among US Adults and Alcohol Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    Full Text Available Light and intermittent smoking (LITS has become increasingly common. Alcohol drinkers are more likely to smoke. We examined the association of smokefree law and bar law coverage and alcohol use with current smoking, LITS, and smoking quit attempts among US adults and alcohol drinkers.Cross-sectional analyses among a population-based sample of US adults (n = 27,731 using restricted data from 2009 National Health Interview Survey and 2009 American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation United States Tobacco Control Database. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship of smokefree law coverage and drinking frequency (1 with current smoking among all adults; (2 with 4 LITS patterns among current smokers; and (3 with smoking quit attempts among 6 smoking subgroups. Same multivariate analyses were conducted but substituted smokefree bar law coverage for smokefree law coverage to investigate the association between smokefree bar laws and the outcomes. Finally we ran the above analyses among alcohol drinkers (n = 16,961 to examine the relationship of smokefree law (and bar law coverage and binge drinking with the outcomes. All models controlled for demographics and average cigarette price per pack. The interactions of smokefree law (and bar law coverage and drinking status was examined.Stronger smokefree law (and bar law coverage was associated with lower odds of current smoking among all adults and among drinkers, and had the same effect across all drinking and binge drinking subgroups. Increased drinking frequency and binge drinking were related to higher odds of current smoking. Smokefree law (and bar law coverage and drinking status were not associated with any LITS measures or smoking quit attempts.Stronger smokefree laws and bar laws are associated with lower smoking rates across all drinking subgroups, which provides further support for these policies. More strict tobacco control measures might help reduce cigarette consumption and

  17. The Association between active and passive smoking and latent tuberculosis infection in adults and children in the united states: results from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Lindsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. METHODS: We used the 1999-2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598 and children 3-19 years (n = 2943 and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. RESULTS: LTBI prevalence in 1999-2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999-2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born, household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17-4.55. Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87-4.60. Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20-5.45 and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09-4.72 were significantly associated with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI

  18. SMOKING PREVALENCE AND NICOTINE DEPENDENCY AMONG YOUNG ADULT MEN AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Han ACIKEL

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health risk with highest mortality and morbidity among the worldwide preventable diseases. While military period is a risky period for starting smoking, it is also a good opportunity for population based education studies opposed to smoking. At this point of view it is important to know the smoking behaviors of enlisted people. This study was planned as cross-sectional research, and performed on 455 people selected by simple random method in Etimesgut Armed Unities School and Training Center Commandership at 2002. 53.8% of the participants reported that they had been smoking, and 9.9% of the participants reported that they had been smoking some times. The frequency of the symptoms of nicotine dependence was found as 16.2%. It was found that smoking frequency was very high in enlisted people and significant amount of them had had nicotine dependency symptoms. It is considered that educations about the hazards of smoking and activities for smoking cessation were needed during the military service. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 105-117

  19. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  1. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of knee pain among adults of a community in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Hooi Chin; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Choo, Wan Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of knee pain among 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia. By identifying high-risk groups, preventive measures can be targeted at these populations. Design and setting A cross-sectional survey was carried out in rural and urban areas in a state in Malaysia. Secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sampling units. Participants Adults aged ≥18 years old were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire on pain experienced over the previous 6 months. Out of 9300 questionnaires distributed, 5206 were returned and 150 participants who did not fall into the 3 ethnic groups were excluded, yielding a total of 5056 questionnaires for analysis. 58.2% (n=2926) were women. 50% (n=2512) were Malays, 41.4% (n=2079) were Chinese and 8.6% (n=434) were Indians. Results 21.1% (n=1069) had knee pain during the previous 6 months. More Indians (31.8%) experienced knee pain compared with Malays (24.3%) and Chinese (15%) (p<0.001). The odds of Indian women reporting knee pain was twofold higher compared with Malay women. There was a rising trend in the prevalence of knee pain with increasing age (p<0.001). The association between age and knee pain appeared to be stronger in women than men. 68.1% of Indians used analgesia for knee pain while 75.4% of Malays and 52.1% of Chinese did so (p<0.001). The most common analgesic used for knee pain across all groups was topical medicated oil (43.7%). Conclusions The prevalence of knee pain in adults was more common in Indian women and older women age groups and Chinese men had the lowest prevalence of knee pain. Further studies should investigate the reasons for these differences. PMID:27909033

  2. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra S Diep

    Full Text Available Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults.Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated to 5 (most acculturated points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake.Absence of associations between

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Internet interventions for smoking cessation among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham AL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Graham,1,2 Kelly M Carpenter,3 Sarah Cha,1 Sam Cole,3 Megan A Jacobs,1 Margaret Raskob,3 Heather Cole-Lewis,4,51Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies, Truth Initiative, Washington, DC, 2Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center/Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, 3Alere Wellbeing, Seattle, WA, 4Johnson & Johnson Health and Wellness Solutions, Inc., New Brunswick, NJ, 5ICF International, Rockville, MD, USA Background: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of Internet interventions in promoting smoking cessation among adult tobacco users relative to other forms of intervention recommended in treatment guidelines. Methods: This review followed Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews. Combinations of “Internet,” “web-based,”and “smoking cessation intervention” and related keywords were used in both automated and manual searches. We included randomized trials published from January 1990 through to April 2015. A modified version of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used. We calculated risk ratios (RRs for each study. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects method to pool RRs. Presentation of results follows the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Results: Forty randomized trials involving 98,530 participants were included. Most trials had a low risk of bias in most domains. Pooled results comparing Internet interventions to assessment-only/waitlist control were significant (RR 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.21, I2=51.7%; four studies. Pooled results of largely static Internet interventions compared to print materials were not significant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.63–1.10, I2=0%; two studies, whereas comparisons of interactive Internet interventions to print materials were significant (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.25–3

  4. Changing trends in the prevalence and disparities of obesity and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in three racial/ethnic groups of USA adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Camila X; Romero, Tomas E; Shlay, Judith C; Ogden, Lorraine G; Dabelea, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine trends in the prevalence and disparities of traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the major race/ethnic groups in the USA: non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), and Mexican Americans (MAs). Methods. We used cross-sectional trend analysis in women and men aged 25-84 years participating in the NHANES surveys, years 1988-1994 (n = 14,341) and 1999-2004 (n = 12,360). Results. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension increased significantly in NHW and NHB, both in men and women; NHB had the highest prevalence of obesity and hypertension in each time period. Diabetes prevalence showed a nonsignificant increasing trend in all groups and was higher in MA in both periods. Smoking significantly decreased in NHW men and NHB, the latter with the largest decline although the highest prevalence in each period; no changes were noted in MA, who had the lowest prevalence in both periods. Race/ethnic CVD risk factors disparities widened for obesity and hypercholesterolemia, remained unchanged for diabetes and hypertension, and narrowed for smoking. Conclusions. The increasing prevalence of obesity and hypertension underscores the need for better preventive measures, particularly in the NHB group that exhibits the worst trends. The decline in smoking rates may offset some of these unfavorable trends.

  5. Changing Trends in the Prevalence and Disparities of Obesity and Other Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of USA Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila X. Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine trends in the prevalence and disparities of traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among the major race/ethnic groups in the USA: non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs, and Mexican Americans (MAs. Methods. We used cross-sectional trend analysis in women and men aged 25–84 years participating in the NHANES surveys, years 1988–1994 (n=14,341 and 1999–2004 (n=12,360. Results. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension increased significantly in NHW and NHB, both in men and women; NHB had the highest prevalence of obesity and hypertension in each time period. Diabetes prevalence showed a nonsignificant increasing trend in all groups and was higher in MA in both periods. Smoking significantly decreased in NHW men and NHB, the latter with the largest decline although the highest prevalence in each period; no changes were noted in MA, who had the lowest prevalence in both periods. Race/ethnic CVD risk factors disparities widened for obesity and hypercholesterolemia, remained unchanged for diabetes and hypertension, and narrowed for smoking. Conclusions. The increasing prevalence of obesity and hypertension underscores the need for better preventive measures, particularly in the NHB group that exhibits the worst trends. The decline in smoking rates may offset some of these unfavorable trends.

  6. Parental smoking in pregnancy and the risks of adult-onset hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. de Jonge (Layla); H.R. Harris (Holly); J.W. Rich-Edwards (Janet); C. Willett (Chris); M.R. Forman (Michele); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); K.B. Michels (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFetal exposure to parental smoking may lead to developmental adaptations and promote various diseases in later life. This study evaluated the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the daughter in adulthood, and assessed whether these associati

  7. Correlates of smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Agrawal (Arpana); C. Sartor (Chiara); M.L. Pergadia (Michele); A.C. Huizink (Anja); M.T. Lynskey (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPersistent cigarette smoking is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Correlates of difficulty quitting smoking include psychopathology, such as major depressive disorder, and problems with other substances, such as alcoholism. In addition, socio-demographic risk (e.g. pov

  8. ATTITUDE OF ADULT POPULATION OF THE KRASNOYARSK TERRITORY TO SMOKING BAN AT WORKPLACES

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    Dmitriy Olegovich Trufanov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an opinion survey among representative sample of working population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (1000 persons aged from 18 to 60 to study their attitude to the introduction of smoking ban at workplaces. Data was collected from questionnaires and telephone interviews.The collected data suggests, that 32,7% of respondents smoke on a regular basis, 45,2% are exposed to cigarette smoke at workplaces, 67,2% of nonsmokers are passive smokers. 64,8% of respondents support the idea of smoking ban at indoor workplaces;  46,3% of respondents support imposing sanctions for violation of the ban; 52,6% of smokers are ready to smoke only outdoors or in specially allotted places. After the introduction of smoking ban at cafes, restaurants and bars 90,8% of working population will still continue visiting them or visit more often, and 16,9% of those who did  not attend them before because of cigarette smoke present in the air. In the view of the working population introduction of smoking ban at indoor workplaces is essential for the preservation of the population’s health.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-3

  9. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

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    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD. 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total, C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73; OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41; and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51, respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD.

  10. Ethnicity modifies the additive effects of anxiety and drug use disorders on suicidal ideation among black adults in the United States

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    Shervin Assari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to test if ethnicity moderates the additive effects of lifetime psychiatric disorders on serious suicidal thoughts among a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the United States. Methods: For this study, we used data of 5,181 Black adults (3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Five lifetime psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, and drug abuse were considered as the independent variables. Lifetime serious suicidal ideation was considered as the dependent variable. Logistic regressions were used to determine if ethnicity modifies the effects of each psychiatric disorder on serious suicide ideation. Ethnicity was conceptualized as the possible moderator and socio-demographics (i.e., age, gender, education level, employment, marital status and country region were control variables. Results: Among African Americans, major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. Among Caribbean Blacks, major depressive disorder and drug abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. In the pooled sample, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and anxiety disorder and a marginally significant interaction between ethnicity and drug abuse. Conclusions: Based on our study, suicidality due to psychiatric disorders among Black adults in the United States may depend on ethnicity. General anxiety disorder seems to be a more important risk factor for suicidal ideation among African Americans while drug abuse may contribute more to the risk of suicidal thoughts among Caribbean Blacks.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison

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    Kraemer Alexander

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15–59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488 and non-slum (= 5,667 groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8% than non-slums (46.4%. Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P bidis (slums = 11.4% and non-slums = 3.2%, P bidis (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.58–2.29 and any of the two (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13–1.34 among men living in slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums

  12. Maternal smoking promotes chronic obstructive lung disease in the offspring as adults

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    Beyer D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In utero and/or childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure is well known to adversely affect lung function and to depreciate child's health in many ways. Fewer studies have assessed the long-term effects on COPD development and disease severity in later adulthood. Methods COPD patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire regarding their personal as well as the smoking habits of their parents. Data were compared with the disease history, e.g. COPD exacerbation rate, and their lung function data. Results Between 2003 and 2004 COPD patients were recruited a in a private practice specialized in pulmonary medicine (n = 133 and b in a hospital (n = 158. 75% of their fathers and only 15.4 of all mothers smoked regularly. COPD patients from smoking mothers had lower FEV1 predicted than those raised in household without maternal smoking exposure: 39.4 ± 9.5% vs. 51.9 ± 6.0% (P = 0.037. Fathers had no effect on FEV1 regardless if they are smokers or non-smokers. Rate of severe exacerbations requiring hospitalization remained unaffected by parental second hand smoke exposure. Conclusion Maternal smoking negatively affects lung function of their offspring even in late adulthood when they develop COPD. It even aggravates the cumulative effect of active cigarette consumption. Clinical course of the COPD remained unaffected.

  13. Association Between Smoking and Physician-Diagnosed Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in Male Adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sounghoon; Kim, Hyeongsu; Kim, Vitna; Lee, Kunsei; Jeong, Hyoseon; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Soon-Ae; Shin, Eunyoung; Park, Minsu; Ko, Eunjung

    2016-01-25

    To evaluate the association between smoking and physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction, this study used Community Health Survey data from 2009 on 92,082 males over the age of 30 years. Using multiple logistic regression, association index between smoking and physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction was calculated after adjusting the effects of age, hypertension, and diabetes. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of the physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction in the smoking group were 1.12 (1.02-1.24) and 1.21 (1.06-1.38) compared to the non-smoking group. The values of the physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction were 0.84 (0.74-0.94) and 0.96 (0.82-1.12) in the current-smoking subgroup, 1.38 (1.24-1.53) and 1.45 (1.26-1.67) in the ex-smoking subgroup, 1.39 (1.18-1.63) and 1.85 (1.53-2.24) in the 10- to 19-year smokers groups, 1.39 (1.22-1.58) and 1.36 (1.15-1.60) in the 30- to 40-year smokers groups, and 0.53 (0.44-0.63) and 0.47 (0.36-0.63) in those who had smoked for over 50 years. These results showed smoking was a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction in Korean males. This objective evidence should guide policy-making and public health interventions in the fields of smoking prevention and prohibition.

  14. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  15. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani Wan; Razak Ishak; Yang Yi; Talib Norain; Ikeda Noriaki; Axell Tony; Gupta Prakash C; Handa Yujiro; Abdullah Norlida; Zain Rosnah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initi...

  16. Aortic valve annulus and sinus-tube joint diameters in normal adults of Chinese Han ethnic group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Dan; ZHAO Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Background The anatomic value of the aortic root is important for aortic valve repair.This study was to determine the normaI diameters of the aortic valve annulus (AVA) and sinus-tube ioint (STJ) in the healthy adults of Chinese Han ethnic group,and to provide a morphological foundation for potential clinical application.Methods Echocardiography was performed in 326 normal subjects,who were divided into 5 groups according to their age.The diameters of the AVA and STJ were measured in the parasternal long-axis view.and normalized to body surface area (BSA).They were averaged for each age group and for each gender.Differences were then determined between the normalized diameters for each age group and for both genders.Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the differences between AVA and STJ diameters.It was also used to determine any positive or neqative correlations between the above two variables and age,BSA,weight,and height.Results The diameters of the AVA and STJ of Han nationality patients increased with an increase in age,BSA,weight,and height.The correlation coefficient between AVA diameter and BSA was 0.4944 (P<0.0001),between AVA diameter and age,0.1138 (P<0.05),between AVA diameter and weight,0.4521 (P<0.001),and between AVAdiameter and height,0.471 3 (P<0.001).The correlation coefficient between STJ diameter and BSA was 0.3910 (P<0.0001),between STJ diameter and age,0.3667 (P<0.0001),between STJ diameter and weight,0.4586 (P<0.0001),and between STJ diameter and height,0.3736 (P<0.0001).The difference between the above two diameters was statistically significant at 2.42±2.45 mm (paired t-test:t=-17.25;P<0.0001).AVA and STJ diameters were similar in both genders of each group when indexed to BSAConclusions The diameters of the AVA and STJ of adults of Chinese Han ethnic group increase with age,BSA,weight,and height.The diameters of the AVA and the STJ are similar in both genders.when indexed to BSA

  17. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  18. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3)levels in adult New Zealanders with ethnicity, skin color and self-reported skin sensitivity to sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessvi, Sofia; Johansson, Lisa; Jopson, Jan; Stewart, Alistair; Reeder, Anthony; McKenzie, Richard; Scragg, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the contribution of ethnicity, objectively measured skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure to variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3) ]. A multiethnic sample (European, Maori, Pacific and Asian) of 503 adult volunteers aged 18-85 years, recruited from Auckland and Dunedin in New Zealand, answered a questionnaire on sun exposure and self-defined ethnicity. Skin color was measured using a spectrophotometer and the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) calculated. A blood sample was collected 4 weeks later to measure 25(OH)D(3). 25(OH)D(3) was associated with ethnicity, but not self-reported skin reaction-to-sun exposure. Amongst the ethnic groups, Asians had the lowest mean 25(OH)D level (37.0 nmol L(-1)) and Europeans with lighter colored skin had the highest (57.9 nmol L(-1)). An association also was seen between 25(OH)D(3) and skin color, with an increase of 2-3 nmol L(-1) per 10° increase in ITA value, indicating higher 25(OH)D(3) with lighter skin color; but much of this association disappeared after adjusting for ethnicity. In contrast, ethnicity remained associated with 25(OH)D(3) after adjusting for ITA skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure. These results indicate that self-defined ethnicity was a major determinant of variations in serum 25(OH)D(3), while objective measures of skin color explained relatively little additional variation.

  19. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  20. Quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  1. Italian Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study (AISAG) on light smoking and allergic diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, C; Passalacqua, G

    2016-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. On the basis of these contradictory data in the literature we have carried out a multicenter cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationship between some allergic conditions and exposure or not to active light smoking. The study was carried out between May 2013 and November 2013 in 22 different Italian hospitals. Patients with respiratory and/or food allergy, and aged 18 years and over, visited at Allergy Outpatient Clinics, were invited to participate. A total of 1586 allergic patients (21.6% smokers) with a mean age of 39.2 years (standard deviation, SD = 15.1) were included. We demonstrated that the prevalence of tobacco smoking was higher in patients with food allergy and in asthmatic patients in stage III-IV. But no other statistical differences were found at univariate analysis. The sensitization patterns of non-smokers and smokers were similar. Furthermore, tobacco smoking was associated with higher risk of food allergy and lower risk of asthma. Moreover, tobacco smoking was an independent risk factor for persistent respect to intermittent rhinitis, and for asthma GINA stage III-IV with respect to stage I-II.

  2. Low FEV1, smoking history, and obesity are factors associated with oxygen saturation decrease in an adult population cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vold ML

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monica Linea Vold,1,3 Ulf Aasebø,1,2 Hasse Melbye3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway Background: Worsening of pulmonary diseases is associated with a decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO2. Such a decrease in SpO2 and associated factors has not been previously evaluated in a general adult population. Aim: We sought to describe SpO2 in a sample of adults, at baseline and after 6.3 years, to determine whether factors predicting low SpO2 in a cross-sectional study were also associated with a decrease in SpO2 in this cohort. Methods: As part of the Tromsø Study, 2,822 participants were examined with pulse oximetry in Tromsø 5 (2001/2002 and Tromsø 6 (2007/2008. Low SpO2 by pulse oximetry was defined as an SpO2 ≤95%, and SpO2 decrease was defined as a ≥2% decrease from baseline to below 96%. Results: A total of 139 (4.9% subjects had a decrease in SpO2. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 <50% of the predicted value and current smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years were the baseline characteristics most strongly associated with an SpO2 decrease in multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio 3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.60–7.89] and 2.48 [95% CI 1.48–4.15], respectively. Male sex, age, former smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, and C-reactive protein ≥5 mg/L were also significantly associated with an SpO2 decrease. A significant decrease in FEV1 and a new diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the observation period most strongly predicted a fall in SpO2. A lower SpO2 decrease was observed in those who quit smoking and those who lost weight, but these tendencies were not statistically significant. Conclusion: A decrease in SpO2 was most strongly associated with severe airflow limitation and a history of

  3. Parental Tobacco Smoking and Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Petridou, Eleni; Aranguré, Juan Manuel Mejía; Roman, Eve; Schüz, Joachim; Magnani, Corrado; Mora, Ana Maria; Mueller, Beth A; de Oliveira, Maria S Pombo; Dockerty, John D; McCauley, Kathryn; Lightfoot, Tracy; Hatzipantelis, Emmanouel; Rudant, Jérémie; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Kaatsch, Peter; Miligi, Lucia; Wesseling, Catharina; Doody, David R; Moschovi, Maria; Orsi, Laurent; Mattioli, Stefano; Selvin, Steve; Kang, Alice Y; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2016-08-15

    The association between tobacco smoke and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is well established in adults but not in children. Individual-level data on parental cigarette smoking were obtained from 12 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC, 1974-2012), including 1,330 AML cases diagnosed at age <15 years and 13,169 controls. We conducted pooled analyses of CLIC studies, as well as meta-analyses of CLIC and non-CLIC studies. Overall, maternal smoking before, during, or after pregnancy was not associated with childhood AML; there was a suggestion, however, that smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk in Hispanics (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 3.61) but not in other ethnic groups. By contrast, the odds ratios for paternal lifetime smoking were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.62) and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.51) in pooled and meta-analyses, respectively. Overall, increased risks from 1.2- to 1.3-fold were observed for pre- and postnatal smoking (P < 0.05), with higher risks reported for heavy smokers. Associations with paternal smoking varied by histological type. Our analyses suggest an association between paternal smoking and childhood AML. The association with maternal smoking appears limited to Hispanic children, raising questions about ethnic differences in tobacco-related exposures and biological mechanisms, as well as study-specific biases.

  4. Indoor second-hand smoking could mediate the associations of foods and adult happiness: Scottish Health Survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-02-01

    There has been literature on the relationship of food and happiness, but the role of second-hand smoking is less understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine if second-hand smoking might mediate the associations of food consumption and subjective happiness in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the Scottish Health Survey, 2012. Information on demographics, frequency of consuming certain foods and subjective happiness was obtained by household interview. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of the included Scottish adults aged 16-99 (n = 4815), 15.4 % (n = 677) reported that they were unhappy. It was observed that eating lots of potatoes, some meat, some oily fish and some pastries were inversely associated with unhappiness. People who consumed vegetables and fruits on the day before the health interview were also found to be less unhappy, compared to their counterparts. However, the protective effect from fruits disappeared after additionally adjusting for indoor second-hand smoking while the protective effects from other foods mentioned above have also been lessened. In addition, cumulatively people who consumed more "happy foods" (mentioned above) were more likely to report subjective happiness, compared to those who did not consume any of those. For future research, longitudinally monitoring on the associations among food, household environment and psychological well-being and both the short-term and long-term effects would be suggested. For policy implications, Removal of indoor second-hand smoking to retain the protective effects from happy foods on well-being should be encouraged.

  5. Thai Adolescents' Normative Beliefs of the Popularity of Smoking among Peers, Adults, the Successful and Elite, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…

  6. Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrach Dare

    Full Text Available There is a general perception that smoking protects against weight gain and this may influence commencement and continuation of smoking, especially among young women.A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from UK Biobank. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between smoking and obesity; defined as body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2. Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.The study comprised 499,504 adults aged 31 to 69 years. Overall, current smokers were less likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 0.83 95% CI 0.81-0.86. However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years. Former smokers were more likely to be obese than both current smokers (adjusted OR 1.33 95% CI 1.30-1.37 and never smokers (adjusted OR 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.15. Among smokers, the risk of obesity increased with the amount smoked and former heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than former light smokers (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% 1.56-1.64, p<0.001. Risk of obesity fell with time from quitting. After 30 years, former smokers still had higher risk of obesity than current smokers but the same risk as never smokers.Beliefs that smoking protects against obesity may be over-simplistic; especially among younger and heavier smokers. Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions should include weight management support.

  7. GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, Hendrika; ten Hacken, Nicolaas; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega g

  8. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. A

  9. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...

  10. Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene family, oral microbial pathogens, and smoking in adult periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, ML; Farre, MA; Garcia-Gonzalez, MA; van Dijk, LJ; Ham, AJ; Winkel, EG; Crusius, JBA; Vandenbroucke, JP; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Pena, AS

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1alpha IL-1beta, and IL-1ra contribute to regulation of the inflammatory response in periodontal tissues. We aimed to investigate the distribution of polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene family among periodontitis patients and controls, taking into account smoking and microbiology as addi

  11. Asthma, Smoking and BMI in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L.; Naqvi, H.; Russ, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent research evidence from the general population has shown that tobacco smoking and raised body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma outcomes. There are indications that asthma morbidity and mortality may be higher among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than the general population, but the reason for this is…

  12. Association of Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in a Puerto Rican Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Calo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study supports previous reports of an increased risk of MetSyn among current smokers, particularly those with a heavier consumption. Tobacco control strategies, such as preventing smoking initiation and disseminating evidence-based cessation programs, are necessary to reduce the burden of MetSyn in Puerto Rico.

  13. Water‐Holding and Transport Properties of Skin Stratum Corneum of Infants and Toddlers Are Different from Those of Adults: Studies in Three Geographical Regions and Four Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Mary Catherine; Chu, Melissa R.; Tierney, Neena K.; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Georgios N. Stamatas; Kollias, Nikiforos; Bhagat, Kamlesh; Ma, Lin; Martin, Katharine M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objective Epidermal structure, function, and composition are different in white infants and adults. We investigated whether ethnicity and location contribute to differences in functional and clinical measurements of skin barrier function during the first years of life and in adults. Methods Children (n = 397, ages 3–49 mos) and women (n = 117, mean age 31 yrs) were enrolled at independent centers in Beijing, China (ethnic Chinese), Skillman, New Jersey (white, African Amer...

  14. Smoking status and urine cadmium above levels associated with subclinical renal effects in U.S. adults without chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Mary Ellen; Wong, Lee-Yang; Osterloh, John D

    2011-07-01

    Tobacco smoke is a major source of adult exposure to cadmium (Cd). Urine Cd levels (CdU) above 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 μgCd/g creatinine have been associated with increased rates of microproteinuria and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The two study objectives were to determine the prevalence and relative risk (RR) by smoking status for CdU above 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 μgCd/g creatinine in U.S. adults; and to describe geometric mean CdU by smoking status, age, and sex. NHANES 1999-2006 data for adults without chronic kidney disease were used to compute prevalence rates above the three CdU in current and former cigarette smokers, and non-smokers. RRs for smokers adjusted for age and sex were computed by logistic regression. Analysis of covariance was used to calculate geometric means of CdU adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, log urine creatinine, and interaction terms: age-smoking status and sex-smoking status. At selected ages, adjusted RR for exceeding each risk-associated CdU was highest for current smokers (3-13 times), followed by former smokers (2-3 times), compared to non-smokers. Adjusted RR for smokers increased with age and was higher in females than males. Adjusted geometric means of CdUs increased with age, were higher in females than in males regardless of smoking status, and were higher in current smokers than former smokers, who had higher levels than non-smokers at any age. Cigarette smoking greatly increases RR of exceeding renal risk-associated CdU. Former smokers retain significant risk of exceeding these levels compared to non-smokers. CdU increased with age, particularly in current smokers.

  15. P3 event-related potential reactivity to smoking cues: Relations with craving, tobacco dependence, and alcohol sensitivity in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Trela, Constantine J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-02-01

    The current study tested whether the amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) elicited by smoking cues is (a) associated with the degree of self-reported craving reactivity, and (b) moderated by degree of tobacco dependence. Because alcohol and cigarettes are frequently used together, and given recent evidence indicating that individual differences in alcohol sensitivity influence reactivity to alcohol cues, we also investigated whether alcohol sensitivity moderated neural responses to smoking cues. ERPs were recorded from young adult smokers (N = 90) while they participated in an evaluative categorization oddball task involving 3 types of targets: neutral images, smoking-related images, and images of drinking straws. Participants showing larger P3 amplitudes to smoking cues and to straw cues (relative to neutral targets) reported greater increases in craving after cue exposure. Neither smoking status (daily vs. occasional use) nor psychometric measures of tobacco dependence consistently or specifically moderated P3 reactivity to smoking cues. Lower alcohol sensitivity was associated with larger P3 to smoking cues but not comparison straw cues (relative to neutral targets). This effect was further moderated by tobacco dependence, with the combination of lower sensitivity and higher dependence associated with especially pronounced P3 reactivity to smoking cues. The findings suggest the smoking-cue elicited P3 ERP component indexes an approach-oriented incentive motivational state accompanied by a subjective sense of cigarette craving. Self-reported low sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol may represent a marker of drug cue reactivity and therefore deserves attention as a potential moderator in smoking cue exposure studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise

    2016-01-01

    cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain...... a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. ITALIC! Results We found that "social...

  17. Cigarette smoking and pulmonary function in adult survivors of childhood cancer exposed to pulmonary-toxic therapy: results from the St. Jude lifetime cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, S Cristina; Gurney, James G; Ness, Kirsten K; Ojha, Rohit P; Tyc, Vida L; Klosky, James L; Srivastava, DeoKumar; Stokes, Dennis C; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Green, Daniel M

    2014-09-01

    Treatments for childhood cancer can impair pulmonary function. We assessed the potential impact of cigarette smoking on pulmonary function in 433 adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) who received pulmonary-toxic therapy, using single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin (DLCOcorr), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and total lung capacity (TLC). FEV1/FVC median values among current [1.00; interquartile range (IQR): 0.94-1.04] and former smokers (0.98; IQR: 0.93-1.04) were lower than those who had never smoked (1.02; IQR: 0.96-1.06; P = 0.003). Median FEV1/FVC values were lower among those who smoked ≥ 6 pack-years (0.99; IQR: 0.92-1.03) and those who smoked <6 pack-years (1.00; IQR: 0.94-1.04), than among those who had never smoked (P = 0.005). Our findings suggest that CCSs have an increased risk for future obstructive and restrictive lung disease. Follow-up is needed to determine whether smoking imparts more than additive risk. Smoking prevention and cessation need to be a priority in this population.

  18. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  19. Influence of Recruitment Strategy on the Reach and Effect of a Web-Based Multiple Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention among Dutch Adult Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Eline Suzanne; Hoving, Ciska; Cox, Vincent Cornelis Maria; de Vries, Hein

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different recruitment strategies on the reach and effect of a web-based multiple tailored smoking cessation program. From May 2009 until June 2010, Dutch adult smokers were recruited via mass media or general practices. Those who completed the baseline questionnaire were followed up during 6 weeks (two…

  20. Burden of total and cause-specific mortality related to tobacco smoking among adults aged ≥ 45 years in Asia: a pooled analysis of 21 cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ≥45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan-accounting for ∼71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37-1.51 and 1.48-fold (1.38-1.58 elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%-17.2% and 3.3% (2.6%-4.0% of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ≥45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ∼1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000-1,744,700. Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ≥45 y. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ≥45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are

  1. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  2. Race/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risks among adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, David D; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Hylton, John; Torian, Lucia V; Guillin, Vincent; Koblin, Beryl A

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection is disproportionately higher in both racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and in men under the age of 25, where the leading exposure category is homosexual contact. Less is known, however, about patterns of HIV prevalence in young racial/ethnic minority MSM. We analyzed data from the Young Men's Survey (YMS), an anonymous, cross-sectional survey of 351 MSM in Baltimore and 529 MSM in New York City, aged 15-22, to determine whether race/ethnicity differences exist in the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors. Potential participants were selected systematically at MSM-identified public venues. Venues and associated time periods for subject selection were selected randomly on a monthly basis. Eligible and willing subjects provided informed consent and underwent an interview, HIV pretest counseling, and a blood draw for HIV antibody testing. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for city of recruitment and age, HIV seroprevalence was highest for African Americans [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 12.5], intermediate for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity (AOR = 8.6), and moderately elevated for Hispanics (AOR = 4.6) as compared to whites. Stratified analysis showed different risk factors for HIV prevalence in each ethnic group: for African Americans, these were history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and not being in school; for Hispanics, risk factors were being aged 20-22, greater number of male partners and use of recreational drugs; and for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity, risk factors included injection drug use and (marginally) STDs. These findings suggest the need for HIV prevention and testing programs which target young racial/ethnic minority MSM and highlight identified risk factors and behaviors.

  3. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-11-05

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples.

  4. Smoke in the air’: a rare cerebrovascular cause of neurological signs and symptoms in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ismail

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a rare neurological condition that affects children and adults of all ages. It is characterized by chronic, progressive stenosis of the circle of Willis that ultimately leads to the development of extensive collateral vessels. Presenting symptoms are usually due to cerebral ischemia or hemorrhage. The Japanese term moyamoya (meaning puffy or obscure was coined to describe the characteristic ‘smoke in the air’ appearance of these vessels on cerebral angiography. Moyamoya has the highest recorded incidence in Japan (0.28 per 100,000. In the west it is an extremely rare condition with an overall incidence of (0.086 per 100,000 in the Western United States. Etiology for the most part is unknown; however, genetic susceptibility related to RNF213 gene on chromosome 17q25.3 has been suggested. Moyamoya is being diagnosed more frequently in all races with varying clinical manifestations. Moyamoya disease is a rare progressive neurologic condition characterized by occlusion of the cerebral circulation with extensive collaterals recruitment in children and adults. Distinguished radiological findings confirm the diagnosis. Early recognition and swift institution of therapy is vital in order to minimize neurological deficits. We present the case of a 19-year-old African American female who presented with left-sided parastheia, weakness, and headache for 2 days duration.

  5. Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heikkilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166,130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166,130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18. Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up, there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  6. The role of important non-parental adults (VIPs) in the lives of older adolescents: a comparison of three ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. The influence of gender, age, and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A;

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... collected by questionnaire in random samples of the general population in the area of Copenhagen. The database used included 71,842 measurements of smoking behaviour for 32,156 subjects aged 30 years or more, who had been examined at intervals between 1964 and 1994. In bi- and multivariate analyses......, and among the well educated. During the study period, the unadjusted prevalence of heavy smoking decreased from 52% to 38% in men, while it increased from 17% to 21% in women. The multivariate analysis showed that the time trend for heavy smoking only depended on sex, while educational attainment and age...

  8. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  9. Prevalence of sleep disorders by sex and ethnicity among older adolescents and emerging adults: relations to daytime functioning, working memory and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Megan E; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Baldwin, Carol M

    2014-07-01

    The study determined the prevalence of sleep disorders by ethnicity and sex, and related daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health among older adolescent to emerging adult college students. Participants were U.S.A. undergraduates (N = 1684), aged 17-25, recruited from 2010 to 2011. Participants completed online questionnaires for all variables. Overall, 36.0% of the sample screened positive for sleep disorders with insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder being the most prevalent. Women reported more insomnia and daytime impairment. African-Americans reported more early morning awakenings and less daytime impairment. Students with insomnia symptoms or restless legs syndrome tended to have lower working memory capacities. Students with nightmares or parasomnias had greater odds for mental disorders. In an older adolescent to emerging adult college student sample, sleep disorders may be a common source of sleep disturbance and impairment. Certain sleep disorders may be associated with lower working memory capacity and poor mental health.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults after Divorce and Remarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African…

  11. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  12. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  13. Acculturation and plasma fatty acid concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may...

  14. Intensified testing for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls should reduce depression and smoking in adult females and the prevalence of ADHD in the longterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan; Brummer, Dagmar; Koelch, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C; Fegert, Joerg M; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2009-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in youth. About a third to one-half of the affected subjects continue to have symptoms in adulthood. Remarkably, the prevalence numbers published for adult females are higher than for girls. The differences in the epidemiological data between the age groups clearly point to underdiagnosed ADHD in girls. Major depression, the most frequent psychiatric condition worldwide in adulthood, is twice as common in female as in male adults. Anxiety and depression are also among the most common comorbidities in adults with ADHD. Therefore, an undiagnosed ADHD may often underlie the psychopathology in depressive women. Another possibly associated phenomenon is the increased frequency of smoking in adult females. Since nicotine indirectly enhances the intrasynaptic dopamine level which presumably is too low both in ADHD and in depression, smoking might be used as a self-medication in women with untreated ADHD and consecutive depression. Furthermore, smoking during pregnancy is a major risk factor for ADHD in the offspring, so the vicious circle is complete. Depression in mothers of children with ADHD is associated with a higher rate of comorbidity in the children. Improved screening for ADHD in girls and treatment in childhood might thus reduce the rate of depression and smoking in adult females. We hypothesize that earlier identification and interventions might not only improve the lives of millions of girls and women but might also reduce the prevalence rates in future generations or at least moderate the deviant behaviour in this highly heritable disorder in which the development and severity of symptoms and the functional impairment depend to a high degree on epigenetic factors.

  15. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18-93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15), using cannabis (AOR = 2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR = 2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions.

  16. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (Pfood expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (Pfood sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake of iron and heavy workload may be the reasons for this high percentage of anaemia. Moreover, hookworm infections need to be analyzed, as its prevalence is very high in India and South Asia. One hundred percent anaemia among Munda women is also very alarming. The results suggest that

  17. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simiao Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses, with consideration of body mass index (BMI at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”, ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women. For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan. A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF increased gradually; body fat (BF remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL and body lean (BL declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan.

  18. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (± 5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience.

  19. Racial/ethnic residential segregation, neighborhood poverty and urinary biomarkers of diet in New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Stella S; Ruff, Ryan R; Jung, Molly; Waddell, Elizabeth Needham

    2014-12-01

    Consuming less sodium and more potassium are components of a healthy diet and reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Racial/ethnic segregation and poverty are both associated with dietary habits, but data linking dietary intake to neighborhood characteristics are limited, particularly in Hispanic and Asian American ethnic enclaves. This study presents relationships between neighborhood-level segregation, poverty and biologic indicators of sodium and potassium consumption. Data were from the 2010 Heart Follow-Up Study, a cross-sectional health survey, which included 24-h urine collections and self-reported health status (n = 1656). Black, Hispanic, and Asian segregated areas and neighborhood poverty were defined for aggregated zip-code areas. Multivariable models assessed the association between neighborhood segregation and poverty and sodium and potassium intake, after adjustment for individual-level covariates. In unadjusted models, potassium intake (a marker of fruit and vegetable consumption) was lower in high-versus low-Hispanic segregated neighborhoods, and the sodium-potassium ratio was higher in high-versus low black and Hispanic segregated neighborhoods, and in high-versus low-poverty neighborhoods; the sodium-potassium ratio was lower in high-versus low Asian segregated neighborhoods. Segregation and poverty were not independently associated with nutrition biomarkers after adjustment for demographics and for each other; however, practical consideration of neighborhood race/ethnic composition may be useful to understand differences in consumption.

  20. The relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking in low and middle income countries: cross-sectional analysis of the global adult tobacco survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is receiving growing attention due to accumulating evidence suggesting increasing prevalence in some populations and deleterious health effects. Nevertheless, the relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking remain unknown, particularly in low and middle income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed waterpipe and cigarette smoking using data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a household survey of adults aged ≥15 years conducted between 2008-2010 in LMICs. Factors associated with waterpipe and cigarette use were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Factors associated with the quantity of waterpipe and cigarette smoking were assessed using log-linear regression models. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, residence, education, occupation and smokeless tobacco use, waterpipe smoking was significantly higher among cigarette users than in non-cigarette users in India (5.6% vs. 0.6%, AOR 13.12, 95% CI 7.41-23.23 and Russia (6.7% vs. 0.2%, AOR 27.73, 95% CI 11.41-67.43, but inversely associated in Egypt (2.6% vs. 3.4%, AOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.15-0.30 and not associated in Vietnam (13.3% vs. 4.7%, AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74-1.23. Compared to non-cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers who also used cigarettes had more waterpipe smoking sessions per week in Russia (1.3 vs. 2.9, beta coefficient 0.31, 95% CI 0.06, 0.57, but less in Egypt (18.2 vs. 10.7, beta coefficient -0.45, 95% CI -0.73, -0.17 and Vietnam (102.0 vs. 79.3, beta coefficient -0.31, 95% CI -0.56, -0.06 and similar amounts in India (29.4 vs. 32.6, beta coefficient -0.12, 95% CI -0.46, 0.22. CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe smoking is low in most LMICs but important country-level differences in use, including concurrent cigarette smoking, should be taken into account when designing and evaluating tobacco control interventions.

  1. 浙江省台州市成年人吸烟和被动吸烟状况调查%Epidemiological survey on smoking and passive smoking situation among adults in Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘令初; 王良友; 王旭; 陈潇潇; 徐飚; 余运贤

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省台州市成年人群的吸烟和被动吸烟情况,为制定有针对性的控烟措施提供基础资料.方法 采用多阶段整群抽样方法于2010-2011年在全市9个县(市、区)抽取符合条件的成年人群作为本次研究的受试对象.分析指标包括吸烟率、开始吸烟年龄、吸烟者平均每日吸烟量、戒烟率和被动吸烟率等.结果 调查对象吸烟率为23.6%,男性、女性吸烟率分别为48.0%和1.2%,两者差异有统计学意义(x2=683.60,P<0.01).开始吸烟的平均年龄为(22.9±5.5)岁,平均每天吸烟(20.4±12.8)支.不吸烟的调查对象被动吸烟率为40.2%,其中男性、女性分别为31.6%和43.2%.调查对象戒烟率为21.8%,其中男性、女性分别为21.9%和17.6%.被调查的吸烟者中有53.9%不打算戒烟.男性和女性吸烟者打算现在开始戒烟比例仅为5.4%和14.3%.分别仅有35.2%和29.5%的调查对象认为吸烟和被动吸烟对健康重度有害.结论 台州市成人居民烟草暴露严重,居民吸烟率、被动吸烟率处于较高水平,戒烟率较低,烟草控制面临巨大挑战.%Objective To describe the smoking and passive smoking status among adults in Taizhou City and provide baseline data for specialized tobacco control development.Methods A multi-staged cluster sampling survey was carried out in 9 districts from 2010 to 2011.Several indicators were analyzed such as smoking rate,age of smoke beginning,smoking amount per day,quit rate and passive smoking rate.Results The overall smoking rate was 23.6% (48.0% for males and 1.2% for females).There was statistically significant difference between males and females (x2 =683.60,P <0.01).The average age of smoke beginning was (22.9 ± 5.5) years old,and (20.4 ± 12.8) cigarettes were consumed per day.Passive smoking rate in non-smokers was 40.2% (31.6% for males and 43.2% for females).The quit smoking rate was 21.8% (21.9% for males and 17

  2. Smoking cessation in adults with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Nagrebetsky, Alexander; Brettell, Rachel; Roberts, Nia; Farmer, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of more intensive smoking cessation interventions compared to less intensive interventions on smoking cessation in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of smoking cessation interventions was conducted. Electronic searches were carried out on the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO to September 2013. Searches were supplemented by review of trial registries and references...

  3. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known about smoking cessation behavior, the vast majority of research has not assessed menthol as an independent factor. The objective of this review is to assess the effects, if any, that use of menthol cigarettes has on smoking cessation success in adults and youth. A total of 20 articles are included in this review. Although some studies have found that menthol smokers have less success in quitting smoking, others fail to find significant differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Some clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of various cessation treatments have suggested that menthol smokers have poorer outcomes, however two secondary data analysis studies (which used the same original dataset failed to find any difference in success rate associated with particular treatments. Although there is some suggestion that smoking menthol cigarettes is associated with worse cessation outcomes, differences are not always found. However, if there was a difference, it was always in the direction of worse outcomes for menthol smokers. Given that Black/African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes more than White smokers, possible interactions with race/ethnicity are discussed.

  4. Epidemiological survey and analysis on infants passive smoking in Han,Hui and Kazakh ethnic group in North of Tianshan Mountains%天山北麓汉回哈族婴幼儿被动吸烟流行现况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林俐; 吴星燕; 陈江芸; 陶化青; 蒋佩; 杜爽; 李新辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of infants passive smoking in Han,Hui and Kazakh ethnic groups in North of Tianshan Mountains.Methods From November 2014 to August 2015,a method of stratified random cluster sample was used to investigate 568 infants’parents by a face-to-face questionnaire at Urumqi City,Shihezi City and Shawan County in north of Tianshan Mountains.Results The passive smoking rate of infants was 40.5% in totally,and 28.7% at home and 17.8% in public respectively.The passive smoking rate of Han ethnic group infants was 47.2%, 32.3% in Hui ethnic group and 29.6% in Kazakh ethnic group,respectively.Different ethnic groups showed significant differences (P <0.001).The passive smoking rate among infants aged under 1 year old was 34.9%,the percentage in in-fants aged 1 to 2 year old was 44.0%,and the percentage in infants aged 2 to 3 year old infants was 46.3%,respective-ly.The passive smoking rates increased with age,and the passive smoking rate in each age stage of Han ethnic group was higher than Hui and Kazakh ethnic groups,which showed significant differences (P <0.05).Conclusion Passive smok-ing was very common in infants,it is a huge challenge to control passive smoking,corresponding measures should be taken to create smoke-free environment for infants growing at home and in public places.%目的:调查天山北麓汉、回、哈萨克族婴幼儿被动吸烟的流行现况。方法2014年11月—2015年8月,采用分层随机整群抽样的方法,选取天山北麓乌鲁木齐市、石河子市和沙湾县568名婴幼儿的家长进行问卷调查。结果婴幼儿被动吸烟率为40.5%,其中在家中为28.7%,在公共场所为17.8%。汉族婴幼儿被动吸烟率为47.2%,回族为32.3%,哈萨克族为29.6%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.001)。婴儿被动吸烟率为34.9%,1~2岁幼儿为44.0%,2~3岁幼儿为46.3%,婴幼儿随年龄增长被动吸烟率随之增加,且各年龄

  5. Social Determinant of Health of Adults Smoking Behavior: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Kurnia Rahim

    2016-11-01

    Indonesia memiliki prevalensi perilaku merokok tertinggi di antara negara-negara di Asia Tenggara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prediktor terhadap perilaku merokok antara wilayah pedesaan dan perkotaan. Data diambil dari Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Penelitian menggunakan studi analitik potong lintang dan analisis regresi logistik ganda. Sampel berjumlah 8.305 orang dewasa Indonesia berusia ≥ 15 tahun. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perokok di wilayah pedesaan lebih tinggi dibandingkan di wilayah perkotaan, masing-masing 36,8% dan 31,9%. Prediktor signifikan terhadap perilaku merokok di wilayah pedesaan dan perkotaan adalah usia, pekerjaan, jenis kelamin, tingkat pendidikan, status ekonomi serta aturan merokok di dalam rumah. Di wilayah perkotaan, usia juga merupakan prediktor yang signifikan dan sebaliknya di wilayah pedesaan. Prediktor terkuat adalah aturan merokok di dalam rumah dan jenis kelamin untuk perilaku merokok di wilayah pedesaan atau perkotaan. Program pengendalian tembakau secara relatif harus ditingkatkan dengan mempertimbangkan populasi target yang sesuai, baik di wilayah pedesaan maupun perkotaan karena adanya sedikit perbedaan jalan perilaku merokok, maka sudut pandang jenis kelamin juga harus dilibatkan dalam program pengendalian tembakau. Aturan rumah bebas asap rokok harus didorong untuk diterapkan pada rumah penduduk.

  6. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  7. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  8. A Narrative Approach to Ethnic Identity in Emerging Adulthood: Bringing Life to the Identity Status Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    This study used a narrative approach to understand how emerging adults experience ethnicity in their everyday lives and to link ethnic identity processes with the content of how ethnic identity is experienced. Participants were 191 ethnically diverse emerging adults who completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and provided a written…

  9. Frequency of LCT -13910C>T single nucleotide polymorphism associated with adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence among Brazilians of different ethnic groups

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    Silva Joyce MK

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult-type hypolactasia, the physiological decline of lactase some time after weaning, was previously associated with the LCT -13910C>T polymorphism worldwide except in Africa. Lactase non-persistence is the most common phenotype in humans, except in northwestern Europe with its long history of pastoralism and milking. We had previously shown association of LCT -13910C>T polymorphism with adult-type hypolactasia in Brazilians; thus, we assessed its frequency among different Brazilian ethnic groups. Methods We investigated the ethnicity-related frequency of this polymorphism in 567 Brazilians [mean age, 42.1 ± 16.8 years; 157 (27.7% men]; 399 (70.4% White, 50 (8.8% Black, 65 (11.5% Brown, and 53 (9.3% Japanese-Brazilian. DNA was extracted from leukocytes; LCT -13910C>T polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results Prevalence of the CC genotype associated with hypolactasia was similar (57% among White and Brown groups; however, prevalence was higher among Blacks (80% and those of Japanese descent (100%. Only 2 (4% Blacks had TT genotype, and 8 (16% had the CT genotype. Assuming an association between CC genotype and hypolactasia, and CT and TT genotypes with lactase persistence, 356 (62.8% individuals had hypolactasia and 211 (37.2% had lactase persistence. The White and Brown groups had the same hypolactasia prevalence (~57%; nevertheless, was 80% among Black individuals and 100% among Japanese-Brazilians (P Conclusion The lactase persistence allele, LCT -13910T, was found in about 43% of both White and Brown and 20% of the Black Brazilians, but was absent among all Japanese Brazilians studied.

  10. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental fact

  11. Active or passive exposure to tobacco smoking and allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Saulyte

    2014-03-01

    .43 [1.12-1.83] when cohort studies only were examined, but not when all studies were combined. The findings are limited by the potential for confounding and bias given that most of the individual studies used a cross-sectional design. Furthermore, the studies showed a high degree of heterogeneity and the exposure and outcome measures were assessed by self-report, which may increase the potential for misclassification.We observed very modest associations between smoking and some allergic diseases among adults. Among children and adolescents, both active and passive exposure to SHS were associated with a modest increased risk for allergic diseases, and passive smoking was associated with an increased risk for food allergy. Additional studies with detailed measurement of exposure and better case definition are needed to further explore the role of smoking in allergic diseases.

  12. Ethnic Tibetans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LHUNDRUP; DORJI

    2007-01-01

    Ethnic Tibetans speak and write by using their own language and characters. This language belongs to the Tibet-Burman phylum in the Sino-Tibetan language family. In over 1400 years of recorded history,ethnic Tibetans have been enriched by the profuse contents of their archaic books that make us gasp in admiration.

  13. Body mass index and smoking: cross-sectional study of a representative sample of adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhariwal, Mukesh; Rasmussen, Mette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the association between body mass index (BMI) and smoking (at all and daily smoking) stratified by gender, family social class, and ethnicity among adolescents aged between 13 and 15.......To quantify the association between body mass index (BMI) and smoking (at all and daily smoking) stratified by gender, family social class, and ethnicity among adolescents aged between 13 and 15....

  14. 青海省疾病监测点成年居民吸烟、戒烟及被动吸烟状况分析%Analysis on smoking,smoking cessation and passive smoking among adults in surveillance sites in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马福昌; 周敏茹; 岳建宁; 沙琼癑; 周素霞; 郭淑玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握青海省成年居民吸烟、戒烟和被动吸烟流行状况,为加强控烟教育及行为干预提供政策和科学依据。方法采用青海省“中国慢性病及其危险因素监测(2010)”调查数据,对3个国家级疾病监测点的1792名18岁及以上调查对象的吸烟和戒烟行为、被动吸烟等情况进行分析。结果调查对象的现在吸烟率和现在每日吸烟率分别为28.9%和26.3%;男性居民的现在吸烟率(62.6%)和现在每日吸烟率(56.9%)均明显高于女性(2.6%,2.4%)(P <0.01);吸烟者开始每日吸烟年龄为20.7岁,日均吸烟量为14.8支;吸烟者的打算戒烟率、戒烟率和成功戒烟率分别为39.2%、19.8%和14.6%;非吸烟居民的被动吸烟率为54.1%,其中农村非吸烟居民的被动吸烟率(59.1%)高于城市(52.5%)和半农半牧地区(50.7%),女性非吸烟居民的被动吸烟率(55.6%)高于男性(49.0%),其差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论青海省成年居民吸烟率和被动吸烟率都较高,而戒烟率低,各级政府和卫生行政部门应加强控烟干预和宣传,监督执行公共场所禁烟的规定,深入推进全省的控烟工作。%Objective To describe the prevalence of smoking,smoking cessation and passive smoking among a-dults in Qinghai Province so as to provide policy and scientific evidence for smoking control and behavior intervention.Meth-ods By using Qinghai non-communicable diseases and behavioral risk factors surveillances (2010)survey data,the char-acteristics of smoking,smoking cessation and passive smoking among 1792 adults aged 18 and over in three national disease surveillance sites in Qinghai Province.Results The current smoking rate and daily smoking rate is 28.9% and 26.3% re-spectively among the study participants.The current smoking rate (62.6%)and daily smoking rate (56.9%)among men is much higher than

  15. Adolescent smoking and parenting : Associations between smoking related parental behaviors and adoslescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is to address the link between parenting and adolescent smoking. We address this question since the role of parents has been traditionally neglected in smoking research as well as prevention programs. Recent research has shown that the prevention of adult smoking in

  16. Transtheoretical Model Constructs for Physical Activity Behavior are Invariant across Time among Ethnically Diverse Adults in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly S; Nigg, Claudio R; Motl, Robert W; Horwath, Caroline; Dishman, Rod K

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) research applying the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to examine group differences and/or change over time requires preliminary evidence of factorial validity and invariance. The current study examined the factorial validity and longitudinal invariance of TTM constructs recently revised for PA. METHOD: Participants from an ethnically diverse sample in Hawaii (N=700) completed questionnaires capturing each TTM construct. RESULTS: Factorial validity was confirmed for each construct using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood. Longitudinal invariance was evidenced across a shorter (3-month) and longer (6-month) time period via nested model comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaires for each validated TTM construct are provided, and can now be generalized across similar subgroups and time points. Further validation of the provided measures is suggested in additional populations and across extended time points.

  17. Gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in older adults in Jilin province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Forester, Brent P; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Yanhua; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-05-01

    There is little information on gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in Chinese elderly. We examined the gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and a number of chronic diseases in a large Chinese old population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4115 people (2198 women; 1917 men) aged between 60 and 79 years were included and their general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases were recorded with standardized assessment tools. Multivariate analyses revealed that women were less likely to be current smokers and frequent drinkers, but had higher prevalence of poor mental health compared with their male counterparts. In addition, the prevalence rate of chronic diseases and multi-morbidities were higher in women than that in men (both p values diseases and poor mental health in older women and higher prevalence of smoking and drinking in men.

  18. Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-Ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn…

  19. Ethnic differences in family trajectories of young adult women in the Netherlands: Timing and sequencing of events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinepier, T.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research on the family behavior of young adults, family dynamics of children of migrants remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate as family transitions are strongly interlinked with transitions in other domains (e.g., education, work) and predictive for outcomes l

  20. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD US survey ascertained self-reported health intentions and behaviors for regular exercise, diet, and weight management among Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 2526, Non-Hispanic African-American (n = 706, and Hispanic (n = 179 respondents with type 2 diabetes. Results A similar proportion of respondents from each race-gender group (43%-56% reported receiving healthcare advice to increase their exercise (P = 0.32. Significantly more minorities reported an intention to follow the exercise recommendation compared with Non-Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.03. More Non-Hispanic African-American (29% and Hispanic (27% men reported exercising regularly compared with other race-gender groups (P = 0.02. Significantly more Non-Hispanic Caucasian women (74% and Hispanic women (79% reported trying to lose weight compared with other groups (P Conclusions Differences in health intentions and healthy behaviors were noted across race-gender groups. More Non-Hispanic African-American men reported an intention to follow advice on exercising and self-report of exercising regularly was also higher compared with other race-gender groups. More Hispanic men reported high physical activity levels than other groups. Despite an increased willingness to follow healthcare recommendations for diet, >50% of respondents were obese among all race-gender groups.

  1. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  2. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  3. 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: A comparison of younger and older Queensland adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0

  4. Psychometric evaluation of responses to the NEO-PI-3 in a multi-ethnic sample of adults in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmont, Ralph L; Braganza, Dinesh J

    2015-12-01

    Cross-cultural studies have demonstrated the utility of the NEO scales in organizing research on personality development (McCrae, 2004). The NEO PI-3 is the latest updated version that has modified item content more suitable to younger populations and to adults with lower literacy levels. The present study examined the utility of the English version of the NEO PI-3 in a multiethnic sample of adults from India (N = 188) by examining mean level data, Cronbach's alpha, retest reliabilities, and construct validity with particular attention given to previous findings that used the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) in an Indian sample. Principal components analyses employing orthogonal procrustean rotations demonstrated convergence with U.S. norms and prior Indian data. The current Cronbach's alpha and retest reliability values were slightly better than data using the NEO-PI-R in 2 Indian samples (Lodhi, Deo, & Belhekar, 2002; Singh, 2009). Scores correlated significantly, and in appropriate ways, with several psychosocial measures. These findings underscore the potential utility of the NEO PI-3 in research among those for whom English is a second language.

  5. Changes in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Youth in Nebraska, 2002–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarous Mbulo, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSecondhand smoke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It has been associated with serious health problems in both children and adults. Efforts to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke in Nebraska have included programs to prevent tobacco use among young people and campaigns for smoke-free workplaces and homes. Despite these interventions, young people continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke at an unacceptably high rate. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which Nebraska public middle and high school students were exposed to secondhand smoke in 2002 and 2006, to evaluate factors associated with this exposure, and to propose interventions.MethodsThe Nebraska Youth Tobacco Survey was administered in 2002 and 2006 to a representative sample of students from public middle and high schools. All students who chose to participate completed an anonymous, self-administered survey that included questions on demographics, tobacco use, tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, and exposure to secondhand smoke. Data were weighted to account for nonresponses at both student and school levels and to ensure generalizability of the estimates for public school students in Nebraska according to their grade, sex, and race/ethnicity. This study analyzed a subset of responses on secondhand smoke exposure, which was defined as being in a room or vehicle during the previous 7 days with someone who was smoking cigarettes.ResultsSecondhand smoke exposure in a room, a vehicle, or both declined significantly among all students from 2002 (69.0% to 2006 (61.3%. In both 2002 and 2006, students were significantly more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke in a room than in a vehicle (64.4% vs 48.2% in 2002 and 56.9% vs 40.2% in 2006. Among racial and ethnic groups, only white students experienced a significant decline in exposure from 2002 (70.0% to 2006 (61.4%. Girls were significantly more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke in

  6. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young people with a particular emphasis on the social and cultural processes that underlie tobacco use patterns among this group. Methods This project was undertaken in northern Australia. We undertook group interviews with 65 participants and individual in-depth interviews with 11 youth aged 13–20 years led by trained youth ‘peer researchers.’ We also used visual methods (photo-elicitation with individual interviewees to investigate the social context in which young people do or do not smoke. Included in the sample were a smaller number of non-Indigenous youth to explore any significant differences between ethnic groups in determinants of early smoking experiences. The theory of triadic influence, an ecological model of health behaviour, was used as an organising theory for analysis. Results Family and peer influences play a central role in smoking uptake among Indigenous youth. Social influences to smoke are similar between Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth but are more pervasive (especially in the family domain among Indigenous youth. While Indigenous youth report high levels of exposure to smoking role models and smoking socialisation practices among their family and social networks, this study provides some indication of a progressive denormalisation of smoking among some Indigenous youth. Conclusions Future initiatives aimed at preventing smoking uptake in this population need to focus on changing social normative beliefs around smoking, both at a

  7. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  8. Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vohs, K.; van Baaren, R.B.; Sargent, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three

  9. Cigarette smoking is associated with high HIV viral load among adults presenting for antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Todd M.; Duong, Hao T.; Pham, Thuy T.; Do, Cuong D.; Colby, Donn

    2017-01-01

    High HIV viral load (VL >100,000 cp/ml) is associated with increased HIV transmission risk, faster progression to AIDS, and reduced response to some antiretroviral regimens. To better understand factors associated with high VL, we examined characteristics of patients presenting for treatment in Hanoi, Vietnam. We examined baseline data from the Viral Load Monitoring in Vietnam Study, a randomized controlled trial of routine VL monitoring in a population starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) at a clinic in Hanoi. Patients with prior treatment failure or ART resistance were excluded. Characteristics examined included demographics, clinical and laboratory data, and substance use. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Out of 636 patients, 62.7% were male, 72.9% were ≥30 years old, and 28.3% had a history of drug injection. Median CD4 was 132 cells/mm3, and 34.9% were clinical stage IV. Active cigarette smoking was reported by 36.3% with 14.0% smoking >10 cigarettes per day. Alcohol consumption was reported by 20.1% with 6.1% having ≥5 drinks per event. Overall 53.0% had a VL >100,000 cp/ml. Male gender, low body weight, low CD4 count, prior TB, and cigarette smoking were associated with high VL. Those who smoked 1–10 cigarettes per day were more likely to have high VL (aOR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.15–3.45), while the smaller number of patients who smoked >10 cigarettes per day had a non-significant trend toward higher VL (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.75–2.66). Alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with high VL. Tobacco use is increasingly recognized as a contributor to premature morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. In our study, cigarette smoking in the last 30 days was associated with a 1.5 to 2-fold higher odds of having an HIV VL >100,000 cp/ml among patients presenting for ART. These findings provide further evidence of the negative effects of tobacco use

  10. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  11. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  12. Adult smokers' perception of the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking and association with quitting: a comparison between Thai Buddhists and Malaysian Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Hamann, Stephen L; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1482 Muslim Malaysian and 1971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts.

  13. Frequency of LCT-13910C/T and LCT-22018G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence among Israelis of different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Yerushalmi, Baruch; Birk, Ruth

    2013-04-25

    Primary lactase deficiency (PLD), the physiological decline of lactase, is associated with the LCT-13910C/T and LCT-22018G/A polymorphisms. PLD is the most common phenotype in humans and varies widely as a function of ethnicity. Israel is a multiethnic country. We analyzed the genetic frequencies of PLD in different Israeli ethnicities. Ethnicity-related frequencies were analyzed in 439 Israelis: Ashkenazi (n=96), Iraqi (n=96), Moroccan (n=96) Jews and Bedouin-Arabs (n=151). DNA was extracted from leukocytes; LCT-13910C/T, -22018G/A and -13915T/G (in Bedouin-Arabs) polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was a significant association between ethnicity and genotype in both polymorphic LCT SNPs (-13910C/T and -22018). Prevalence of the CC (LCT-13910C/T) genotype associated with adult hypolactasia was 97%, 93%, 83% and 82% among Bedouin-Arabs and Iraqi, Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews, respectively. The prevalence of the GG (LCT-22018G/A) adult hypolactasia genotype among those groups was identical to that of the CC genotype in each group, except for Iraqi-Jews, of which only 83% carried the GG genotype. The prevalence of heterozygous and homozygous genotypes associated with lactase persistence (CT, TT for -13910C/T and GA, AA for -22018G/A) was 3%, 7%, 17% and 18% and 3%, 17%, 17% and 18% for Bedouin-Arabs, Ashkenazi, Iraqi and Moroccan Jews, respectively. A significant correlation between SNPs was found. PLD prevalence is high among different ethnic groups in Israel and varies between ethnicities. The prevalence of the -13915*G allele, indicative of lactose persistence in African and Arab populations, was 41% in the Bedouin-Arabs group. Lactase persistence genotype prevalence was found to vary between Israeli ethnicities (4-18%). SNPs (-13910C/T and -22018) showed significant correlation in detecting genotype prevalence in Israeli Jews. We suggest adjusting nutritional recommendations accordingly.

  14. Characterization and novel analyses of acute stress response patterns in a population-based cohort of young adults: influence of gender, smoking, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Carly E; Henley, David; Marsh, Julie; Atkinson, Helen; Newnham, John P; Matthews, Stephen G; Lye, Stephen J; Pennell, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the biological stress response system has been implicated in the development of psychological, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease. Whilst changes in stress response are often quantified as an increase or decrease in cortisol levels, three different patterns of stress response have been reported in the literature for the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (reactive-responders (RR), anticipatory-responders (AR) and non-responders (NR)). However, these have never been systematically analyzed in a large population-based cohort. The aims of this study were to examine factors that contribute to TSST variation (gender, oral contraceptive use, menstrual cycle phase, smoking, and BMI) using traditional methods and novel analyses of stress response patterns. We analyzed the acute stress response of 798, 18-year-old participants from a community-based cohort using the TSST. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone, plasma cortisol, and salivary cortisol levels were quantified. RR, AR, and NR patterns comprised 56.6%, 26.2%, and 17.2% of the cohort, respectively. Smokers were more likely to be NR than (RR or AR; adjusted, p stress-response patterns, in addition to other parameters vary with gender, smoking, and BMI. The distribution of these patterns has the potential to vary with adult health and disease and may represent a biomarker for future investigation.

  15. Reliability and construct validity of the Bahasa Malaysia version of transtheoretical model (TTM) questionnaire for smoking cessation and relapse among Malaysian adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Taib, Khairul Mizan; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been used as one of the major constructs in developing effective cognitive behavioural interventions for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, in Western societies. This study aimed to examine the reliability and construct validity of the translated Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire among adult smokers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 40 smokers from four different worksites in Klang Valley. A 26-item TTM questionnaire was administered, and a similar set one week later. The questionnaire consisted of three measures; decisional balance, temptations and impact of smoking. Construct validity was measured by factor analysis and the reliability by Cronbach' s alpha (internal consistency) and test-retest correlation. Results revealed that Cronbach' s alpha coefficients for the items were: decisional balance (0.84; 0.74) and temptations (0.89; 0.54; 0.85). The values for test retest correlation were all above 0.4. In addition, factor analysis suggested two meaningful common factors for decisional balance and three for temptations. This is consistent with the original construct of the TTM questionnaire. Overall results demonstrated that construct validity and reliability were acceptable for all items. In conclusion, the Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool in ass.

  16. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke during gestation results in altered cholinesterase enzyme activity and behavioral deficits in adult rat offspring: potential relevance to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugno, Alexandra I; Fraga, Daiane B; De Luca, Renata D; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Cipriano, Andreza L; Oliveira, Mariana B; Heylmann, Alexandra S A; Budni, Josiane; Souza, Renan P; Quevedo, João

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been associated with physiological and developmental changes that may be related to an increased risk for childhood and adult neuropsychiatric diseases. The present study investigated locomotor activity and cholinesterase enzyme activity in rats, following PCSE and/or ketamine treatment in adulthood. Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to 12 commercially filtered cigarettes per day for a period of 28 days. We evaluated motor activity and cholinesterase activity in the brain and serum of adult male offspring that were administered acute subanesthetic doses of ketamine (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg), which serves as an animal model of schizophrenia. To determine locomotor activity, we used the open field test. Cholinesterase activity was assessed by hydrolysis monitored spectrophotometrically. Our results show that both PCSE and ketamine treatment in the adult offspring induced increase of locomotor activity. Additionally, it was observed increase of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in the brain and serum, respectively. We demonstrated that animals exposed to cigarettes in the prenatal period had increased the risk for psychotic symptoms in adulthood. This also occurs in a dose-dependent manner. These changes provoke molecular events that are not completely understood and may result in abnormal behavioral responses found in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

  17. No Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕川

    2005-01-01

    No Smoking Day comes once a year. It calls on people to quit smoking, but there're still so many smokers in the world. Worse still, the number of smokers is increasing day by day. As we know, smoking is a bad habit. Smoking is harmful not only to a smoker himself but also to the people around. It is said that if you smoke one cigarette, your life will be a second shorter. In other words, smoking means buying death with money. I've learned from a newspaper that tens of thousands of people in the world die fr...

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ETHNIC DIFFERENCE IN SMOKING BEHAVIOR AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH BODY MASS INDEX AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN A RURAL AREA OF KUNMING%昆明市农村彝族和汉族吸烟行为与BMI指数和腰围关系的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡乐; 董峻; 毕卫红; 舒占坤; 黄文学; 叶亚怀

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对昆明市农村汉族和彝族村民吸烟行为与BMI指数和腰围的关系进行对比分析. [方法]在昆明市石林县采用PPS抽样方法对6 006名45岁以上村民通过问卷调查和体格检查获取所需资料. [结果]汉族的肥胖率明显高于彝族(χ2=4.88,P<0.01=.汉族与彝族村民的中心性肥胖率、汉族男性与彝族男性腰围的分布无差别(χ2=1.48,P>0.05);但汉族女性的中心性肥胖率明显高于彝族女性(χ2=3.97,P<0.01).汉族和彝族吸烟者与未吸烟者的肥胖率和中心性肥胖率没有差别(χ2=1.06,P>0.05),但不吸烟者的超重率和体重过轻者的比率均明显高于吸烟者(χ2=4.21,P<0.01). [结论]应在农村居民中开展戒烟的健康教育,特别是在汉族村民中加强合理饮食的健康教育,以减少超重和中心性肥胖的发生.%[Objective] To compare the ethnic difference in smoking behavior and the relationship with body mass index and waist circumsference in a rural area of Kunming. [Methods] Probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling method was used to select representative sample of 6 006 residents aged 45 years and over fmm Shilin County. Informacion was obtained from a questionnaire survey and physical examination. [Resuftsl In the study area, Han majority had obviously higher prevalence of obesity than Yi ethnic minority (P < 0.01). The prevalence of central obesity had no significant difference between Han majority and Yi ethnic minority (P> 0.05) , and waist circumstance had no significant difference between Han ethnic males and Yi eth nic minority malea as well (P > 0.05). Han ethnic females had higher prevalence of central obesity than Yi ethnic minority fe males (P < 0.01). For both Han ethnic and Yi ethnic minority, the prevalence of obesity and prevalence of central obesity had no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers (P > 0.05) . whereas non-smokers had higher prevalence of over weight and

  19. Trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, body mass index and alcohol consumption in Danish adults with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Snorgaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In recent decades there has been an increased focus on non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol consumption reported in 2000, 2005 and 2010 by Danish subjects...... with diabetes. METHODS: Data comprised level of leisure time PA (inactive; moderate active; medium active; high active); smoking; BMI; and alcohol consumption, provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys. Participants older than 45 years with or without diabetes were included from cross...... was reduced from 27.2% to 16.4%, p=0.015, in women with diabetes. In men with diabetes, BMI increased from 27.2 ± 4.0 to 28.6 ± 5.1 kgm(-2), p=0.003, and men who exceeded the maximum recommendation for alcohol consumption increased from 9.4% to 19.0%, p=0.007. The leisure time PA level was reduced...

  20. Healthier central England or North–South divide? Analysis of national survey data on smoking and high-risk drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Kaner, Eileen; Michie, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This paper compares patterns of smoking and high-risk alcohol use across regions in England, and assesses the impact on these of adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Design Population survey of 53 922 adults in England aged 16+ taking part in the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies. Measures Participants answered questions regarding their socioeconomic status (SES), gender, age, ethnicity, Government Office Region, smoking status and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). High-risk drinkers were defined as those with a score of 8 or more (7 or more for women) on the AUDIT. Results In unadjusted analyses, relative to the South West, those in the North of England were more likely to smoke, while those from the East of England, South East and London were less likely. After adjustment for sociodemographics, smoking prevalence was no higher in North East (RR 0.97, p>0.05), North West (RR 0.98, p>0.05) or Yorkshire and the Humber (RR 1.03, p>0.05) but was less common in the East and West Midlands (RR 0.86, p0.05) Conclusions In adjusted analyses, smoking and high-risk drinking appear less common in ‘central England’ than in the rest of the country. Regional differences in smoking, but not those in high-risk drinking, appear to be explained to some extent by sociodemographic disparities. PMID:28249851

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only way to fully protect nonsmokers is to eliminate smoking in all homes, worksites, and public places. ... growing number of households with voluntary smokefree home rules Significant declines in cigarette smoking rates The fact ...

  2. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  3. In Adult Smokers Unwilling or Unable to Quit, Does Changing From Tobacco Cigarettes to Electronic Cigarettes Decrease the Incidence of Negative Health Effects Associated With Smoking Tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the e-cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices.

  4. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a moderator of exercise enhancement of smoking cessation treatment in anxiety vulnerable adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Powers, M.B.; Rosenfield, D.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Jacquart, J.; Davis, M.L.; Beevers, C.G.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise interventions facilitate the odds of quit success among high-anxiety sensitive adults smokers. We examined the dependency of these benefits on the genetic BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism; individuals who are Met carriers have lower BDNF responses and reduced associated benef

  5. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  6. Effects of short-term varenicline administration on cortisol in healthy, non-smoking adults: a randomized, double-blind, study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocking, R.J.; Wever, S.A.; Pflanz, C.P.; Pringle, A.; Parsons, E.; McTavish, S.F.; Cowen, P.J.; Harmer, C.J.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Varenicline is the most effective drug for smoking cessation, but its use decreased because of reports of depressogenic side effects. However, because smoking and smoking cessation on their own are associated with depression, it remains unclear whether reported depressogenic effects are a

  7. The SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) Study: Web and Mobile Data Collection to Evaluate Smoking Cessation for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derick; Parvanta, Sarah; Dolina, Suzanne; Kelly, Bridget; Dever, Jill; Southwell, Brian G; Sanders, Amy; Augustson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been shown to be effective in delivering interventions for various diseases and health conditions, including smoking cessation. While there are many published studies regarding smoking cessation text messaging interventions, most do not provide details about the study’s operational methods. As a result, there is a gap in our understanding of how best to design studies of smoking cessation text messaging programs. Objective The purpose of this paper is to detail the operational methods used to conduct a randomized trial comparing three different versions of the National Cancer Institute’s SmokefreeText (SFTXT) program, designed for smokers 18 to 29 years of age. We detail our methods for recruiting participants from the Internet, reducing fraud, conducting online data collection, and retaining panel study participants. Methods Participants were recruited through website advertisements and market research online panels. Screening questions established eligibility for the study (eg, 18 to 29 years of age, current smoker). Antifraud measures screened out participants who could not meet the study requirements. After completing a baseline survey, participants were randomized to one of three study arms, which varied by type and timing of text message delivery. The study offered US $20 gift cards as incentives to complete each of four follow-up surveys. Automated email reminders were sent at designated intervals to increase response rates. Researchers also provided telephone reminders to those who had not completed the survey after multiple email reminders. We calculated participation rates across study arms and compared the final sample characteristics to the Current Population Survey to examine generalizability. Results Recruitment methods drove 153,936 unique visitors to the SFTXT Study landing page and 27,360 began the screener. Based on the screening questions, 15,462 out of 27,360 responders (56.51%) were

  8. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  9. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... of different choices, take a taste adventure with ethnic foods. Here's a sample of healthy food choices (lower ...

  10. Ethnicity and Ethnic Perception of Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The discourse of ethnicity, race dominance and Islamization has dominated Malaysian politics since 1957, after several centuries of colonial rule. Although the country has achieved admirable socio-economic progress, the ethnic Indians situation has somewhat remained backward compared to the Malay and Chinese communities. The objective of this article is to examine how ethnic Indians recognize their ethnic identity based on self perception of ethnic status and social upliftment and self assessment of the values of globalization that affect their thinking and opinions. Approach: The study employs a qualitative analysis of the data derived through open and close-ended questions posted on several social media forums (face book twitter and emails frequented by ethnic Indians. Results: The findings reveal that there was increased dissatisfaction among ethnic Indians regarding the status of their ethnicity and aspects of their social upliftment within the Malaysian polity. The analysis on how they perceive the values of globalization shows increased appreciation of values such as human rights, cultural rights, human security, freedom and right for social upliftment, but at the same time the analysis illustrates high level of discontentment on the actual achievements of these values. Conclusion: Therefore this study concludes that the recent socioeconomic and value changes have influenced how ethnic Indian perceives their ethnicity in the context of a multiethnic mix. Future studies into Indian ethnicity may explore aspects such as the changing ethnic worldviews, affects of human mobility and social ethnic conflicts.

  11. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Ma, Rulin; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Zhang, Jingyu; Wei, Bin; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Jiaolong; Pang, Hongrui; Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-02-08

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into local preventive

  12. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into

  13. Mental Health Treatment Barriers among Racial/Ethnic Minority versus White Young Adults 6 Months after Intake at a College Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Wheeler, Alyssa; Moore, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined mental health treatment barriers following intake at a counseling center among racially/ethnically diverse college students. Methods: College students (N = 122) seen for intake at a college counseling center in 2012-2013 completed self-reports of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health treatment…

  14. Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While animal studies found vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, human data are limited. Using a case-cohort design, we determined the association between vitamin K status and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Serum phylloquinone (v...

  15. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age among Immigrant and United States-Born Asian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to…

  16. Awareness of link between smoking and periodontal disease in Nigeria: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon O Nwhator

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Solomon O Nwhator1, Patricia O Ayanbadejo2, Modupe O Arowojolu3, Osagie Akhionbare4, Adeleke O Oginni51Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife; 2Department of Preventive Dentistry, University of Lagos, 3Dental School University College Hospital Ibadan, 4Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City; 5Department of Restorative Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaObjectives: To investigate Nigerians’ awareness of the link between smoking and periodontal disease, and to compare our study findings with those of a similar UK study.Design: The subjects, consisting of 992 adults, completed anonymous questionnaires. These subjects included patients and their escorts attending dental clinics located in four teaching hospitals in southwestern Nigeria. The teaching hospitals included the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, University College Hospital Ibadan, and the University of Benin Teaching Hospital.Results: Smoking was considered dangerous to health by 96% of subjects, while 91% believed that it negatively impacted on oral health. Of those who believed smoking impacted negatively on oral health, 44% could not state how. Seventy percent of those who stated how smoking affects oral health associated smoking with dental stains and 12% associated it with halitosis, while 11% identified smoking as a causative agent of oral cancer. Only 20 subjects specifically stated that smoking affected the gums. This figure represents 2.2% of the total number of subjects, 2.4% of subjects who believed that smoking negatively impacted oral health, and 4.4% of subjects who could state a specific association between smoking and oral health. Male gender, nonsmoking status, and higher educational level were significantly associated with the level of awareness of negative effects of smoking on oral

  17. Ethnic Indentification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光学

    2004-01-01

    The ethnic identification has significant theoretical, policy-related and scientific aspects, and it has a direct bearing on the basic work of carrying out the Communist Party of China's (CPC) policy of equality for all ethnic groups. For more than thirty years, Chinese government departments at all levels concerned with ethnic affairs, starting from the actual conditions of all of China's ethnic groups,

  18. Hostility, Depressive Symptoms, and Smoking in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Mouttapa, Michele; Chou, Chih-Ping; Nezami, Elahe; Johnson, C. Anderson; Palmer, Paula H.; Cen, Steven; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Azen, Stanley; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2005-01-01

    Using logistic and multiple regression, we examined the association between hostility, level of depressive symptoms, and smoking in a sample of 1699 ethnically diverse students in California. Self-reports were collected twice from each student, at the beginning of the 6th and 7th grade years. Among 6th graders who had not smoked, depressive…

  19. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  20. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Karabi Nandy; Felicia Hodge

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the env...

  1. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  2. 浙江省2013年成人烟草流行现状调查分析%Surveys on prevalence of adult cigarette smoking in Zhejiang province in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 徐越; 吴青青; 郭妤洁; 徐水洋

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省2013年成人烟草使用的流行现状.方法 采用多阶段、按地理位置进行整群随机抽样,在浙江省15个县区对2 779名15~69岁的居民进行面对面问卷调查.结果 浙江省15 ~ 69岁的人群现在吸烟率为25.62%,常吸烟率为21.85%,男性现在吸烟率为50.88%,女性为0.78%.40.56%的每日吸烟者每天醒后30 min以内吸第1支烟.95.19%的吸烟者尚无戒烟的意愿.64.04%的调查对象报告有人在自己家中吸烟.67.48%的吸烟者认为烟草价格上涨对他没有影响.21.09%的人通过商店和电视看到过烟草广告.知晓吸烟会导致卒中、心脏病和肺癌3种疾病的为42.00%.89.69%的人不知道低焦油卷烟的危害与一般卷烟相同.同意在公共场所完全禁烟的人达73.92%.结论 浙江省男性吸烟人群水平依然处于高平台期,总吸烟人群中戒烟率低,家庭二手烟暴露严重,人们对吸烟的认识模糊不清,烟草控制措施有待加强.%Objective To understand the status of tobacco epidemic among adults in Zhejiang province in 2013.Methods A total of 2 779 residents aged 15-69 years from 15 counties were selected using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method and surveyed by face to face interview to complete questionnaire.Results The current smoking prevalence was 25.62% among the adults 15-69 years old in Zhejiang province,50.88% among males and 0.78% among females.The daily smoking prevalence was 21.85%;40.56% of the current daily smokers smoked within 30 minutes after waking;95.19% of current smokers were not willing to quit;64.04% of all respondents reported someone smoked in their own homes;67.48% smokers thought they would continue to smoke even if the price of tobacco rises;21.09% of all respondents saw tobacco AD at shops and on TV;42.00% of people were aware that smoking could cause stroke,heart attack and lung cancer;89.69% smokers still believed that low

  3. How Do Friends Influence Smoking Uptake? Findings from Qualitative Interviews with Identical Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Kim; White, Victoria; Mullins, Robyn; Davey, Claire; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The smoking behavior of friends is a major risk factor for adolescent smoking uptake. To explore the social context of smoking experimentation and consolidation with a particular focus on friends, the authors interviewed both members of 14 young adult identical twin pairs who were discordant for smoking. The different smoking status of twins was…

  4. Smoke-Free Child Care = Proyecto de Cuidado Diurno Para Ninos Donde "No se Fuma."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This packet of materials on smoke-free child care contains: (1) "Smoke Free Child Care," a booklet warning child care providers about the dangers of second-hand smoke and the fact that children often imitate adult behaviors, such as smoking; (2) "Smoke-Free Child Care: A Booklet for Family Day Care Providers," warning about the…

  5. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  6. Stimulating dialogue: measuring success of the "Smoke Free Horry" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christina; Holody, Kyle J

    2013-01-01

    Smoke Free Horry was an anti-secondhand smoke media campaign that ran in Horry County, South Carolina in 2011 and 2012. The present study assessed the campaign's ability to stimulate interpersonal dialogue about the campaign-specifically its four television public service announcements (PSAs)-as well as about other smoking-related topics, among a sample of 285 Horry County young adults. Survey data suggested talking about anti-smoking PSAs was related to subsequent discussion about smoking-related topics and positive perceptions of the campaign's effectiveness. PSAs using emotional appeals and that discussed the negative health effects of smoking/secondhand smoke were related to the most interpersonal discussions about smoking, secondhand smoking, and smoking bans. Implications for future anti-smoking campaign design are discussed.

  7. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where smoking is allowed, such as some restaurants, shopping centers, public transportation, parks, and schools. The Surgeon ... Accessed at www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/prev/handbook13/handbook13-2.pdf on November 10, ...

  8. Changing Trends in the Prevalence and Disparities of Obesity and Other Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of USA Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Camila X.; Tomas E. Romero; Shlay, Judith C.; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Dana Dabelea

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine trends in the prevalence and disparities of traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the major race/ethnic groups in the USA: non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), and Mexican Americans (MAs). Methods. We used cross-sectional trend analysis in women and men aged 25–84 years participating in the NHANES surveys, years 1988–1994 (n = 14,341) and 1999–2004 (n = 12,360). Results. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension increased signif...

  9. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  10. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation in the CARDIA cohort of 4 US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Seeman, Teresa E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven L; Jacobs, David R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation is etiologically implicated in cardiometabolic diseases for which there are known racial/ethnic disparities. Prior studies suggest there may be an association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). It is not known whether that association is influenced by race/ethnicity and gender. In separate hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates, we examined that association among 901 Black women, 614 Black men, 958 White women, and 863 White men in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in four US communities. Self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination were ascertained in 1992-93 and 2000-01. Inflammation was measured as log-transformed CRP in those years and 2005-06. All analyses were adjusted for blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), age, education, and community. Our findings extend prior research by suggesting that, broadly speaking, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination are associated with inflammation; however, this association is complex and varies for Black and White women and men. Black women reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination had higher levels of CRP compared to Black women reporting no experiences of discrimination (β = 0.141, SE = 0.062, P discrimination and not independent of modifiable risks (smoking and obesity) in the final model. White women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of CRP compared to White women reporting no experiences of discrimination independent of modifiable risks in the final model (β = 0.300, SE = 0.113, P racial/ethnic discrimination and CRP was not statistically significant among Black and White men reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination. Further research in other populations is needed.

  11. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  12. Has smoking cessation ceased? Expected trends in the prevalence of smoking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, D; Warner, K E; Courant, P N

    1998-08-01

    From 1965 to 1990, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults (aged > or = 18 years) fell steadily and substantially. Data for the 1990s suggest that the smoking initiation rate is increasing and that the decline in the prevalence of smoking may have stalled, raising the fear that the historical 25-year decline will not continue. The authors used a new dynamic forecasting model to show that although the decline may slow down, the demographics of smoking imply that prevalence will inexorably continue to decline over the next several decades, even without any intensified efforts aimed at tobacco control. The authors estimated and validated the model using historical (1965-1993) data collected by the National Health Interview Surveys on the prevalence of smoking among adults. Their results indicate that the current increase in the smoking initiation rate partially explains the fact that the prevalence of smoking has apparently leveled off, but even if the most grim assumptions about future initiation rates are used, the prevalence of smoking among adults will continue to decline for several more decades. The authors predict that if current initiation and cessation behaviors persist, the prevalence of smoking among adults will automatically decline from its current level of 25% to 15-16% by the second quarter of the next century. Even so, smoking will remain the nation's leading cause of premature death.

  13. Status Survey on Smoking Behavior Among adult Residents in Beijing Huairou District%北京市怀柔区成年居民吸烟状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娅娟; 高建梅; 胡海燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨北京市怀柔区成年居民的吸烟状况调查。方法采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,对怀柔区16个乡镇(街道)、48个行政村(居委会)的16726人常住成年居民进行吸烟情况问卷调查,内容包括人口学特征、吸烟率、烟龄、平均每天吸烟支数、有无戒烟打算等。结果北京市怀柔区18岁及以上常住居民吸烟率为24.4%;其中男性吸烟率明显高于女性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);吸烟率最高的年龄段为50~59岁,其次为40~49岁;初中文化居民吸烟率最高,其次是高中/中专文化居民;在吸烟的4073人中,烟龄10年以上、平均每日吸烟支数11~20支居民的比例最高;女性吸烟者吸烟支数在5支以下比例明显高于男性,10支以上比例明显低于男性,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论怀柔区成年居民吸烟率仍然较高,烟草控制仍然面临着巨大挑战,应加强健康教育工作和采取有针对性的干预措施控制烟草消费。%Objective To investigate the smoking status of adult residents in Huairou District of Beijing city. Methods The people were sampled randomly in several different stages,16 726 local adults were selected from 48 administrative vilages (neighborhood committees) in 16 towns (street) in Huairou district.Questionnaire survey of smoking was conducted among the participants,including demographic characteristics, smoking rates,smoking history, the average numbers of cigarettes smoked per day, the thoughts of quitting smoking.Results In Huairou District of Beijing City,18 years of age and older residents smoking rate was 24.4%;the smoking rate of male was significantly higher than that in female,the difference is statisticaly significant(P<0.05);smoking rate in the age group with the highest 50 to 59 years old,folowed by 40~49 years old;junior high school culture residents smoking rate was the highest,folowed by

  14. ADHD as a Serious Risk Factor for Early Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Holzner, Sebastian; Feige, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Perlov, Evgeniy; Ebert, Dieter; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tobacco smoking and ADHD frequently co-occur. So far, the bulk of research on the ADHD-smoking comorbidity has been done in children with ADHD and nonclinical adult samples. To assess smoking habits in adults with ADHD, the authors used the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Method: In 60 adult outpatients, with an ADHD…

  15. Youth Smoking in the Country and in the Military: Findings and Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    to ask both groups the same question. Smoking Behavior: Navy vs. Civilians Research Triangle Institute provides comparisons standardized for sex ...comparisons standardized for sex , age, education, race/ethnicity, and marital status - 1994 data for civilians and 1995 data for Corps - Smoking in...teenagers (and preteens ) clearly begin smoking at younger ages than other population groups. For teens who were smoking by age 18, the percentages

  16. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Hiroko [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories 10-1, Tebiro 6-chome, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan); Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agencourt Bioscience Corp., 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Marcelino, Luisa A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gruhl, Amanda N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); SLC Ontario, 690 Dorval Drive, Suite 200, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3W7 Canada (Canada); Zarbl, Helmut [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 170 Freylinghuysen Road, Room 426, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Willey, James C. [Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Room 12, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Furth, Emma E. [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Morgenthaler, Stephan [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), SB/IMA, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-11-10

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10{sup 6} tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of {approx}1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from {approx}2{sup 6} to 2{sup 15} mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation.

  17. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  18. Impact of school and vocational education on smoking behaviour: results from a large-scale study on adolescents and young adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setter, C; Peter, R; Siegrist, J; Hort, W

    1998-01-01

    While level of school education has been related to prevalence of cigarette smoking in a number of studies, less information is available on the role of vocational education and related occupational contexts. This study analyses the relative contribution of different types of educational experience to explaining prevalence and intensity of cigarette smoking in a large sample of female and male vocational trainees in Germany. A standardized questionnaire on smoking behaviour and educational performance was applied in 27 educational centers across the country, covering a total of 20,527 respondents (77.3% of the original sample; women: 59.5%, men: 40.5%). Bivariate analysis revealed a high prevalence of current smokers among vocational trainees, both men (51.2%) and women (49.4%). Men were more likely to be heavy smokers, especially with increasing age. In both sexes, prevalence of smoking was particularly high in the following occupational groups: hairdressers, butchers, painters, service personnel (hotels, restaurants), shop assistants/sellers and cooks. Multivariate analysis taking educational level, type of vocational training (occupation), age, sex and urban-rural background into account revealed the highest prevalence odds ratios (POR) of smoking in subjects with the lowest educational level (POR = 5.19 for men and 4.56 for women). Even stronger effects were observed with smoking intensity (> or = 20 cigarettes/day): in men with the lowest educational level the risk of being a heavy smoker was 8.92, and in women 13.54 compared to subjects with a high-school leaving qualification. Poor school education must be considered the relatively strongest predictor of prevalence and intensity of cigarette smoking in a large sample of female and male vocational trainees. Preventive efforts should be directed at specific target groups such as those identified by this study.

  19. Modeling the Effects of Indoor Passive Smoking at Home, Work, or Other Households on Adult Cardiovascular and Mental Health: The Scottish Health Survey, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive smoking has contributed increased risks of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and mortality, but the cumulative effects from work or other households were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to model the effects of indoor passive smoking from own home, work, and other households in a country-wide, population-based setting. Data in the Scottish Health Survey between 2008 and 2011 after the law banning smoking in public places were analyzed. Information including demographics, lifestyle factors, and self-reported cardiovascular disease and mental health was obtained by household interview. Analyses included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment, it was observed that being exposed to indoor passive smoking, in particular in more than two places of exposure, was significantly associated with risks of stroke, angina, heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, and GHQ ≥ 12. The significance remained for angina, GHQ ≥ 12 and probably heart attack in never smokers. The cumulative risks also impacted on sleep problems, self-recognition, making decisions, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, happiness and self-worth. The significance remained for sleep problems, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, and happiness in never smokers. Elimination of indoor passive smoking from different sources should still be a focus in future public health programs.

  20. Associations between vitamin K status and hemostatic and inflammatory biomarkers in community-dwelling adults: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K is integral to hemostatic function, and in vitro and animal experiments suggest that vitamin K can suppress production of inflammatory cytokines. To test the hypothesis that higher vitamin K status is associated with lower hemostasic activation and inflammation in community-dwelling adults...

  1. Ethnic differences in prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity among low-income rural Kazakh and Uyghur adults in far western China and implications in preventive public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity.A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009-2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥ 18 years old in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC.The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female's prevalence of obesity was higher than male's for general obesity (45-54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041 and abdominal obesity (≥ 55 years in Kazakhs, P(55 ∼ = 0.010, P(65 ∼ = 0.001; and ≥ 18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001. Kazakh's prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur's (general obesity: ≥ 35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ≥ 25 years in males and ≥ 65 years in females, P<0.01. The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities.Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related

  2. Factors associated to smoking habit among older adults (The Bambuí Health and Aging Study Fatores associados ao hábito de fumar entre idosos (Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Viana Peixoto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and associated factors of the smoking habit among older adults. METHODS: A population-based study was carried out comprising 1,606 (92.2% older adults (>60 years old living in the Bambuí town, Southeastern Brazil in 1997. Data was obtained by means of interview and socio-demographic factors, health status, physical functioning, use of healthcare services and medication were considered. The multiple multinomial logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between smoking habits (current and former smokers and the exploratory variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of current and past smoking was 31.4% and 40.2% among men, and 10.3% and 11.2% among women, respectively (p80 years and schooling (>8 years and positive association with poor health perception and not being married. Among women, independent and negative associations with current smoking were observed for age (75-79 and >80 years and schooling (4-7 and >8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was a public health concern among older adults in the studied community, particularly for men. Yet, in a low schooling population, a slightly higher level was a protective factor against smoking for both men and women. Programs for reducing smoking in the elderly population should take these findings into consideration.OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e fatores associados ao hábito de fumar em uma população idosa. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional realizado com 1.606 (92,2% idosos (>60 anos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Estado de Minas Gerais, em 1997. As variáveis estudadas foram: fatores sociodemográficos, condições de saúde, função física, uso de serviço de saúde e de medicamentos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista. A regressão logística multinomial foi utilizada para avaliar associações independentes entre o hábito de fumar (atual e passado e as variáveis exploratórias. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de

  3. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Nandy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457. Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work. Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively. American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7. Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack, smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians.

  4. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  5. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well...

  6. Visually Translating Educational Materials for Ethnic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…

  7. Ethnic Differences in Triglyceride Levels and High-Density Lipoprotein Lead to Underdiagnosis of the Metabolic Syndrome in Black Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sumner, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome was designed to identify individuals at high risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Compared with whites, blacks have higher rates of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paradoxically, blacks have a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. According to the criteria set by National Cholesterol Education Treatment Program–Adult Treatment Panel III, to diagnose the metabolic syndrome, 3 of 5 characteristics must be present. These charac...

  8. College Students' Storytelling of Ethnicity-Related Events in the Academic Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine storytelling of ethnicity-related events among college-going, emerging adults. A total of 280 ethnically diverse participants recounted a memory about a time in which they told a previously reported, ethnicity-related story to others. Analysis centered on the function of the telling and on to whom…

  9. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background....... An emerging field of research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation was identified, compared to the research in North America. However, the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation is growing. The European research has shown differences in outdoor recreation pattern (e.g. the motives for outdoor...... for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...

  10. A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Giedgowd, Grace E; Crane, Natania A; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Conrad, Megan; Braun, Ashley R; Olejarska, Natalia A; Kassel, Jon D

    2013-11-01

    The practice of waterpipe smoking (hookah) has rapidly increased in popularity among young adults yet burgeoning research suggests that its use is associated with nicotine dependence and other negative smoking-related health consequences. Moreover, descriptive studies indicate that consumers may hold the belief that hookah smoking is safer than smoking cigarettes. The current study extended previous work by conducting a comprehensive assessment of patterns and contexts of hookah use, psychological correlates of use, co-occurring substance use as well as social norms and health perceptions surrounding the practice. Participants were 143 ethnically diverse undergraduate students at a large urban US university. Approximately half of the sample (48%) reported life-time use of hookah and 22% reported use within the past 30days. Relative to cigarette smoking, hookah smoking was associated with less perceived harm and addiction potential and higher social approval. Participants who reported life-time hookah use, as compared to those who did not, perceived less associated harm, had a greater number of friends who had tried and approved of hookah, were more likely to use cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol and in higher frequencies and quantities and were at higher risk for problem tobacco and alcohol use. Among participants who were not current smokers, those with hookah experience were more likely to endorse intent to try a cigarette soon. Hookah users did not differ from non-users on measures of trait anxiety, depression and impulsivity though they were more likely to drink alcohol for coping, social and enhancement purposes than non-users. Implications are discussed for public health initiatives to educate young adults about the potential consequences of hookah smoking.

  11. Smoke-free legislation and child health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world’s population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike. PMID:27853176

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  13. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  14. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  15. Testing Social Cognitive Theory as a Theoretical Framework to Predict Smoking Relapse among Daily Smoking Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, R.M.P. van; Nijhof, L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent smoking relapse are largely unknown, since studies either focus on relapse among adults, or address (long-term) smoking cessation but not relapse. In the present study, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used as a theoretical framework to examine the first and second lapses,

  16. Growth Mindset as a Predictor of Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines motivations to quit smoking within the theoretical context of self-theories (Dweck, 2000). It investigates whether self-theories play a significant predictive role in motivating adults to quit smoking. A convenience sample of 197 adult current smokers and ex-smokers in northeast Ohio completed on line or paper versions of the…

  17. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, Joseph R; Wellman, Robert J; Ursprung, W W Sanouri A; Sabiston, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Our goal was to create an instrument that can be used to study how smokers lose autonomy over smoking and regain it after quitting. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale was produced through a process involving item generation, focus-group evaluation, testing in adults to winnow items, field testing with adults and adolescents, and head-to-head comparisons with other measures. The final 12-item scale shows excellent reliability (alphas = .91-.97), with a one-factor solution explaining 59% of the variance in adults and 61%-74% of the variance in adolescents. Concurrent validity was supported by associations with age of smoking initiation, lifetime use, smoking frequency, daily cigarette consumption, history of failed cessation, Hooked on Nicotine Checklist scores, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) nicotine dependence criteria. Potentially useful features of this new instrument include (a) it assesses tobacco withdrawal, cue-induced craving, and psychological dependence on cigarettes; (b) it measures symptom intensity; and (c) it asks about current symptoms only, so it could be administered to quitting smokers to track the resolution of symptoms.

  18. Visual attention to anti-smoking PSAs: smoking cues versus other attention-grabbing features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders-Jackson, A.N.; Cappella, J.N.; Linebarger, D.L.; Piotrowski, J.; O'Keeffe, M.; Strasser, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how addicted smokers attend visually to smoking-related public service announcements (PSAs) in adults smokers. Smokers' onscreen visual fixation is an indicator of cognitive resources allocated to visual attention. Characteristic of individuals with addictive tendencies, smokers

  19. Time trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index in Danish adults with and without COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Molsted, Stig

    2016-01-01

    , alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) from 2000 to 2010 in Danish individuals with and without COPD. METHODS: Analyses were based on data provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity's three cross-sectional surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Data compromised level of leisure time PA, smoking......, alcohol consumption, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants aged 25 years or older with and without COPD were included in the analyses. RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratio (OR) of being physically active in the leisure time in 2010 compared to 2000 was 1.70 (95.......001, and 0.74 kg · m(-2) (0.63-0.86), p relationship were more likely to be physically active, non-smoking and not exceeding the recommended alcohol limits. CONCLUSION: From...

  20. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  1. Investigation on the bone mineral density in adult men in Nanchang and its relationship with smoking%南昌地区成年男性骨密度现状及与吸烟关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐定波; 涂萍; 吴和平; 王艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查南昌地区健康成年男性骨密度,探讨吸烟与骨密度的关系.方法 采用法国MEDILINK公司生产的型号为OSTEOCORE2双能X线骨密度仪测量548例南昌地区健康成年男性正位腰椎(L2~L4)、左侧股骨颈及左前臂BMD,分析不同年龄组BMD及骨质疏松患病率变化.并根据吸烟指数进行分组,分析BMD与吸烟指数关系.结果 正位腰椎、股骨颈、前臂BMD峰值均出现在30~39岁年龄段,而后随年龄增加而下降,50岁以后降低更明显,骨质疏松患病率均随年龄增加而增加.吸烟指数与正位腰椎BMD呈负相关(r=-0.472,P<0.01),与股骨颈、前臂BMD呈弱负相关(r值分别为-0.163和-0.135,P均<0.05).结论 南昌地区男性BMD峰值出现在30~39岁年龄段,而后随年龄增加BMD下降,骨质疏松患病率增加.吸烟是骨质疏松的危险因素,为预防骨质疏松应尽早戒烟.%OBJECTIVE To investigate BMD in healthy adult males in Nanchang, and explore the its relationship with smoking and BMD. METHODS The model OSTEOCORE2 dual energy X ray absorptiometry from French company OSTEOCORE2 was used to measure 548 cases of healthy adult males in Nanchang for their L2-L4, left neck of femur and left forearm. The change of prevalence rate of BMD and osteoporosis is analyzed in different age groups. In addition, all subjects are grouped according to smoking index to analyze the relationship between BMD and smoking index. RESULTS The peak of lumbar vertebrae, neck of femur and forearm BMD was found in 30-39 years old group, declined with age, and significantly decreased after 50 years old. Osteoporosis prevalence rate increased with age. Smoking index and lumbar vertebrae were negatively correlated (r = -0.472, P < 0.01), and weakly negatively correlated with femoral neck and forearm BMD (r = -0.163 and -0.135, P< 0.05). CONCLUSION The peak of BMD exists in 30-39 years old group, BMD increases with the decrease of age, and prevalence of

  2. Social disparities in children’s exposure to second hand smoke at home: a repeated cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisinger Charlotta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We hypothesised that there has been a growth in social inequality in children’s exposure to SHS at home over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal change in smoking in homes including children, focusing on the socioeconomic differences. Methods Data is from a repeated cross-sectional survey, ‘Health Profiles of the Capital Region of Denmark’ conducted in 2007 and 2010, in 29 municipalities. The response rate was 52.3%, in both surveys. Our study included persons aged 25 to 64, living with children ≤15 years of age; N=9,289 in 2007 and 12,696 in 2010. Analyses were weighted for size of municipality and for non-response, which was higher among men and among persons who were younger, had a lower income, were living alone, were unemployed, and/or were of an ethnicity other than Danish. Regression analyses were used to investigate smoking in homes including children across parent/adult education levels, focusing on temporal changes. Results There were significant large socioeconomic differences in both 2007 and 2010. In 2010 it was more than 11 times more likely for a child to be exposed to SHS at home if the parent had very low education than if they were highly educated (p Conclusions Marked social inequalities in children’s exposure to SHS and a significant temporal decrease in exposure, independent of the education level of the parent/adult, were found in repeated large cross-sectional population-based studies. Social disparities have persisted over time, but not increased. Both clinical and population policy interventions will be needed in order to control child SHS exposure. We call for legislative protection of children from tobacco smoke inside their home as a supplement to parental education and support for smoking cessation.

  3. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000696.htm Smoking and COPD To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Smoking is also a trigger for COPD flare- ...

  4. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth > For Kids > Smoking Stinks! A A ... more about cigarettes and tobacco. continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  5. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  6. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  7. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Smoking KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking A A A What's ... thing as a "safe" nicotine product. continue How Smoking Affects Your Health There are no physical reasons ...

  8. Who in U. S. A. Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿钧

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is awidespread habit in the UnitedStates today. About forty-three per-cent of the adult men and thirty-onepercent of the adult women smokeregularly. It is quite encouraging tonote, however, that millions of peo-ple have given up the smoking。

  9. Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gagnon

    Full Text Available To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers.6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15 were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45.Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg and cholecalciferol [2,000-6,000 IU to target 25(OHD >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months.Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index, insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC for C-peptide and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin.Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes. Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OHD concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L, but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda was observed.Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function in multi-ethnic adults with low vitamin D status at risk of type 2 diabetes

  10. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities among People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan; Morales, Miguel A.; Li, Henan; Fujiura, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities are a pervasive public health problem. Emerging research finds similar health disparities among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) compared to nondisabled adults. However, few studies have examined racial and ethnic health disparities among adults with IDD. Using national data, we…

  11. Smoke and mirrors: magnified beliefs that cigarette smoking suppresses weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marney A; McKee, Sherry A; O'malley, Stephanie S

    2007-10-01

    Research suggests that for some smokers, weight concerns interfere with smoking cessation. Studies with individuals with eating disorders and weight concerns have indicated that weight-concerned individuals place undue faith in the effectiveness of certain weight control strategies; i.e., adopt a brand of magical thinking pertaining to food rules and dieting behaviors. The current study investigated whether weight-concerned smokers endorsed exaggerated beliefs in the ability of smoking to suppress body weight. Participants were 385 individuals undergoing treatment for smoking cessation. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A), the Dieting and Bingeing Severity Scale, and the Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PBRQ). Results indicated that heightened beliefs in the effectiveness of smoking to control weight were related to eating and weight concerns; specifically, strong associations were observed between SCQ-A Weight Control scores and fear of weight gain, loss of control over eating, and body dissatisfaction. Although SCQ-A Weight Control scores were related to (self-reported) weight gain during a previous quit attempt, scores did not predict actual weight gain over the course of the cessation trial. Reported weight gain at previous attempts was also unrelated to actual weight gain over the current trial. These findings indicate that eating and weight-concerned smokers may benefit from psychoeducation concerning the relatively modest and temporary ability of nicotine to suppress weight.

  12. Influence of Socioeconomic Factors, Gender and Indigenous Status on Smoking in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Ting Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous Austronesian minority of Taiwan is heavily affected by health disparities which may include suffering from a greater burden of the tobacco epidemic. While a lack of representative data has historically precluded an investigation of the differences in smoking between Taiwanese ethnicities, these data have recently become available through an annual population-based telephone survey conducted by the Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare (previously known as the Bureau of Health Promotion (BHP, Department of Health. We used the BHP monitoring data to observe the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among indigenous and non-indigenous Taiwanese surrounding a tobacco welfare tax increase in 2006, investigate ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and environmental tobacco smoke exposure each year between 2005 and 2008, and perform multiple logistic regression to estimate measures of association between potential risk factors and smoking status. Despite significant ethnic and gender differences in smoking prevalence, smoking status was not found to be significantly associated with ethnicity after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  13. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  14. Effects of smoking on pulmonary function of healthy adults in Meishan%眉山市吸烟者与非吸烟者肺功能情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志; 戚刚; 牟艳; 李俊; 张孟琼

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究吸烟对人体肺功能的影响,提高人们早期戒烟意识。方法应用耶格(JAEGER)肺功能仪(德国)对我院进行体检的161例健康成年人进行肺功能检测,探讨吸烟对肺功能的影响。结果 FEV1/FVC、PEF%明显低于对照组(P<0.05);小气道功能指数FEF50%、FEF75%、MMEF显著降低(P<0.01)。结论健康吸烟者肺通气功能较非吸烟者有不同程度的下降,且以阻塞性通气功能及小气道功能损害为主;肺功能检查对气道疾病早期诊断具有重要意义。%0bjective:To observe effects of smoking on pulmonary function of health adult,and to urge smokers give up smoking as early as possible.Methods:161 cases of healthy adults who took physical examination in the medical examination center of our hospital took the pulmonary function testing by JAEGER spirometer ,and the effects of cigarette smoking on pulmonary function were analyzed.Results:There was as significant difference between nonsmokers and smokers in indexes such as FEV1,FVC,FEVl/FVC(P<0.05),the indexes of the smal airway function (FEF50%,FEF75%,MMEF%) significantly dropped(p<0.01).Conclusion:The pulmonary function of health smokers,especial y smal air-way function have already been impaired compared with nonsmokers.For earlier diagnosing of lung diseases,pulmonary function test is significant.

  15. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... pattern. The survey was conducted in two school districts: in North West Copenhagen and the municipality of Ringkøbing-Skjern (n=449, aged 14-16 years, 365 adolescents with ethnic Danish background, and 84 adolescents with ethnic minority background). The results of the questionnaire have shown both...... carried out during some part of the year, “going for a walk”, “barbequing”, “taking a trip with family” were frequently cited by both groups, but more common among adolescents with ethnic minority background. “Walking the dog” was much more common among adolescents with Danish background, who also more...

  16. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    comparison of to what extend and in what way policy documents and research approaches take into account ethnic minority groups. The findings indicate that there is a correlation in the current national research approaches of the four countries and the societal and political context of the four countries...... a theoretical framework to understand ethnicity and outdoor recreation in a relational perspective, and is inspired by and uses key concepts of the German sociologist Norbert Elias. The point of departure of this paper is that ethnicity and outdoor recreation must be understood within its specific context, e.......g. in the actual green space where outdoor recreation takes place. Further, the general societal developments (e.g. integration policies or outdoor recreation policies) must be taken into account. An investigation of ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation pattern, as proposed in paper 4, takes both “micro...

  17. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  18. Ethnic Differences among Friend Networks Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunsook; Hebert, Corie

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to broaden the understanding of friend relationships in older adults and the differences in those friend relationships among various ethnic groups. Secondary data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed to test the hypothesis that Caucasian older adults have stronger friend networks than older…

  19. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-

  20. Burning Incense and Aromatic Plants for Auspicious Smoke in Lhasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZONGXIAN

    2004-01-01

    People of the Tibetan ethnic group follow certain rituals that are remnants of the primitive religion that existed in the region many centuries ago,including buming incense and aromatic plants to create auspicious smoke, as well as blood rituals and the sorcerer's dance.

  1. Wildfire Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  2. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke also contains other chemicals that can harm unborn babies. 1,2 Health Effects of Smoking and Secondhand Smoke on Babies Mothers who smoke are more likely to deliver their babies early. Preterm delivery is a leading cause of death, disability, and disease among newborns. 1,2 One ...

  3. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  4. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  5. Within family transmission of secondhand smoke sensitivity and smoking attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laszlo Tarnoki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. The role of genetic factors in nicotine dependence is well understood, but no information is available on the inheritability of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure sensitivity and their co-variance. [b]materials and methods[/b]. 186 adult same-gender pairs of twin (146 monozygotic, 40 dizygotic; 44±17 years±SD completed a questionnaire. [b]results[/b]. The model showed a significant role of unshared environmental factors influencing the co-variance between smoking habit and SHS sensitivity (r[sub]e[/sub]=-0.191, 95% CI, -0.316 to -0.056, or the total phenotypic correlation of r[sub]ph[/sub]=-0.406, p<0.001 without evidence for genetic covariation. Age, gender and country-adjusted analysis indicated 51.5% heritability for smoking habit (95% confidence interval/CI/, 6.2 to 89.8%, 49.7% for SHS sensitivity (95%CI, 19.1–72.0%, 35.5% for general opinions on SHS exposure in restaurants/cafés (95%CI, 10.7–58.6%, and 16.9% in pubs/bars (95%CI, 0.0–49.0%. [b]conclusions[/b]. The co-variance between SHS sensitivity and smoking habits is driven mainly by the unshared environment. SHS sensitivity is moderately inheritable. The considerable influence of environmental factors on general opinions on SHS exposure in designated indoor public venues emphasizes the importance of smoking bans and health behaviour interventions at the individual level in developing an anti-smoking attitude.

  6. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls. The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1 "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2 "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3 "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  7. Olfactory and erectile dysfunction association in smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Süay; Dülger, Seyhan; Çoban, Soner; Özmen, Ömer Afşın; Güzelsoy, Muhammed; Dikiş, Özlem Şengören; Akdeniz, Önder

    2016-06-01

    The studies evaluating the effect of smoking on olfaction reveals opposite results. In vitro and animal studies and epidemiological evidence from volunteers and patients, demonstrated the association between olfaction and erectile functions. In smoking man the reduction of olfactory acuity could adversely affect sexuality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and olfactory dysfunction (OD) by comparing a group of healthy adult men with a group of smoking adult men. This prospective study involved 62 volunteers, who were recruited and divided into two groups; one consisted of 35 smoking adult men, and the other included 27 healthy non-smoking men. All participants in both groups were examined in detail for any condition with the potential to cause OD. They all had a normal genitourinary system suffered from no circulatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease nor hyperlipidemia; they had no history of medication affecting genitourinary system. Butanol threshold test and sniffin' stick® (Burghart, Wedel; Germany) screening test was used to asses olfactory functions in both groups. Participants' sexual desire was assessed using an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scale. The means of sniffin' sticks scores, butanol threshold scores and IIEF-5 scores were statistically higher in non-smoking group. Butanol threshold scores and sniffin' sticks scores are correlated statistically with IIEF-5 in non-smoking and smoking groups. This study found an association between olfaction and erectile function in smoking and non-smoking men. As far as we know this study is the third published study to show the relationship olfactory and erectile function. In the future studies electrophysiological olfactory methods could be used to confirm in large cohorts the results obtained by the psychophysical approach.

  8. The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexander V

    2008-07-01

    demonstrate a continued need for primary prevention smoking interventions to be sensitive to the family context. They also underscore the importance of discussing parental smoking as a risk factor for smoking initiation, regardless of ethnicity, and of tailoring prevention messages to account for the influence that parental smoking status may have on the smoking attitudes and the associated normative beliefs.

  9. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  10. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P < 0.001), smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  11. Targeting Body Image Schema for Smoking Cessation among College Females: Rationale, Program Description, and Pilot Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Fava, Joseph L.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking among young adults is a significant public health problem. Despite the negative health effects, many young women smoke for weight and body image reasons. Understanding the factors that prompt young women to initiate and continue smoking is important for designing smoking cessation interventions. The aim of the current article is to outline…

  12. Wreaking “Havoc” on Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Hong, Juliette S.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 25% of young adult Oklahomans smoked cigarettes in 2012. Tobacco marketing campaigns target young adults in social environments like bars/nightclubs. Social Branding interventions are designed to compete directly with this marketing. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to reduce smoking among young adult “Partiers” in Oklahoma. The Partier social subculture was described as follows: attendance at large nightclubs, fashion consciousness, valuing physical attractiveness, and achieving social status by exuding an image of confidence and financial success. Design Repeated cross-sectional study with three time points. Setting/Participants Randomized time location survey samples of young adult Partier bar and club patrons in Oklahoma City (Time 1 [2010], n=1,383; Time 2 [2011], 1,292; and Time 3 [2012], 1,198). Data were analyzed in 2013. Intervention The “HAVOC” Social Branding intervention was designed to associate a smoke-free lifestyle with Partiers’ values, and included events at popular clubs, brand ambassador peer leaders who transmit the anti-tobacco message, social media, and tailored anti-tobacco messaging. Main outcome measures Daily and nondaily smoking rates, and binge drinking rates (secondary). Results Overall, smoking rates did not change (44.1% at Time 1, 45.0% at Time 2, and 47.4% at Time 3 (p=0.17), but there was a significant interaction between intervention duration and brand recall. Partiers reporting intervention recall had lower odds of daily smoking (OR=0.30 [0.10, 0.95]) and no difference in nondaily smoking, whereas among Partiers without intervention recall had increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.74 [1.04, 2.89], nondaily AOR=1.97 [1.35, 2.87]). Among non-Partiers, those who recalled HAVOC reported no difference in smoking, and those who did not recall HAVOC reported significantly increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.53 [1.02, 2.31], nondaily AOR=1.72 [1.26, 2.36]). Binge drinking rates were significantly

  13. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  15. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci Harris

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic

  16. Racial differences in sleep architecture: the role of ethnic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Pung, Meredith A; Edwards, Kate M; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2012-01-01

    African Americans have been consistently shown to have less deep (slow wave sleep; SWS) and more light (Stages 1 and 2) sleep than Caucasian Americans. This paper explored whether discrimination, a stressor that uniquely impacts certain ethnic groups, contributes to differences in sleep architecture. The sleep of 164 African and Caucasian Americans was examined with laboratory based polysomnography (PSG). Experiences of perceived discrimination (The Scale of Ethnic Experience) and sociodemographic factors were also assessed. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking status, African Americans slept approximately 4.5% more total sleep time (TST) in Stage 2 sleep and 4.7% less TST in SWS than Caucasian Americans (psdiscrimination was a partial mediator of ethnic differences in sleep architecture. Individuals who reported experiencing more discrimination slept more time in Stage 2 and less time in SWS (psethnic group membership plays a part in explaining differences in sleep architecture.

  17. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...... that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did...

  18. Smoking cessation in women: findings from qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study is to describe the experience of successful smoking cessation in adult women. The convenience sample included 10 women, ages 25 to 42, who had abstained from smoking for at least 6 months but not longer than 3 years. A semistructured interview format was used to elicit descriptions of the experience of successful smoking cessation from these subjects. The interview format explored the experience, including initial contemplation, the process of quitting, and maintenance of smoking abstinence. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and then analyzed using methods outlined by Miles and Huberman [1]. Four themes emerged from the data: evolving commitment to health and personal growth, being stigmatized, changing conceptualization of smoking, and smoking cessation as a relational phenomenon. These findings were consistent with Pender's Health Promotion Model and have implications for nurse practitioners who counsel women on smoking cessation.

  19. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina K; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2011-01-01

    ), lower final adult height (median: 1.80 versus 1.82 cm), higher BMI (22.9 versus 22.4), smaller testicles (14.0 versus 14.5 ml), lower total sperm counts (119 versus 150 million), reduced spermatogenesis-related hormones (e.g. inhibin-B/FSH 66 versus 73 pg/mU) and higher calculated free testosterone...... levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal exposure to tobacco may lead to faster pubertal development possibly caused by a higher free-T, and to higher adult BMI and impairment of testicular function. The findings may not be clinical relevant for the individual but are of public health...

  20. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, HIV risk, and quality of life among adults in opioid detoxification: results from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Burchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1,2, Walter Ling3, Bruce Burchett1, Dan G Blazer1,2, Jack Shostak2, George E Woody41Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, NPI/Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USAPurpose: Detoxification often serves as an initial contact for treatment and represents an opportunity for engaging patients in aftercare to prevent relapse. However, there is limited information concerning clinical profiles of individuals seeking detoxification, and the opportunity to engage patients in detoxification for aftercare often is missed. This study examined clinical profiles of a geographically diverse sample of opioid-dependent adults in detoxification to discern the treatment needs of a growing number of women and whites with opioid addiction and to inform interventions aimed at improving use of aftercare or rehabilitation.Methods: The sample included 343 opioid-dependent patients enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002. Patients were recruited from 12 addiction treatment programs across the nation. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV risk, and quality of life were examined.Results: Women and whites were more likely than men and African Americans to have greater psychiatric and family/social relationship problems and report poorer health-related quality of life and functioning. Whites and Hispanics exhibited higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection drug use scores than African Americans, and Hispanics showed a higher level of unprotected sexual behaviors than whites. African Americans were

  1. Smoking and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, V

    2000-07-01

    Each year more than 600000 women have deaths associated with cigarette smoking. In addition, cigarette smoking is associated with a wide array of morbidities (such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes). Two hundred million women smoke worldwide, and this number appears to be rising, particularly in developing countries. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a role in reducing morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking by educating women about the dangers, advising them not to smoke, and assisting those who do smoke to quit.

  2. "My Mum and Dad Said It Calms You down": Children's Perceptions of Smoking as a Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Beth S.; Dugdill, Lindsey; Porcellato, Lorna A.; Springett, R. Jane

    2012-01-01

    While studies have shown that adults use smoking to deal with stress, little research has been carried out with children to explore their perceptions of smoking as a coping strategy. Qualitative questionnaire and interview data were generated with children aged 9-11 years. Participants perceived that adults smoked to relieve boredom and stress,…

  3. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Ethnic Heritage Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Theresia

    Designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines, this teaching guide focuses on ethnic foods and their influence on and contributions to America's eating habits. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Project described in ED 150 043. The objective of this unit is to develop a knowledge and an appreciation of the food…

  4. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M.;

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introduc......Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from...... an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic...... minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Results: Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation...

  5. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  6. Avoiding Secondhand Smoke (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-19

    Exposure to secondhand smoke causes serious health problems in both children and adult nonsmokers. In this podcast, Dr. David Homa discusses health hazards posed by exposure to secondhand smoke. .  Created: 2/19/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/19/2015.

  7. Ethnic Speech and Ethnic Action as Ethnic Behavior I: Construction of the Brunel Ethnic Behavior Inventory (BEBI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, SO; Lefringhausen, K; Charura, D; Kangatharan, J; Singh, J; Tamimi, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the construction of a new survey – specifically, the Brunel Ethnic Behavior Inventory (BEBI) – designed to measure ethnic speech and ethnic action as separate, yet related, aspects of individuals’ ethnic behavior. Using Tajfel’s (1981; Tajfel & Turner, 1986) social identity theory as our conceptual frame of reference, we sought an answer to the research question of how many factors actually are measured by the BEBI; and we tested the hypothesis that a two-factor mode...

  8. Ethnicity, Marriage and Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Matz, Julia Anna

    2013-01-01

    This study adds a microeconomic perspective to the discussion on ethnic diversity and economic performance in developing countries by investigating the motivation for intra-ethnicity marriage in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, the paper proposes that ethnic similarity between spouses enhances economic outcomes through a shared agricultural production technology. Furthermore, the framework suggests that the probability of marriage within the same ethnic group is positively related to t...

  9. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.

  10. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-03-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.

  11. Identification and Clinical Characterization of Children With Benign Ethnic Neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Michael V; Meier, Emily R; Hsieh, Matthew M

    2016-04-01

    Benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN) is an asymptomatic condition reported in adults of African and Middle Eastern descent. The clinical description in children is currently lacking. In our urban outpatient pediatric hematology clinic, the median neutrophil count of children with BEN was lower than previous reports in adults at 893×10 cells/L, but increased with older age. There was an equal male to female ratio and 24% of our BEN children reported ethnicities other than African or Middle Eastern. Children with BEN had a clinical course comparable with other healthy children including otherwise normal blood counts, except for mild anemia.

  12. Ethnic Identity: Crisis and Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Aureliano Sandoval

    1990-01-01

    Presents Chicano/Latino ethnic identity development model that fosters understanding of ethnic identity conflicts particular to Chicano and Latino clients. Presents five stages (causal, cognitive, consequence, working through, and successful resolution) in relationship to ethnic identity conflicts, interventions, and resolution. Combines several…

  13. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  14. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Smokers who have surgery have a higher chance than nonsmokers of blood clots forming in their legs. These clots may travel to and ...

  15. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  16. Body image and eating disturbances across ethnic groups: more similarities than differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Heather; Ramirez, Lisa; Trost, Ariel; Randall, Pat; Stice, Eric

    2004-03-01

    Sociocultural models of eating pathology posit that ethnic minority groups should show fewer eating disturbances than Whites. Thus, the authors tested whether there were ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms and risk factors for eating pathology and whether the relations between risk factors and eating pathology differed across ethnic groups, with data from adolescent and adult females (N = 785). Only 1 of the 14 tests of main effect differences between ethnic groups was significant and none of the 49 tests of whether ethnicity moderated the relations of risk factors to eating pathology were significant. Findings provide little support for the hypothesized ethnic differences in eating disturbances and suggest that ethnic minority groups have reached parity with Whites in this domain.

  17. 'The smoking toolkit study': a national study of smoking and smoking cessation in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangeli Eleni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up-to-date data tracking of national smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour is required to evaluate and inform tobacco control strategies. The Smoking Toolkit Study (STS was designed for this role. This paper describes the methodology of the STS and examines as far as possible the representativeness of the samples. Methods The STS consists of monthly, cross sectional household interviews of adults aged 16 and over in England with smokers and recent ex-smokers in each monthly wave followed up by postal questionnaires three and six months later. Between November 2006 and December 2010 the baseline survey was completed by 90,568 participants. STS demographic, prevalence and cigarette consumption estimates are compared with those from the Health Survey for England (HSE and the General Lifestyle Survey (GLF for 2007-2009. Results Smoking prevalence estimates of all the surveys were similar from 2008 onwards (e.g 2008 STS = 22.0%, 95% C.I. = 21.4% to 22.6%, HSE = 21.7%, 95% C.I. = 20.9% to 22.6%, GLF = 20.8%, 95% C.I. = 19.7% to 21.9%, although there was heterogeneity in 2007 (chi-square = 50.30, p Conclusion There is reason to believe that the STS findings (see http://www.smokinginengland.info are generalisable to the adult population of England.

  18. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  19. Smoking it all away: influences of stress, negative emotions, and stigma on lesbian tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Elisabeth P; Byrne, Kimberly M; Altschuler, Andrea; Dibble, Suzanne L

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the reported processes, conditions, and consequences of lesbian and heterosexual female smoking and relapse to understand the reasons for elevated lesbian smoking rates. Using grounded theory techniques, we conducted semistructured, face-to-face interviews with an ethnically diverse sample of 35 lesbian and 35 heterosexual female participants in Northern California. We found minority stress/sexual stigma to be an additional, unique cause of negative emotions and stress reported by 75% of lesbian participants, leading to smoking and relapse. Implications for smoking cessation programs tailored to lesbians are discussed.

  20. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Torkzaban; Khalili; Ziaei

    2013-01-01

    Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspe...

  1. Ethnic voting in the Andes: how ethnicity and ethnic attitudes shape presidential vote choice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, S. G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of ethnic politics has been a prominent feature of Latin America’s recent history, particularly in the Andes where much of the population claim some indigenous descent. Prominent politicians use ethnicity to frame important aspects of their political projects and identities, survey data show an emerging ethnic voting gap in several countries, and political protests, debates, and media coverage periodically expose strong ethnic undercurrents. Yet existing scholarship has not examined ...

  2. Disincentives, Identities, and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Nancy M.

    When smoking decisions are understood in terms of the beliefs and attitudes which determine them, prevention programs can focus on changing these beliefs and attitudes. A study was conducted to measure students' attitudes and beliefs on the short-term health effects of smoking, on the social consequences of smoking, and on specific identities…

  3. [Smoking in young military men: attitudes and characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Granda Orive, J I; Peña Miguel, T; González Quijada, S; Escobar Sacristán, J; Gutiérrez Jiménez, T; Herrera de la Rosa, A

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the attitudes toward smoking and the characteristics of smoking patterns in young men of military age. Individuals performing their military service were surveyed using a self-administered, anonymous, personal and voluntary questionnaire. Questions were included on smoking habits, social context, and desire to quit. Responses were received from 386 (93.46%) subjects, all male, whose mean age was 20.52 +/- 2.3 years. The sample included 207 smokers (53.62%), 173 non smokers (44.81%) and 6 ex-smokers (1.55%). Mean age of initiation was 15.07 +/- 2.4 years and mean age of start of habitual smoking was 16.46 +/- 2.2 years. The main reasons for starting to smoke were curiosity (39.73%) and peer pressure (29.45%). Between 11 and 20 cigarettes/day were smoked by 53.74%. Those who began before 18 years of age smoked more than those who began after age 19. Light tobacco was smoked by 90.87%. Non smokers had fewer friends and family members who smoked than did smokers (p reason for increased smoking. We conclude that the prevalence of daily smoking is high among young men, who begin smoking regularly at 16 years of age. Those who begin later smoke less. The influence of friends and family members on initiation and maintenance of smoking is great. Half the smokers contemplated quitting and reported a high number of earlier attempts to stop. We believe that military quarters are an ideal place for health education and promotion, offering the possibility of designing special programs for decreasing the prevalence of smoking among adults.

  4. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  5. Predictors of the Transition from Experimental to Daily Smoking in Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Weaver, Terri E.; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although smoking initiation is rare in young adulthood, the progression to a higher level of smoking still occurs at this developmental stage. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring predictors of the transition from experimental to daily smoking in late teens and young adults using the 2nd and 3rd waves from the National Longitudinal Study of…

  6. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  7. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E. study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589

  8. Effects of ethnicity and gender on youth health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalsingh Rambaree

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ethnicity and gender on the health of young people (14–25 years old living in Mauritius. Combinations of female and male by four ethnic groups—“Creole”, “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “Mixed”—were used for multivariate analysis of variances. “Mixed” ethnic group consumed most tobacco, alcohol and drugs compared to other ethnic groups. They were also the ones that mostly skipped breakfast and lunch and were found to eat most fast food. Moreover, “Mixed” ethnic group had heard most about HIV/AIDS programmes, but were least satisfied with such programmes and with public hospitals and health services. Females were shown to perceive more physical and mental health issues than did males; although males smoked more cigarettes and drunk more alcohol. However, females consumed more fast food and deep fries and rated public hospitals and sexual and reproductive health services as less good than did males. The findings call for further research on the health of young people living in Mauritius with respect to socio-economic variables in order to promote social justice in the Mauritian society. In addition, this article also emphasises on the need of having a new National Youth Policy for Mauritius, which is long overdue.

  9. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

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    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  10. Parent, sibling and peer influences on smoking initiation, regular smoking and nicotine dependence. Results from a genetically informative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Xian, Hong; Pan, Hui; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Grant, Julia D; Sartor, Carolyn E; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2012-03-01

    We sought to determine whether parenting, sibling and peer influences are associated with offspring ever smoking, regular smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) after controlling for familial factors. We used a twin-family design and data from structured diagnostic surveys of 1919 biological offspring (ages 12-32 years), 1107 twin fathers, and 1023 mothers. Offspring were classified into one of four familial risk groups based on twin fathers' and their co-twins' history of DSM-III-R nicotine dependence. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to model familial risk, paternal and maternal parenting behavior and substance use, sibling substance use, and friend and school peer smoking, alcohol and drug use. Ever smoking was associated with increasing offspring age, white race, high maternal pressure to succeed in school, sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Offspring regular smoking was associated with these same factors with additional contribution from maternal ND. Offspring ND was associated with increasing offspring age, male gender, biological parents divorce, high genetic risk from father and mother ND, maternal problem drinking, maternal rule inconsistency and sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Friend smoking had the largest magnitude of association with offspring smoking. This effect remains after accounting for familial liability and numerous parent and sibling level effects. Smoking interventions may have greatest impact by targeting smoking prevention among peer groups in adolescent and young adult populations.

  11. Commodification of Transitioning Ethnic Enclaves

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    Kathryn Terzano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants’ identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers. One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood’s ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave’s ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it.

  12. Commodification of transitioning ethnic enclaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-09-29

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants' identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood's ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave's ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it.

  13. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  14. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

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    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design: The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389 population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study. Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results: The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion: We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway.

  15. Nicotine content and abstinence state have different effects on subjective ratings of positive versus negative reinforcement from smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Bracken, Bethany K.; MacLean, Robert R.; Elizabeth T. Ryan; Lukas, Scott E.; Frederick, Blaise deB.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-known adverse health consequences of smoking, approximately 20% of US adults smoke tobacco cigarettes. Much of the research on smoking reinforcement and the maintenance of tobacco smoking behavior has focused on nicotine; however, a number of other non-nicotine factors are likely to influence the reinforcing effects of smoked tobacco. A growing number of studies suggest that non-nicotine factors, through many pairings with nicotine, are partially responsible for the reinforci...

  16. Tendencias del tabaquismo en adultos en México entre 1988 y 2008 Adult smoking trends in Mexico between 1988 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Franco-Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las tendencias, durante las pasadas dos décadas, de varios indicadores de tabaquismo y explorar si las políticas de contención de la epidemia de tabaquismo en México, implantadas desde 2004, han tenido ya un impacto favorable hacia 2008. Material y métodos. Se analizan las tendencias de datos comparables sobre la prevalencia de nunca fumadores y de fumadores diarios, utilizando las cinco encuestas nacionales de adicciones realizadas entre 1988 y 2008. En el análisis se incluye a personas entre 18 y 65 años de edad y se realizan ajustes por índice de marginación, edad y sexo. Resultados. Entre 2002 y 2008 aumentó en 19.6% el porcentaje de nunca fumadores y disminuyó 24.8% el porcentaje de fumadores diarios. Estos cambios fueron más importantes en los hombres que en las mujeres, pero en estas últimas se redujo en el mismo periodo en 21.1% el promedio de cigarrillos fumados a diario y se incrementó en 13.9% el porcentaje que había intentado dejar de fumar. La prevalencia de fumadores diarios se ha reducido más aceleradamente desde 2005, lo que coincide con el incremento en los impuestos a los cigarrillos. Conclusiones. Se observa en México, durante las dos últimas décadas, una tendencia al incremento del porcentaje de nunca fumadores y a la reducción del porcentaje de fumadores diarios. A pocos años de haberse implantado en México políticas de control del tabaquismo más efectivas, en particular el incremento en los impuestos al tabaco, se observan ya resultados favorables.Objetive. To describe the changes in several smoking indicators occurred in Mexico over the past two decades and to explore if the tobacco control policies implemented in Mexico, since 2004, show a favorable impact on tobacco consumption by 2008. Materials and Methods. We analyze trends in comparable data on the prevalence of never and daily smokers, using the five National Addiction Surveys conducted between 1988 and 2008. The analysis

  17. Gender difference in association between smoking and metabolic risks among community adults%不同性别人群吸烟与代谢综合征危险因素相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦纹; 胡大一; 孙艺红; 王家宏; 谢江

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance.However,whether a smoker has a lesser waist circumference (WC) and whether the potential changes in WC may reduce the benefits of smoking cessation remains in dispute. The aims of this study are to re-examines the relationships between smoking and metabolic risk factors by the data from Beijing adults. Methods A total of 3710 men and 6344 women,aged 18 -92 years old,were sampled from community centers in Beijing for this cross-sectional clinical study between April and August 2007. Their concentrations of total cholesterol (TC),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),triglycerides (TG),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and plasma glucose (PG) were measured. And the anthropometric parameters (WC,body weight and height) and blood pressure (BP) were record according to a standard protocol. Their social,demographic,personal medical history and behavioral characteristics were collected by the welltrained staff. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The relationships between smoking and metabolic syndrome were analyzed by x2 test and logistic regression. Results The mean age and glucose concentration were similar in both genders. Males tended to have a higher mean BP ( systolic and diastolic ),a higher level of TG and a lower HDL-C. Among the obesity indices,the mean WC was higher in males than that in females whereas the mean BMI higher in females. The means of BMI and WC were 24. 99 kg/m2 and 89. 13cm for males and 25.49 kg/m2 and 85.49 cm for females respectively. Smoking was an independent risk factor of metabolic syndrome in male subjects.It was mainly due to a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia,i.e. a higher level of TG and a lower level of HDL-C in smokers. And the trough prevalence of central obesity was higher in former smokers than current smokers. With adjustment for age,alcohol intake,and regular

  18. Does COPD risk vary by ethnicity? A retrospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilkes A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Gilkes, Mark Ashworth, Peter Schofield, Timothy H Harries, Stevo Durbaba, Charlotte Weston, Patrick White Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, Division of Health and Social Care Research, Kings College London, London, UK Background: Lower risk of COPD has been reported in black and Asian people, raising questions of poorer recognition or reduced susceptibility. We assessed prevalence and severity of COPD in ethnic groups, controlling for smoking. Method: A retrospective cross-sectional study using routinely collected primary care data in London. COPD prevalence, severity (% predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], smoking status, and treatment were compared between ethnic groups, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, deprivation, and practice clustering. Results: Among 358,614 patients in 47 general practices, 47.6% were white, 20% black, and 5% Asian. Prevalence of COPD was 1.01% overall, 1.55% in whites, 0.58% in blacks, and 0.78% in Asians. COPD was less likely in blacks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39–0.51 and Asians (0.82; CI, 0.68–0.98 than whites. Black COPD patients were less likely to be current smokers (OR, 0.56; CI, 0.44–0.71 and more likely to be never-smokers (OR, 4.9; CI, 3.4–7.1. Treatment of patients with similar disease severity was similar irrespective of ethnic origin, except that long-acting muscarinic antagonists were prescribed less in black COPD patients (OR, 0.53; CI, 0.42–0.68. Black ethnicity was a predictor of poorer lung function (% predicted FEV1: B coefficient, -7.6; P<0.0001, an effect not seen when ethnic-specific predicted FEV1 values were used. Conclusion: Black people in London were half as likely as whites to have COPD after adjusting for lower smoking rates in blacks. It seems likely that the differences observed were due either to ethnic differences in the way cigarettes were smoked or to ethnic differences in susceptibility to

  19. Impact of tobacco-related health warning labels across socioeconomic, race and ethnic groups: results from a randomized web-based experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cantrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. METHODS/FINDINGS: Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n = 3,371 into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b = 0.62, p<.001; perceived impact (b = 0.44, p<.001; credibility (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.22-1.62, and intention to quit (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.53. No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.057. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco

  20. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed.

  1. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms.

  2. Preparing Students for Culturally Competent Practice among Ethnic Minority Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen

    2008-01-01

    The increase in the nation's present and projected multicultural aged population is both dramatic and well documented. One result of this growth is a sharpened focus on racial and ethnic disparities in health, health care access, and utilization of services that impact aging adults. This paper presents work conducted by a university-community…

  3. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  4. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  5. Smoking and lifestyle in an urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Martínez L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is harmful for one’s health and affects many people in the world. Its consequences are high morbidity and mortality from cardio-respiratory diseases and cancer. This complex public health issue also entails high costs. In order to understand this addiction, it is necessary to find out whether its presence is an isolated habit or a part of an unhealthy behavior. Objective: to explore the relationship between smoking and some components of a lifestyle. Methodology: a cross-sectional study with 4,000 adults aiming at identifying the link between smoking and certain aspects of lifestyle such as age, gender, education, socioeconomic level, physical inactivity, eating habits, recreation and alcohol. Results: age and socioeconomic level were not found to be associated with smoking; however, gender, schooling level, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating habits, and inadequate recreation were found to be statistically and epidemiologically related to smoking. Conclusions: smoking is associated with other adverse components of an unhealthy lifestyle. Community control and health promotion activities should address this issue through comprehensive strategies aimed at modifying human behavior in order to achieve more effective results.

  6. Smoking is a cause of social inequality in health, but is social position is cause of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    The paper by Hart and colleagues describes occupational class differences in cause specific mortality among women who had never smoked.1 In the accompanying commentary smoking is discussed as if it was a mediator of the relationship between social position and health.2 But the uptake of smoking...... will likely take place many years before the individual's own social position has formed. For example, this author moved into occupational class I at age 26, but ceased being a never smoker around age 14. A similar argument can be made for weight gains over the life course that, in the end, result in obesity...... decrease. Also, social position is an important factor (causal or not) in smoking cessation. But one's own adult social position is likely not a terribly important cause of never smoking. (1) Hart CL, Gruer L, Watt GC. Cause specific mortality, social position, and obesity among women who had never smoked...

  7. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  8. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this e

  9. Maternal Smoking and Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes among the offspring in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this fetal "programming" effect remain unclear. The present study sought to explore whether maternal smoking affects metabolic health biomarkers in fetuses/newborns.In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248, we compared metabolic health biomarkers in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Outcomes included cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of β-cell function.Independent of maternal (glucose tolerance, age, ethnicity, parity, education, body mass index, alcohol use and infant (sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, mode of delivery, cord blood glucose concentration characteristics, the newborns of smoking mothers had lower IGF-I concentrations (mean: 6.7 vs. 8.4 nmol/L, adjusted p = 0.006, and marginally higher proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (0.94 vs. 0.72, adjusted p = 0.06 than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. Cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations and glucose-to-insulin ratios were similar in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers.Maternal smoking was associated with decreased fetal IGF-I levels, and borderline lower fetal β-cell function. Larger cohort studies are required to confirm the latter finding. The preliminary findings prompt the hypothesis that these early life metabolic changes may be involved in the impact of maternal smoking on future risk of metabolic syndrome related disorders in the offspring.

  10. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  11. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each......, while the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....

  12. Smoking and symbolism: children, communication and cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugkåsa, J; Kennedy, O; Barton, M; Abaunza, P S; Treacy, M P; Knox, B

    2001-04-01

    Health promotion, with its concern with empowerment and autonomy, must recognize the agency of its target population. Based on 85 in-depth interviews with 10- to 11-year-old children throughout Northern Ireland, this paper argues that it is necessary to focus on the social relations of children if we are to understand and prevent childhood smoking. Addressing the complex issue of childhood agency, it is argued that regardless of various restrictions to their choices, children can act intentionally in constructing their identities. Instead of viewing the smoking children as communicating with the adult world, we focus on smoking as negotiation of status within the children's culture. Such negotiations utilize symbolism derived from and shared with the 'adult world'. It is important that those analyzing children's lives understand children's ideas and behaviour on their own terms. We must make sure that the very concepts in which the children's experiences are put are appropriate ones. It is suggested that the metaphor 'rite of passage' and terminology such as peer 'pressure' versus adult 'influence', commonly used to analyse the children's smoking behaviour, may actually conceal important aspects of childhood agency.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute ... bleeding and forming blood clots. Smoking, previous chemotherapy treatment, and exposure to radiation may affect the risk ...

  14. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  15. Differential impact of local and federal smoke-free legislation in Mexico: a longitudinal study among adult smokers Impacto diferencial de la legislación federal y local de espacios libres de humo de tabaco en México: un estudio longitudinal entre fumadores adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Thrasher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the impact of Mexico City and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure and support for smoke-free laws. Material and Methods. Pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC Policy Evaluation Suvey in four Mexican cities. For each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. Results. Self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in Mexico City. Support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in Mexico City than in other cities. In bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported SHS exposure had significantly greater decreases in Mexico City than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in Tijuana and Guadalajara, but not in Mexico City or Ciudad Juárez. Conclusions. Although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change.Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la legislación federal y del Distrito Federal (DF de espacios libres de humo de tabaco (ELHT sobre la exposición al humo de tabaco y el apoyo a las leyes. Material y métodos. Se analizaron datos antes y después de la ley en una cohorte de fumadores adultos de cuatro ciudades mexicanas donde se aplicó la Encuesta Internacional para Evaluar las Políticas Públicas para el Control del Tabaco (Encuesta ITC. Para cada indicador, se estimó la prevalencia, cambios en la prevalencia y diferencias entre ciudades en las tasas de cambio. Resultados. La exposición autorreportada a las campañas sobre los ELHT incrementaron dramáticamente en el DF. El apoyo para prohibir fumar en lugares regulados aumentó en general, pero aumentó más en el DF. La exposici

  16. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  17. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  18. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  19. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Mazo Sara S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends

  20. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  1. Smoking Culture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Abtract:Smoking culture is deeply rooted in daily routine of Chinese people.The most significant one is that Chinese people have the tendency to send the cigarette as a gift.Only if scientists coordinate with the Chinese government to raise taxes on cigarette, limit the use of smoking scenes, advocate the use of electronic cigarette and educate the public will the deeply imbedded smoking culture in China change!

  2. Smoking and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM). In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birt...

  3. Ethnic Differences in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette; Kallehave, Tina; Hansen, Sune Jon

    2010-01-01

    ethnic” adolescents in school? How do these factors intervene in forming educational strategies, and how are they reflected in longer-term career options? 2. How do “minority ethnic” students and their families relate to actual school experiences and to schooling in general? How do they interpret success......-ethnic environment play in the process? How do experiences of “othering” inform the shaping of “minority ethnic” identity? 4. Who are the agents (institutions, persons) responsible for promoting equal opportunities in the education of “minority ethnic” youth, and for diminishing the gap between majority and minority...

  4. Place of Ethnic Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    UMAR Abdurehim of the Uygur ethnic group, aged 65, livesin Kuqa County, Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Facing the gate in the courtyard of his home is a row of buildings: from right to left a sitting room, bedrooms and kitchen. In front of the house is a five-meter-wide carpeted corridor. Umar's two-year-old grandson swings playfully on a long rope hanging from the trellis. A household specializing in tourism, the family receives countless tourists. The child is obviously accustomed to visitors and poses for photographs like a professional.

  5. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  6. Stubbing Out Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing,home to 4 million smokers,is to introduce a gradual cigarette ban China’s capital will ban smoking in most public places starting from May 1,signaling a big step toward tobacco control in a nation of 350 million smokers and a move to meet China’s pledge of a smoke-free Olympics. Beijing has had some restrictions on smoking since 1996,when the municipal government prohibited smoking in large public venues such as schools,sports venues and movie theaters.

  7. CVD risk factors and ethnicity--a homogeneous relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sattar, Naveed

    2006-04-01

    Current understanding of cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) is derived largely from studies of Caucasians of European origin. However, people of certain ethnic groups experience a disproportionately greater burden of CVD including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Adoption of a Westernised lifestyle has different effects on metabolic and vascular dysfunction across populations, e.g. South Asians have a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality compared with Europeans. African-Americans demonstrate higher rates of CHD and stroke while African/Caribbeans in the UK have lower CHD rates and higher stroke rates than British Europeans. Other non-European groups such as the Chinese and Japanese exhibit consistently high rates of stroke but not CHD, while Mexican Americans have a higher prevalence of both stroke and CHD, and North American native Indians also have high rates of CHD. While conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol predict risk within these ethnic groups, they do not fully account for the differences in risk between ethnic groups, suggesting that alternative explanations might exist. Ethnic groups show differences in levels of visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and novel risk markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin and plasma homocysteine. The marked differences across racial and ethnic groups in disease risk are likely due in part to each of genetic, host susceptibility and environmental factors, and can provide valuable aetiological clues to differences in patterns of disease presentation, therapeutic needs and response to treatment. Ongoing studies should increase understanding of ethnicity as a potential independent risk factor, thus enabling better identification of treatment targets and selection of therapy in specific populations.

  8. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva;

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  9. Prevalência do tabagismo em adultos residentes nas capitais dos estados e no Distrito Federal, Brasil, 2008 Prevalence of smoking among adults residing in the Federal District of Brasília and in the state capitals of Brazil, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de tabagismo na população adulta do Brasil e propor recomendações para a redução do uso do tabaco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional, que incluiu uma amostra da população (18 anos ou mais residente nas capitais dos 26 estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal. Considerou-se para a determinação da amostra um intervalo de confiança de 95% e um erro amostral de 2%. Os participantes foram selecionados e entrevistados por meio do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL. Foram realizadas estimativas referentes à proporção de fumantes e o consumo de cigarros/dia conforme variáveis sociodemográficas. Adicionalmente, calculou-se a razão de prevalência de tabagismo entre homens e mulheres. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 16,1% (20,5% no sexo masculino e 12,4% no sexo feminino. A proporção de adultos que declararam fumar > 20 cigarros ao dia foi de 4,9%, sendo maior no sexo masculino (6,5% vs. 3,6%. Houve maior prevalência de tabagismo entre indivíduos com menor escolaridade (OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoking in the adult population of Brazil, in order to propose recommendations for the reduction of tobacco use. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study including a sample composed of residents (> 18 years of age of the capital cities of 26 Brazilian states and in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil. For the determination of sample size, a 95% confidence interval and a 2% sample error were defined. The participants were selected and interviewed by means of the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL, Telephone-based System for the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases.The proportion of smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated and

  10. Ethnic variability in bone geometry as assessed by hip structure analysis: Findings from the Hip Strength Across the Menopausal Transition study

    OpenAIRE

    Danielson, Michelle E.; Beck, Thomas J.; Lian, YinJuan; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Greendale, Gail A; Ruppert, Kristine; Lo, Joan; Greenspan, Susan; Vuga, Marike; Cauley, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic origin plays an important role in fracture risk. Racial/ethnic differences in fracture rates cannot be fully explained by bone mineral density (BMD). Studies examining the influence of bone geometry and strength on fracture risk have focused primarily on older adults and have not included people from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore racial/ethnic differences in hip geometry and strength in a large sample of midlife women. We performed Hip Structure Anal...

  11. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Nonnemaker

    Full Text Available Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1 assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2 determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS, a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706. The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional, on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for

  12. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor

  13. History of lifetime smoking, smoking cessation and cognitive function in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mons, Ute; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Kliegel, Matthias; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-10-01

    To examine potential associations of the history of lifetime smoking and smoking cessation with cognitive function in the elderly. In a population-based cohort study of older adults in Saarland, Germany, a detailed lifetime history of smoking was obtained using standardised questionnaires. Cognitive function was assessed with a validated telephone-based instrument (COGTEL) at the five-year follow-up in a subsample of n = 1,697 participants with a baseline age >65 years. Multiple linear regression models were employed to predict cognitive performance, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Ever-smokers with a higher cumulative dose of smoking in pack-years scored lower in the cognitive assessment than never-smokers, with the association being more pronounced in current smokers than in former smokers. In fully adjusted models, current smokers with 21-40 pack-years scored 4.06 points lower (95 % CI -7.18 to -0.94) than never-smokers. In former smokers, a longer time since smoking cessation was associated with higher scores in the cognitive test with reference to current smokers, even after adjustment for pack-years. Former smokers who had quit for more than 30 years scored 4.23 points higher (95 % CI 1.75 to 6.71) than current smokers. Dose-response-relationships of cognitive function with cumulative dose of smoking as well as with time since smoking cessation were substantiated by restricted cubic splines regression. Our results support suggestions that smokers are at an increased risk for cognitive impairment in older age; that the risk increases with duration and intensity of smoking, and subsides with time after smoking cessation.

  14. Needs Assessment of an Ethnic Chinese Community in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Mei Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study is a needs assessment of ethnic Chinese older adults in Japan. The Delphi method was applied to identify the needs addressed by the focus groups. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model guided the examination of the community’s political, economic and social environment in satisfying the needs of older community members. The needs were matched with a city’s Health, Welfare, and Long-term Care Insurance Program Plan seeking to identify differences between ethnic Chinese and Japanese commu...

  15. Association of sugar-sweetened beverage intake frequency and asthma among U.S. adults, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Akinbami, Lara J.; McGuire, Lisa C.; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among U.S. adults is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. An association between SSB intake and asthma has been shown among U.S. children and Australian adults, but scant published information exists for U.S. adults. We examined associations between SSB intake and current asthma among U.S. adults, and the role of obesity in this association. Methods We analyzed 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 146,990 adults (≥18 years) from 23 states and the District of Columbia. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations between current asthma and frequency (none, <1 time/day, once/day, ≥2 times/day) of SSB intake (soda, fruit drink, sweet tea, and sports/energy drink). SSB intake was measured using two questions. Covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and smoking. Obesity, based on self-reported height and weight, was assessed as an effect modifier. Results Overall, 9.1% of adults reported current asthma: 8.5% of adults who did not consume SSBs had current asthma vs 12.1% of adults who consumed SSBs ≥2 times/day. There was no difference in asthma prevalence with SSB intake <1 time/day (8.7%) or once/day (8.7%). Among non-obese adults, the odds of having current asthma were higher among those who consumed SSBs ≥2 times/day (aOR=1.66, 95%CI=1.39, 1.99) than non-SSB consumers. However, SSB intake frequency was not associated with asthma among obese adults. Conclusions Frequent SSB consumption was associated with asthma among non-obese adults. Research on asthma prevention should further consider the potential adverse effects of high SSB intake among U.S. adults. PMID:27496394

  16. Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Samuel A., IV; Kessler, Marc

    Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four…

  17. The Smoking Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Examines the complex public debate over the risks of passive smoking that includes the issues of individual choice, personal space, community, social norms, and morality. Discusses the composition of ETS (gases and particulates that disperse into the air when a smoker smokes) and the efforts of tobacco lobbies. (LZ)

  18. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  19. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer and other diseases? Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and lung. It may also cause cancer ... directly expose their lips, mouth, tongue, throat, and larynx to smoke and its toxic and cancer-causing chemicals. In addition, when saliva containing the ...

  20. [Negative effects of passive smoking on the (unborn) child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhuis, W; Merkus, P J F M; de Jongste, J C

    2002-02-23

    The negative effects of passive smoking on the health of the foetus or child continue to receive little attention, despite the large volume of research in this area. Passive smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, a reduction in head circumference at birth, and a far higher incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. Exposure to cigarette smoke also leads to a decreased lung function, an increased risk of severe infections, including respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, meningococcal disease and middle ear infections. There is no association between passive smoking and the development of allergic asthma, but passive smoking does cause an increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children with or without asthma. Finally, there is a relation between passive smoking and behavioural disorders including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Passive smoking before birth seems even more harmful than after birth. A causal relationship is suggested in most studies, or has been proven by animal experiments. A decreased birth weight in general increases the risk of developing chronic diseases as an adult, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This extensive knowledge about the adverse health effects of smoke exposure in (unborn) children deserves greater attention in the counselling of pregnant women, and in anti-smoking campaigns.

  1. Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechacek, T F; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Mittelmark, M B; Johnson, C A; Shutz, J M

    1984-03-01

    The initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents is a health problem which has been the subject of discussion and study for many years. The evaluation of strategies to deter the adoption of smoking has long been hampered by the problems of measuring adolescent smoking behavior. Recently, interest has increased in biochemical measures of smoking under the assumption that they are more objective measures. The validity of this assumption is addressed for several ages of adolescents. This paper presents saliva thiocyanate levels, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and smoking self-reports from a sample of 2200 junior and senior high-school students. Interrelationships among the biochemical and behavioral measures are strong among the total population, ranging from 0.48 to 0.95 (Pearson r) but are much weaker at the younger age levels. Normative levels of carbon monoxide and saliva thiocyanate are presented by age (11-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years old). These data indicate that habitual smoking appears to develop in a gradual fashion and that several years may pass between initial experimentation and adult levels of smoking. Younger students consistently display lower levels of thiocyanate and carbon monoxide than older students of the same self-reported levels of smoking, suggesting that inhalation patterns may vary as a function of age or years smoking.

  2. Tribal Hands and Ethnic Votes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic politics is a serious domestic challenge in Iran. Non-Persian communities are mobilizing to claim their rights and to demand representation in a system that activists claim is biased against minorities and the peripheral regions. Yet the inner workings of contemporary Iranian ethnic politics...... are largely understudied. This article explores recent evolutions in the role that ethnicity, regionalism and tribalism plays in Iranian domestic politics. It focuses on how these interconnected factors figured in the 2013 presidential and local council elections in Iran in a particular province that has...... a history of ethnic tensions. Incidentally, these elections brought Hassan Rouhani, a moderate cleric, to power as president. Among his electoral promises was to end the securitization of the minority issue. This article illustrates some of the barriers to a transformative ethnic politics – barriers...

  3. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  4. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  5. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  6. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  7. Heavy smoking and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2006-01-01

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necroinflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes.Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis.Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with supression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache,fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation

  8. Smoking and survival in male breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron-Monedero, Alicia; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Miao, Feng; Hansra, Damien; Lee, David J; Byrne, Margaret M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the article was to assess whether smoking affects survival in male breast cancer patients for the overall population and when stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained by linking the 1996-2007 Florida Cancer Data System, the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, and the US Census. Inclusion criteria were males ≥18 years, diagnosed with breast cancer and residing in Florida (n = 1573). To analyze the association between smoking and survival, we performed sequential multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models with progressive adjustment for main confounders. Compared to never smokers, worse survival was found in current (hazard ratio = 1.63; 95 % CI = 1.23-2.16) but not in former smokers (1.26; 0.99-1.59). Those who smoked ≥1 packs/day had worse survival (2.48; 1.59-3.87) than never smokers with a significant dose-response (P for linear trend survival, which was worse by intensity of smoking. Also, any smoking history is associated with worse survival in White and non-Hispanic male breast cancer patients compared to never smokers. Thus, male breast cancer patients should be advised to quit smoking.

  9. Urinary Bisphenol A and Hypertension in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is a common chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, with >93% of US adults having detectable BPA levels in urine. Recent animal studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in several mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension, including weight gain, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. However, no previous human study has examined the association between markers of BPA exposure and hypertension. Methods. We examined urinary BPA levels in 1380 subjects from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2003-2004. Main outcome-of-interest was hypertension, defined as blood pressure-reducing medication use and/or blood pressures >140/90 mm of Hg (n=580. Results. We observed a positive association between increasing levels of urinary BPA and hypertension independent of confounding factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index (BMI, diabetes mellitus and total serum cholesterol levels. Compared to tertile 1 (referent, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension associated with tertile 3 was 1.50 (1.12−2.00; P-trend = 0.007. The association was consistently present in subgroup analyses by race/ethnicity, smoking status, BMI, and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions. Urinary BPA levels are associated with hypertension, independent of traditional risk factors.

  10. Cultural and social influences on adolescent smoking dissipate by emerging adulthood among Hispanics in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for smoking among Hispanic adolescents and determine whether these factors continued to influence smoking into emerging adulthood. Data were drawn from 932 Hispanics in the greater Los Angeles area who were surveyed in high school in 2007 and then again in emerging adulthood from 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression assessed the associations between predictors in adolescence and smoking in adolescence while an order one transition logistic model assessed predictors in adolescence and smoking in emerging adulthood. Adult and sibling smoking status, perceptions of smoking, perceived discrimination, and fatalism all influenced smoking in adolescence but not in emerging adulthood. Once Hispanics reach emerging adulthood different tactics to reduce smoking will be needed and are where future research should be directed.

  11. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  12. Meta-analysis of prevalence of smoking in 15-64-year-old population of West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: It was found that more than one-fifth of men from 15 year to 64-year-old of west of Iran smoked cigarette. Providing an education on harmful effects of smoking to the adult population would be a valuable means for reducing destructive consequences of smoking.

  13. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of High Homocysteine Levels Among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Its Implications for Preventive Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homocysteine (Hcy is a relevant biomarker of vascular disease: serum Hcy concentrations will increase the risk of systolic hypertension, whereas hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy has a synergistic effect with hypertension and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, information has primarily been gathered from high-income and urban settings, and little is known regarding low-income rural settings. This study focused on a low-income rural and nomadic minority residing in far western China. Hcy levels were tested, and the prevalences of HHcy and H-type hypertension were investigated in this population. Methods: This study used a stratified cluster random sampling method, selecting 2,180 individuals as subjects from Kazakh and Uyghur inhabitants (≥25 years old of 18 villages in Xinjiang, China, which is approximately 4407 km from the capital, Beijing. Hcy levels were determined using a double reagent enzymatic cycling method. HHcy (Hcy > 10 μmol/L was defined by the criteria of the American Heart Association. Results: The Kazakh geometrical mean of Hcy was 13.34 μmol/L, and the Uyghur mean was 13.75 μmol/L; the mean values were higher in males than in females of both ethnicities (15.99 μmol/L vs. 11.63 μmol/L; 15.71 μmol/L vs. 11.91 μmol/L, respectively, p < 0.01. The serum levels of Hcy increased with increasing age in both ethnicities, and except for Kazakh individuals >65 years old, Hcy serum levels were higher in males than in females in all age groups of both ethnicities, with a p value less than 0.01. The Kazakh prevalence of HHcy was 80.0%, and the Uyghur prevalence was 78.2%; the male prevalence was higher than that in females for both ethnicities (93.5% vs. 69.6%; 90.8% vs. 64.6%, respectively, p < 0.05. Among the Kazakh, the prevalence of hypertension was 35.1%, and the prevalence was higher in males than in females (44.3% vs. 28.1%, p < 0.001; 87.6% of the Kazakh individuals had H-type hypertension, and the

  14. Depressive Symptoms, Drinking Problems, and Smoking Cessation in Older Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study modeled the predictive association between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation in a sample of 442 late-middle-aged smokers; assessments occurred at four time-points across a 10-year period. In addition, the study examined the role of baseline drinking problems in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation. Findings supported hypotheses. More depressive symptoms prospectively predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. In addition, the presence of baseline drinking problems strengthened the relationship between depressive symptoms and a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying depression and cigarette smoking among older adults is applicable to secondary prevention and treatment and suggests additional public health benefits from treating depression in older persons. PMID:19372009

  15. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.

  16. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared

  17. Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men from Heavy Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161256.html Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men From Heavy Smoking Study found lower rates ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking bans may help reduce smoking among young American men, a new study finds. Researchers examined ...

  18. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects smokin

  19. Indirect effects of smoking motives on adolescent anger dysregulation and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischel, Emily R; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Knapp, Ashley A; Bilsky, Sarah A; Ham, Lindsay; Lewis, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and death in the United States, and smoking typically begins in adolescence. It is therefore important to understand factors that relate to increased risk for cigarette smoking during this stage of development. Adolescence is a period when emotion regulatory capacities are still emerging and a common affective state to be regulated is anger, which adult research has linked to nicotine use. Drawing from work suggesting that negative affect reduction motives are one of the most common reasons for cigarette smoking, the current study was designed to evaluate the indirect effects of negative affect reduction motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and nicotine use within a sample of 119 treatment-seeking adolescents enrolled in group-based residential therapy. Results were generally consistent with hypotheses, suggesting significant indirect effects of negative affect reduction smoking motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and smoking outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of negative affect reduction motives for cigarette use in the context of anger regulation among youths.

  20. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François,; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F.; Marc C. Willemsen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling u...

  1. Smoking and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, R

    1986-01-01

    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace.

  2. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkzaban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process and to find an explanation for the possible association between smoking and the progression of periodontitis. We evaluated the articles published in English language between 1990 and 2013 with the search terms ‘‘periodontal health and smoking’’, ‘‘periodontal treatment and smoking’’, and ‘‘tobacco smokers and oral hygiene’’. Results Of the total yield of 145 identified publications, 72 were selected for this literature review. The results of the selected papers reflect the effect of smoking on oral hygiene, gingival inflammation and vasculature, gingival crevicular fluid, subgingival microflora in periodontitis, fibroblast function, genetic polymorphism, initiation and progression of periodontal disease and its effect on passive smokers, and host response to periodontal treatment. Conclusions Smoking is a significant risk factor for impaired periodontal health and treatment.

  3. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  4. Effectiveness of Switching Smoking-Cessation Medications Following Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, Bryan W.; Cummings, K. Michael; Kasza, Karin A.; Borland, Ron; Burris, Jessica L; Geoffrey T Fong; McNeill, Ann; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Nicotine dependence is a chronic disorder often characterized by multiple failed quit attempts (QAs). Yet, little is known about the sequence of methods used across multiple QAs or how this may impact future ability to abstain from smoking. This prospective cohort study examines the effectiveness of switching smoking-cessation medications (SCMs) across multiple QAs. Methods Adult smokers (aged ≥18 years) participating in International Tobacco Control surveys in the United Kingdom...

  5. Association between Family Structure, Parental Smoking, Friends Who Smoke, and Smoking Behavior in Adolescents with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations show that the smoking prevalence among asthmatic adolescents is higher than among healthy adolescents, and the causes that lead these asthmatic adolescents to smoke are unclear. We investigated the association between family structure, parental smoking, smoking friends, and smoking in asthmatic adolescents (n = 6,487. After adjusting for sex and age, logistic regression analyses showed that nonintact family structure, parental smoking, and smoking friends are associated with smoking in adolescents with and without asthma. Asthmatic adolescents who reside in the household of a nonintact family have a 1.90 times greater risk of smoking compared with those who live with both biological parents. It is important that parents who have children with asthma be made aware that the presence of smokers in the home and adolescent fraternization with smoking friends not only favor the worsening of asthma, but also induce the habit of smoking.

  6. SMOKING AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Harpreet Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of present review is to consider the association between smoking and periodontal diseases.

  7. [Etiology, epidemiology, biology. Tobacco use and smoking in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, G

    2008-10-01

    Since 1976, France improved its anti tobacco legislation and regulation with the help of the Non-governmental organizations under the umbrella of the Alliance Against Tobacco. Since then were implemented a total ban of tobacco advertising (1991), a total ban of smoking in enclosed public and work places (2006), a high taxation of tobacco products, strong media campaigns to de normalize smoking and tobacco products, improved availability, accessibility and affordability of treatments of tobacco dependence. Since 1991, the number of cigarettes smoked per adult was halved.

  8. Examination of a brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Holly E; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Harrar, Solomon W; Golbeck, Amanda L

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the factor structure of a brief version of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A) among 315 college freshman and sophomore smokers. A comparison of results from two confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a nine-factor model provided superior fit to a four-factor model. Furthermore, results revealed a lack of factorial invariance of factor loadings for daily and nondaily smokers, and of latent mean structures for smoking category and gender. In addition, concurrent validity tests demonstrated that positive expectancies increased with smoking rate and nicotine dependence. These results and their implications are discussed.

  9. Meaning making in middle childhood: an exploration of the meaning of ethnic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Zosuls, Kristina M; Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Hughes, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Social identity, including identification with one's ethnic group, is an important aspect of social development. However, little is known about the subjective meaning associated with social group memberships, particularly during middle childhood. Using second- and fourth-graders responses to an open-ended question, we explored the meaning of ethnic identity with a sample of Chinese, Dominican, Russian, White, and Black American children. Analyses revealed that middle childhood is an active period for meaning making as children described the ethnic identity to include ideas such as language, physical appearance, pride, relative social position, and culture. While there were few differences in the ethnic identity meaning responses of second- and fourth-grade children, the meaning of ethnic identity varied considerably across the ethnic groups underscoring how the unique features and experiences of different ethnic groups shapes the subjective meaning of ethnic identity. These findings align with prior research on the meaning of ethnic identity among adults and adolescents and offer insight for future research regarding the conceptualization and measurement of the meaning of social group membership.

  10. [Smoking cessation therapies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Gradl, S

    2010-02-01

    Reducing the consumption of tobacco products in Germany is a health objective that is achievable with smoking cessation treatments for smokers. This objective turns out to be more successful when using different interventions for smoking cessation than with self-initiated smoking cessation methods. This survey describes the range of smoking cessation treatments in Germany and evaluates them on the basis of international guidelines.

  11. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Bai ethnic group in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their associated factors among Bai ethnic population in the rural China. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2010 with a randomly cluster sampling in rural communities in Dali, southwest China. A total of 2133 adults aged 50 or above were interviewed, and their blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as a mean SBP≥140 mmHg and/or DBP≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 42.1% (899/2133, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 40.0%. Among the hypertensive participants, 28.4% (255/899were aware of their condition, while 24.6% (221/899 took antihypertensive medications, with only 7.5% (67/899 of those achieving blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of HBP, overweight, and obesity, while protective factors included being lean, and having finished senior high school or above. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension prevalence is high among the population of Bai ethnic group in China, while the associated risk factors of hypertension include overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, and older age. The percentages of hypertensive participants aware of their hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medications were low with an incredibly low proportion of hypertensive patients who kept their hypertension under control. It is suggested that health education and hypertension screening programs be carried out in the area for the high blood pressure prevention and control.

  12. Smoking practices and risk awareness in parents regarding passive smoke exposure of their preschool children: A cross-sectional study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Farideh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young children living with parents who smoke are exposed to unacceptable health hazards. Aim: To determine patterns of parental smoking, the level of parental awareness about hazards of secondhand smoke, and the effect of risk awareness on smoking behavior. Setting: Health centers affiliated with two teaching hospitals in Tehran. Design: Cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from parents of preschool children visiting the health centers, through face-to-face interview, during a period of 18 months. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by multiple logistic regression, and analysis of variance was done for comparison of means. Results: In a total of 647 families, prevalence of parental smoking was 35.7%, (231 families. In 97.8% of smoking families, only the fathers smoked; and in 5 (2.2% families, both parents were regular smokers. Prevalence of smoking was higher in poor families as compared with families who were well-off (39% vs. 25%; P = 0.025, and also in families with lower educational level. There was no significant difference in risk awareness between smokers and nonsmokers (P > .05. Conclusion: Low socioeconomic status and low education were identified as risk factors for children′s exposure to secondhand smoke; parental risk awareness had no apparent effect on the smoking behavior. Unlike western societies, fathers were the sole habitual smokers in most families. Since factors that influence smoking behavior vary in different cultures, interventional strategies that aim to protect children from the hazards of tobacco smoke need to target diverse issues in different ethnic backgrounds.

  13. Obesity, age, ethnicity, and clinical features of prostate cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor J; Pang, Darren; Tang, Wendell W; Zhang, Xin; Li, Li; You, Zongbing

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 36.5% of the U.S. adults (≥ 20 years old) are obese. Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. The present study included 1788 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy at the Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, from January, 2001 to March, 2016. The patient’s medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Body mass index (BMI), age, ethnicity (Caucasians versus African Americans), clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were retrieved. The relative risk of the patients was stratified into low risk and high risk groups. Associative analyses found that BMI was associated with age, clinical stage, Gleason score, but not ethnicity, PSA levels, or the relative risk in this cohort. Age was associated with ethnicity, clinical stage, Gleason score, and PSA levels, as well as the relative risk. Ethnicity was associated with Gleason score and PSA levels as well as the relative risk, but not clinical stage. These findings suggest that obesity is associated with advanced prostate cancer with stage T3 or Gleason score ≥ 7 diseases, and age and ethnicity are important factors that are associated with the clinical features of prostate cancer patients.

  14. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers.

  15. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, E.; Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Janssen, E.; Mons, U.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; de Vries, H.; Thrasher, J.F.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  16. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  17. Media Flows, Ethnicity, Racism and Xenophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John D. H.; Husband, Charles

    1995-01-01

    States the importance of media definitions of ethnic majorities. Discusses media discourses concerning settled ethnic minorities, race relations and the news, ethnic minority media, contract labor, migrants and refugees, indigenous land-based groups, and ethnic minority presence in mainstream media. Draws examples from the United States, Eastern…

  18. Secondhand Smoke and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and is retained in clothing, hair, curtains, and furniture. Many people find ETS unpleasant, annoying, and irritating ... children of non-smoking mothers. Modest impairment in school performance and intellectual achievement has also been demonstrated. ...

  19. Cultural Fields, Communication and Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyday...... life and identity formation of ethnic minorities take place. We deliberately explore how ethnicity works or does not work as a marker in the configuration of the two chosen cultural fields: public libraries and ethnic media. We analyse the role of these two cultural fields in the social formation...... of Indre Nørrebro as a neighbourhood and in the local citizens' process of producing locality and a sense of belonging. How are these cultural fields structurally configured and organized, and what role do they historically and contemporarily have in the neighbourhood? The implicit assumption is that both...

  20. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and