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Sample records for adult rural african

  1. Young Adult, Rural, African American Stimulant Users: Antecedents and Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663

  2. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  3. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  4. Dietary Adequacies among South African Adults in Rural KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Kolahdooz; Kerry Spearing; Sangita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfacti...

  5. Stimulant Use by Young Adult African Americans in a Rural Community: A Pipeline to Prison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    The association between stimulant use and legal outcomes was examined in rural adults 18–21 years (n=98) in the Mississippi River Delta of Arkansas from 2003 through 2008. Participants were interviewed at baseline and every six months for two years using the Substance Abuse Outcomes Module, Addiction Severity Index, Short-Form 8 Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Screen, and an abbreviated Antisocial Personality Disorder measure. More than three-quarters were arrested before baseline; 47 were arrested over the next two years. Early arrest but not substance use was related to subsequent arrest. Limitations and implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:21047150

  6. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  7. Parental Perspectives on Antismoking Discussions With Adolescents in Rural African American Households, May 2004-January 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Susan; Crozier Kegler, Michelle; Escoffery, Cam

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to use qualitative interviews to examine antismoking discussions African American parents and adult family members have with adolescent children. This study is one of the first studies to examine the content of family discussions about not smoking among rural African American families from the perspective of parents and extended family members. Methods Interview topics included discussions with their children, how their children reacted to those disc...

  8. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural south

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African American youth in the south are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and ...

  9. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…

  10. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keefe, S.J.; Li, J.V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, J.; Carbonero, F.; Khaled, M.; Postma, J.M.; Kinross, J.; Wahl, E.; Ruder, E.; Vipperla, K.; Naidoo, V.; Mtshali, L.; Tims, S.; Puylaert, P.G.B.; DeLany, J.; Krasinskas, A.; Benefiel, A.C.; Kaseb, H.O.; Newton, K.; Nicholson, J.K.; Vos, De W.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Zoetendal, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and

  11. Diabetes and Other Disorders of Glycemia in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gouws, Eleanor; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and associated risk factors in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using the 1998 World Health Organization criteria for disorders of glycemia. RESULTS—Of 1,300 subjects...

  12. A church-based diet and physical activity intervention for rural, lower Mississippi Delta African American adults: Delta Body and Soul effectiveness study, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have reached epidemic levels in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region. We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month, church-based, diet and physical activity intervention, conducted during 2010 through 2011, for improving diet quality (measured by ...

  13. Rurality and rural education : Discourses underpinning rurality and rural education research in South African postgraduate education research 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Robert John; T. Nkambule; Pillay, G; Moletsane, R

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African institutions of higher learning have conducted research on various issues on rurality and rural education. However, little is known of the focus of ...

  14. African hydrogeology and rural water supply

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, Alan; Davies, Jeffrey; Callow, Roger C.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread development of groundwater is the only affordable and sustainable way of improving access to clean water and meeting the Millennium Development Goals for water supply by 2015. Current approaches to rural water supply, in particular demand driven approaches and decentralisation of service delivery have many benefits to the overall efficacy and sustainability of water supplies, however, problems arise when projects do not take into consideration the nature of the g...

  15. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  16. Self-Reported Sleep Difficulties and Self-Care Strategies Among Rural Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Joanne C.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Quandt, Sara A.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha T.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of self-care strategies to address difficulty sleeping among community-dwelling older adults. Data were collected from a series of 18 questionnaires administered to 195 rural African American and white older adults in North Carolina. Participants reported whether they had experienced difficulty sleeping and strategies used to respond to the symptom. The most widely used strategies included ignoring the symptom, staying in bed or resting, and praying. Herb and suppl...

  17. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  18. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jana H.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Leung, Man-Chi

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates…

  19. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Determination of the Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement ...

  20. Renal impairment in a rural African antiretroviral programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessells Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little knowledge regarding the prevalence and nature of renal impairment in African populations initiating antiretroviral treatment, nor evidence to inform the most cost effective methods of screening for renal impairment. With the increasing availability of the potentially nephrotixic drug, tenofovir, such information is important for the planning of antiretroviral programmes Methods (i Retrospective review of the prevalence and risk factors for impaired renal function in 2189 individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in a rural African setting between 2004 and 2007 (ii A prospective study of 149 consecutive patients initiating antiretrovirals to assess the utility of urine analysis for the detection of impaired renal function. Severe renal and moderately impaired renal function were defined as an estimated GFR of ≤ 30 mls/min/1.73 m2 and 30–60 mls/min/1.73 m2 respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratio (OR of significantly impaired renal function (combining severe and moderate impairment. Co-variates for analysis were age, sex and CD4 count at initiation. Results (i There was a low prevalence of severe renal impairment (29/2189, 1.3% 95% C.I. 0.8–1.8 whereas moderate renal impairment was more frequent (287/2189, 13.1% 95% C.I. 11.6–14.5 with many patients having advanced immunosuppression at treatment initiation (median CD4 120 cells/μl. In multivariable logistic regression age over 40 (aOR 4.65, 95% C.I. 3.54–6.1, male gender (aOR 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.39–2.56 and CD4 Conclusion In this rural African setting, significant renal impairment is uncommon in patients initiating antiretrovirals. Urine analysis alone may be inadequate for identification of those with impaired renal function where resources for biochemistry are limited.

  1. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

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    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  2. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid. PMID:17939024

  3. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology: a cross-sectional comparison of rural and non-rural US adults

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    Swanoski Michael T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 for a suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the U.S. Methods Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, having a health care provider (HCP, timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment because of cost, self-defined health status and geographic locale. Results The weighted n for this study overall was 103,262,115 U.S. adults > =18 years of age. Approximately 22.0% of these respondents were U.S. adults living in rural locales. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those U.S. adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR = 1.218 95%CI 1.216-1.219 rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR = 1.353 95%CI 1.352-1.354, >65 years of age (OR = 1.369 95%CI 1.368-1.371, African American (OR = 1.892 95%CI 1.889-1.894, not educated beyond high school (OR = 1.400 955CI 1.399-1.402, uninsured (OR = 1.308 95%CI 1

  4. Rurality and Rural Education: Discourses Underpinning Rurality and Rural Education Research in South African Postgraduate Education Research 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambule, T.; Balfour, R. J.; Pillay, G.; Moletsane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African…

  5. Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…

  6. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung, M.-C.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates exceeding 50% for public school students. Girls were more likely to have positive characteristics than boys. Academic, behavioral, and social difficulties were linked to low end-of-year grades, and positive characteristics were linked to high grades. Implications for supporting low-achieving African American students from low-resource communities are discussed.

  7. RESILIENCE IN IGBO RURAL COMMUNITY ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    JohnBosco Chika Chukwuorji; Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero

    2014-01-01

    While involved in organising an empowerment seminar for the Igbo rural youths, the authors investigated resilience among rural adolescents and young adults. Three hundred and twenty nine (329) adolescents (n = 162) and young adults (n = 167), comprising 159 males and 170 females, were participants. They completed the 14-item Resilience scale and provided some relevant demographic information. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in resilience on account of age, gender...

  8. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    OpenAIRE

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infra...

  9. Correlates of HIV Testing among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Borders, Tyrone F.; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    Andersen's Revised Behavioral Model of Health Services Use (RBM) was used as a framework in this correlational cross-sectional study to examine factors associated with HIV testing among a sample of 251 rural African American cocaine users. All participants reported using cocaine and being sexually active within the past 30 days. Independent variables were categorized according to the RBM as predisposing, enabling, need, or health behavior factors. Number of times tested for HIV (never, one time, two to four times, five or more times) was the outcome of interest. In ordered logistic regression analyses, HIV testing was strongly associated with being female, of younger age (predisposing factors); having been tested for sexually transmitted diseases or hepatitis, ever having been incarcerated in jail or prison (enabling factors); and having had one sex partner the past 30 days (health behavior factor). Other sexual risk behaviors, drug use, health status, and perception of risk were not associated with HIV testing. Our findings confirm the importance of routine testing in all healthcare settings rather than risk-based testing. PMID:25346379

  10. Factors that influence rural African American males' aspirations to attend college

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    Stuart, Alesia K.

    This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial

  11. Emotional Wellness Needs: Older Adults in Rural Communities

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    Russ, Randall

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…

  12. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  13. Frailty Among Elderly Adults in a Rural Area of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Background The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. Material/Methods This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province...

  14. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users

    OpenAIRE

    Gullette, Donna; Brenda M. Booth; Wright, Patricia B.; Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed SSS was...

  15. Upstream Ecological Risks for Overweight and Obesity Among African American Youth in a Rural Town in the Deep South, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alison J Scott; Wilson, Rebecca F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have focused on overweight and obesity among rural African American youth in the Deep South, despite disproportionately high rates in this group. In addition, few studies have been conducted to elucidate how these disparities are created and perpetuated within rural communities in this region. This descriptive study explores community-based risks for overweight and obesity among African American youth in a rural town in the Deep South. Methods We used ecological theor...

  16. Mental illness and lost income among adult South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Dan J Stein; Williams, David R.; Flisher, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. Methods A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental ...

  17. La Communicacion en la educacion de Adultos y el Desarrollo Rural (Adult Literacy and Rural Development). Cuadernos del CREFAL 14.

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    Vejarano, Gilberto M.; And Others

    This booklet presents the ideas that came out of the Regional Meeting for Adult Literacy and Rural Development. The meeting took place in September 1981 at the Regional Center for Adult Education and Functional Literacy for Latin America (CREFAL) in Mexico. Basically, a discussion of adult literacy in the rural areas of Latin America is presented.…

  18. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  19. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  20. Parental Perceptions of Home Internet Use among Rural African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeananne Oldham

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growth of home Internet use over the past decade, disparities still exist among certain socioeconomic groups of the population. Rural, lower socioeconomic and African Americans fall further behind in technology access than any other group. The purpose of this ex post facto qualitative study was to investigate parental perceptions…

  1. Maternal Resources, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural, Single-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1998-01-01

    Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…

  2. It Takes a Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth in the Context of Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Berkel, Cady; Murry, Velma McBride; Hurt, Tera R.; Chen, Yi-fu; Gene H. Brody; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was medi...

  3. Interpersonal Identity and Social Capital: The Importance of Commitment for Low Income, Rural, African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer; White, Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    Social capital may be particularly important for the well-being and future opportunities of African American adolescents living in low income families. In this study, linkages between interpersonal identity formation and adolescents' perceptions of social capital quality were examined in a cross-sectional study of 374 low income, rural, African…

  4. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  5. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  6. Diabetes and Other Disorders of Glycemia in a Rural South African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gouws, Eleanor; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and associated risk factors in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using the 1998 World Health Organization criteria for disorders of glycemia. RESULTS—Of 1,300 subjects selected, 1,025 subjects (815 women) participated (response rate 78.9%). The overall age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 3.9%, IGT 4.8%, and IFG 1.5%. The prevalence was similar in men and women for diabetes (men 3.5%; women 3.9%) and IGT (men 4.6%; women 4.7%) but higher in men for IFG (men 4.0%; women 0.8%). The prevalence of diabetes and IGT increased with age both in men and women, with peak prevalence in the 55- to 64-year age-group for diabetes and in the ≥65-year age-group for IGT. Of the cases of diabetes, 84.8% were discovered during the survey. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent risk factors associated with diabetes included family history (odds ratio 3.5), alcohol ingestion (2.8), waist circumference (1.1), systolic blood pressure (1.0), serum triglycerides (2.3), and total cholesterol (1.8); hip circumference was protective (0.9). CONCLUSIONS—There is a moderate prevalence of diabetes and a high prevalence of total disorders of glycemia, which suggests that this community, unlike other rural communities in Africa, is well into an epidemic of glucose intolerance. There is a low proportion of known diabetes and a significant association with potentially modifiable risk factors. PMID:18523142

  7. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

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    Khathutshelo P. Mashige

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas.Aim: To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence theirdecisions.Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions.Results: Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate. Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66% or second practices (64.6% in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2% or second (79.4% practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areaswere financial concerns (81.2%, personal safety (80.1% and poor living conditions (75.3%, with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05 being from urban respondents for the latter twoissues only.Conclusion: Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remoteareas of the country.

  8. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  9. RESILIENCE IN IGBO RURAL COMMUNITY ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS

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    JohnBosco Chika Chukwuorji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While involved in organising an empowerment seminar for the Igbo rural youths, the authors investigated resilience among rural adolescents and young adults. Three hundred and twenty nine (329 adolescents (n = 162 and young adults (n = 167, comprising 159 males and 170 females, were participants. They completed the 14-item Resilience scale and provided some relevant demographic information. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA was used to test for differences in resilience on account of age, gender and level of education. Young adults had significantly higher resilience scores than adolescents. No significant difference was found in resilience scores of males and females. Participants with higher education had significantly higher resilience scores than those with lower education. Of all the interaction effects tested, only age * gender * education had a significant interaction effect on resilience. Discussion of the findings were based on the literature, realities of life in contemporary Igbo society and the authors’ observations.

  10. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

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    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  11. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  12. LIPID PROFILES OF RURAL OLDER ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age is an independent, non-modifiable risk factor for CVD, the leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine total cholesterol and lipoprotein sub-fractions in relation to statin use and ATPIII guidelines in a sample of older adults, n=278. 161f and 117m. Fa...

  13. A diet and physical activity intervention for rural African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE Epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are rampant in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. We assessed the effectiveness of a six-month, church-based, diet and physical activity (PA) intervention for improving diet quality (as ...

  14. RURAL/URBAN RESIDENCE, ACCESS, AND PERCEIVED NEED FOR TREATMENT AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN COCAINE USERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BORDERS, TYRONE F.; BOOTH, BRENDA M.; STEWART, KATHARINE E.; CHENEY, ANN M.; CURRAN, GEOFFREY M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine how rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other factors impede or facilitate perceived need for drug use treatment, a concept closely linked to treatment utilization. Study Design Two hundred rural and 200 urban African American cocaine users who were not receiving treatment were recruited via Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed a structured in-person interview. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test the associations between perceived need and rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other predisposing (eg, demographics), enabling (eg, insurance), and health factors (eg, psychiatric distress). Principal Findings In bivariate analyses, rural relative to urban cocaine users reported lower perceived treatment need (37% vs 48%), availability, affordability, overall ease of access, and effectiveness, as well as lower perceived acceptability of residential, outpatient, self-help, and hospital-based services. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between rural/urban residence and the acceptability of religious counseling. At the highest level of acceptability, rural users had lower odds of perceived need (OR=.23); at the lowest level, rural users had higher odds of perceived need (OR=2.74) than urban users. Among rural users, the acceptability of religious counseling was negatively associated with perceived need (OR=.64). Ease of access was negatively associated (OR=.71) whereas local treatment effectiveness (OR=1.47) and the acceptability of hospital-based treatment (OR=1.29) were positively associated with perceived need among all users. Conclusions Our findings suggest rural/urban disparities in perceived need and access to drug use treatment. Among rural and urban cocaine users, improving perceptions of treatment effectiveness and expanding hospital-based services could promote treatment seeking. PMID:25213603

  15. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

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    Sibo Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.

  16. Two-Year Trajectory of Stimulant Use in 18–21 Year Old Rural African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Booth, Brenda M.; Han, Xiaotong

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about stimulant use trajectories of rural African American youth. The purpose of the present study is to explore substance use over 24 months in 98 African Americans, ages 18–21, who used cocaine or methamphetamine 30 days prior to baseline. The majority was male, unemployed, and had not graduated from high school. At baseline, almost half of the participants met criteria for abuse/dependence of cocaine – the primary stimulant used – which decreased to 25% by the final follow-up. Similar decreases were noted in rates of alcohol and marijuana abuse/dependence, although monthly use remained high. Participants reported minimal utilization of mental health or substance abuse services, but demonstrated significant improvements on physical and mental health measures. In summary, cocaine use declined, but other substances were used at high rates, suggesting a significant need for intervention services that address multi-substance use in rural areas. PMID:20391266

  17. Managing Teacher Leave and Absence in South African Rural Schools: Implications for Supporting Schools in Contexts of Multiple-Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Juan, Andrea; Prinsloo, Cas; Reddy, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly points to the negative impacts of teacher absence from school on access to schooling and success in learning in schools, in particular in schools in areas of multiple-deprivation (including rural schools). South African schools are no exception. In this regard, like any other employer, the South African Department of Basic…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  19. Adapting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain in Rural African American Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Omni; Sbrocco, Tracy; Vannucci, Anna; Nelson, Beatrice; Jackson-Bowen, Darlene; Heimdal, James; Mirza, Nazrat; Wilfley, Denise E.; Osborn, Robyn; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Young, Jami F.; Waldron, Heather; Carter, Michele; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To obtain focus group data regarding the perspectives of rural African American (AA) girls, parents/guardians, and community leaders on obesity, loss of control (LOC) eating, relationships, and interpersonal psychotherapy for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Methods 7 focus groups (N = 50 participants) were moderated and the transcripts analyzed by Westat researchers using widely accepted methods of qualitative and thematic analysis. A session was held with experts ...

  20. Buffers of Racial Discrimination: Links with Depression among Rural African American Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Odom, Erica C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines racial discrimination as a predictor of depression in a sample of 414 rural, low-income African American mothers of young children. The potential moderating role of optimism and church-based social support was also examined. Mothers completed questionnaires when their child was 24-months-old. Hierarchical regression revealed that mothers’ perception of racism was a significant predictor of depression even after controlling for a variety of distal demographic charact...

  1. Energy supply and use in a rural West African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over three billion people live in the rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Often rural households have many unmet energy needs, including cooking, lighting, heating, transportation, and telecommunication. Designing solutions to meet these needs requires an understanding of the human, natural, and engineered systems that drive village energy dynamics. This paper presents the results of a novel study of energy supply and use over a one year period in an isolated rural village of 770 people in Mali. Quantitative data and narrative descriptions from this study portray village energy supply and use. Annual village energy use is 6000 MJ cap−1 yr−1. Domestic energy needs account for 93% of village energy use. Wood is the primary energy source and provides 94% of the village energy supply. Approximately 98% of the wood is used for domestic consumption. The uses of wood in the home are cooking (52.2%), heating water (22.2%), space heating (19.1%), and other activities (6.5%). This paper also reports variations in energy usage over the period of a year for a broad range of domestic, artisan, transport, and public energy uses. -- Highlights: ► Village energy supply and use is driven by human, natural, and engineered systems. ► Village energy use varies by 250% between the hot and cold seasons. ► Domestic wood consumption accounts for 92% of village energy. ► Solar PV cells and batteries supply power to pumps, lights, and personal electronics. ► Every household uses multiple energy sources to meet basic needs.

  2. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

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    Klipstein-Grobusch Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%, was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97. HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  3. The tuberculosis challenge in a rural South African HIV programme

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    Cooke Graham S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.

  4. Dietary Fat Reduction Behaviors among African American, American Indian, and White Older Adults with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A; Snively, Beverly M; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for older adults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults ≥65 with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire was used to measure dietary behaviors. Separate multiple linear regressions assessed effec...

  5. A cross-sectional study of vascular risk factors in a rural South African population: data from the Southern African Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI

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    Tollman Stephen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural sub-Saharan Africa is at an early stage of economic and health transition. It is predicted that the 21st century will see a serious added economic burden from non-communicable disease including vascular disease in low-income countries as they progress through the transition. The stage of vascular disease in a population is thought to result from the prevalence of vascular risk factors. Already hypertension and stroke are common in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Using a multidisciplinary approach we aimed to assess the prevalence of several vascular risk factors in Agincourt, a rural demographic surveillance site in South Africa. Methods We performed a cross sectional random sample survey of adults aged over 35 in Agincourt (population ≈ 70 000. Participants were visited at home by a trained nurse who administered a questionnaire, carried out clinical measurements and took a blood sample. From this we assessed participants' history of vascular risk, blood pressure using an OMRON 705 CP monitor, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, ankle brachial index (ABI, and total and HDL cholesterol. Results 402 people (24% men participated. There was a high prevalence of smoking in men, but the number of cigarettes smoked was small. There was a striking difference in mean BMI between men and women (22.8 kg/m2 versus 27.2 kg/m2, but levels of blood pressure were very similar. 43% of participants had a blood pressure greater than 140/90 or were on anti-hypertensive treatment and 37% of participants identified with measured high blood pressure were on pharmacological treatment. 12% of participants had an ABI of 5 mmol/l. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of hypertension, obesity in women, and a suggestion of subclinical atheroma despite relatively favourable cholesterol levels in a rural South African population. South Africa is facing the challenge of an emerging epidemic of vascular disease. Research to establish the

  6. Institutional Barriers to Participation in Adult Education among African Americans within Religious Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…

  7. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…

  8. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  9. [A survey of nutrition knowledge-attitudes-practices of Sichuan urban and rural adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Guldan, G S; Li, Z Q

    1993-01-01

    To provide a basis for designing nutrition education, two nutrition knowledge--attitudes--practices (KAP) surveys of adults aged 18 to 55 were conducted in 1989 in an urban (N = 1004) and a rural (N = 506) area of Sichuan. The results indicated that the nutrition levels in both sites were low, and an awareness of the relationship between nutrition and certain common diseases was lacking. However, both urban and rural adults possessed good attitudes toward nutrition and nutrition education. Large differences existed between urban and rural adults' food patterns, with the rural diet more monotonous than the urban one. The rural women will be a hard-to-reach audience requiring more intensive efforts. The findings suggest that nutrition education efforts for Sichuan urban and rural area adults will require different contents and emphases, different methods of delivery, and language suitable for each group, in order to obtain good results. PMID:8325173

  10. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M.; Wright, Patricia B.; Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed SSS was correlated with number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

  11. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M; Wright, Patricia B; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Stewart, Katharine E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed that SSS was correlated with a number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

  12. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  13. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B.; Bess, Jukelia J.; Mills, Kevin R.; Jimmy T. Efird

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesit...

  14. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE int...

  15. Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-07-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  16. Comparison of Abuse Experiences of Rural and Urban African American Women During Perinatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  17. Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A. Mwanyangala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.

  18. A qualitative examination of home and neighborhood environments for obesity prevention in rural adults

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    Ballard Denise

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability of healthy foods, and family support for physical activity and maintaining an ideal body weight. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 African American and White adults over 50 years of age in two rural counties in Southwest Georgia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two members of the research team using standard methods of qualitative analysis. Themes were then identified and data matrices were used to identify patterns by gender or race. Results Neighborhood features that supported physical activity were plenty of land, minimal traffic and living in a safe and friendly neighborhood. The major barrier was lack of recreational facilities. The majority of participants were not physically active with their family members due to schedule conflicts and lack of time. Family member-initiated efforts to encourage physical activity met with mixed results, with refusals, procrastination, and increased activity all reported. Participants generally reported it was easy to get healthy foods, although cost barriers and the need to drive to a larger town for a supermarket with good variety were noted as obstacles. Family conversations about weight had occurred for about half of the participants, with reactions ranging from agreement about the need to lose weight to frustration. Conclusion This study suggests that successful environmental change strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating in rural neighborhoods may

  19. Elder Mistreatment and Health Status of Rural Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan

    2015-11-01

    There is limited information on the nature of and health factors associated with elder mistreatment in rural areas. To address this gap in the literature, the current study described the nature of such mistreatment and investigated the association between different types of mistreatment and health factors among 897 randomly selected elderly persons in rural India. The results show that elder mistreatment was widely prevalent (21%). Furthermore, the higher frequency of and simultaneous occurrence of multiple types of mistreatment (83.4%) suggest that mistreatment was a continuous stressor. The presence of overall mistreatment was positively associated with depression symptoms and subjective health status. The higher levels of chronicity and multiple mistreatments further increased depression symptoms and lowered the health status of those who were mistreated. Although women, more than men, were more likely to experience mistreatment, chronic mistreatment, and multiple mistreatments, there were no significant gender differences in the mistreatment-health relationship. These findings suggest that older adults with depression symptoms and poor health should be screened for mistreatment. PMID:25381286

  20. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaling Zhao; Hong Yan; Ruihai Yang; Qiang Li; Shaonong Dang; Yuying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Edu...

  1. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  2. Trials and Triumph: Lesbian and Gay Young Adults Raised in a Rural Context

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    Angie L. Dahl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rural context at times is characterized by heteronormativity and conservatism. For individuals who identify as a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or queer, the rural context may pose particular challenges to the development of a healthy, coherent sense of self. Seven young adults (18–24 who identified as gay or lesbian participated in in-depth interviews regarding their experiences coming out in a rural Appalachian context. Findings suggest sexual minority individuals experience both trials and triumphs coming out in the rural context. Two overarching themes and six subthemes are discussed with implications for supporting sexual minority youth in the rural context.

  3. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting among Rural African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women's relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning,…

  4. Associations between Childhood Adversity and Depression, Substance Abuse and HIV and HSV2 Incident Infections in Rural South African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P. Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes…

  5. Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural African Communities: An Overview of Measures to Maximise the Medicinal Potentials of Indigenous Plants

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    Collise Njume

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities.

  6. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  7. Trials and Triumph: Lesbian and Gay Young Adults Raised in a Rural Context

    OpenAIRE

    Angie L. Dahl; Rachel K. Scott; Zachalee Peace

    2015-01-01

    The rural context at times is characterized by heteronormativity and conservatism. For individuals who identify as a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or queer), the rural context may pose particular challenges to the development of a healthy, coherent sense of self. Seven young adults (18–24) who identified as gay or lesbian participated in in-depth interviews regarding their experiences coming out in a rural Appalachian context. Findings suggest sexual minority indivi...

  8. Eating Behaviors and Social Capital are Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Rural Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in rural areas. This study examined the relationship between demographics, socioeconomic status, social capital, eating behaviors, and fruit and vegetable intake for a large rural sample. Data from 1220 rural adults participating in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment Survey were used. Multivariable regression results demonstrated eating a regular breakfast (p-value ≤ 0.001) was positively and drinking sugar...

  9. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural adults in suixi, china: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Miao; Du Jianzhong; Hovell Melbourne F; Sallis James F; Ding Ding; He Haiying; Owen Neville

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Modernisation and urbanisation have led to lifestyle changes and increasing risks for chronic diseases in China. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural populations need to be better understood, as the rural areas are undergoing rapid transitions. This study assessed levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours of farming and non-farming adults in rural Suixi, described activity differences between farming and non-farming seasons, and examined correl...

  10. Innovation of Adult Education Supply in Rural Areas from the Aspect of Rural Public Goods——A Case Study of Quzhou City,Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Status of rural adult education in Quzhou City is analyzed from three aspects of supply main body,supply method and fund source.Problems in the rural adult education in Quzhou City are pointed out.Firstly,the top-down supply decision model can not fully meet the needs of farmers.Secondly,education resources can not be best allocated.Thirdly,both rural labor force market and employment service are not perfect.In order to promote the development of rural adult education,the education supply mode of rural adults should be established,which is "supplied by the government,coordinated by the government,participated by the society,operated according to market mechanisms".This needs to set up the leading position of government,to establish the pattern of diversified main bodies of adult education supply in rural areas,and to construct the market operation mechanism driven by interests.

  11. Maternal resources, parenting practices, and child competence in rural, single-parent African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, G H; Flor, D L

    1998-06-01

    A family process model was tested that linked maternal education, maternal religiosity, and the adequacy of family financial resources to cognitive and psychosocial competence in the mothers' children. The sample included 156 6- to 9-year-old African American children living in single-mother-headed households in rural areas, 82% of whom lived in poverty. The distal variables of maternal education, maternal religiosity, and adequacy of financial resources were linked with the proximal variables of "no nonsense" parenting, mother-child relationship quality, and maternal involvement in the child's school activities. The proximal variables were, in turn, indirectly linked with children's cognitive competence, social competence, and internalizing problems through their association with the children's development of self-regulation. PMID:9680686

  12. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  13. Policy implementation in wheelchair service delivery in a rural South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wheelchairs allow users to realise basic human rights and improved quality of life. South African and international documents guide rehabilitation service delivery and thus the provision of wheelchairs. Evidence indicates that rehabilitation policy implementation gaps exist in rural South Africa.Objectives: The aim of this article was to explore the extent to which wheelchair service delivery in a rural, remote area of South Africa was aligned with the South African National Guidelines on Provision of Assistive Devices, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and The World Health Organization Guidelines on Provision of Wheelchairs in Less-Resourced Settings.Method: Qualitative methods were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 participants who were identified through purposive sampling. Content analysis of data was preformed around the construct of wheelchair service delivery.Results: Study findings identified gaps between the guiding documents and wheelchair service delivery. Areas where gaps were identified included service aspects such as referral, assessment, prescription, user and provider training, follow up, maintenance and repair as well as management aspects such as staff support, budget and monitoring. Positive findings related to individual assessments, enthusiastic and caring staff and the provision of wheelchairs at no cost.Conclusion: The gaps in policy implementation can have a negative impact on users and the service provider. Inappropriate or no wheelchairs limit user function, participation and quality of life. In addition, an inappropriate wheelchair will have a shorter lifespan, requiring frequent repairs and replacements with cost implications for the service provider.

  14. Rural Residence and Prescription Medication Use by Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymonpre, Ruby E.; Hawranik, Pamela G.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Due to various barriers to health care access in the rural setting, there is concern that rural older adults might have lower access to prescribed medications than their urban counterparts. Purpose: To review published research reports to determine prevalence and mean medication use in rural, noninstitutionalized older adults and assess…

  15. Residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults: A critical review

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    Irma eCorral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with any certainty in light of the considerable methodological problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided.

  16. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  17. The Health Status and Unique Health Challenges or Rural Older Adults in California

    OpenAIRE

    Durazo, Eva; Jones, Melissa; Wallace, Steven; Van Arsdale, Jessica; Aydin, May; Stewart, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Despite living in the countryside where open space is plentiful and there is often significant agricultural production, rural older adults have higher rates of overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and food insecurity than older adults living in suburban areas. All three conditions are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and repeated falls. This policy brief examines the health of rural elders and, by contrast, their urban counterparts, and finds that both groups lmost one in five Cali...

  18. Socio- demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in rural Meerut

    OpenAIRE

    Shailendra Kumar; Sunil Kumar Garg; Jai Veer Singh; Manjula Bhatnagar; Harivansh Chopra; Shailendra Kumar Bajpai

    2014-01-01

    Background:  Obesity is most common nutritional disorder in developed countries and is assuming significant dimensions in developing countries. Objectives:  To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 18 years and above and socio-demographic factors affecting overweight and obesity in rural population of Meerut. To suggest measures for prevention of overweight and obesity in adults population of rural Meerut. Material and Methods:  In present community based cross sect...

  19. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Elise R; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-11-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon. PMID:26619199

  20. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise R Morton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

  1. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus

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    Nola J. Parsons

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments.

  2. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  3. Health Care Provider Mobility Counseling Provision to Older Adults: A Rural/Urban Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseth-Zosel, Andrea L; Sanders, Gregory; O'Connor, Melissa; Fuller-Iglesias, Heather; Langley, Linda

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined rural-urban differences in health care provider (HCP) perceptions, attitudes, and practices related to driving safety/cessation-related anticipatory guidance provision to older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with HCPs in several north central states. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine dimensions of HCP perceptions and attitudes related to mobility counseling. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if HCP rurality was significantly predictive of HPC provision of mobility counseling by age. Rural HCPs were less likely than urban HCPs to provide mobility counseling to their patients aged 75 or older. Rural HCPs were less likely to refer patients to a driving fitness evaluation resource if they had questions related to driving issues, and were less likely to perceive there were adequate resources to help with driving issues. Rural-urban differences in HCP mobility counseling provision may contribute to potential health disparities between urban and rural patients. Both rural and urban HCPs need training about older driver issues, so they may educate their patients about driving safety/cessation. Future research should examine the association between rural-urban differences in HCP mobility counseling provision and rural older adult overrepresentation in motor vehicle injuries and fatalities statistics. PMID:26070871

  4. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Wesley R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large re...

  5. Factors influencing retention in care after starting antiretroviral therapy in a rural South African programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom H Boyles

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of patients with HIV in Africa has improved with the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART but these successes are threatened by low rates of long-term retention in care. There are limited data on predictors of retention in care, particularly from rural sites. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis of outcome measures in adults from a rural HIV care programme in Madwaleni, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The ART programme operates from Madwaleni hospital and seven primary care feeder clinics with full integration between inpatient and outpatient services. Outreach workers conducted home visits for defaulters. RESULTS: 1803 adults initiated ART from June 2005 to May 2009. At the end of the study period 82.4% were in active care or had transferred elsewhere, 11.1% had died and 6.5% were lost to follow-up (LTFU. Independent predictors associated with an increased risk of LTFU were CD4 nadir >200, initiating ART as an inpatient or while pregnant, and younger age, while being in care for >6 months before initiating ART was associated with a reduced risk. Independent factors associated with an increased risk of mortality were baseline CD4 count 6 months before initiating ART and initiating ART while pregnant were associated with a reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: Serving a socioeconomically deprived rural population is not a barrier to successful ART delivery. Patients initiating ART while pregnant and inpatients may require additional counselling and support to reduce LTFU. Providing HIV care for patients not yet eligible for ART may be protective against being LTFU and dying after ART initiation.

  6. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in rural adults of District Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In Pakistan, approximately 8 million people have diabetes mellitus, making it the fourth leading country in the list of world diabetic patients. Objectives: To measure the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its associated risk factors in a rural community of Peshawar. Study type, settings: A cross-sectional study conducted in PMRC model research community village of Budhni. Subjects and Methods: All adults over the age of 40 years residing in the specific village were selected for the study. During door to door visit, consent was taken from all the subjects and they were informed that a fasting blood sugar level would be checked a day or two later. All those who consented were interviewed according to pre-designed proforma and their height, weight and blood pressure were recorded using standard methods. Fasting blood samples were drawn the next day and sent to PMRC research laboratory where they were checked using Microlab 200 Merck. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6.0. According to American Diabetic Association criteria, fasting blood sugar level of >126 mg/dl was diagnosed. Results: Estimated population of adults > 40 years in the village is 1249 individuals. Nine hundred nine (72.7%) consented to participate in the study. A total of 345 subjects were screened for diabetes using fasting blood sugar as the proxy indicator. Eighty one (23.4%) had blood sugar over 126 mg/dl and were therefore, diagnosed to be diabetic. Of these 81 cases 46(56.8%) were known diabetics while, 35(43.2%) were newly diagnosed. Majority (39) were between 51-60 years, followed by 29 between 40-50 years and remaining 13 subjects were above 60 years of age. Among the 46 known diabetics, 42(91.3%) were non insulin dependent and only 4(8.7%) were insulin dependent. The duration of diabetes was between 1-5 years in 26(57%) cases who were known diabetic's. Those individuals who were not sure about their exact duration of diabetes were 9(19%). Cases with a family history of

  7. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  8. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  9. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  10. 21st Century African Philosophy of Adult and Human Resource Education in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    This paper will attempt to define a philosophy of adult education for the purpose of workforce development in Southern Africa. The different influences such as Ubuntu and communalism, indigenous education, diversity western philosophy, globalization and technology are explored in the context of the Southern African region.

  11. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting Among Rural African American Women*

    OpenAIRE

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women’s relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning, relationship well-being, and parenting were tested. Stressful events were related directly to diminished relationship well-being and heightened psyc...

  12. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2009-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through y...

  13. African American Cocaine Users’ Preferred Treatment Site: Variations by Rural/Urban Residence, Stigma, and Treatment Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    To encourage access, policy makers and providers need information about variations in drug users’ treatment preferences. This study examined how rural/urban residence, stigma surrounding drug use, and perceived treatment availability and effectiveness are associated with African American cocaine users’ preferences for the site of treatment (local, or in one’s home town; nearby, or in a town nearby; and distant, or in a town farther away). Two hundred rural and 200 urban cocaine users were recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed in-person interviews. Multinomial logit regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relative odds of preferring local vs. nearby and local vs. distant treatment. Rural cocaine users preferred distant (58%) and urban users preferred local (57%) treatment. Rural residence and a lifetime history of treatment were associated with higher odds of preferring nearby vs. local treatment; older age and greater perceived local treatment effectiveness were associated with lower odds of preferring nearby vs. local treatment. Rural residence, access to an automobile, higher rejection/discrimination stigma scores, and higher Brief Symptom Inventory-Global Severity Index scores were associated with higher odds of preferring distant vs. local treatment; older age, lower educational attainment, and greater perceived discrimination after treatment were associated with lower odds of preferring distant vs. local treatment. The findings from this study suggest that a regional approach to organizing drug use treatment services could better satisfy the preferences of rural African American cocaine users, whereas local treatment services should be expanded to meet the needs of urban cocaine users. PMID:25456092

  14. Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Juanita; McBride Murry, Velma; Brody, Gene; Parker, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    A correlation study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns. Additionally, the study examined the hypothesis that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. The sample for this study included 159 African American single-mother families with a 6- to 9-year-old child living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview format. Children's cognitive ability was measured by several subscales from the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was clearly related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children. PMID:11860595

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community.Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program.Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods.Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  16. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all pbody dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (pbody size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  17. Developing Navigation Competencies to Care for Older Rural Adults with Advanced Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Robinson, Carole A; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Pesut, Barbara; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; MacLeod, Roderick; Keating, Norah C; Santos Salas, Anna; Hallstrom, Lars K; Fraser, Kimberly D; Williams, Allison; Struthers-Montford, Kelly; Swindle, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Navigators help rural older adults with advanced illness and their families connect to needed resources, information, and people to improve their quality of life. This article describes the process used to engage experts - in rural aging, rural palliative care, and navigation - as well as rural community stakeholders to develop a conceptual definition of navigation and delineate navigation competencies for the care of this population. A discussion paper on the important considerations for navigation in this population was developed followed by a four-phased Delphi process with 30 expert panel members. Study results culminated in five general navigation competencies for health care providers caring for older rural persons and their families at end of life: provide patient/family screening; advocate for the patient/family; facilitate community connections; coordinate access to services and resources; and promote active engagement. Specific competencies were also developed. These competencies provide the foundation for research and curriculum development in navigation. PMID:27093177

  18. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus)

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Nola J.; Schaefer, Adam M.; Stephen D. van der Spuy; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematoc...

  19. Defining Rural Community(ies): Future Considerations for Informal and Nonformal Adult Education in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The study and practice of adult education takes place in many forms and contexts, so much so that it is sometimes asked, "What isn't adult education?" For the purposes of this chapter, informal and nonformal adult education include just about any endeavor adults undertake to learn and work together outside formal classroom, workplace, or…

  20. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmody J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John Carmody1, Raghunath P Misra1,2, Marlyn P Langford1, William A Byrd1, Lauren Ditta1, Bryan Vekovius1, Donald E Texada11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a "starry sky" appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients.Keywords: B-cells, Burkitt lymphoma, cancer, diabetes, eye, Epstein–Barr virus, orbit, tumor

  1. Factors associated with adults' perceived need to vaccinate against hepatitis B in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lijie; Wang, Jian; Wangen, Knut R; Chen, Ruohan; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public-health issue in China. While the hepatitis B vaccine is effective in preventing HBV infection, the HBV vaccination coverage rates among Chinese adults remain low. From a survey of rural adults from 7 provinces in China, we identified a unique HBV at-risk group: rural adults who had no history of HBV vaccination and had no plan to HBV vaccinate in the future. We divided this 'no history-no plan' group into those who identified No-need to vaccinate and those that perceived a Need to vaccinate (even if they had no plan to do so). We found age, marital status, health status, perceived HBV infection environment, perceived HBV infection risk and perceived HBV infection severity explained differences between the 'No-need' and 'Need" to HBV vaccinate groups. Education, occupation and knowledge of hepatitis B and HBV transmission were not associated with HBV vaccination need. Our results showed that free HBV vaccinations and reimbursement for vaccinating could significantly increase the HBV vaccinate take-up rate for both Need and No-need rural adults. A tailored public health HBV campaign, especially targeting the No-need subgroup, would increase vaccination rates by better informing rural adults about HBV transmission routes, the dangers of HBV infection, the effectiveness of HBV vaccinations and the safety of HBV vaccinations. PMID:27042968

  2. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    James Dollman; Melissa Hull; Nicole Lewis; Suzanne Carroll; Dorota Zarnowiecki

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant pr...

  3. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Wessels; Elmien Lesch

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurt...

  4. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilola M Pedro

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.

  5. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all poverweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  6. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elasy Tom A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

  8. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  9. Social Reproduction in Non-Formal Adult Education: The Case of Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Using fieldnotes from the non-formal adult education classes run by a non-profit international education with ground operations in rural Mozambique, this article documents how the comments made by class facilitators and class participants in those classes reflect inherent power inequalities between non-profit staff and local participants. These…

  10. Food Insecurity and Food Choices in Rural Older Adults with Diabetes Receiving Nutrition Education via Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, Daria R.; Morin, Philip C.; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Weinstock, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate differences between rural older adults with diabetes reporting the presence or absence of food insecurity with respect to meal planning, preparation, shopping, obesity, and glycemic control after receiving nutrition counseling through telemedicine. Methods: Food insecurity data were obtained by telephone survey (n = 74).…

  11. The Rural Economy: Implications for Further, Higher and Adult Education. An FEU View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This study presents an overview of how the further, higher, and adult education (FHE) system in England should support the rural economy. It is meant to relate to the changing agricultural scene, its diversification, the movement of people, and the well-being of the community. The first seven chapters of the booklet describe the nature of the…

  12. The Importance of Emotional and Social Isolation to Loneliness among Very Old Rural Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Elizabeth; Kivett, Vira R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relative importance of emotional and social isolation to loneliness among very old rural adults (n=119). Found that emotional isolation, specifically loss of spouse, accounted for more loneliness than did social isolation. Hearing acuity and visits with siblings (social isolation variables) also were significant predictors of loneliness.…

  13. Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

  14. A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

    2013-01-01

    Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

  15. Receptivity toward Immigrants in Rural Pennsylvania: Perceptions of Adult English as Second Language Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    This article uses interview and questionnaire data to examine how adult English as a second language (ESL) providers in rural Pennsylvania perceive community receptivity toward immigrants and the factors they believe foster or hinder receptivity and immigrants' integration. ESL providers' depictions of local responses to immigrants ranged from…

  16. Dosing of Praziquantel by Height in Sub-Saharan African Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Palha De Sousa, Chiquita A.; Brigham, Tracy; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Tielsch, James M.; Humphrey, Jean H.; PRENDERGAST, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstone of schistosomiasis control is mass praziquantel treatment in high prevalence areas. Adults are an important target population, given increasing recognition of the burden of male and female genital schistosomiasis. However, use of weighing scales to calculate praziquantel dosing in rural areas can be challenging. For school-age children, the World Health Organization (WHO) has approved a dose pole to simplify praziquantel dosing based on height. We modified the pediatric dose p...

  17. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Christine McKibbin; Aaron Lee; Bernard A. Steinman; Catherine Carrico; Katelynn Bourassa; Andrea Slosser

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. ...

  18. Urban–rural and gender differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity among young black South Africans between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs have increased in South Africa over the past 15 years. While these usually manifest during mid-to-late adulthood, the development of modifiable risk factors that contribute to NCDs are usually adopted early in life. Objective: To describe the urban–rural and gender patterns of NCD risk factors in black adolescents and young adults (15- to 24-year-olds from two South African Demographic and Health Surveys conducted 5 years apart. Design: An observational study based on interviews and measurements from two cross-sectional national household surveys. Changes in tobacco and alcohol use, dietary intake, physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity among 15- to 24-year-olds as well as urban–rural and gender differences were analysed using logistic regression. The ‘Surveyset’ option in Stata statistical software was used to allow for the sampling weight in the analysis. Results: Data from 3,186 and 2,066 black 15- to 24-year-old participants in 1998 and 2003, respectively, were analysed. In males, the prevalence of smoking (1998: 21.6%, 2003: 19.1% and problem drinking (1998: 17.2%, 2003: 15.2% were high and increased with age, but in females were much lower (smoking – 1998: 1.0%, 2003: 2.1%; problem drinking – 1998: 4.2%, 2003: 5.8%. The predominant risk factors in females were overweight/obesity (1998: 29.9%, 2003: 31.1% and physical inactivity (2003: 46%. Urban youth, compared to their rural counterparts, were more likely to smoke (odds ratio (OR: 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09–1.75, have high salt intake (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12–2.78, be overweight/obese (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14–1.69, or be physically inactive (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12–1.89. However, they had lower odds of inadequate micronutrient intake (OR: 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.62, and there was no overall significant urban– rural difference in the odds for problem drinking but among females the odds were higher in

  19. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...... assessed from the number of meals and snacks per day and from the food items and major food groups registered, and their contribution to energy intake (EI) was calculated. Anthropometric values were measured and sociodemographic data obtained using a questionnaire. Setting. A cross-sectional study...... was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. Subjects. A total of 1163 (61% women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age...

  20. Factors influencing Internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Jessica; Rennemark, Mikael; Jogréus, Claes; Anderberg, Peter; Sköldunger, Anders; Wahlberg, Maria; Elmståhl, Sölve; Berglund, Johan

    2015-09-01

    Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption; a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-care solutions. Older adults' Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. The sample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated with age, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living. Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts. Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well as living with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid the exclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet. PMID:24567416

  1. Nutrient Patterns and Their Association with Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle Factors and Obesity Risk in Rural South African Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T. Pisa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11–15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS. Principle Component Analysis (PCA was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26% was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21% by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19% by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients; and PC4 (13% by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24; p = 0.02 and PC4 (0.10 (−0.01; 0.21; p = 0.05 scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity.

  2. The Danish urban-rural gradient of allergic sensitization and disease in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N;

    2016-01-01

    allergens also decreased with decreasing degree of urbanized upbringing measured by sIgE to 4 common allergens as odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals with city as reference; town 0.60 (0.39-0.92), rural area 0.34 (0.22-0.52) and farm 0.31 (0.21-0.46). Furthermore, it was measured by SPT to 10 common...... allergens; town 0.52 (0.33-0.84), rural area 0.34 (0.21-0.53) and farm 0.29 (0.19-0.45). This urban-rural association was also seen for the risk of sensitization to specific allergens, rhinitis and allergic asthma. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show an urban-rural gradient of overall allergic......BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of allergic sensitization among children is lower in rural areas than in urban areas of the world. The aim was to investigate the urban-rural differences of allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens in adults depending on childhood exposure living in an...

  3. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wessels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  4. Rural-to-Urban Migration and Changes in Health Among Young Adults in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Elizabeth; VanLandingham, Mark; Anglewicz, Philip; Patthavanit, Umaporn; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the impacts of rural-to-urban migration on the health of young adult migrants. A key methodological challenge involves the potentially confounding effects of selection on the relationship between migration and health. Our study addresses this challenge in two ways. To control for potential effects of prior health status on post-migration health outcomes, we employ a longitudinal approach. To control for static unobserved characteristics that can affect migration propensity as well as health outcomes, we use fixed-effects analyses. Data were collected in 2005 and 2007 for a cohort of young adults in rural Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand. The migrant sample includes individuals who subsequently moved to urban destinations where they were reinterviewed in 2007. Return migrants were interviewed in rural Kanchanaburi in both years but moved to an urban area and returned in the meantime. A rural comparison group comprises respondents who remained in the origin villages. An urban comparison sample includes longer-term residents of the urban destination communities. Physical and mental health measures are based on the SF-36 health survey. Findings support the "healthy migrant hypothesis." Migrants are physically healthier than their nonmigrant counterparts both before and after moving to the city. We did not find an effect of migration on physical health. Rural-to-urban migrants who stayed at destination experienced a significant improvement in mental health status. Fixed-effects analyses indicate that rural-to-urban migration positively affects mental health. Return migrants do not fare as well as migrants who stayed at destination on both physical and mental health status--evidence of selective return migration. PMID:25604845

  5. Socio- demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in rural Meerut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Obesity is most common nutritional disorder in developed countries and is assuming significant dimensions in developing countries. Objectives:  To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 18 years and above and socio-demographic factors affecting overweight and obesity in rural population of Meerut. To suggest measures for prevention of overweight and obesity in adults population of rural Meerut. Material and Methods:  In present community based cross sectional study 1382 individuals aged 18 years and above were covered from 400 families spread over 5 villages with the help of systemic random sampling in rural area of Meerut District. The Individuals were interviewed and examined personally using Pre-designed and Pre-tested Questionnaire. Results:  Out of 1382 individuals 244 (17.7% were having BMI ≥ 25. Prevalence of obesity in females (22% was found more than males (13.8%. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity increased with advancing age, maximum being in age group 50-59 years (22.2%. Maximum numbers of males (19.9% were overweight in their most productive life (30 -39 years whereas maximum females were overweight in their menopausal decade i.e. 40-49 years (32.8%. Overweight was more in persons who were married (18.9%, professional/Technical person (33.3%, Savarna upper caste (23.1%, belonging to high standard of living index (21.0%, person living in joint families (18.2%, and Alcoholics (18.6% while smokers were having lower prevalence of overweight (10.6%. Conclusion: The prevalence of Overweight and Obesity is increasing in adult population of rural area. Various socio-demographic correlates are affecting the prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Rural population.

  6. Contributions of family environment and parenting processes to sexual risk and substance use of rural African American males: a 4-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie G; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors that forecast sexual risk and alcohol or other substance use patterns among 411 rural African American males as they transitioned from middle childhood to late adolescence. In addition, an exploration was undertaken to examine the contribution of both risk and protective factors in distinguishing rural African American males at highest risk for engaging in risky sexual behavior and elevated substance use from those with relatively low risk of engaging in these behaviors. Findings revealed that exposure to negative life events during middle childhood has prognostic significance for rural African American males' susceptibility to engaging in HIV-related risk behaviors as they transition into adolescence and young adulthood. High-risk engaging males had significantly higher means on susceptibility to risk and marginally significantly higher means on substance-using peer affiliation. High-risk rural African American males also reported lower means on involved-vigilant parent than the normative group (low-risk group). However, economic hardship, family stress, parental psychological functioning, and harsh and inconsistent parenting did not emerge as significant predictors of high- or low-risk group membership. The implication for future research and preventive interventions is discussed. PMID:23889021

  7. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  8. Financial Resources, Parent Psychological Functioning, Parent Co-Caregiving, and Early Adolescent Competence in Rural Two-Parent African-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between family financial resources, academic competence, and socioemotional adjustment during early adolescence. Subjects were 90 African American youths and their married parents in the rural South. Found that parents with greater financial resources were less depressed and more optimistic, and their children were better…

  9. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  10. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, VERNON; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; FRANKS, B. DON; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African...

  11. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  12. Recruitment of rural and cognitively impaired older adults for dental research

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bei; Goedereis, Eric A.; Crout, Richard J.; Plassman, Brenda L.; DiNapoli, Elizabeth A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Wiener, Michael; Boone, Martin L.; Wiener, R Constance; Kao, Elizabeth; Bai, Lina

    2010-01-01

    The recruitment of community-dwelling older adults, particularly those with cognitive impairment and those residing in rural areas, has been consistently challenging for researchers, especially in the dental field. This study reports on recruitment experiences from an ongoing study investigating the association between oral health and cognitive status in later life. Multiple recruitment strategies, including educational presentations and traveling to participants’ homes, were used to enroll r...

  13. African Community Knowledge in Global Mainstream Education : A comparative study of urban and rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the history of the post-colonial era there has been an increasing call for utilizing and generating African solutions to meet the challenges and development in Africa, as opposed to blueprints of Western development solutions. A belief in African solutions implies a belief in ones own peoples’ knowledge and abilities, ultimately manifested in a strong identity. In this thesis I use Basil Bernstein's theories of educational knowledge and non-school everyday community knowledge, ...

  14. Measuring the Impacts of Prime-Age Adult Death on Rural Households in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Yamano, Takashi; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, we measure how primeage adult mortality affects rural households’ size and composition, agricultural production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available data on an HIV-negative sample from neighboring Tanzania to predict the number of deaths that might have been expected in the absence of HIV, and compares this to the number of deaths actually recorded over the su...

  15. Promoting the Congregate Meal Program to the Next Generation of Rural-Residing Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Kara A; Francis, Sarah L; Margrett, Jennifer A; Peterson, Marc; Franke, Warren D

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing older adult population, Iowa Congregate Meal Program (CMP) participation has declined. Motivators and barriers to congregate mealsite participation and wellness programming preferences of baby boomers and older adults were examined to provide insight to how to revise and better promote the CMP for the next generation of older adults. Four focus group sessions were conducted with 27 primarily White, rural-residing adults, ages 48-88 years. Participation motivators included educational programs, food, and socialization while barriers included negative perceptions and stereotypes associated with congregate mealsites. Desired wellness programs were viewed as interactive and relevant. Healthcare was the leading wellness need with financial management and physical activity cited as the most-wanted topics of wellness programs. These results provide insight on factors, aside from funding, that may be adversely impacting CMP participation and identifies areas for further investigation. PMID:27153251

  16. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  17. Several Conventional Risk Markers Suggesting Presence of Albuminuria Are Weak Among Rural Africans With Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B.; Nordin, Lovisa S.; Thomsen, Jakúp A.;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate risk markers indicating the presence of albuminuria in patients with hypertension in rural sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Urine albumin-creatinine ratio, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), blood pressure, anthropometry, and other patient...... significantly associated with albuminuria. Only dysregulated DM and age were the conventional risk markers that seemed to suggest albuminuria among patients with hypertension in rural SSA....

  18. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  19. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  20. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467

  1. Linking Endotoxins, African Dust PM10 and Asthma in an Urban and Rural Environment of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Ortiz-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available African Dust Events (ADE are a seasonal phenomenon that has been suggested to exacerbate respiratory and proinflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico (PR. Increases in PM10 concentration and the effects of biological endotoxins (ENX are critical factors to consider during these storms. ENX promote proinflammatory responses in lungs of susceptible individuals through activation of the Toll-like receptors (TLR2/4 signaling pathways. The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicological and proinflammatory responses stimulated by ADE PM10 ENX reaching PR using human bronchial epithelial cells. PM10 organic extracts from a rural and urban site in PR (March 2004 were obtained from ADE and non-ADE and compared. A retrospective data analysis (PM10 concentration, aerosol images, and pediatric asthma claims was performed from 2000 to 2012 with particular emphasis in 2004 to classify PM samples. Urban extracts were highly toxic, proinflammatory (IL-6/IL-8 secretion, and induced higher TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation compared to rural extracts. ENX were found to contribute to cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses provoked by urban ADE PM10 exposure suggesting a synergistic potency of local and natural ENX incoming from ADE. The contribution of ADE PM10 ENX is valuable in order to understand interactions and action mechanisms of airborne pollutants as asthma triggers in PR.

  2. The association of levels of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in rural Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laatikainen Tiina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA reduces risk factors related to metabolic syndrome. Rurality influences the way people incorporate physical activity into daily life. The aim of this study is to determine the association of PA level with metabolic syndrome in a rural Australian population. The influence of adiposity on these associations is also investigated. Methods Three cross-sectional population health surveys were conducted in south-east Australia during 2004–2006 using a random population sample (n = 1563, participation rate 49% aged 25–74 years. PA was assessed via a self-administered questionnaire, and components of the metabolic syndrome via anthropometric measurements taken by specially trained nurses and laboratory tests. Results Approximately one-fifth of participants were inactive in leisure-time and over one-third had metabolic syndrome (men 39%, women 33%; p = 0.022. There was an inverse association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome (p Conclusion Some PA is better than none if adults, particularly women, are to reduce their risk of metabolic syndrome and associated vascular diseases. Specialised interventions that take rurality into consideration are recommended for adults who are inactive.

  3. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among rural original adults in NingXia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is combination of medical disorders that increase people's risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Little data exists on the prevalence of MS of rural original adults in Ningxia of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey method was used and the participants were interviewed by trained health workers under a structured questionnaire in rural of Ningxia in 2008. The number of research subjects was 1612. MS was defined by International Diabetes Federation IDF (2005. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 11.8%, whereas ethnic-specific prevalence was 10.3% in Han ethnic group and 13.7% in Hui ethnic group. Components of MS and MS were more common in Hui ethnic group than Han ethnic group. The mean levels and prevalence of abnormal value increased with increasing age in both ethnic groups (Cochran-Artimage test for trend, Hui ethnic group P Conclusions The prevalence of MS was high in rural residents' adults in Ningxia. Clustering of MS components and MS was increased with age. The components of MS have big differences among different ethnic groups.

  4. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  5. Gender Differences in Longitudinal Links between Neighborhood Fear, Parental Support, and Depression among African American Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition to adulthood is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among African Americans. In addition to stress related to emerging adulthood, neighborhood fear may contribute to depressive symptoms for African Americans. We examined gender differences in longitudinal associations between changes in perceived neighborhood fear, parental support, and depressive symptoms among African American youth who were in transition to adulthood. Five hundred and thirteen African American youths (235 males and 278 females were included in the study. An increase in perceived neighborhood fear was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms, and change in perceived maternal support was predictive of depressive symptoms among males, but not females. The findings suggest that policies and programs should help parents provide support to young adult children who live in violent neighborhoods as a strategy to prevent depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  7. Southern African HIV Clinicians Society adult antiretroviral therapy guidelines: Update on when to initiate antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Meintjes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The most recent version of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society’s adult antiretroviral therapy (ART guidelines was published in December 2014. In the 27 August 2015 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine, two seminal randomised controlled trials that addressed the optimal timing of ART in HIV-infected patients with high CD4 counts were published: Strategic timing of antiretroviral therapy (START and TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 (Early antiretroviral treatment and/or early isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults. The findings of these two trials were consistent: there was significant individual clinical benefit from starting ART immediately in patients with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells/μL rather than deferring until a certain lower CD4 threshold or clinical indication was met. The findings add to prior evidence showing that ART reduces the risk of onward HIV transmission. Therefore, early ART initiation has the public health benefits of potentially reducing both HIV incidence and morbidity. Given this new and important evidence, the Society took the decision to provide a specific update on the section of the adult ART guidelines relating to when ART should be initiated.

  8. Can E- Commerce Enable Marketing in an African Rural Women's Community Based Development Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Rhodes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested by various sources (Worldbank, 2000; Cypher, 1997 that investment in infrastructure and modern technologies such as ITC's may break down some of the barriers of access such as physical remoteness for poor rural communities. However there is little existing research that examines this sce-nario at the micro level. This paper uses a case study- the Rural Women's Association (RWA of Sek-huhkuneland, Northern Province, South Africa to examine if E- commerce can enable access to markets in an impoverished, under resourced rural location. This paper has five parts: Part 1 consists of the background and rationale for this study, Part 2 focuses on the education, business acumen and gender issues. Part 3 discusses the current market environment. Part 4 discusses possible business models that can integrate e-commerce in its implementation. Part 5 provides the research questions and the method-ology for this study. The final discussion in this study provides us with a viable e-commerce model that could be used in a rural setting and could provide greater economic development for this community.

  9. South African AIDS Orphans: Examining Assumptions around Vulnerability from the Perspective of Rural Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines assumptions circulating in development or interventionist discourse concerning the vulnerabilities of AIDS orphans in South Africa. Ongoing ethnographic research, begun in March 2003, with 31 rural children and youth between the ages of 14 and 22, in Magangangozi, KwaZulu-Natal, points to the ways in which global terms may…

  10. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  11. Financial exploitation of older adults in rural settings: a family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi

    2013-01-01

    Federal agencies responsible for funding protective services to older adults are increasingly concerned with the growing incidence of financial exploitation in rural areas. The Wall Street Journal recently has reported an increasing trend of unemployed adult children migrating from urban centers to smaller rural towns and countrysides to live with their parents since 2008. This current study explores the attitudes of family caregivers regarding management of financial matters for their elderly care recipients. The major findings of the study include that adult children often (1) overestimate their parents' ability to manage their finances; (2) prefer to manage their parents' finances informally, as opposed to using legal options like power of attorney; and (3) tend to think of their parents' assets as "almost theirs." The study concludes with recommendations on the critical need for information to help families make important decisions about helping elderly parents with their finances. This information would not only promote the use of safeguards against abuse, but could potentially provide caregivers with greater confidence and protection. PMID:23941423

  12. [Total rectal prolapse in young adults. Apropos of 10 cases in Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, L; Gournier, J P

    1988-12-01

    The authors described their African experience on the basis of ten cases of total rectal prolapse in the young adult and child. Total rectal prolapse and internal procidentia fall within the general context of disorders of rectal mechanics. In most instances, such forced prolapse occurs in young individuals who are usually muscular and used to difficult work. Nevertheless, defecation efforts in these chronically constipated patients play a significant role. Furthermore, there is frequently a concomitant presence of a megadolichosigmoid colon. In all cases treatment was surgical, involving rectopexy at the promontory using strips of fascia lata or even peritoneum. The post-operative course was in all cases uneventful with no recurrences and the routine prescription of adjuvant treatment for constipation. PMID:3230110

  13. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association With Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for nutrition and medical service provision to this population. Design and Methods: In-home interviews and oral examinations were conducted with 635 adults in ...

  14. Community perceptions of mining : the rural South African experience / Muntingh J.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Muntingh, Johannes Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Globally private companies and multi–nationals, including mining companies, have recently, in the current and post financial crises environment, seen their public image badly scarred, fermenting a negative image towards business in general, but also specifically towards the mining industry. This negative perception can also be seen in the South African mining industry, as reflected in various media reports on high profile, and often violent, community protests and labour dis...

  15. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  16. Spatial clustering of all-cause and HIV-related mortality in a rural South African population (2000-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Namosha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa bears a disproportionate burden of HIV infection. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of HIV outcomes is vital so that appropriate public health interventions can be directed at locations most in need. In this regard, spatial clustering analysis of HIV-related mortality events has not been performed in a rural sub-Saharan African setting. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was used to identify HIV-related and all-cause mortality clusters (p<0.05 in a population-based demographic surveillance survey in rural KwaZulu Natal, South Africa (2000-2006. The analysis was split pre (2000-2003 and post (2004-2006 rollout of antiretroviral therapy, respectively. Between 2000-2006 a total of 86,175 resident individuals ≥15 years of age were under surveillance and 5,875 deaths were recorded (of which 2,938 were HIV-related over 343,060 person-years of observation (crude all-cause mortality rate 17.1/1000. During both time periods a cluster of high HIV-related (RR = 1.46/1.51, p = 0.001 and high all-cause mortality (RR = 1.35/1.38, p = 0.001 was identified in peri-urban communities near the National Road. A consistent low-risk cluster was detected in the urban township in both time periods (RR = 0.60/0.39, p = 0.003/0.005 and in the first time period (2000-2003 a large cluster of low HIV-related and all-cause mortality in a remote rural area was identified. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related and all-cause mortality exhibit strong spatial clustering tendencies in this population. Highest HIV-related mortality and all-cause mortality occurred in the peri-urban communities along the National Road and was lowest in the urban township and remote rural communities. The geography of HIV-related mortality corresponded closely to the geography of HIV prevalence, with the notable exception of the urban township where high HIV-related mortality would have been expected on the basis of the high HIV

  17. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  18. A model of biogas plant for rural development in Nigeria and other African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 70-80% of Nigerians live in the rural areas, and a majority of families in Africa depend on fuel-wood as a source of energy for most of their domestic heating purposes. With the ever-increasing desert encroachment and land clearing for large scale farming, human settlements and other purposes, the supply of fuel wood is becoming a problem. To improve the standard of living of the rural households, prevent indiscriminate cutting of trees, increase fertilizer production and improve pollution control and sanitary conditions, readily available and inexpensive energy must be provided. This paper presents a model in which biogas can be generated locally and supplied in villages. The cost evaluation of the model biogas plant is highlighted. The effects of some operating parameters on biogas production is also presented

  19. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Elise R.; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, hos...

  20. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Elise R.; Joshua Lynch; Alain Froment; Sophie Lafosse; Evelyne Heyer; Molly Przeworski; Ran Blekhman; Laure Ségurel

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, hos...

  1. Validity of photographs for food portion estimation in rural West African setting

    OpenAIRE

    Huybregts, L.; Roberfroid, D; Lachat, C.; Camp, J.; Kolsteren, P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate food photographs for food portion size estimation of frequently consumed dishes, to be used in a 24-hour recall food consumption study of pregnant women in a rural environment in Burkina Faso. This food intake study is part of an intervention evaluating the efficacy of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. SUBJECTS: Women of childbearing age (15-45 years). DESIGN: A food photograph album containing four photographs of food portions per food item was ...

  2. Risk factors for overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, E; Reilly, J J; Bland, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine risk factors for overweight/overfatness in children and adolescents from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from a cross-sectional sample (n = 1519, ages 7, 11 and 15 years) and linked to demographic information (n = 1310 and n = 1317 in overweight and overfat analyses, respectively). Candidate risk factors for overweight/overfatness were identified and tested for associations with overweight (BMI-for-age >+1SD, WHO reference)...

  3. Risk factors for overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, E; Reilly, J J; Bland, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine risk factors for overweight/overfatness in children and adolescents from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from a cross-sectional sample (n = 1519, ages 7, 11 and 15 years) and linked to demographic information (n = 1310 and n = 1317 in overweight and overfat analyses, respectively). Candidate risk factors for overweight/overfatness were identified and tested for associations with overweight (BMI-for-age >+1SD, WHO ref...

  4. The complexity of rural contexts experienced by community disability workers in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Booyens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.

  5. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ramodikoe Nylon Marishane

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the “no-fee schools” policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and in-depth interviews held with their principals. The study has found that though the no-fee policy has come to relieve poor parents of the burden of paying school fe...

  6. ‘Dissemination as intervention’: building local AIDS competence through the report-back of research findings to a South African rural community

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi; Maimane, Sbongile; Sibiya, Zweni

    2010-01-01

    There is much debate about researchers’ ethical obligations to their informants, especially when they study marginalised communities in serious distress. Some say researchers should contribute to interventions to ameliorate the problems they investigate. Within this context, we report on a ‘dissemination as intervention’ exercise developed to report back research findings to a South African rural community -- using a dialogical approach which sought to strengthen participants’ confidence and ...

  7. With Health and Good Food, Great Life! Gender Differences and Happiness in Chilean Rural Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germán, Lobos; Grunert, Klaus G; Bustamante, Miguel;

    2016-01-01

    of well-being, i.e. happiness in older adults, both women and men, living in rural areas in the Maule Region, Chile. A subjective happiness scale was applied across female (N = 241) and male (N = 144) older adults (age range 60–90). Statistical analysis included comparison of means for independent...... samples and multiple comparison tests. Ordered logit models were computed to examine the determinants of happiness. We find that satisfaction related to food, perception of health and functionality are significantly linked to individual happiness within both gender groups. An influential predictor of...... female’s happiness is the frequency of having dinner with companion. An increased quantity of goods at home implied more happiness. A positive coefficient for age and a negative coefficient for age-squared seem to support the idea of an inverted U-shaped relationship between age and happiness in the...

  8. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R. Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design: A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban = 734 and rural = 1,144, who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity. Results: The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home, frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions: This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  9. Convergence in fertility of South Africans and Mozambicans in rural South Africa, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jill; Ibisomi, Latifat; Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen; Garenne, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992) settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS), established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Methods Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women. PMID:23364078

  10. Convergence in fertility of South Africans and Mozambicans in rural South Africa, 1993–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Garenne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992 settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS, established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Design: Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results: There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion: The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women.

  11. A cultural model of infidelity among African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauda, Mark M; Erickson, Pamela I; Singer, Merrill C; Santelices, Claudia C

    2011-12-01

    Having concurrent sexual partners is a risk factor for STIs and HIV/AIDS, yet few studies have investigated the cultural meanings and functions of concurrency. A multi-method qualitative/quantitative study of sexual ideas, attitudes, and behaviors among inner-city Puerto Rican and African American emergent adults (age 18-25) in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, suggests that having concurrent partners is common in this population. Using data from 12 focus groups and 40 participants in systematic data collection techniques (e.g., pile sorts), the underlying cognitive structure of concurrency and cheating/infidelity are explored. Results suggest that participants are less tolerant of multiple partners in more committed relationships, but that very few relationships can be considered committed. Furthermore, participants see cheating as inevitable even in committed relationships. Sexual transgressions are considered the most severe form of cheating. Having an outside partner for emotional reasons or to have access to one's child were seen as more acceptable/forgivable than doing so for sexual satisfaction, social status or material goods. Multiple partnerships must be seen in the context of the inner city where resources and opportunities are scarce and young adults attempt to protect themselves from emotional injury. Documenting new and changing social constructions of infidelity is important for understanding the social context of sexual behavior in our global world and for designing culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:22060128

  12. Etiology and Incidence of viral and bacterial acute respiratory illness among older children and adults in rural western Kenya, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few comprehensive data exist on disease incidence for specific etiologies of acute respiratory illness (ARI in older children and adults in Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 1, 2007, to February 28, 2010, among a surveillance population of 21,420 persons >5 years old in rural western Kenya, we collected blood for culture and malaria smears, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for quantitative real-time PCR for ten viruses and three atypical bacteria, and urine for pneumococcal antigen testing on outpatients and inpatients meeting a ARI case definition (cough or difficulty breathing or chest pain and temperature >38.0 °C or oxygen saturation 5 years old (adjusted annual incidence 12.0 per 100 person-years, influenza A virus was the most common virus (22% overall; 11% inpatients, 27% outpatients and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacteria (16% overall; 23% inpatients, 14% outpatients, yielding annual incidences of 2.6 and 1.7 episodes per 100 person-years, respectively. Influenza A virus, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in swabs among cases (22%, 6%, 8% and 5%, respectively than controls. Adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parechovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were not more prevalent among cases than controls. Pneumococcus and non-typhi Salmonella were more prevalent among HIV-infected adults, but prevalence of viruses was similar among HIV-infected and HIV-negative individuals. ARI incidence was highest during peak malaria season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Vaccination against influenza and pneumococcus (by potential herd immunity from childhood vaccination or of HIV-infected adults might prevent much of the substantial ARI incidence among persons >5 years old in similar rural African settings.

  13. The Effect of Changes in Health Beliefs Among African-American and Rural White Church Congregants Enrolled in an Obesity Intervention: A Qualitative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diane J; Turner, Monique M; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi; Kashima, Kanako; Hargreaves, Margaret K; Dignan, Mark B; Hébert, James R

    2016-06-01

    Church interventions can reduce obesity disparities by empowering participants with knowledge and skills within an established community. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Biomedical/Obesity Reduction Trial (BMORe) and investigate changes in health beliefs among obese adult participants. Ten pre-/post-intervention focus groups applying the Health Belief Model conducted in two African-American churches in Tennessee (n = 20) and South Carolina (n = 20), and one rural Appalachian church in Kentucky (n = 21). Two independent coders using NVivo analyzed transcribed audio data and notes. Participants' health status of being overweight/obese and having comorbidities of diabetes and high blood pressure motivated enrollment in BMORe. Initially participants voiced low self-efficacy in cooking healthy and reading food labels. BMORe made participants feel "empowered" after 12 weeks compared to initially feeling "out of control" with their weight. Participants reported improvements in emotional health, quality of life, and fewer medications. During post-intervention focus groups, participants reported increased self-efficacy through family support, sharing healthy eating strategies, and having accountability partners. Solidarity and common understanding among BMORe participants led focus group attendees to comment how their peers motivated them to stay in the program for 12 weeks. Long-term barriers include keeping the weight off by maintaining habits of exercise and healthy eating. Implementation of pre-/post-intervention focus groups is an innovative approach to evaluate an obesity intervention and track how changes in health beliefs facilitated behavior change. This novel approach shows promise for behavioral interventions that rely on participant engagement for sustained effectiveness. PMID:26601845

  14. Factors Associated with Tooth Loss in Older Adults in Rural Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Scarbro, Sharon; Bryant, Lucinda L; Puma, Jini

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that are associated with tooth loss in older adults living in the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado, which is a rural and large geographical area (roughly the size of Connecticut) that has a large population age 60 years or older. Data used in this manuscript were collected as a part of the SLV Community Health Survey. The analyzed sample included 308 adults over the age of 65 years who completed the survey. Basic descriptive statistics and a series of step-wise binary logistic regression analyses were conducted; the dependent variable was the number of permanent teeth removed because of tooth decay or gum disease. Fifty-two percent of the participants were male, Hispanic participants made up 40 % of the sample and 76 % of the participants had at least a high school education. Tooth loss was significantly associated with older age (OR = 1.09; p = 0.02), lower income (OR = 0.01; p = 0.00), less than high school education (OR = 0.32; p = 0.01), being Hispanic (OR = 2.15; p = 0.05), self-reported fair-poor health status (OR 2.94; p = 0.02), consumption of one or more than one sweet beverage per day (OR = 4.52; p = 0.00), no dental insurance (OR = 4.70; p = 0.01) and length of time since last dental visit (OR = 0.21; p = 0.01). The findings of the present study suggest possible causes for tooth loss in rural adults and underscore the need for in-depth research to study the overall oral health of rural older adults living in SLV. PMID:26518778

  15. Strategies to address learner aggression in rural South African secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunam D. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Managing learner aggression in the school system is central to learners’ academic performance and holistic development. In order to manage learner aggression, it is important to understand the contributory factors and the forms of learner aggression. This article reports on an investigation of factors contributing to learner aggression in rural secondary schools in the Empangeni district of KwaZulu-Natal in order to identify the forms of learner aggression and to establish strategies to manage such aggression in these secondary schools. A qualitative research design was adopted to investigate the phenomenon through an interview process with participants from five rural secondary schools. The findings showed that the factors contributing to learner aggression include family factors, environmental factors and school-related factors whilst the most common forms of learner aggression in schools are verbal aggression, physical aggression and bullying. The article concludes with the role that the school, parents and the Department of Education can play in addressing learner aggression in schools.

  16. Combating protein-energy-malnutrition in a rural/peri-urban southern African black population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, U E; Bac, M; Kuzwayo, P M; Glatthaar, I I; Ingle, R F; Walker, A R

    1991-10-01

    PROTEIN-ENERGY-malnutrition (PEM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Africa. In South Africa, in 1987, to help combating and preventing PEM in the rural black population, the Gold Fields Nutrition Unit was inaugurated at the Medical University of Southern Africa. In 1987-9, 442 patients (rural/peri-urban) plus their mothers or child carers were admitted, and 406 attended as outpatients. Average age was 15.4 +/- 7.6 months, weight 7.0 +/- 1.6kg, stay in hospital, 12 +/- 10.8 days, and daily weight gain during treatment was 31 +/- 48g. Mothers mainly were young and unmarried. Primary causative factors were infections, ignorance, and insufficiency of food. Since results from rehabilitation are usually poor, mothers and carers were taught how best to prepare meals using local foodstuffs. The interventions included teaching and demonstrations of how to grow vegetables, maintain an orchard, a fowl-run, and improve kitchen and laundry facilities. In 1990, in a follow-up of 73 patients, no deaths had occurred within a 12 month period. This far better than usual outcome is being furthered by setting up satellite nutrition clinics. PMID:1795353

  17. Financial Exploitation and Psychological Mistreatment Among Older Adults: Differences Between African Americans and Non-African Americans in a Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Castle, Nicholas G; Rosen, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine racial differences in (a) the prevalence of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment since turning 60 and in the past 6 months and (b) the experience—perpetrator, frequency, and degree of upset—of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Design and methods: Random digit dial telephone recruitment and population-based survey (telephone and in-person) of 903 adults aged 60 years and older in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania (693 non-African Am...

  18. Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-Efficacy in Condom Use Among Rural African-American Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Feldman, Zachary; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study (a) examined the stages of change (SOC) for condom use with primary and casual partners among rural heterosexual African American stimulant users, (b) identified gender differences in variables associated with SOC, and (c) assessed the association of SOC with decisional balance and self-efficacy. Seventy-two participants completed the study. SOC with a primary partner was much lower than SOC with a casual partner, indicating more consistent condom use with casual partners. Significant gender differences existed in decisional balance for condom use for both primary (p = 0.02) and casual partners (p = 0.03), with women having higher decisional balance scores than men. Women also reported higher self-efficacy scores for condom use with casual partners than men. In regression models, age, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with SOC for condom use with a primary partner; however, only self-efficacy was significantly associated with SOC with casual partners. The findings provide support for the development of interventions that promote the advantages of and increase self-efficacy for condom use. PMID:19887285

  19. Gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, Tawanda; Richter, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Involved and caring fatherhood contributes to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men. The corollary is also true - men, women and children are affected when fathers are not involved or supportive of their children. Many factors affect fathers' involvement, including women's attitudes, the history and nature of the relationship between mother and father, and the cultural context. This study explores gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Among married couples, gatekeeping occurs with respect to childcare and housework through women's attempts to validate their maternal identity according to socially and culturally constructed gender roles. Among unmarried, non-resident parents, women control father-child contact and involvement, with mothers and/or their families either facilitating or inhibiting father involvement. In this context, we found that cultural gatekeeping had a huge impact on father involvement, with the non-payment of inhlawulo or lobola regulating father-child involvement. In a country like South Africa, where there is high non-marital fertility and father-child non-residence, future research, parenting and family programmes should focus on strategies that encourage positive paternal involvement as well as maternal and cultural support for father involvement, regardless of parental relationship and residence status. PMID:26501893

  20. South African, Rural ICT Implementation: a critical retrospective application of Latour's due process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Rhodes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential developmental role of ICTs can pressurise governments to engage in ‘catch up’ and ‘leapfrog’. Consequently, analysis of the accompanying socio-political dimensions and risks can be, disastrously, neglected. This paper examines a specific technology implementation – a South African government sponsored telecentre using Latour’s Due Process model, an analytical tool grounded in Actor-Network Theory, where technology implementation is viewed as a symmetrical treatment of technology and society within a single collective. It is used here, retrospectively, to make sense of why the telecentre both failed to institutionalise within a successful actor-network, and, contributed to the destabilization and partial destruction of a successfully established women’s development organisation.

  1. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  2. Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amidou N'Diaye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2 approximately 0.8. More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P = 3.4×10(-12 and 2p14-rs4315565, P = 1.2×10(-8. As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P = 1.7×10(-4 for overall replication. Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01. Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.

  3. Determinants and Impact of Rural-Urban Migration: A Case Study of Selected Communities in Western Nigeria. African Rural Employment Paper No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essang, Sunday M.; Mabawonku, Adewale F.

    This economic analysis of migration was designed to test the following six hypotheses on the causes of out-migration from agriculture and its effect on the rural economy of Western Nigeria: (1) age of the rural family, of which the migrant is a member, is positively related to rural-urban migration rate; (2) a positive relationship exists between…

  4. A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy use is closely linked to quality of life in rural Africa. The gathering of fuel-wood and other traditional fuels is a strenuous and time consuming task mainly performed by women; indoor exposure to particulate matter, mainly from cooking and heating with traditional fuels, causes about 2.5 million deaths each year in developing countries (Bruce et al., Bull World Org. 78 (2000) 1078). Modern fuels and appliances allow households to reduce their exposure to smoke from biomass cookers and heaters. Yet modern fuels are costly for income-poor households and often carry their own external costs. For example, numerous children are poisoned from ingesting paraffin, and whole villages have burned from fires triggered by paraffin stoves and lamps

  5. Exploring the impact of wheelchair design on user function in a rural South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wheelchairs provide mobility that can enhance function and community integration. Function in a wheelchair is influenced by wheelchair design.Objectives: To explore the impact of wheelchair design on user function and the variables that guided wheelchair prescription in the study setting.Method: A mixed-method, descriptive design using convenience sampling was implemented. Quantitative data were collected from 30 wheelchair users using the functioning every day with a Wheelchair Scale and a Wheelchair Specification Checklist. Qualitative data were collected from ten therapists who prescribed wheelchairs to these users, through interviews. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to identify relationships, and content analysis was undertaken to identify emerging themes in qualitative data.Results: Wheelchairs with urban designs were issued to 25 (83% participants. Wheelchair size, fit, support and functional features created challenges concerning transport, operating the wheelchair, performing personal tasks, and indoor and outdoor mobility. Users using wheelchairs designed for use in semi-rural environments achieved significantly better scores regarding the appropriateness of the prescribed wheelchair than those using wheelchairs designed for urban use (p = <0.01. Therapists prescribed the basic, four-wheel folding frame design most often because of a lack of funding, lack of assessment, lack of skills and user choice.Conclusion: Issuing urban type wheelchairs to users living in rural settings might have a negative effect on users’ functional outcomes. Comprehensive assessments, further training and research, on long term cost and quality of life implications, regarding provision of a suitable wheelchair versus a cheaper less suitable option is recommended.

  6. 2012 international year for sustainable energy for all: African Frontrunnership in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012 has been declared the “International Year for Sustainable Energy for All” by the UN. While Africa remains the most ‘underpowered’ continent, the prognosis for a brighter future is looking good, as key stakeholders (governments, private sector, civil society, and the donor community) have mobilized at an unprecedented scale to experiment with new policies, regulatory frameworks, and business models to rapidly upscale access to sustainable energy. The top-down, central grid expansion approach to increasing electricity access is very capital intensive and yet has gained considerable momentum at the expense of lower cost options that utilize decentralized off-grid solutions. A decentralized bottom-up approach could also use indigenous renewable energy sources and foster more significant linkages with livelihood opportunities in the rural un-served territories. This paper evaluates the emerging experiments through the lenses of C.K. Prahalad's “bottom of the pyramid” theory and Clayton Christensen's “disruptive technologies” perspective. Three front-runner initiatives involving new business models, innovative technologies, and institutional capacity building will be analyzed. In addition, the paper examines a regulatory policy initiative designed to stimulate clean energy investments in Ghana. Though the examples are all from Ghana, they illustrate general challenges to sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. - Highlights: ► An analysis of innovative electricity access case studies from Ghana. ► Off-grid electrification options are keys to expanding electricity access in Africa. ► Base of the pyramid strategies for rural electrification has a niche in Africa. ► International collaboration will be crucial to achieve universal electricity access.

  7. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dollman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status. Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  8. Associations among Environmental Supports, Physical Activity, and Blood Pressure in African American Adults in the PATH Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K.; Egan, Brent M.

    2013-01-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkabi...

  9. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  10. Self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation for adult hearing aid users in a developing South African context

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Pienaar; Natalie Stearn; De Wet Swanepoel

    2010-01-01

    Hearing impairment has far reaching consequences for affected individuals, in terms of quality of life indicators. In a developing South African context the hearing impaired population is faced with limited aural rehabilitation services. This study evaluated self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a group of adults in the public healthcare sector with a standardized outcomes measurement tool (IOI-HA). Sixty-one respondents participated (44% males; 56% females), with a mean age of 69...

  11. Demographic Correlates of Psychological Well-Being and Distress Among Older African Americans and Caribbean Black Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of psychological distress and psychological well-being among older African American and black Caribbean adults. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life revealed that psychological well-being and psychological distress are distinct concepts. Findings also identify distinct correlates of psychological well-being (e.g., happiness, life satisfaction, self-rated mental health) and psychological distress (e.g., depressive symptoms, serious psy...

  12. Review of the Literature: A Rural-Urban Comparison of Social Networks of Older Adults Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brittany N; Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

    2016-01-01

    Globally, aging populations and older persons living with HIV (OPLWH) are emerging socioeconomic and health care concerns. Aging adults living in rural communities have less access to and lower utilization of health care services; they rely heavily on available peer and family networks. Although social networks have been linked to positive mental and physical health outcomes, there is a lack of understanding about social networks in rural-dwelling OPLWH. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to compare emerging themes in the social network components of rural versus urban-dwelling OPLWH and network benefits and barriers. Overarching themes include: limited and/or fragile networks, social inclusion versus social isolation, social capital, and health outcomes. Results demonstrate an overall lack of rural-focused research on OPLWH and a universal lack of informal and formal networks due to isolation, lack of health care services, and omnipresent HIV stigma. PMID:26995502

  13. Sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors in rural Thai adolescents and young adults: Support for gender- and age-specific interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimore, Amanda D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G.; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    STI prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14–29 years old) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men. PMID:23403603

  14. Symptoms of depression among adults in rural areas of western Poland

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    Dorota Łojko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To measure the intensity of depressive symptoms in the populations residing in rural areas of western Poland, and to delineate the putative association between the intensity of depression and selected socio-demographic and clinical factors. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study covered 445 adults recruited from one family physician practice in the rural area of Wielkopolska region. The following tools were applied: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the WHO WHOQoL-Bref quality of life assessment scale, and a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire elaborated by the authors. [b]Results.[/b] Depressive symptoms were observed in approx. 30% of the patients. The intensity of symptoms correlated with age, female gender, and inversely correlated with the quality of life. There was no association between depressive symptoms and level of education (counted as years of education, number of somatic illnesses, and family burden of psychiatric disorders. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Symptoms of depression were noted in approx. 30% of patients who consulted their family physician. The Beck questionnaire is a simple tool whose application could decidedly improve the recognition of depression. It is worth taking note of factors that may be connected with the intensity of depressive symptoms – gender, the number of diagnosed somatic illnesses, and the quantity of drugs administered.

  15. Paradoxical impacts of electricity on life in a rural South African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debates on the nexus between energy and development emphasise that access to modern energy carriers such as electricity improve development outcomes. This paper discusses the impacts of electrification on educational outcomes, gender and power relations, income generation, feelings of inclusion and exclusion and health in the village of Tsilitwa in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. It is based on an ethnographic grounded theory study conducted in 2009. The paper shows that the impacts of electricity may not match the benefits cited in the literature, and are not experienced in the same way by everyone in the community. The study uncovers the weakness of ignoring individual and group agency, and the complexity of social settings when advocating interventions to improve quality of life. The paper recommends that researchers and policymakers consider using ethnographic methods to complement other methods and reveal context and its implications on the energy–development nexus that other methods may not capture. - Highlights: • Linkages between energy and development outcomes are complex and not deterministic. • Ethnography better reveals the complex relationship between energy and development. • People's contexts affect whether, how and who benefits from energy access. • Benefits like sense of worth and inclusion are often neglected in development. • Electrification can have negative impacts such as rising sense of income disparity

  16. PREVALENCE OF PREHYPERTENSION AMONG ADULTS ATTENDING RURAL COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRE, SOUTH KERALA , INDIA

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    Vasantha Mallika

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High Blood Pressure is one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases worldwide. It is estimated that Hypertension, the silent killer, is responsible for fifty percent of cardiovascular deaths. In India, studies show steadily increasing prevalence of Hypertension since 1950 leading to deaths among young people. Scanty data exist regarding prevalence of Pre hypertension among poor and ignorant population attending rural health facilities like Community Health Centres. OBJECTIVES: To determine Prevalence of Prehypertension among adults attending outpatient departme nt of CHC, Vellarada and to identify the risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Cross sectional study was conducted during a period of three months from 18 th January2010 among 18100 adults of 18 years and above attending CHC, Vellarada, a village situated 40 kilometres away from Thiruvananthapuram and nearer to Tamil n adu. Pretested questionnaire - based information was collected about diet, physical activity, and tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Standardized techniques were used for data on BP, weight, heigh t and lipid profile. Using JNC - 7 criteria, Prehypertension was defined as Systolic BP 120 - 139 mmHg and Diastolic BP 80 - 89 mm Hg. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS package. RESULTS: Prevalence of Hypertension was 35.14% ( men 35.9%, women 34.6% and P rehypertension 40.9% ( men 40.56%, women 41.1%. On multivariate logistic regression analysis , Prehypertension showed significant positive association with BMI >23kg/m2 ( OR 1.79, age ( OR 1.74, Serum Triglyceride >150 mg/dl ( OR 2.2 and HDL cholesterol < 40mg/dl ( OR 1.48 . CONCLUSION: High prevalence of pre hypertension and associated risk factors among young, economically productive group of rural population needed targeted interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk. It is beneficial if every health faci lity makes attempts for routine BP recording of young people so that prehypertensives may be

  17. Prevalence and risk correlates of hypertension among adult rural population in Bihar

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    Ayan Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases will be prime cause of morbidity by 2020 in India. Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of hypertension in an adult rural community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine of tertiary care teaching institute of Bihar among adult population to find out the prevalence of hypertension with the sociodemographic correlates from October 2009 to September 2010. A pretested predesigned questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographics data by interview technique from 997 study participants. The blood pressure was assessed and classified using recent JNC 7 and WHO criteria to grade hypertension. Results: Majority of the study participants were Muslims (89% and in 40-49 age group (21.26%. In males and females, the overweight and obese combined were, respectively, 13%. In the dietary habit, 85.36% were non-vegetarian; 8.83% consumed salt more than 10 grams per day; 26.78% reported themselves as alcoholics; tobacco smokers were 58.28%, highest in 40-49 age group (23.58%. Overall, 11.43% were hypertensive and 16% were prehypertensive. Among hypertensive, majority were male (61%; and in 60-69 age group (27.27%, overweight and obese (56.14%, smokers (75.44%, non-vegetarian (67.54%. There was a significant linear trend between age and salt intake with prevalence of hypertension (P<0.0001. Conclusions: Hypertension in the rural population of Bihar was lower than previous estimates.

  18. Changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes in young adults from the rural area of baluchistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes in young adults in the rural area of Baluchistan. Methods: A community based observational study was carried out in the rural area of Baluchistan by conducting two surveys, in the years 2002 and 2009 respectively. The survey was further subdivided into two groups i.e. young adults (15-25 years) and adults (>25 years). In this study, data of young adults was analyzed. Data obtained in 2002 was also analyzed according to the current guidelines and compared with 2009 survey. Results: A total of 230 and 197 young adults participated in 2002 and 2009 surveys respectively. Obesity increased significantly (p <0.001) from 20 (10.15%) young adults in the year 2002 to 64 (27.82%) in 2009. Similarly 15 (7.61%) young adults were overweight in 2002 which increased to 24 (10.43%) in 2009 (p <0.317). Smoking increased from 8 (4.06%) to 49 (21.3%) in 2009 (p <0.001). Family history of diabetes mellitus also showed a significant increase (p <0.005). Hypertension increased from 13 (6.6%) young adults in 2002 survey to 17 (7.39%) in 2009, the increase was not statistically significant (p <0.749). Conclusion: The present study showed that risk factors for diabetes such as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes increased over time in the young adults of rural Baluchistan. (author)

  19. Early Life Predictors of Adult Depression in a Community Cohort of Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kerry M.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Banda, Deliya R.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Depression among African Americans residing in urban communities is a complex, major public health problem; however, few studies identify early life risk factors for depression among urban African American men and women. To better inform prevention programming, this study uses data from the Woodlawn Study, a well-defined community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 years, to determine depression prevalence through midlife and identify childhood and adolescent risk fac...

  20. The Concrete Jungle: City Stress and Substance Abuse among Young Adult African American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...

  1. Electronic data capture in a rural African setting: evaluating experiences with different systems in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina King

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As hardware for electronic data capture (EDC, such as smartphones or tablets, becomes cheaper and more widely available, the potential for using such hardware as data capture tools in routine healthcare and research is increasing. Objective: We aim to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of four EDC systems being used simultaneously in rural Malawi: two for Android devices (CommCare and ODK Collect, one for PALM and Windows OS (Pendragon, and a custom-built application for Android (Mobile InterVA – MIVA. Design: We report on the personal field and development experience of fieldworkers, project managers, and EDC system developers. Results: Fieldworkers preferred using EDC to paper-based systems, although some struggled with the technology at first. Highlighted features include in-built skip patterns for all systems, and specifically the ‘case’ function that CommCare offers. MIVA as a standalone app required considerably more time and expertise than the other systems to create and could not be customised for our specific research needs; however, it facilitates standardised routine data collection. CommCare and ODK Collect both have user-friendly web-interfaces for form development and good technical support. CommCare requires Internet to build an application and download it to a device, whereas all steps can be done offline with ODK Collect, a desirable feature in low connectivity settings. Pendragon required more complex programming of logic, using a Microsoft Access application, and generally had less technical support. Start-up costs varied between systems, and all were considered more expensive than setting up a paper-based system; however running costs were generally low and therefore thought to be cost-effective over the course of our projects. Conclusions: EDC offers many opportunities for efficient data collection, but brings some issues requiring consideration when designing a study; the decision of which hardware

  2. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Increase Condom Use and Reduce HIV Risk Among Urban African American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Trotter, Jennie; Zellner, Tiffany; Lenoir, Shelia; Evans, Donoria; Rollins, Latrice; Miller, Assia

    2016-09-01

    African Americans comprise nearly half of people in the United States living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but compose one tenth of the population. Infection rate among young African American adults is 11 times that of Whites. The Color It Real Program was a seven-session, weekly administered, age-specific, and culturally tailored intervention designed to provide HIV education and address behavioral motivations (risk awareness, decisional balance exercises, partner negotiation, and attitudes) associated with HIV risk among African Americans ages 18 to 24 years in Atlanta, Georgia. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 88) and control (n = 52) groups completing a 45-item survey. When controlling for gender and education, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the intervention group had significant increases in HIV transmission knowledge (F = 4.84, p = .0305), condom use, and intentions to use condoms (F = 4.38, p = .0385). Risky sexual behavior means did not significantly differ between groups (F = 1.44, p = .2331). Results indicate the value of culturally tailored educational strategies toward improved HIV knowledge and adoption of risk reduction strategies. Future studies investigating the differential impact of programs by gender and sexual orientation are also critical. Continued innovation and tailoring of risk reduction strategies for minority young adults will contribute to reducing HIV incidence and prevalence over the life course. PMID:27216874

  3. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  4. Evaluation of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention Program to Decrease Blood Pressure in Low-Income African-American Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Palta, Priya; Page, G.; Piferi, R. L.; Gill, J. M.; Hayat, M. J.; Connolly, A. B.; Szanton, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults. While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a ...

  5. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p < 0.001) significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks. PMID:27478639

  6. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  7. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  8. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria

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    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at

  9. Factors associated with BMI, underweight, overweight, and obesity among adults in a population of rural south India: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Matthew; Humphries, Sally; Patel, Kirit; Dewey, Cate

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and related chronic diseases are becoming serious public health concerns in rural areas of India. Compounded with the existing issue of underweight, such concerns expose the double burden of disease and may put stress on rural healthcare. The purpose of this article was to present the prevalence and factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in an area of rural south India. Methods During 2013 and 2014, a random sample of adults aged 20–80 yea...

  10. Assessment of serum trace metals and body mass indices in rural and urban healthy adult population: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavana Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited community-based data are available on the serum zinc and copper levels and factors affecting their levels in the adult healthy population of rural and urban India. Hence, the present study is conducted to evaluate and compare the serum levels of zinc and copper with body mass indices (BMI in rural and urban healthy adult population. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from the rural and urban population in the age group of 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Subjects having past medical histories of major diseases and with acute infections were excluded. Their anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, hip, and waist circumference were measured, and the BMI calculated. Venous samples collected from them were used to determine the levels of zinc and copper. Results: Both the subject groups had optimum levels of zinc, but the urban subjects were deficient in copper. The levels of serum zinc were higher in the urban population while the levels of copper were higher in the rural population. In addition, the levels of serum zinc and copper were negatively correlated with each other but were not statistically significant. Considering each of the population individually, there was no gender wise difference between the serum zinc and copper levels and were almost the same. The BMI had a strong positive correlation with the serum zinc levels in the rural population (P = 0.026. However, it did not have any correlation with the copper levels. Conclusion: Our study brought out the association between serum zinc levels and BMI and the fact that serum zinc levels were higher in the urban population and copper levels in the rural population. Emphasis on the diet rich in these trace elements can help in maintaining adequate and balanced levels of zinc and copper.

  11. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in urines from rural and urban adult cohorts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Hossain, Khaled; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Rahman, Mashiur; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alim, Abdul; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-07-01

    Aflatoxins are important mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, moulds which contaminate mainly grains and nuts, especially in hot and humid climate. Presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most toxic one and a potent hepatocarcinogen, has been reported in food and feed in Bangladesh and raised concerns about mycotoxin exposure in the population. Biomonitoring provides the best approach to assess human exposure from various sources and by all routes. Part of the ingested AFB1 is converted in the body to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a metabolite that has served as biomarker of AFB1 exposure, as it is excreted in urine, and thus enables non-invasive sampling, a relevant aspect in field studies. This investigation measured the AFM1 concentration in urines collected from adult residents of a rural (n = 52) and an urban (n = 43) area in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. The urinary levels of AFM1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AFM1 was detected in 46 % of all urine samples at a range of 31-348 pg/mL. The median and mean concentration of AFM1 in urine was 61 and 80 ± 60 pg/mL, respectively. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found at the mean level of AFM1 between the rural (99 ± 71 pg/mL) and urban (54 ± 15 pg/mL) cohort. Urinary AFM1 levels did not show significant correlations with food frequency data or age, gender and body mass index of the participants. Among them, the highest mean AFM1 level (101 ± 71 pg/mL) was observed in the 50-60 years age group. In conclusion, detection frequency and urinary AFM1 levels in the Bangladeshi adults support concerns regarding their dietary exposure to AFB1. These first data warrant further biomarker-based studies in children and in cohorts of other parts of the country. PMID:26391179

  12. Large and forgotten in rural Australia: assessment, attitudes and possible approaches to losing weight in young adult males

    OpenAIRE

    Mendis, Kumara; Forster, Tanya; Paxton, Karen; Hyland, Karen; Yelverton, Jason; McLean, Rick; Canalese, Joseph; Brown, Anthony; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Background Young Adult Males (YAMs) in rural Australia are poorly studied with respect to overweight and obesity. Firstly, we explored the feasibility of recruiting 17–25 year old YAMs to obtain baseline data on overweight and obesity rates, socio-demographics, nutrition, exercise and mobile phone usage. Secondly, we explored the views of YAMs with a waist measurement over 94 cm about using mobile phone text messages to promote weight loss and incentives to promote healthy lifestyles. Methods...

  13. “Mama just won’t accept this”: Adult Perspectives on Engaging Depressed African American Teens in Clinical Research and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    BRELAND-NOBLE, ALFIEE M.; Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on qualitative data collected for AAKOMA Project, a 2-phase treatment engagement intervention trial for depressed African American adolescents and families. Data are presented from our phase I study of adult perspectives on African American adolescent depression, depression treatment, and research engagement. The research team conducted four focus groups (N = 24) and generated major themes from the data including ideas regarding the manifestations of depression in Afri...

  14. Academic Self-Concept and Academic Achievement of African American Students Transitioning from Urban to Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, La Shawn Catrice

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement in African American students who have experienced geographic mobility was the focus of this study. Specifically, this study used quantitative methods to assess African American students from counties in Iowa to obtain information about the students' relocation from urban to…

  15. Social Network and Mental Health Among Older Adults in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lucky; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2016-06-01

    The rapid growth of the older population in India draws attention to the factors that contribute to their changing health realities. However, there has hardly been any study in India that has looked at the effects of specific social networks with children, relatives, friends and confidant on depression among older adults. The objective of the study is to investigate the association between social network and depression among the rural elderly. The study population comprised over 630 older adults (aged 60 and above) from the rural areas of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. We adopted Berkman's theoretical model of the impact of social relations on depression among the elderly in the Indian context. Results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the four specific social network types: children, relatives, friends and confidant were tenable. The results showed that a better social network with 'friends/neighbours' was protective against depression among the rural elderly. This clearly points to the need for more social network centres for older adults, so that they can interact with friends within the community or between communities and participate in group activities. PMID:26879450

  16. Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Information Sources among Rural and Urban Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Engelman, Kimberly; Choi, Won

    2013-01-01

    Fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention can be a significant deterrent to one’s likelihood of engaging in cancer prevention behaviors. Lower education and less access to cancer information among rural residents may influence their level of cancer fatalism. The purpose of this study was to examine rural-urban differences in fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention and cancer information sources using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 1482 rural and 6192 urban residents). Results showed that rural residents were more likely to endorse multiple fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention than urban residents even after controlling for other significant demographic correlates. Urban residents were more likely to use the internet as their primary cancer information source, whereas rural residents were more likely to rely on print material and healthcare providers. Future educational work to communicate relevant and accurate cancer prevention information to rural residents should consider not only information access but also rural culture and fatalistic perspectives. PMID:23813489

  17. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jiaming; Ma, Jiaolong; Guo, Heng; Yan, Yizhong; He, Jia; Wang, Kui; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Murat, Bek; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. Methods: The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old), and was conducted during 2009–2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4) and (80.9 ± 13.4) mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05), while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9) and (83.0 ± 14.6) mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3) and (77.4 ± 12.7) mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5) and (82.6 ± 11.9) mmHg, p < 0.05). Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05). The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324), age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646), nationality (OR = 1.541), occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576), education (OR = 1.260), BMI (OR = 1.842), WC (OR = 1.585), WHR (OR = 1.188), WHR (OR = 1.188), diabetes (OR = 1.879), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131) and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR = 1.956) were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.765) was negatively correlated with hypertension. Conclusions

  18. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China

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    Yulin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. Methods: The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old, and was conducted during 2009–2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4 and (80.9 ± 13.4 mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05, while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9 and (83.0 ± 14.6 mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3 and (77.4 ± 12.7 mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5 and (82.6 ± 11.9 mmHg, p < 0.05. Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324, age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646, nationality (OR = 1.541, occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576, education (OR = 1.260, BMI (OR = 1.842, WC (OR = 1.585, WHR (OR = 1.188, WHR (OR = 1.188, diabetes (OR = 1.879, hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361, hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131 and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (OR = 1.956 were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (OR = 0.765 was negatively correlated with hypertension. Conclusions: Prevalence of

  19. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

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    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  20. Home management of febrile convulsion in an African population: a comparison of urban and rural mothers' knowledge attitude and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofovwe, G E; Ibadin, O M; Ofovwe, E C; Okolo, A A

    2002-08-15

    To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of home management of febrile convulsion (FC), by mothers in the community, focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in two communities, Uselu (urban) and Evbuomodu village (rural), both in Edo State, Southern Nigeria. The study was conducted between December 2000 and February 2001. Our findings show that 71% of urban mothers compared to 25% of rural mothers attributed the cause of FC to fever (chi(2)=24.17: p<0.001). Seventy-five percent of mothers from rural community and 28.6% of urban mothers attributed the cause to witchcraft and/or evil spirits. Twenty-five percent of rural mothers also attributed abnormality of the spleen as a cause of FC. All the mothers, both urban and rural, were not directly involved in the management of the convulsive episode due to panic and confusion. Ninety-two percent of urban and all the rural mothers permitted the use of traditional medicine while 7.1% of urban mothers employed prayers during convulsion. Twenty percent of urban and twenty-two percent of rural mothers use urine (human and or cow's) for treating FC at home. Other home remedies include kerosene, fuel and crude oil. Mass enlightenment campaign for the community, especially the rural, against use of harmful traditional remedies to treat FC at home is strongly advised. PMID:12127675

  1. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803

  2. Asthma 1-2-3: a low literacy multimedia tool to educate African American adults about asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials. PMID:19353250

  3. Determinants of the risk of dying of HIV/AIDS in a rural South African community over the period of the decentralised roll-out of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study

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    Paul Mee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has significantly reduced HIV mortality in South Africa. The benefits have not been experienced by all groups. Here we investigate the factors associated with these inequities. Design: This study was located in a rural South African setting and used data collected from 2007 to 2010, the period when decentralised ART became available. Approximately one-third of the population were of Mozambican origin. There was a pattern of repeated circular migration between urban areas and this community. Survival analysis models were developed to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and spatial risk factors for HIV mortality. Results: Among the study population of 105,149 individuals, there were 2,890 deaths. The HIV/TB mortality rate decreased by 27% between 2007–2008 and 2009–2010. For other causes of death, the reduction was 10%. Bivariate analysis found that the HIV/TB mortality risk was lower for: those living within 5 km of the Bhubezi Community Health Centre; women; young adults; in-migrants with a longer period of residence; permanent residents; and members of households owning motorised transport, holding higher socioeconomic positions, and with higher levels of education. Multivariate modelling showed, in addition, that those with South Africa as their country of origin had an increased risk of HIV/TB mortality compared to those with Mozambican origins. For males, those of South African origin, and recent in-migrants, the risk of death associated with HIV/TB was significantly greater than that due to other causes. Conclusions: In this community, a combination of factors was associated with an increased risk of dying of HIV/TB over the period of the roll-out of ART. There is evidence for the presence of barriers to successful treatment for particular sub-groups in the population, which must be addressed if the recent improvements in population-level mortality are to be maintained.

  4. Relationship between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions in Chinese adults living in rural areas.

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    Chong-jian Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resting pulse rate has been observed to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, its association with lipid metabolic dysfunctions remains unclear, especially resting pulse rate as an indicator for identifying the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions, and then evaluate the feasibility of resting pulse rate as an indicator for screening the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed, and 16,926 subjects were included in this study from rural community residents aged 35-78 years. Resting pulse rate and relevant covariates were collected from a standard questionnaire. The fasting blood samples were collected and measured for lipid profile. Predictive performance was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between resting pulse rate and TC (r = 0.102, P = 0.001, TG (r = 0.182, P = 0.001, and dyslipidemia (r = 0.037, P = 0.008. In the multivariate models, the adjusted odds ratios for hypercholesterolemia (from 1.07 to 1.15, hypertriglyceridemia (1.11 to 1.16, low HDL hypercholesterolemia (1.03 to 1.06, high LDL hypercholesterolemia (0.92 to 1.14, and dyslipidemia (1.04 to 1.07 were positively increased across quartiles of resting pulse rate (P for trend <0.05. The ROC curve indicated that resting pulse rate had low sensitivity (78.95%, 74.18%, 51.54%, 44.39%, and 54.22%, specificity (55.88%, 59.46%, 57.27%, 65.02%, and 60.56%, and the area under ROC curve (0.70, 0.69, 0.54, 0.56, and 0.58 for identifying the risk of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL hypercholesterolemia, high LDL hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fast resting pulse rate was associated with a moderate increased risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions in rural adults. However, resting pulse

  5. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

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    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  6. Does residing in urban or rural areas affect the incidence of polypharmacy among older adults in western China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Lu, Jing; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences among older adults who are rural or urban residents with respects to their socioeconomic position, chronic health conditions and medication use. This cross-sectional study included 887 community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) from western China. Trained interviewers collected data from all of the study subjects through face-to-face interviews. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. A total of 717 participants were included in the study analyses. Compared with their urban counterparts, the older adults in rural China were more likely to have more chronic health conditions, and a lower education level, annual income and insurance coverage rate. In addition, the rural inhabitants were less likely to use medications (58.7% vs. 75.7%, ppolypharmacy was significantly lower in rural residents than urban residents (11.5% vs. 17.5%, p=0.021). Urban residence (odds ratios (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.48), number of chronic conditions (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.30), diabetes (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.33-7.37), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.25-3.51) were positively associated with polypharmacy, whereas good self-rated health (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65) was negatively associated with polypharmacy. In conclusion, urban residence is independently associated with polypharmacy in Chinese elders regardless of chronic health conditions and socioeconomic status. PMID:25440757

  7. The Acculturation of Adult African Refugees Language Learners in Israel: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles Carlos, III

    2012-01-01

    The number of refugees from Africa seeking asylum in Israel has recently skyrocketed, raising issues as to how to integrate them into Israeli society. Education is one of the mediums being used to encourage the cultural integration and inclusion of the refugees into Israeli society; very little is known, however, about how Africans are…

  8. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Rural Nepal: A Community Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Manandhar, K

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world and is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. It is important to detect and manage prehypertension and hypertension to reduce the risk of correlated complications especially cardiovascular diseases. Objective The objective of the study was to find the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the adults in rural Nepal. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 648 respondents. The information was obtained using pre-tested questionnaire which included demographic information of individuals and other risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity and diet preference. Height, weight and blood pressure were recorded and hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) VII guidelines. Result The overall prevalence of hypertension was 20.5 % and pre-hypertension was 46.6%. The males had higher prevalence of hypertension (30.6%) compared to females (13.8%). Bivariate analysis showed male gender, smoking and non vegetarian diet have association with hypertension. Male gender [OR 2.50 (1.68 - 3.74)] and non vegetarian diet [OR 0.11 (0.01 - 0.85)] were found to be significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was high in the study population. In absence of life style modification and risk reduction the individuals categorized as prehypertension have great risk of developing hypertension in the future which may pose a great challenge in the future. Hence, there is a big scope for screening and primary prevention strategies to curb the epidemic of hypertension. PMID:27423286

  10. An oral health literacy intervention for Indigenous adults in a rural setting in Australia

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    Parker Eleanor J

    2012-06-01

    . Discussion This study uses a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention to improve oral health literacy-related outcomes amongst rural-dwelling Indigenous adults. Outcomes of this study will have implications for policy and planning by providing evidence for the effectiveness of such interventions as well as provide a model for working with Indigenous communities.

  11. Wellness Works: A Collaborative Program for Youth and Adults in Rural Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Lindsey; Roark, Mark F.; Lewis, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Utah State University Cooperative Extension programming, provided through the historic land-grant system, is one method used to meet the needs of residents located in rural communities. Residents in a Central Utah county need Cooperative Extension programs to address the health and wellness of their rural community. According to the Utah…

  12. Disparities in Access to Care Among Rural Working-Age Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Saundra; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.; Samuels, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    Nationally, minority population disparities in health and in the receipt of health services are well documented but are infrequently examined within rural populations. The purpose of this study is to provide a national picture of health insurance coverage and access to care among rural minorities. A cross-sectional analysis using the 1999-2000…

  13. The Complex Decision-Making Processes of Rural Emerging Adults: Counseling beyond Dualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Rural adolescents approach the transition out of high school with individual concerns about making an emotionally or financially expensive "mistake," family concerns about young people leaving home, and national and local concerns about declining rural economies and out-migration. The literature concerning this topic considers factors…

  14. “We as Drug Addicts Need that Program”: Insight from Rural African American Cocaine Users on Designing a Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Their Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Wright, Patricia B.; McSweeney, Jean; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This focused ethnographic study examines data collected in 2007 from four gender- and age-specific focus groups (FGs) (N = 31) to inform the development of a sexual risk reduction intervention for African American cocaine users in rural Arkansas. A semi-structured protocol was used to guide audio-recorded FGs. Data were entered into Ethnograph and analyzed using constant comparison and content analysis. Four codes with accompanying factors emerged from the data and revealed recommendations for sexual risk reduction interventions with similar populations. Intervention design implications and challenges, study limitations, and future research are discussed. The study was supported by funds from the National Institute of Nursing Research (P20 NR009006-01) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA024575-01 and F31 DA026286-01). PMID:22216991

  15. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an adult population in a rural community of Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindo Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly becoming prevalent in the Indian population, knowledge regarding the burden and risk factors of NAFLD is limited, more so from rural areas. This study was thus conducted to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD among adults in a rural community of Haryana, India and to measure the association of diet, physical activity, and other selected risk factors with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in a rural community of Haryana, India among resident adults ≥35 years of age. Eight out of 28 villages were selected by probability proportion to size sampling. The number of eligible and consenting participants randomly selected from each village was 27. Out of 216 participants thus recruited, 184 participants reported for undergoing ultrasonography (USG of the liver, anthropometry, blood pressure recording, and blood sample collection. Finally, 176 participants were analyzed. Results: Prevalence of NAFLD was 30.7%. There was no significant difference in the calorie intake and average total physical activity between participants with and without NAFLD. On multivariate analysis, hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (OR: 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-5.0, P 0.03] and an increased waist circumference (adjusted OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.5-7.0, P < 0.001 were independently associated with NAFLD. A normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL level was protective against NAFLD (adjusted OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8, P 0.001. Conclusions: The high prevalence of NAFLD is already a public health problem, even in the rural parts of India. Urgent public health interventions are required to prevent its development by controlling the cardiometabolic risk factors associated with it.

  16. Social Factors in Childhood and Adulthood Associated with Adult Obesity in African American and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Milda R.; Kalycia Trishana Watson; Hyo Jung Tak

    2012-01-01

    Background. Few studies have examined how individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood influence the likelihood of adult obesity. We used a longitudinal cohort to examine these associations. Methods. Our cohort consisted of children born in Baltimore, MD, USA with followup as adults from ages 27 to 33. We used logistic regression to examine the multivariate association between individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood and adult obesity, (body mass index ...

  17. The Association Between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Activities Among African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Brunner Huber, Larissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform varying forms of self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy to manage hypertension and six clinically prescribed hypertension self-care behaviors. We interviewed 190 African Americans with hypertension who resided in the greater metropolitan Charlotte area about their self-efficacy a...

  18. Perceptions of HIV risks and prevention strategies by rural and small city African Americans who use cocaine: views from the inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma J; Hill, Mary Angelique

    2005-05-01

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects African Americans, yet knowledge gaps exist regarding their views of risks and effective prevention strategies. This focus group study of rural and small city African Americans who use drugs sought to assess these perceptions. Common views of HIV risks included drug use, physical appearance as an indicator of HIV status, intentional transmission, having multiple partners, unprotected sex, bisexuality, and unfounded trust. Trading sex for drugs and unprotected sex when high were seen as drug use/HIV risk links, while HIV education and condom use were identified as ways to decrease risk. Perceptions of effective strategies included community-based programs, gender specific groups, providing food or other incentives, and making the program fun. Healthcare professionals and parents were viewed as the best people to promote HIV prevention. Based on the findings, effective intervention for this target group should encompass ethnocentric community-based strategies that focus on HIV education, condom use skills, and drug risk reduction. PMID:16020054

  19. Cognitive testing of PAINReportIt in adult African Americans with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L; Ferrans, Carol E; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J

    2010-01-01

    PAINReportIt, a computerized version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (Pain. 1975, 1:277-299), presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with sickle cell disease and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended and appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants' responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrence over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality, and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with sickle cell disease. PMID:20431356

  20. Influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural and urban areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini; Rita Maria Zucatelli Mendonça; Aparecida Santo Pietro Pereira; Adélia Hiroko Nagamori Kawamoto; Camila Infantosi Vannucchi; José Ricardo Pinto; Enio Mori; Jorge Mancini Filho

    2012-01-01

    In 1970, searching for the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses led to the first study on influenza viruses in domestic animals. Birds and mammals, including human beings, are their natural hosts; however, other animals may also play a role in the virus epidemiology. The objective was to investigate the incidence of influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural (9, 19.56%) and urban (37, 80.43%) areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Dog serum samples were examined for antibodie...

  1. Random blood glucose may be used to assess long-term glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural African clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Rasmussen, Niclas S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one.......7%; specificity = 70.8%; positive predictive value = 62.2%; negative predictive value = 82.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Random blood glucose could possibly be used to assess glycaemic control among patients with type 2 DM in rural settings of sub-Saharan Africa........24-0.32, P < 0.001) was significantly associated with HbA1c among the patients with type 2 DM. Based on ROC analysis (AUC = 0.80, SE = 0.05), RBG ≤7.5 mmol/l was determined as the optimal cut-off value for good glycaemic control (HbA1c <7.0% [53 mmol/mol]) among patients with type 2 DM (sensitivity = 76...

  2. Incidence of Pneumococcal Pneumonia Among Adults in Rural Thailand, 2006-2011: Implications for Pneumococcal Vaccine Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralam, Barameht; Tomczyk, Sara M; Rhodes, Julia C; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Gregory, Christopher J; Olsen, Sonja J; Praphasiri, Prabda; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Naorat, Sathapana; Chantra, Somrak; Areerat, Peera; Hurst, Cameron P; Moore, Matthew R; Muangchana, Charung; Baggett, Henry C

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults is a key driver for the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used among children. We sought to obtain more accurate incidence estimates among adults by including results of pneumococcal urine antigen testing (UAT) from population-based pneumonia surveillance in two Thai provinces. Active surveillance from 2006 to 2011 identified acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI)-related hospital admissions. Adult cases of pneumococcal pneumonia were defined as hospitalized ALRI patients aged ≥ 18 years with isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood or with positive UAT. Among 39,525 adult ALRI patients, we identified 481 pneumococcal pneumonia cases (105 by blood culture, 376 by UAT only). Estimated incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations was 30.5 cases per 100,000 persons per year (2.2 and 28.3 cases per 100,000 persons per year by blood culture and UAT, respectively). Incidence varied between 22.7 in 2007 and 43.5 in 2010, and increased with age to over 150 per 100,000 persons per year among persons aged ≥ 70 years. Viral coinfections including influenza A/B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus occurred in 11% (44/409) of pneumococcal pneumonia cases tested. Use of UAT to identify cases of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults in rural Thailand substantially increases estimates of pneumococcal pneumonia burden, thereby informing cost-effectiveness analyses and vaccine policy decisions. PMID:26503277

  3. A Case Study of the Academic Achievement of African American Males in Single-Sex Classrooms in Rural South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Lynette Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores between fourth-grade African American male students who were enrolled in single-sex classrooms and their counterparts who were enrolled in coeducational classrooms. The research provided descriptive data concerning one Title I school in rural…

  4. Communication Disorders and the Inclusion of Newcomer African Refugees in Rural Primary Schools of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…

  5. Behavioural Risk Factors for Non Communicable Disease among Rural Adults in Andra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Trupti N Bodhare, Kanchi Venkatesh, Samir Bele, Gali Kashiram, Sujata Devi, Achanta Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in rural parts of Andhra Pradesh. Most of the risk factors for NCDs are modifiable and can be controlled to reduce incidence and to ensure better outcomes for those having NCDs. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of various behavioral risk factors for NCDS in rural area and to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics associated with these risk factors. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study wa...

  6. Prevalence and causes of ocular morbidity seen among rural adult population of Osun State, southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaeline A Isawumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: World Glaucoma and Kidney Days were planned for community eye/health screening. Aims: To assess the prevalence and causes of common eye disorders and visual impairment (VI in two rural communities of Osun State. Settings and Design: Descriptive cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained. Serial recruitment of all consenting adults presenting at Alajue and Ibokun communities over 2 days was done. Sociodemographic data were obtained. Visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment examinations were done. Refraction was done as necessary. Intraocular pressures (IOPs were checked for cup:disc ratio >0.6 and perimetry done at base hospital for glaucoma suspects. VI was classified according to the World Health Organization ICD.10. Descriptive analysis was carried out. Chi-square with P-values and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to test for significance. Results: In all, 259 subjects-100 males (38.6% and 159 females (61.4%-participated. Mean age was 39.73 years (standard deviation [SD] 16.6. The commonest eye disorders were cataract 67 (25.9% CI: 20.5-31.2, refractive error 66 (25.5% CI: 20.2-30.8, glaucoma 17 (6.6% CI: 3.5-9.6, pterygium 14 (5.4%, conjunctivitis 11 (4.2%, hypertensive retinopathies 10 (3.9%, 95% CI 1.5-6.2, cornea opacities 3 (1.2%, and di glaucoma was abetic retinopathy 2 (0.8%. Glaucoma and IOPs were significantly correlated (P = 0.039. CVF changes and glaucoma was significantly associated (P < 0.001. Prevalence of moderate VI was 73 (28.2%, CI: 22.7-33.7, severe VI 9 (3.5%, CI: 1.2-5.7, and blindness 5 (1.9%, CI: 0.2-3.6. Conclusions: There is need to establish community eye-outreach centres to identify cases for cost-effective cataract, refractive error, and glaucoma services. This could reduce the occurrence of these vision and life-threatening disorders.

  7. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera in mixed colonies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Moretto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to be significantly lower in adult Africanized (1.69 ± 0.44 than Italian bees (2.79 ± 0.65. This ratio was similar to that found in Mexico, even though the Africanized bees tested there had not been in contact with varroa, compared to more than 20 years of the coexistence in Brazil. However, mean mite infestation in Brazil on both kinds of bees was only about a third of that found in Mexico.Desde o contato inicial entre o ácaro Varroa jacobsoni e a abelha Apis mellifera, diferentes níveis de infestação foram verificados entre as diversas raças dessa espécie de abelhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o grau de infestação determinado pelo acaro Varroa jacobsoni em abelhas Apis mellifera, africanizadas e italianas puras, quando criadas numa mesma colméia. Para isso, o grau de infestação foi obtido em seis colônias de abelhas constituídas de operárias de ambas as raças. O resultado de dezesseis repetições mostrou que as abelhas africanizadas foram menos infestadas que as abelhas italianas. Esse resultado sugere que, nas condições naturais de infestação, as abelhas africanizadas são mais defensivas ao parasita Varroa jacobsoni, garantindo a essa raça de abelhas a resistência à praga varroosis.

  8. A comparison study on the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors among city, township and rural area adults in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhou, Biao; Huang, Lichun; Chen, Jiang; Gu, Fang; Zhang, Hexiang; Fang, Yueqiang; Ding, Gangqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association of dietary behaviour factors on obesity among city, township and rural area adults. Setting A stratified cluster sampling technique was employed in the present cross-sectional study. On the basis of socioeconomic characteristics, two cities, two townships and two residential villages were randomly selected where the investigation was conducted. Participants A total of 1770 city residents, 2071 town residents and 1736 rural area residents participated in t...

  9. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  10. In the eyes of older adults: Self-reported age and adjustment in African and European older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia von Humbold; Isabel Leal; Filipa Pimenta; Georgeta Niculescu

    2013-01-01

    To explore older adults’ perceptions of subjective age and adjustment to ageing and to analyse the correlational structure of the pre-categories in our study: subjective age, indicators of adjustment to ageing and of personal age perception. An exploratory, descriptive mixed-methods design was utilised. A purposive sampling method was used to select 154 older adults aged between 75 and 99 years from three different nationalities. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing two core ...

  11. Influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural and urban areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1970, searching for the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses led to the first study on influenza viruses in domestic animals. Birds and mammals, including human beings, are their natural hosts; however, other animals may also play a role in the virus epidemiology. The objective was to investigate the incidence of influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural (9, 19.56% and urban (37, 80.43% areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Dog serum samples were examined for antibodies to influenza viruses by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI test using the corresponding antigens from the circulating viruses in Brazil. Dogs from rural areas presented antibodies to influenza A H3N2, and influenza A H7N7 and H3N8. In rural areas, dog sera displayed mean titers as 94.37, 227.88, 168.14, 189.62 HIU/25 µL for subtypes H1N1, H3N2, H7N7, H3N8, respectively. About 84% and 92% of dogs from urban areas exhibited antibodies to human influenza A H1N1 and H3N2, respectively, with statistical difference at p 0.05. In conclusion, these dogs were positive for both human and equine influenza viruses. The present study suggests the first evidence that influenza viruses circulate among dogs in Brazil.

  12. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few…

  13. Neuropsychological Testing in a Rural African School-Age Population: Evaluating Contributions to Variability in Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia K.; Holding, Penny A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Abubakar, Amina; Connolly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a number of neuropsychological tests adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 308 school-age children in a predominantly rural community completed the tests. These tests were developed to assess skills similar to those measured by assessments of cognitive development published for use…

  14. Women's Experiences of Principalship in Two South African High Schools in Multiply Deprived Rural Areas: A Life History Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…

  15. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor cardiovascular health status. To improve cardiovascular health among the rural population, efforts, especially lifestyle improvements, education and interventions to make healthier food choices, reduce salt intake, increase physical activities, and cease

  16. Development and Validation of a Data-Based Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adults in Eastern Rural Area of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Ayumi; Sudo, Noriko; Amitani, Yukiko; Caballero, Yuko; Sekiyama, Makiko; Mukamugema, Christine; Matsuoka, Takuya; Imanishi, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Takayo; Matsuda, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for rural Rwandans. Since our FFQ was developed to assess malnutrition, it measured energy, protein, vitamin A, and iron intakes only. We collected 260 weighed food records (WFRs) from a total of 162 Rwandans. Based on the WFR data, we developed a tentative FFQ and examined the food list by percent contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. To assess the validity, nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ were compared with those calculated from three-day WFRs by correlation coefficient and cross-classification for 17 adults. Cumulative contributions of the 18-item FFQ to the total intakes of energy and nutrients reached nearly 100%. Crude and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from -0.09 (vitamin A) to 0.58 (protein) and from -0.19 (vitamin A) to 0.68 (iron), respectively. About 50%-60% of the participants were classified into the same tertile. Our FFQ provided acceptable validity for energy and iron intakes and could rank Rwandan adults in eastern rural area correctly according to their energy and iron intakes. PMID:27429558

  17. Predictors of mortality in a cohort of HIV-1-infected adults in rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo;

    2007-01-01

    CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA level are used to monitor HIV-infected patients in high-income countries, but the applicability in an African context with frequent concomitant infections has only been studied sparsely. Moreover, alternative inexpensive markers are needed in the attempts to roll...

  18. Health Care Provider Advice for African American Adults Not Meeting Health Behavior Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Fallon, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality. Healthy People 2010 goals are for 85% of physicians to counsel their patients about physical activity and for 75% of physician office visits made by patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or dyslipidemia to include dietary counseling. The purpose of this study was to 1 determine the rate of participant-reported health care provider advice for healthy lifestyle changes among African Americans who do not meet recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight; 2 examine correlates of provider advice; and 3 assess the association between provider advice and stage of readiness for change for each of these health behaviors. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of a statewide faith-based physical activity program for African Americans. A stratified random sample of 20 African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina was selected to participate in a telephone survey of members aged 18 years and older. The telephone survey, conducted over a 5-month period, asked participants a series of questions about sociodemographics, health status, physical activity, and nutrition. Analyses for moderate to vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and weight loss were conducted separately. For each of these behaviors, logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the independent association of sex, age, body mass index, education, number of diagnosed diseases, perceived health, and stage of change with health care provider advice for health behaviors. Results A total of 572 church members (407 women, 165 men; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 18–102 years completed the survey. Overall, participant-reported provider advice for lifestyle changes was 47.0% for physical activity, 38.7% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 39.7% for weight. A greater number of diagnosed

  19. Alcohol Use Problems and Sexual Risk Among Young Adult African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented high levels of alcohol use and sexual risk among young mothers. We examined parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy in relation to alcohol use problems and sexual risk among 346 young African American women enrolled in an HIV prevention trial, 41 % (n = 141) of whom were mothers. Among mothers, greater parenting satisfaction was associated with a reduced likelihood of problematic alcohol use, having multiple sex partners, and testing positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Relative to non-parenting women, mothers reported lower condom use. Compared to non-parenting women, mothers with the highest parenting satisfaction reported fewer alcohol use problems; mothers with the lowest parenting satisfaction reported lower condom use and were more likely to have multiple partners and test positive for T. vaginalis. Parenting self-efficacy was not associated with the outcomes examined. Future research investigating relationships between parenting satisfaction, alcohol use and sexual risk may be useful for improving multiple maternal health outcomes. PMID:26499334

  20. Adverse mental health outcomes associated with emotional abuse in young rural South African women: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical and/or sexual abuse) and adverse health outcomes. Between 2002 and 2003, young women from 70 villages were recruited to participate in the cluster rando...

  1. Diagnostic work-up of neurological syndromes in a rural African setting: knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mpanya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a "diviner" do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. CONCLUSION: Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach.

  2. Barriers to Participation in Adult Education for African Americans Attending a Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…

  3. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  4. Youth Transitions and Interdependent Adult-Child Relations in Rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    Draws on ethnographic fieldwork in southern Bolivia to explore how rural Bolivian youth negotiate structural constraints on choices of work versus secondary education, including local versus urban location, economic resources, parental attitudes, gender, family characteristics, social networks and support, and peer role models. Suggests the notion…

  5. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  6. Toward Participatory Communal Citizenship: Rendering Visible the Civic Teaching, Learning, and Actions of African Immigrant Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michelle G.; Watson, Vaughn W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rendering visible African immigrants' shared and differing experiences of civic learning and action, the authors present findings from in-depth semi-structured interviews with second- and 1.5-generation African immigrants in New York City. Drawing on an interdisciplinary framework of African immigrant identities constructions and civic…

  7. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

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    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  8. Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mwanyangala, Mathew Alexander; Mayombana, Charles; Urassa, Honorathy; Charles, Jensen; Mahutanga, Chrizostom; Abdullah, Salim; Nathan, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such lowincome settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of agein...

  9. Consanguinity Associated with Child and Adult Mortality in 24 Asian and African Countries, an Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Saadat

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries ...

  10. In the eyes of older adults: Self-reported age and adjustment in African and European older adults

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    Sofia von Humbold

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore older adults’ perceptions of subjective age and adjustment to ageing and to analyse the correlational structure of the pre-categories in our study: subjective age, indicators of adjustment to ageing and of personal age perception. An exploratory, descriptive mixed-methods design was utilised. A purposive sampling method was used to select 154 older adults aged between 75 and 99 years from three different nationalities. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing two core areas: subjective age and adjustment to ageing. Data was subjected to content analysis. Representation of the correlational structure of the precategories in our study (subjective age and indicators of adjustment to ageing were analysed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Standardised instruments measured regular cognitive abilities. Five categories derived from interviews for subjective age: ‘adapted’, ‘disconnected’, ‘old’, ‘youthful’ and ‘tolerant’. A total of seven categories emerged as indicators of adjustment to ageing: ‘social networking’, ‘health’, ‘time perspective’, ‘spirituality’, ‘financial autonomy’, ‘professional activities’ and ‘fulfilment and leisure’. These results supported a model for each pre-category. Subjective age was explained by a two-factor model: ‘age-conscientious’ and ‘youthful’. A three-dimensional model formed by ‘reconciled’, ‘satisficers’ and ‘maximisers’ was indicated as a best-fit solution for adjustment to ageing. A three-dimensional overall model for PAP was formed by ‘age-cognisant’, ‘fulfilled’ and ‘satisficers’. The findings highlighted the underdeveloped potential of subjective age, adjustment to ageing and a personal age perception overall model for this population. Enhancing subjective age and adjustment to ageing might be an important target to improve older adults’ interventions’ outcomes.

  11. How Older Rural Adults Utilize Self-Directed Learning in Late Life Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing numbers and influence of older adults is causing many segments of western society to re-evaluate the concept of old age. Medical advances and personal lifestyles have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. As one ages, adjustments in work, family, and health must be made. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way…

  12. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

  13. Differential Effects of Self-Reported Lifetime Marijuana Use on Interleukin-1 Alpha and Tumor Necrosis Factor in African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D.; Callender, Clive; Campbell, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51% female, median age= 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were ...

  14. Morphology of the oropharyngeak cavity and oesophagus of the farmed adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Ikpegbu, E.; Ezeasor, D N; Nlebedum, U. C.; Nwogu, C.; Nnadozie, O.; Agbakwuru, I. O.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of the adult farmed African catfish -Clarias gariepinus a prominent omnivorous cultivable species in Nigeria was investigated. It revealed cornified horny plates lining the buccal surfaces of the lips. The tongue was not free moving, and the oesophagus was a narrow tube connecting the oropharyngeal cavity to the stomach with no valve or constriction separating it from the later. Histologically, the cavity wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium containing eosinophilic ...

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O; Vermund, Sten H.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data fr...

  16. Early severe morbidity and resource utilization in South African adults on antiretroviral therapy

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    Meintjes Graeme A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of mortality and morbidity have been described in sub-Saharan African patients within the first few months of starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. There is limited data on the causes of early morbidity on HAART and the associated resource utilization. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of medical admissions at a secondary-level hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Patients on HAART were identified from a register and HIV-infected patients not on HAART were matched by gender, month of admission, and age group to correspond with the first admission of each case. Primary reasons for admission were determined by chart review. Direct health care costs were determined from the provider's perspective. Results There were 53 in the HAART group with 70 admissions and 53 in the no-HAART group with 60 admissions. The median duration of HAART was 1 month (interquartile range 1-3 months. Median baseline CD4 count in the HAART group was 57 × 106 cells/L (IQR 15-115. The primary reasons for admission in the HAART group were more likely to be due to adverse drug reactions and less likely to be due to AIDS events than the no-HAART group (34% versus 7%; p Conclusions Causes of early morbidity are different and more complex in HIV-infected patients on HAART. This results in greater resource utilization of diagnostic and therapeutic services.

  17. Influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural and urban areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro; Kawamoto, Adélia Hiroko Nagamori; Vannucchi, Camila Infantosi; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mori, Enio; Mancini Filho, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    In 1970, searching for the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses led to the first study on influenza viruses in domestic animals. Birds and mammals, including human beings, are their natural hosts; however, other animals may also play a role in the virus epidemiology. The objective was to investigate the incidence of influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural (9, 19.56%) and urban (37, 80.43%) areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Dog serum samples were examined for antibodies to influenza viruses by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test using the corresponding antigens from the circulating viruses in Brazil. Dogs from rural areas presented antibodies to influenza A H3N2, and influenza A H7N7 and H3N8. In rural areas, dog sera displayed mean titers as 94.37, 227.88, 168.14, 189.62 HIU/25 µL for subtypes H1N1, H3N2, H7N7, H3N8, respectively. About 84% and 92% of dogs from urban areas exhibited antibodies to human influenza A H1N1 and H3N2, respectively, with statistical difference at p influenza A H1N1, H3N2, H7N7 and H3N8, were 213.96, 179.42, 231.76, 231.35 HIU/25 µL respectively. The difference among them was not statistically significant at p > 0.05. In conclusion, these dogs were positive for both human and equine influenza viruses. The present study suggests the first evidence that influenza viruses circulate among dogs in Brazil. PMID:23152313

  18. Urban and rural immigrant Latino youths' and adults' knowledge and beliefs about mental health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carolyn Marie; Gilchrist, Lauren; Vazquez, Gabriela; Leite, Amy; Raymond, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Immigrant Latino youth experience mental health problems in the U.S. Cultural beliefs and knowledge may influence help-seeking behaviors. Two hundred thirty-four immigrant Latino respondents between 12 and 44 years of age completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and cultural beliefs regarding mental health resources for adolescents, symptoms, and help-seeking. Multivariate analyses showed that rural respondents were significantly less likely to know of mental health resources than urban-based immigrant Latinos. Knowledge and belief outcomes were also affected by age, gender, and length of time living in the community. Immigrant Latinos appear willing to seek professional help for mental health problems but may not know how to access this type of care, or may lack available services. Future research to inform interventions that increase awareness of accessible mental health services is suggested. Findings support systems-level changes including increased availability of culturally-specific mental health services, especially in rural areas. PMID:20835762

  19. Adult Education through Multiple Method For Poor Rural Illiterate Women in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamin Sumardi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    This Study is aimed at producing basic literacy learning model which effective and accountable. Fact has also shown that the implementation of literacy teaching is to combines comprising REFLECT (Regenerated Frerian Literacy through Empowering     Community Techniques), LEA (Language Experience Approach) and PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal). This study employs re...

  20. Alcohol use and abuse among rural Zimbabwean adults: A test of a community-level intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  1. From rhetoric to reality? Putting HIV and AIDS rights talk into practice in a South African rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi

    2014-01-01

    Whilst international rhetoric on HIV and AIDS frequently invokes discourses of human rights to inspire and guide action, translating universal rights talk into practice in specific settings remains a challenge. Community mobilisation is often strategy of choice. We present a case study of the Entabeni Project in South Africa--in which a foreign-funded NGO sought to work with female health volunteers in a deep rural community to increase their access to two HIV-relevant rights: women's rights (especially gender equality) and rights to health (especially access to HIV- and AIDS-related services). Whilst the project had short-term health-related successes, it was less successful in implementing a gender empowerment agenda. The concept of women's rights had no purchase with women who had little interest in directly challenging male power, foregrounding the fight against poverty as their main preoccupation. The area's traditional chief and gatekeeper insisted the project should remain 'apolitical'. Project funders prioritised 'numbers reached' over a gender empowerment orientation. In the absence of (1) a marginalised group who are willing to assert their rights; and (2) a context where powerful people are willing to support these claims, 'rights' may be a blunt tool for HIV-related work with women in deeply oppressive and remote rural communities beyond the reach of international treaties and urban-based activist movements. PMID:25005486

  2. Behavioural Risk Factors for Non Communicable Disease among Rural Adults in Andra Pradesh

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    Trupti N Bodhare, Kanchi Venkatesh, Samir Bele, Gali Kashiram, Sujata Devi, Achanta Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in rural area of Karimnagar among 410 participants. Various risk factors assessed were smoking and alcohol intake, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension and stress among participants. Results: The mean age of the participants was 56.41 ± 11.90 years. Male accounted for 55.6% of the total sample, 34.9% were illiterate and 70.7% belonged to an upper lower class. Presence of at least one risk factor was observed among 76.3% of participants. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5% among participants, 24.6% were current smokers whereas 29.8% were current alcohol users. Stress was exhibited by 24.9% and 25.9% were physically inactive. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (p = 0.000, male gender (p = 0.001, illiteracy (p = 0.007 and lower socio-economic status (p = 0.001 were associated with the presence of at least one risk factor. Conclusion: High prevalence of risk factors among rural popula-tion warrants an immediate attention. There is a need for careful monitoring and control of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural area.

  3. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  4. Behavioral health coaching for rural-living older adults with diabetes and depression: an open pilot of the HOPE Study

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    Naik Aanand D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for depression, compounding the burden of disease. When comorbid with diabetes, depression leads to poorer health outcomes and often complicates diabetes self-management. Unfortunately, treatment options for these complex patients are limited and comprehensive services are rarely available for patients in rural settings. Methods A small open trial was conducted to test the acceptability, feasibility and preliminary outcomes of a telephone-delivered coaching intervention for rural-dwelling older adults with uncontrolled diabetes and comorbid, clinically significant depressive symptoms. A total of eight older adults were enrolled in Healthy Outcomes through Patient Empowerment (HOPE, a 10-session (12-week, telephone-based coaching intervention. Primary study constructs included measures of diabetes control (Hemoglobin [Hb] A1c, depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9], and diabetes-related distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale [PAID]. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Acceptability and feasibility were evaluated using patient surveys, focused exit interviews, and session attendance data. Results Clinically significant improvements were realized post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up for outcomes related to diabetes and depression. Effect sizes using Cohen's d were determined post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up, respectively, for HbA1c (d=0.36; d=0.28, PHQ-9 (d=1.48; d=1.67, and PAID (d=1.50; d=1.06 scores. Among study participants, HbA1c improved from baseline by a mean (M of 1.13 (SD=1.70 post-intervention and M=0.84 (SD=1.62 at 6 months. Depression scores, measured by the PHQ-9, improved from baseline by M=5.14 (SD=2.27 post-intervention and M=7.03 (SD=4.43 at 6-month follow-up. PAID scores also improved by M=17.68 (SD=10.7 post-intervention and M=20.42 (SD=20.66 from baseline to 6-month follow

  5. Self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation for adult hearing aid users in a developing South African context

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    Elaine Pienaar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impairment has far reaching consequences for affected individuals, in terms of quality of life indicators. In a developing South African context the hearing impaired population is faced with limited aural rehabilitation services. This study evaluated self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a group of adults in the public healthcare sector with a standardized outcomes measurement tool (IOI-HA. Sixty-one respondents participated (44% males; 56% females, with a mean age of 69.7 years. Results revealed that the majority of respondents experienced favourable outcomes in all domains of the inventory comprising of: daily use of hearing aids, benefits provided by hearing aids, residual activity limitation, satisfaction with hearing aids, residual participation restriction, impact of hearing difficulties on others, and changes in quality of life. Statistically significant relationships were obtained between the daily use of hearing aids, the degree of hearing loss, and the type of hearing aids fitted, as well as the benefits received from hearing aids in difficult listening environments (p < 0.05. Despite challenges of developing contexts, the mean scores distribution compared positively to similar reports from developed countries. Outcomes of improved quality of life emphasize the importance of providing affordable hearing aids and services to all hearing impaired individuals in South Africa.

  6. TOBACCO SMOKING IN ADULTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF KASHMIR J&K

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    Yasmeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Tobacco is a major risk factor of numerous adult chronic non - communicable diseases. In India, the GATS Survey revealed that the prevalence of smoking is more than one - third in the adults (35%, the overall prevalence in males being 48% and among females it is 20%. AIM : The aim of our study was to determine the socio - demography of tobacco use in rural setting and to assess the knowledge, attitude & practices of tobacco use in the rural area. METHODS : All patients aged 18 years or above attending subcentre at village Panzinara of Block Sumbal. The data was collected on a semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS : 71 patients attending the sub center for various health states were taken up for the study. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 58 - 68 years (23.9%. Males comprised 56.3%. 63.4% gave positive response to ever any tobacco use & amongst the tobacco users 80% were daily users. Tob acco use was significantly associated with male sex. 51.1% of the patients had started tobacco use in adolescent age of 10 - 19 years. 62.2% were Hookah smokers, 24.4% cigarette smokers. Tobacco being injurious to health was known by 39.4% patients, 21.1% kn ew it lead to some cancers, 4.2% were aware that it can cause hypertension, diabetes & cancers. 35.3% were aware that it is to be avoided. CONCLUSION : In spite of awareness about hazards of tobacco use & knowledge of non - communicable diseases, this high pr evalence calls for more active psychological, social & medical interventions for tobacco users. Targeting the adolescent population for raising awareness would be additionally beneficial.

  7. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Pain and anxiety experiences of South African adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy management

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    L.D. Morris

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A dequate management of procedural pain during physiotherapy management plays an important role in building a trusting relationship betweenthe burn victim and the physiotherapist, and in ensuring desirable functional outcomes. However, the burn pain management regimens currently utilized inburn units, primarily consist of traditional pharmacologic analgesics which areassociated with numerous side-effects and alone are often reported as inadequateto alleviate procedural pain, warranting safer and effective adjunct therapies.Prior to the introduction and implementation of adjunct therapies into a developing world, it is imperative that the current situation in a burn unit, in terms of whether or not the pain management regimens in place are adequate, is first assessed, due to cost concerns. The following short report exemplifies the pain and anxiety experiences of a small number of burn injury patients during physiotherapy at the Tygerberg Hospital adult burn unit, South A frica.  It was hypothesized that the results of this study would underpin whether adult burn injury patients in a developing countryrequire adjunct therapies during physiotherapy management to supplement traditional pharmacologic analgesics inmanaging their procedural pain and subsequent anxiety.

  9. Consanguinity Associated with Child and Adult Mortality in 24 Asian and African Countries, an Ecological Study

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    M Saadat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (α and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries from Asia and Africa was analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis showed that countries with relatively higher rates of consanguineous marriages have higher mortality rates than the countries with lower consanguinity rates. Also, countries with relatively higher GDP per capita have lower mortality rates. After controlling the GDP per capita, significant positive correlations between α and child (Female: r=0.4355, df=21, P=0.038; Male: r=0.3991, df=21, P=0.059 mortality rates were observed. There was no significant correlation between α and adult (Female: r=0.2977, df=21, P=0.168; Male: r=0.2207, df=21, P=0.312 mortality rates, after controlling for GDP per capita. Conclusion: It is concluded that consanguinity influences child deaths rate independent of the GDP per capita and that a large proportion of deaths could be attributed to inbreeding in several countries due to high frequencies of consanguinity.

  10. Rural-urban migration patterns and mental health diagnoses of adolescents and young adults in British Columbia, Canada: a case-control study

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    D'Angiulli Amedeo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of mental health problems early in life can increase the well-being of children and youth. Several studies have reported that youth who experience mental health disorders are also at a greater risk of developing psychopathological conditions later in life, suggesting that the ability of researchers and clinicians to identify mental health problems early in life may help prevent adult psychopathology. Using large-scale administrative data, this study examined whether permanent settlement and within-province migration patterns may be linked to mental health diagnoses among adolescents (15 to 19 years old, young adults (20 to 30 years old, and adults (30 years old and older who grew up in rural or urban communities or migrated between types of community (N = 8,502. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of the impact of rural compared to urban residence and rural-urban provincial migration patterns on diagnosis of mental health. Conditional logistic regression models were run with the following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9 mental health diagnoses as the outcomes: neurotic disorders, personality disorder, acute reaction to stress, adjustment reaction, depression, alcohol dependence, and nondependent drug abuse. Analyses were conducted controlling for paternal mental health and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Mental health diagnoses were selectively associated with stability and migration patterns. Specifically, adolescents and young adults who were born in and grew up in the same rural community were at lower risk of being diagnosed with acute reaction to stress (OR = 0.740 and depression (OR = 0.881 compared to their matched controls who were not born in and did not grow up in the same rural community. Furthermore, adolescents and young adults migrating between rural communities were at lower risk of being diagnosed with adjustment reaction (OR = 0.571 than

  11. Frequency of metabolic syndrome and the food intake patterns in adults living in a rural area of Brazil

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    Karine Fedrigo Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, is related to an inadequate food intake pattern. Its incidence is increasing among Brazilian adults, including those living in rural areas. Our aim was not only to describe the frequency of MetS in adults with or without MetS but also to compare their food intake pattern as assessed by the healthy eating index (HEI and serum albumin and C reactive protein (CRP levels. METHODS: Men and women (n = 246 living in a small village in Brazil were included. MetS was characterized according to the adult treatment panel (ATP III criteria. Groups were compared by chi-square, student t or Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: MetS was diagnosed in 15.4% of the cases. The MetS group showed higher CRP (1.8±1.2 vs. 1.0±0.9 mg/dl and lower albumin (4.3±0.3 vs. 4.4±0.3 g/dl serum levels compared to the control group. Additionally, the MetS group showed lower scores (median[range] in the HEI compared to the control group (53.5[31.2-78.1] vs 58[29.7-89.5], respectively. The MetS group also had decreased scores for total fat and daily variety of food intake. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that adults with MetS displayed chronic mild inflammation and a poorer food intake pattern than the control group.

  12. How Does Child Labor Affect the Demand for Adult Labor? Evidence from Rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Doran

    2012-01-01

    Do employers substitute adults for children, or do they treat them as complements? Using data from a Mexican schooling experiment, I find that decreasing child farm work is accompanied by increasing adult labor demand. This increase was not caused by treatment money reaching farm employers: there were no significant increases in harvest prices and quantities, non-labor inputs, or non-farm labor supply. Furthermore, coordinated movements in price and quantity can distinguish this increase in d...

  13. Associations between CAMCOG-R subscale performance and formal education attainment in South African older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Katharine A; Grace, Laurian K; Thomas, Kevin G F; Combrinck, Marc I

    2014-11-10

    ABSTRACT Background: The Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Revised (CAMCOG-R) is a sensitive screening tool for the early diagnosis of dementia in older adults. Overall performance on the CAMCOG-R is influenced by educational attainment. Few studies have, however, examined the association between educational attainment and performance on the individual CAMCOG subscales. We aimed to address this question in a sample from a low-and middle-income country (LAMIC), where resource constraints may have compromised access to, and quality of, education for many older adults. Methods: Participants, all over 60 years of age, were 51 cognitively healthy community-dwelling volunteers and 47 individuals diagnosed with mild-moderate stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most participants had some high school education. They were administered the CAMCOG-R under standardized conditions. Results: Within both the control and AD patient groups, there were significant associations between years of completed education and CAMCOG-R total score, MMSE score, and CAMCOG-R Language subscale score. In both groups, level of education was not associated with scores on these subscales: in controls, recent memory, R 2 = .21, p = .055, learning memory, R 2 = .16, p = .398, attention/calculation, R 2 = .19, p = .467, and perception, R 2 = .18, p = .984; in AD patients, recent memory, R 2 = .14, p = .340, learning memory, R 2 = .03, p = .680, perception, R 2 = .09, p = .723, and attention/calculation, R 2 = .19, p = .097. Conclusions: Some CAMCOG-R subscale scores were more strongly associated with educational attainment than others. Importantly, however, performance on the recent memory and learning memory subscales was not affected by education. These subscales are sensitive indicators of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD. These subscales may therefore remain valid for use as an AD screening tool in resource-poor healthcare settings. PMID:25382591

  14. Sexual behaviour in a rural high HIV prevalence South African community: time trends in the antiretroviral treatment era

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, N.; Eaton, J W; Barnighausen, T.; Tanser, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Data from generalized epidemic settings have consistently found that patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce sexual risk behaviours, but how sexual behaviour changes in the general population in response to ART availability, including amongst HIV-uninfected and undiagnosed adults, has not been characterized in these settings. Design: General population open cohort. Methods: We report trends in sexual behaviour indicators for men aged 17–54 years and women aged 17–4...

  15. Knowledge and Risk Factors for Glaucoma among Adults in a Rural Community of Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Adekunle Durowade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Glaucoma is becoming an increasingly important public health problem and presents a greater public health challenge because the blindness it causes is irreversible. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in Oke-ose community, Kwara State in North-Cental Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study which assessed the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in a rural community of Kwara State. The respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. RESULTS: Less than half 94(47.0% respondents were aware of glaucoma. Only 11(5.5% respondents had some knowledge of symptoms and 18(9.0% had knowledge of the risk factors. Socio-economic status, age of respondents and educational status and family history of glaucoma among the respondents significantly influenced the awareness and knowledge of the disease (p<0.05. Among the respondents, a total of 22(11.0% and 37(18.5% were diabetic and hypertensive respectively. Only five (2.5% of respondents had high risk perception of glaucoma. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk factors for glaucoma coupled with the poor risk perception and poor knowledge of the disease require urgent community directed eye care interventions to reduce the devastating effects of glaucoma. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 375-380

  16. The distribution of sex acts and condom use within partnerships in a rural sub-Saharan African population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Smith

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In an HIV/AIDS epidemic driven primarily by heterosexual transmission, it is important to have an understanding of the human sexual behaviour patterns that influence transmission. We analysed the distribution and predictors of within-partnership sexual behaviour and condom use in rural Zimbabwe and generated parameters for use in future modelling analyses. METHODS: A population-based cohort was recruited from a household census in 12 communities. A baseline survey was carried out in 1998-2000 with follow-up surveys after 3 and 5 years. Statistical distributions were fitted to reported within-partnership numbers of total, unprotected and protected sex acts in the past two weeks. Multilevel linear and logistic regression models were constructed to assess predictors of the frequency of unprotected sex and consistent condom use. RESULTS: A normal distribution of ln(sex acts+1 provided the best fit for total and unprotected sex acts for men and women. A negative binomial distribution applied to the untransformed data provided the best fit for protected sex acts. Condom use within partnerships was predominantly bimodal with at least 88% reporting zero or 100% use. Both men and women reported fewer unprotected sex acts with non-regular compared to regular partners (men: 0.26 fewer every two weeks (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.34; women: 0.16 (0.07-0.23. Never and previously married individuals reported fewer unprotected sex acts than currently married individuals (never married men: 0.64 (0.60-0.67; previously married men: 0.59 (0.50-0.67; never married women: 0.51 (0.45-0.57; previously married women: 0.42 (0.37-0.47. These variables were also associated with more consistent condom use. DISCUSSION: We generated parameters that will be useful for defining transmission models of HIV and other STIs, which rely on a valid representation of the underlying sexual network that determines spread of an infection. This will enable a better

  17. Patterns of clinical presentation of adult coeliac disease in a rural setting

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    D'Souza Charles

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been increasing recognition that the pattern of presentation of coeliac disease may be changing. The classic sprue syndrome with diarrhoea and weight loss may be less common than the more subtle presentations of coeliac disease such as an isolated iron deficiency anaemia. As a result, the diagnosis of this treatable condition is often delayed or missed. Recent serologic screening tests allow non-invasive screening to identify most patients with the disease and can be applied in patients with even subtle symptoms indicative of coeliac disease. Both benign and malignant complications of coeliac disease can be avoided by early diagnosis and a strict compliance with a gluten free diet. Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the trends in clinical presentation of patients diagnosed with adult coeliac disease. In addition, we studied the biochemical and serological features and the prevalence of associated conditions in patients with adult coeliac disease. Methods This is an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional review of the medical notes of 32 adult patients attending the specialist coeliac clinic in a district general hospital. Results Anaemia was the most common mode of presentation accounting for 66% of patients. Less than half of the patients had any of the classical symptoms of coeliac disease and 25% had none of the classical symptoms at presentation. Anti-gliadin antibodies, anti-endomysial antibody and anti-tissue transglutaminase showed 75%, 68% and 90% sensitivity respectively. In combination, serology results were 100% sensitive as screening tests for adult coeliac disease. Fifty nine percent patients had either osteoporosis or osteopenia. There were no malignant complications observed during the follow up of our patients. Conclusion Most adults with coeliac disease have a sub clinical form of the disease and iron deficiency anaemia may be its sole presenting symptom. Only a minority

  18. Cultural (De)Coding and Racial Identity among Women of the African Diaspora in U.S. Adult Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, Kayon K.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, research has suggested there are sometimes tensions arising from differences in the way African Americans and Black Caribbean immigrants in the United States perceive each other as part of the African diaspora. In this autoethnographic study, I explore personal experiences with cross-cultural misperceptions between Black female students…

  19. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2004-01-01

    -olds and 6.3 in 35-44-year-olds and figures were higher for women than men. In adults, no differences in caries experience were found by location whereas the caries index was significantly affected by ethnic group and occupation. CPI score 2 (gingivitis and calculus) was dominant for all ages: 6 years (58...

  20. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  1. Pro-drinking messages and message environments for young adults: the case of alcohol industry advertising in African American, Latino, and Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620

  2. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting; Fu; Yin-Wei; Song; Zhi-Qi; Chen; Jun-Wen; He; Kun; Qiao; Xu-Fang; Sun; Hong; Zhang; Jun-Ming; Wang

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China.·METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length(AL), anterior chamber depth(ACD), radius of corneal curvature(K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white(WTW)distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens(IOL)-Master].·RESULTS: Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0 ±8.7y were analyzed at last.The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius(MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75 ±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77 ±0.87,22.76 ±1.06, 22.89 ±1.41, 22.92 ±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10 ±0.32,2.98 ±0.34, 2.86 ±0.36, 2.77 ±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58 ±0.25,7.54 ±0.26, 7.55 ±0.26, 7.49 ±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79 ±0.38,11.75 ±0.40, 11.72 ±0.41, 11.67 ±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD,MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight.·CONCLUSION: Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care.

  3. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that a young child's risk of dying increases following the mother's death, but little is known about the risk when the mother becomes very ill prior to her death. We hypothesized that children would be more likely to die during the period several months before their mother's death, as well as for several months after her death. Therefore we investigated the relationship between young children's likelihood of dying and the timing of their mother's death and, in particular, the existence of a critical period of increased risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from a health and socio-demographic surveillance system in rural South Africa were collected on children 0-5 y of age from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2008. Discrete time survival analysis was used to estimate children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death, accounting for moderators. 1,244 children (3% of sample died from 1994 to 2008. The probability of child death began to rise 6-11 mo prior to the mother's death and increased markedly during the 2 mo immediately before the month of her death (odds ratio [OR] 7.1 [95% CI 3.9-12.7], in the month of her death (OR 12.6 [6.2-25.3], and during the 2 mo following her death (OR 7.0 [3.2-15.6]. This increase in the probability of dying was more pronounced for children whose mothers died of AIDS or tuberculosis compared to other causes of death, but the pattern remained for causes unrelated to AIDS/tuberculosis. Infants aged 0-6 mo at the time of their mother's death were nine times more likely to die than children aged 2-5 y. The limitations of the study included the lack of knowledge about precisely when a very ill mother will die, a lack of information about child nutrition and care, and the diagnosis of AIDS deaths by verbal autopsy rather than serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Young children in lower income settings are more likely to die not only after their mother's death but also in the months before

  4. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. PMID:24690042

  5. Adult Education through Multiple Method For Poor Rural Illiterate Women in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamin Sumardi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This Study is aimed at producing basic literacy learning model which effective and accountable. Fact has also shown that the implementation of literacy teaching is to combines comprising REFLECT (Regenerated Frerian Literacy through Empowering     Community Techniques, LEA (Language Experience Approach and PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal. This study employs research and development as the methods. The data are collected through observation, interview, and test. The subjects are illiterate women in West Java, Indonesia. The results: 1 the learners have had awareness in learning, understood the meaning and the benefit of the learning regarding reading, writing and numerical problems; 2 the learners need to learn that can involve them in their daily activity; 3 supports are acquired from society, religion, youth and woman figures; 4 learning of literacy with multiple methods can synergize learners, the potential and daily activity of learners, the exploration of natural potential and its use in the life. The conclusion was effective in learning reading, writing, numerical problems and can be applied in the life of the learners.

  6. Adult Education through Multiple Method For Poor Rural Illiterate Women in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamin Sumardi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    This Study is aimed at producing basic literacy learning model which effective and accountable. Fact has also shown that the implementation of literacy teaching is to combines comprising REFLECT (Regenerated Frerian Literacy through Empowering     Community Techniques, LEA (Language Experience Approach and PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal. This study employs research and development as the methods. The data are collected through observation, interview, and test. The subjects are illiterate women in West Java, Indonesia. The results: 1 the learners have had awareness in learning, understood the meaning and the benefit of the learning regarding reading, writing and numerical problems; 2 the learners need to learn that can involve them in their daily activity; 3 supports are acquired from society, religion, youth and woman figures; 4 learning of literacy with multiple methods can synergize learners, the potential and daily activity of learners, the exploration of natural potential and its use in the life. The conclusion was effective in learning reading, writing, numerical problems and can be applied in the life of the learners.

  7. “Any Movement at All Is Exercise”: A Focused Ethnography of Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults' Perceptions and Experiences of Exercise as Self-Care

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Laura J.; Connelly, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To understand rural community-dwelling older adult participants' shared values, beliefs, and behaviours related to exercise as self-care. Methods: We conducted a constructivist-focused ethnography involving semi-structured interviews and participant observation with 17 individuals 65 years and older. Interviews were transcribed and inductively coded to develop themes related to exercise, self-care, and exercise as self-care. Field notes were triangulated with follow...

  8. Pattern of Cutaneous Pathology among a Cohort of HIV/AIDS Patients Accessing Care in a Rural/Suburban Adult ART Clinic in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Salami, T. A. T.; Adewuyi, G. M.; Echekwube, P.; Affusim, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous diseases are common in patients with HIV/AIDS however there are few documented reports of these lesions from some parts of world such as Nigeria and West Africa. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify cutaneous pathologies in patients attending an adult outpatient (HIV/AIDS) clinic department in a rural/suburban centre in the south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Additionally it also aims to determine if there are differences in the pattern of presentation as com...

  9. Examining the trajectories of children providing care for adults in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Research on caregiving children tends to be limited to children's caregiving experiences of parents with a specific disease or disability. This has led to a common perception that children's caregiving is a single, uniform and often long-term experience. Whilst this is most certainly the case for...... family and community members for varying periods of time and intensities. Although their living arrangements and life circumstances often gave them little choice but to care, a social recognition of children's capacity to provide care for fragile adults, helped the children construct an identity, which...

  10. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g) and the median was 0.837 μg/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 μg/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 μg/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: → Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g). → Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. → Males, African Americans and less educated participants have low Se levels. → Smoking

  11. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Liu, Kiang [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Steve Morris, J. [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States); Guo, Zhongqin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China); Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); He, Ka, E-mail: kahe@unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  12. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera) in mixed colonies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto Geraldo; Mello Jr. Leonidas João de

    1999-01-01

    Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to b...

  13. Community-Based Accompaniment Mitigates Predictors of Negative Outcomes for Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neil; Munyaburanga, Christian; Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Niyigena, John W; Kayigamba, Felix; Franke, Molly F; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany

    2016-05-01

    Clinical, socioeconomic, and access barriers remain a critical problem to antiretroviral (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based accompaniment (CBA), including daily home visits and psychosocial and socioeconomic support, has been associated with improved patient outcomes at 1 year. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 578 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in 2007-2008 with or without CBA in rural Rwanda. Among patients without CBA, those with advanced HIV disease, low CD4 cell counts, lower social support, and transport costs had significantly higher odds of negative outcomes at 1 year; amongst patients who received CBA, only those with low CD4 cell counts had significantly higher odds of negative outcomes at 1 year. CBA also significantly mitigated the effect of transport costs and inaccessibility of services on the likelihood of negative outcome. CBA may be one approach to mitigating known risk factors for negative outcomes for patients on ART in resource-poor settings. PMID:26346334

  14. Perceived aesthetic impact of malocclusion in 16-24 year-old adults in the rural areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu M Marya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the self-perception of patients toward their dental appearance using the aesthetic component (AC of index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN index and whether age and gender had any influence on it. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the perceived esthetic impact of malocclusion in 16-24 year-old subjects selected from the rural population of Faridabad, Haryana, India. The sample was divided into two groups, older adolescents and younger adults, and the AC of the IOTN index was applied. Results: The results showed that most subjects scored themselves as having an attractive dentition with no need for orthodontic treatment (60.91%. Gender-wise differences were not found to be statistically significant in relation to the perceived needs (P = 0.095, whereas age-wise differences were found to be statistically significant in relation to the perceived needs (P < 0.001. Conclusion: While the age seemed to have an impact on the perceived esthetic impact of malocclusion, the gender did not seemingly influence this self-perception.

  15. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3-3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9-14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5-2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7-7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China. PMID:26932265

  16. Secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjia Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. METHOD: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35-74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. RESULT: The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35-44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05. The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold. Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action.

  17. Association of obesity with socioeconomic status among adults of ages 18 to 80 years in rural Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Leilei; Cheng, Yue; Kang, Yijun; Yuan, Shuyi; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding social disparities in obesity are presently an essential element in establishing public health priorities. However, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has not been assessed in rural Northwest China. This study aims to explore the effect of SES on overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity by gender and age in rural Northwest China. Methods A total of 3030 participants between the ages of 18 to 80 years from rural Hanzhong, Shaanxi province, N...

  18. The “ Journey to Becoming” Pre - Service T eachers’ Experiences and Understandings of Rural School Practicum in a South African Context

    OpenAIRE

    Tabitha Grace Mukeredzi

    2016-01-01

    That rural schools suffer from issues of “hard to staff” and “harder to stay” has been well documented in extant literature. However, the literature seems to indicate inadequate teacher preparation for work in rural schools. Literature also demonstrates that teaching in rural settings ostensibly requires relevant knowledge and, skills to cope with various eventualities, and complexities in those contexts. One way to cope with these complexities is for teacher education programmes to adequatel...

  19. Diabetes Burden in Urban and Rural Senegalese Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Seck, S. M.; Dia, D. G.; D. Doupa; Diop-Dia, A.; Thiam, I.; Ndong, M.; Gueye, L

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes represents a challenging global health issue in the 21st century. Data from sub-Saharan African populations are scarce and are usually restricted to urban settings. The objective of this study was to compare prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in rural and urban areas in Senegal. Methods. In a community-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1027 adults aged ≥18 years living in northern Senegal. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biological data were collected during...

  20. Risk for family rejection and associated mental health outcomes among conflict-affected adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Mullany, Luke C; Murhula, Clovis Mitima; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikengi; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Ntwali, Eric Mpanano; Glass, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Stigma due to sexual violence includes family rejection, a complex outcome including economic, behavioral, and physical components. We explored the relationship among conflict-related trauma, family rejection, and mental health in adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, who participate in a livestock-based microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Exposure to multiple and different types of conflict-related trauma, including sexual assault, was associated with increased likelihood of family rejection, which in turn was associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Design of appropriate and effective interventions will require understanding family relationships and exposure to different types of trauma in postconflict environments. PMID:24660941

  1. 天津市农村成人教育教师队伍现状研究%Research on Status of Rural Adult Education Teachers in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大鹏

    2014-01-01

    农村成人教育是一个庞大的系统工程,建设一支高素质师资队伍是发展农村成人教育事业的根本性任务。发达国家为了促进本国农业职业教育的发展,从立法、管理体制、培训层次、培训方法、考试制度及经费保障等方面积累了许多宝贵的经验,值得我们借鉴。天津市农民教育培训的师资主要由教育培训机构的专兼职教师组成,“双师型”教师数量逐年增加,但还存在学历偏低、职称结构分布不平衡、教师资格证书持有率低等情况,需要加强农村成人教育师资队伍制度建设,保证师资队伍建设的经费投入,全面提升农村成人教育师资队伍的整体水平。%The rural adult education is a huge systematic project. The construction of high-quality teachers is the fundamental task of the development of rural adult education. In order to promote the development of our country agriculture vocational education, the developed countries have accumulated many valuable experiences from the aspects of legislation, management system, training level, training methods, examination system and the guarantee of funds, worthy of our reference. The teachers of the farmers education and training in Tianjin are mainly composed of education and training institutions full time and part time teachers. In general,the quantity of the double type teachers is increasing year by year, but there are low academic qualifications, job title structure is not balanced, teacher qualification certificate holding rate is low. We need strengthen the rural adult education teachers team construction of system, guarantee input of teachers team construction funds, enhance the overall level of rural adult education teachers.

  2. Prediction of Fat-Free Mass Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Young Adults from Five Populations of African Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Amy; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Dugas, Lara R.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Kroff, Jacolene; Richie, Whitney N.; Schoeller, Dale A

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) is used in population and clinical studies as a technique for estimating body composition. Because of significant underrepresentation in existing literature, we sought to develop and validate predictive equation(s) for BIA for studies in populations of African origin. Subjects/Methods Among five cohorts of the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS), height, weight, waist circumference and body composition, using isotope...

  3. Is the Effect of Reported Physical Activity on Disability Mediated by Cognitive Performance in White and African American Older Adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Mihaela A.; Reynolds, Sandra L.; Small, Brent J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined if reported physical activity has beneficial outcomes on disability through cognitive performance–mediated effects and if these mediation effects are comparable for White and African American elders. Longitudinal data from the Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old study (N = 4,472) are used to test mediation in multilevel models. During the 7-year follow-up, cognitive performance mediated the effects of reported physical activity on disability in the entire sampl...

  4. Molecular monitoring of African swine fever virus using surveys targeted at adult Ornithodoros ticks : a re-evaluation of Mkuze Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Arnot

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mkuze Game Reserve (MGR, in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa is an African swine fever virus (ASF controlled area. In a survey conducted in 1978, ASF prevalence in warthogs and Ornithodoros ticks in MGR was determined to be 2 % and 0.06 %, respectively. These values, acknowledged as being unusually low compared to other East and southern African ASF-positive sylvatic-cycle host populations, have not been assessed since. The availability of a sensitive PCR-based virus detection method, developed specifically for the sylvatic tampan host, prompted a re-evaluation of ASF virus (ASFV prevalence in MGR ticks. Of the 98 warthog burrows inspected for Ornithodoros presence, 59 (60.2 % were found to contain tampans and tick sampling was significantly male-biased. Whilst gender sampling-bias is not unusual, the 27 % increase in infestation rate of warthog burrows since the 1978 survey is noteworthy as it anticipates a concomitant increase in ASFV prevalence, particularly in light of the high proportion (75 % of adult ticks sampled. However, despite DNA integrity being confirmed by internal control amplification of the host 16S gene, PCR screening failed to detect ASFV. These results suggest that ASFV has either disappeared from MGR or if present, is localized, occurring at exceptionally low levels. Further extensive surveys are required to establish the ASFV status of sylvatic hosts in this controlled area.

  5. Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    PARKS, S; Housemann, R.; Brownson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: Few studies have analysed the rates and correlates of physical activity in economically and geographically diverse populations. Objectives were to examine: (1) urban-rural differences in physical activity by several demographic, geographical, environmental, and psychosocial variables, (2) patterns in environmental and policy factors across urban-rural setting and socioeconomic groups, (3) socioeconomic differences in physical activity across the same set of variables, and (4...

  6. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF HYPERTENSION AMONG ADULTS AGED 30 YEARS AND ABOVE IN A RURAL DWELLING OF KOTTAYAM, KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rising prevalence of hypertension is a major public health challenge in India especially in Kerala. This cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its determinants in a rural population of Kottayam, Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community based cross sectional study was carried out among 400 adults aged 30 years and above in a randomly selected ward of Ettumanoor panchayath, which is the field practice area of Govt. Medical college, Kottayam. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding socio demographic and behavioral factors. Standardized sphygmomanometric blood pressure measurement was taken by trained team members twice for each individual and the average of the two was taken as blood pressure. Anthropometric measurements were also done. A systolic blood pressure of ≥140mm of Hg and or diastolic BP≥90mm of Hg was regarded as hypertension. Data analysis was done using the software Epi-info version 3.4.3. Chi square test revealed the association between hypertension (dependent variable and other socio demographic and behavioural factors (independent variable. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. All the significant variables are included in the binary logistic regression to find out Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 35% (males-33.8% females -35.6%. The variables which evolved as significant and remained so in binary logistic regression analysis were single status after marriage/ unmarried (AOR-2.45 95% CI 1.38-4.38, low educational status (AOR- 2.31, 95%CI-1.46-3.64, family history of hypertension (AOR-1.85 95%CI-1.2-2.85 and trunkal obesity in females (AOR-2.41 95%CI-1.37-4.24 CONCLUSION: The present study revealed the prevalence (35% and risk factors for hypertension in the study area. The results of the study can be used to develop messages to make the people aware of the problem of hypertension

  7. Gene polymorphisms and gene scores linked to low serum carotenoid status and their associations with metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A.; Nalls, Michael A.; Canas, J. Atilio; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms provide means to obtain unconfounded associations between carotenoids and various health outcomes. We tested whether gene polymophorisms and gene scores linked to serum carotenoid status are related to metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults residing in Baltimore city, MD, using cross-sectional data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity Across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study (Age range:30–64y, N=873–994). We examined 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms of various gene loci that were previously shown to be associated with low serum carotenoid status (SNPlcar). Genetic risk scores (5 low specific-carotenoid risk scores (LSCRS: α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) and 1 low total-carotenoid risk score (LTCRS: total carotenoids)) were created. SNPlcar, LSCRS and LTCRS were entered as predictors for a number of health outcomes. Those included obesity, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, elevated homeostatic model assessment, Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hyperuricemia and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score≥16). Among key findings, SNPlcar were not associated with the main outcomes after correction for multiple testing. However, an inverse association was found between LTCRS and HDL-C dyslipidemia. Specifically, the α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS were associated with lower odds of HDL-C dyslipidemia. However, the β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS was linked to a higher odds of EDS, with a linear dose-response relationship. In sum, gene risk scores linked to low serum carotenoids had mixed effects on HDL-C dyslipidemia and EDS. Further studies using larger African-American samples are needed. PMID:25201307

  8. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support. PMID:26156119

  9. Urbanisation and coronary heart disease mortality among African Americans in the US South.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, E; Strogatz, D; Armstrong, D; Wing, S

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite significant declines since the late 1960s, coronary mortality remains the leading cause of death for African Americans. African Americans in the US South suffer higher rates of cardiovascular disease than African Americans in other regions; yet the mortality experiences of rural-dwelling African Americans, most of whom live in the South, have not been described in detail. This study examined urban-rural differentials in coronary mortality trends among African American...

  10. Female sex, poverty and globalization as determinants of obesity among rural South African type 2 diabetics: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have recently been experiencing increases in the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other non-communicable diseases in both urban and rural areas. Despite their growing influence on population health in the region, there is a paucity of epidemiological studies on the twin epidemic of obesity and T2DM, particularly in the rural communities in South Africa. We investigated the prevalence and the determinants of overall obesity a...

  11. The dynamics of household dissolution and change in socio-economic position: A survival model in a rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorius, Kurt; Sartorius, Benn K. D.; Collinson, Mark A.; TOLLMAN, STEPHEN M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household dissolution and changes in asset wealth (socio-economic position) in a rural South African community containing settled refugees. Survival analysis applied to a longitudinal dataset indicated that the covariates increasing the risk of forced household dissolution were a reduction in socio-economic position (asset wealth), adult deaths and the permanent outmigration of more than 40% of the household. Conversely, the risk of dissolution was reduced by bigger ho...

  12. Predictors and Profiles of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among African American Adolescents and Young Adult Males Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Israel Moses; Hosek, Sybil; Richards, Maryse Heather; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for thwarting HIV disease progression and reducing secondary HIV transmission, yet youth living with HIV (YLH) struggle with adherence. The highest rates of new HIV infections in the United States occur in young African American men. A sample of 387 HIV-positive young African American males on ART was selected from a cross-sectional assessment of (YLH) receiving medical care within the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from 2010 to 2012 (12-24 years old, median 22.00, SD 2.08). Participants completed self-reported adherence, demographic, health, and psychosocial measures. Sixty-two percent self-reported 100% ART adherence. Optimal data analysis identified frequency of cannabis use during the past 3 months as the strongest independent predictor of adherence, yielding moderate effect strength sensitivity (ESS) = 27.1, p cannabis use, 72% reported full adherence; in contrast, only 45% of participants who used cannabis frequently reported full adherence. Classification tree analysis (CTA) was utilized to improve classification accuracy and to identify the pathways of ART adherence and nonadherence. The CTA model evidenced a 38% improvement above chance for correctly classifying participants as ART adherent or nonadherent. Participants most likely to be adherent were those with low psychological distress and minimal alcohol use (82% were adherent). Participants least likely to be adherent were those with higher psychological distress and engaged in weekly cannabis use (69% were nonadherent). Findings suggest multiple profiles of ART adherence for young African American males living with HIV and argue for targeted psychosocial interventions. PMID:27410496

  13. Persistent high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in South African HIV-infected adults in the era of an antiretroviral treatment program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C Nunes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART programs have been associated with declines in the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in IPD hospitalizations in HIV-infected adults in Soweto, South Africa, associated with up-scaling of the HAART program from 2003 to 2008. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed IPD cases were identified from 2003 through 2008 through an existing surveillance program. The period 2003-04 was designated as the early-HAART era, 2005-06 as the intermediate-HAART era and 2007-08 as the established-HAART era. The incidence of IPD was compared between the early-HAART and established-HAART eras in HIV-infected and-uninfected individuals. RESULTS: A total of 2,567 IPD cases among individuals older than 18 years were reported from 2003 through 2008. Overall incidence of IPD (per 100,000 did not change during the study period in HIV-infected adults (207.4 cases in the early-HAART and 214.0 cases in the established-HAART era; p = 0.55. IPD incidence, actually increased 1.16-fold (95% CI: 1.01; 1.62 in HIV-infected females between the early-and established-HAART eras (212.1 cases and 246.2 cases, respectively; p = 0.03. The incidence of IPD remained unchanged in HIV-uninfected adults across the three time periods. CONCLUSION: Despite a stable prevalence of HIV and the increased roll-out of HAART for treatment of AIDS patients in our setting, the burden of IPD has not decreased among HIV-infected adults. The study indicates a need for ongoing monitoring of disease and HAART program effectiveness to reduce opportunistic infections in African adults with HIV/AIDS, as well as the need to consider alternate strategies including pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization for the prevention of IPD in HIV-infected adults.

  14. Consumo alimentar de população adulta residente em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES, Brasil Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Oliveira Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo transversal no qual foi aplicado um questionário de frequência alimentar (QFCA em 150 adultos residentes em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES. O QFCA classificou o consumo alimentar como: habitual (> 4 vezes na semana, não habitual (It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil. QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (> 4 times in the week, not habitual (<4 times in the week and rarely (1 time a month, with objective of correlating the alimentary consumption with the chronic-degenerative diseases. The results evidenced a habitual consumption of rice, breads, stalk, bean, cow milk, animal fat, margarine, sugar and coffee, and a non habitual consumption of cake, potato, cookies, manioc, sweet potato, chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  15. Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...

  16. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Cohen

    Full Text Available Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79 at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males, but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These

  17. Cytokine response during non-cerebral and cerebral malaria: evidence of a failure to control inflammation as a cause of death in African adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Babacar; Dagamajalu, Shobha; Fall, Mouhamadou Mansour; Loke, Mun Fai; Nguer, Cheikh Momar; Thiam, Alassane; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Dieye, Alioune

    2016-01-01

    Background. With 214 million cases and 438,000 deaths in 2015, malaria remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases in tropical countries. Several species of the protozoan Plasmodium cause malaria. However, almost all the fatalities are due to Plasmodium falciparum, a species responsible for the severest cases including cerebral malaria. Immune response to Plasmodium falciparum infection is mediated by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors whose actions are crucial for the control of the parasites. Following this response, the induction of anti-inflammatory immune mediators downregulates the inflammation thus preventing its adverse effects such as damages to various organs and death. Methods. We performed a retrospective, nonprobability sampling study using clinical data and sera samples from patients, mainly adults, suffering of non-cerebral or cerebral malaria in Dakar, Sénégal. Healthy individuals residing in the same area were included as controls. We measured the serum levels of 29 biomarkers including growth factors, chemokines, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Results. We found an induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators during malaria. The levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers were higher in the cerebral malaria than in the non-cerebral malaria patients. In contrast, the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines were comparable in these two groups or lower in CM patients. Additionally, four pro-inflammatory biomarkers were significantly increased in the deceased of cerebral malaria compared to the survivors. Regarding organ damage, kidney failure was significantly associated with death in adults suffering of cerebral malaria. Conclusions. Our results suggest that a poorly controlled inflammatory response determines a bad outcome in African adults suffering of cerebral malaria.

  18. Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Hypertensive Adults in Rural China: Far from Leveling-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shasha; Sun, Zhaoqing; Zheng, Liqiang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-11-01

    In recent years data from many investigations has shown a leveling-off trend in diabetes incidence. In order to explain the diabetes epidemic in rural China during the past ten years, we conducted a survey from July 2012 to August 2013. Data from comprehensive questionnaires, physical examinations, and blood tests were obtained from 5919 residents with hypertension, aged ≥ 35 years. Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were defined according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. The overall prevalence of diabetes and IFG were 15.3% (13.6% in men, 16.8% in women) and 40.7% (44.1% in men, 34.7% in women) in the hypertensive rural Chinese population. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 6.5% (4.6% in men, 8.4% in women). The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 8.7% (9.0% in men, 8.5% in women). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing age, drinking, overweight or obesity, systolic blood pressure, low HDL-C, high total cholesterol and triglycerides increased the risk of diabetes (p rural areas of China and is manifesting an accelerating trend. It remains an important public health problem in China, especially in rural areas and routine assessment for the early detection and treatment of diabetes should be emphasized. PMID:26610531

  19. The Effect of Brief Interventions on the Drinking Behaviour of Pregnant Women in a High-Risk Rural South African Community: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Sandra; Jordaan, Esme; Viljoen, Dennis; Olivier, Leana; de Waal, Johanna; Poole, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of a series of brief interventions (BIs) on anti-natal alcohol consumption of women from a disadvantaged and high-risk background attending state health clinics in a rural district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. A pragmatic cluster randomised trial design was followed. All pregnant women,…

  20. Identification, Replication, and Fine-Mapping of Loci Associated with Adult Height in Individuals of African Ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Diaye, Amidou; Chen, Gary K.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ge, Bing; Tayo, Bamidele; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Adoue, Veronique; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Atwood, Larry; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Britton, Angela; Casey, Graham; Chanock, Stephen J.; Demerath, Ellen; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Fox, Caroline; Harris, Tamara B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Craig; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lohman, Kurt; Liu, Jiankang; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; North, Kari E.; Nyante, Sarah; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Papanicolaou, George; Patel, Sanjay; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Press, Michael F.; Redline, Susan; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotimi, Charles; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Salako, Babatunde; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stram, Alex H.; Stram, Daniel O.; Strom, Sara S.; Suktitipat, Bhoom; Thun, Michael J.; Witte, John S.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M.; Cooper, Richard S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Henderson, Brian E.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lettre, Guillaume; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) similar to 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain similar to 10% of the varianc

  1. Improving rural livelihoods through participative research on the domestication and breeding of the palm weevil larvae (Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabr.) : the African palm weevil project : final project report

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Muafor; Le Gall, Philippe; Levang, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to fight against food insecurity, poverty and biodiversity erosion, this project was elaborated to initiate the breeding and domestication of the palm weevil grubs (edible larvae of the African palm weevil: Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius, 1801). The project was aimed at determining an appropriate technique and feed formula for the domestication of the larvae, as well as training local people on acquired multiplication and breeding techniques. In order to m...

  2. High prevalence and associated risk factors for impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in a rural adult population from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China. METHODS: Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined. RESULTS: Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1, reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%, and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%. Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1% of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

  3. Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

    OpenAIRE

    Amidou N'Diaye; Chen, Gary K.; Palmer, Cameron D; Bing Ge; Bamidele Tayo; Rasika A Mathias; Jingzhong Ding; Michael A Nalls; Adebowale Adeyemo; Véronique Adoue; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Larry Atwood; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) approximately 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analy...

  4. Identification, Replication, and Fine-Mapping of Loci Associated with Adult Height in Individuals of African Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    N'Diaye, Amidou; Chen, Gary K.; Palmer, Cameron D; Ge, Bing; Tayo, Bamidele; Rasika A Mathias; Ding, Jingzhong; Michael A Nalls; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Adoue, Véronique; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Atwood, Larry; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Adult height is an ideal phenotype to improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex diseases and traits: it is easily measured and usually available in large cohorts, relatively stable, and mostly influenced by genetics (narrow-sense heritability of height h 2∼0.8). Genome-wide association (GWA) studies in individuals of European ancestry have identified >180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with height. In the current study, we continued to ...

  5. Exploring how residential mobility and migration influences teenage pregnancy in five rural communities in California: youth and adult perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diana; Decker, Martha J; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-09-01

    Teenage birth rates among young people aged 15-19 years in California, USA, have declined from 47 births per 1000 in 2000 to 24 per 1000 in 2013. Nevertheless, the US counties with the highest teenage birth rates are predominantly rural and have a high proportion of Latinos/as. We conducted 42 interviews with key stakeholders and 12 focus groups with 107 young people in five rural communities to better understand local migration patterns and their influence on intermediate and proximate variables of pregnancy, such as interaction with role models and barriers to access contraception. The migration patterns identified were: residential mobility due to seasonal jobs, residential mobility due to economic and housing changes and migration from other countries to California. These patterns affect young people and families' interactions with school and health systems and other community members, creating both opportunities and barriers to prevent risky sexual behaviours. In rural areas, residential mobility and migration to the USA interconnect. As a result, young people dually navigate the challenges of residential mobility, while also adapting to the dominant US culture. It is important to promote programmes that support the integration of immigrant youth to reduce their sense of isolation, as well as to assure access to sexual health education and reproductive health services. PMID:27439657

  6. Cognitive styles and psychological functioning in rural South African school students: Understanding influences for risk and resilience in the face of chronic adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Melissa A; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Hlungwani, Tintswalo Mercy; Holmes, Emily A; Fazel, Mina

    2016-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences can show lasting effects on physical and mental health. Major questions surround how children overcome adverse circumstances to prevent negative outcomes. A key factor determining resilience is likely to be cognitive interpretation (how children interpret the world around them). The cognitive interpretations of 1025 school children aged 10-12 years in a rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged area of South Africa were examined using the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children (CTI-C). These were examined in relation to psychological functioning and perceptions of the school environment. Those with more positive cognitive interpretations had better psychological functioning on scales of depression, anxiety, somatization and sequelae of potentially traumatic events. Children with more negative cognitions viewed the school-environment more negatively. Children living in poverty in rural South Africa experience considerable adversity and those with negative cognitions are at risk for psychological problems. Targeting children's cognitive interpretations may be a possible area for intervention. PMID:26994348

  7. Development and Tracking of Body Mass Index from Preschool Age into Adolescence in Rural South African Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    K.D. Monyeki; Monyeki, Makama A.; Brits, S.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Makgae, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this observational prospective cohort study was to investigate the development and tracking of body mass index (BMI) of Ellisras rural children from preschool age into late adolescence from the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Heights and weights of children were measured according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry twice a year from 1996 to 2003. In total, 2,225 children—550 preschool and 1,...

  8. High rate of pneumococcal bacteremia in a prospective cohort of older children and adults in an area of high HIV prevalence in rural western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oundo Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although causing substantial morbidity, the burden of pneumococcal disease among older children and adults in Africa, particularly in rural settings, is not well-characterized. We evaluated pneumococcal bacteremia among 21,000 persons ≥5 years old in a prospective cohort as part of population-based infectious disease surveillance in rural western Kenya from October 2006-September 2008. Methods Blood cultures were done on patients meeting pre-defined criteria - severe acute respiratory illness (SARI, fever, and admission for any reason at a referral health facility within 5 kilometers of all 33 villages where surveillance took place. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done by latex agglutination and quellung reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using broth microdilution. We extrapolated incidence rates based on persons with compatible illnesses in the surveillance population who were not cultured. We estimated rates among HIV-infected persons based on community HIV prevalence. We projected the national burden of pneumococcal bacteremia cases based on these rates. Results Among 1,301 blood cultures among persons ≥5 years, 52 (4% yielded pneumococcus, which was the most common bacteria isolated. The yield was higher among those ≥18 years than 5-17 years (6.9% versus 1.6%, p 95%. The crude rate of pneumococcal bacteremia was 129/100,000 person-years, and the adjusted rate was 419/100,000 person-years. Nineteen (61% of 31 patients with HIV results were HIV-positive. The adjusted rate among HIV-infected persons was 2,399/100,000 person-years (Rate ratio versus HIV-negative adults, 19.7, 95% CI 12.4-31.1. We project 58,483 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia will occur in Kenyan adults in 2010. Conclusions Pneumococcal bacteremia rates were high among persons ≥5 years old, particularly among HIV-infected persons. Ongoing surveillance will document if expanded use of highly-active antiretroviral

  9. Differential effects of self-reported lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor in African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D

    2015-06-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51 % female, median age = 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n = 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n = 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n = 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR 2.73, CI 1.18, 6.31; p = .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death. PMID:25731665

  10. Prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan: the influence of farm residence and agriculture-related exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyck Roland

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although rural Canadians are reported to have higher rates of diabetes than others, little is known about the relative influence of known versus agriculture-related risk factors. The purpose of this research was to carry out a comprehensive study of prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan and to determine possible differences between those living on and off farms. Methods In 2010, we conducted a baseline mail-out survey (Saskatchewan Rural Health Study of 11,982 households located in the province′s four agricultural quadrants. In addition to self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, the questionnaire collected information from farm and small town cohorts on possible diabetes determinants including lifestyle, family history, early life factors and environmental/agricultural-related exposures. Clustering effect within households was adjusted using Generalized Estimating Equations approach. Results Responses were obtained from 4624 (42% households comprising 8208 males and females aged 18 years or older and 7847 self-described Caucasian participants (7708 with complete information. The overall age-standardized diabetes prevalence for the latter was 6.35% but people whose primary residence was on farms had significantly lower diabetes prevalence than those living in non-farm locations (5.11% versus 7.33% respectively; p′ 1.63, 4.04 compared to those aged 18–45. Other known independent risk factors included family history of diabetes (OR 2.50 [CI′s 1.94, 3.23] if father; OR 3.11 [CI′s 2.44, 3.98] if mother, obesity (OR 2.66; CI′s 1.86, 3.78, as well as lower socioeconomic status, minimal/no alcohol intake and smoking. The most original finding was that exposure to insecticides conferred an increased risk for diabetes among males (OR 1.83; CI′s 1.15, 2.91. Finally, the co-morbidities with the strongest independent association with diabetes were heart disease and

  11. African Trypanosomiasis Detection using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization reports that African Trypanosomiasis affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa that can be fatal if properly not treated. This paper presents Dempster-Shafer Theory for the detection of African trypanosomiasis. Sustainable elimination of African trypanosomiasis as a public-health problem is feasible and requires continuous efforts and innovative approaches. In this research, we implement Dempster-Shafer theory for detecting African trypan...

  12. HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Meiring

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use.National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI in 2009.In South Africa, from 2003-2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734 of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000, with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190. HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544 vs. 19% (790/4190, p<0.001. During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7-1.1.Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk factors (including HIV-infection for

  13. Reference ranges of handgrip strength from 125,462 healthy adults in 21 countries: a prospective urban rural epidemiologic (PURE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Koon K.; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Kutty, V. Raman; Lanas, Fernando; Hui, Chen; Quanyong, Xiang; Zhenzhen, Qian; Jinhua, Tang; Noorhassim, Ismail; AlHabib, Khalid F; Moss, Sarah J.; Rosengren, Annika; Akalin, Ayse Arzu; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Orlandini, Andrés; Kumar, Rajesh; Yeates, Karen; Gupta, Rajeev; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Dans, Antonio; Avezum, Álvaro; Lopez‐Jaramillo, Patricio; Poirier, Paul; Heidari, Hosein; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Iqbal, Romaina; Khatib, Rasha; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The measurement of handgrip strength (HGS) has prognostic value with respect to all‐cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular disease, and is an important part of the evaluation of frailty. Published reference ranges for HGS are mostly derived from Caucasian populations in high‐income countries. There is a paucity of information on normative HGS values in non‐Caucasian populations from low‐ or middle‐income countries. The objective of this study was to develop reference HGS ranges for healthy adults from a broad range of ethnicities and socioeconomically diverse geographic regions. Methods HGS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer in 125,462 healthy adults aged 35‐70 years from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Results HGS values differed among individuals from different geographic regions. HGS values were highest among those from Europe/North America, lowest among those from South Asia, South East Asia and Africa, and intermediate among those from China, South America, and the Middle East. Reference ranges stratified by geographic region, age, and sex are presented. These ranges varied from a median (25th–75th percentile) 50 kg (43–56 kg) in men 60 years from South East Asia. Reference ranges by ethnicity and body‐mass index are also reported. Conclusions Individual HGS measurements should be interpreted using region/ethnic‐specific reference ranges. PMID:27104109

  14. Minimum incidence of adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Blantyre, Malawi an urban african setting: a hospital based prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naor Bar-Zeev

    Full Text Available Invasive pneumococcal disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Africa. Evaluating population level indirect impact on adult disease of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programmes in infants requires baseline population incidence rates but these are often lacking in areas with limited disease surveillance. We used hospital based blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid surveillance to calculate minimal incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the adult (≥15 years old population of Blantyre, a rapidly growing urban centre in southern Malawi, in the period preceding vaccine introduction. Invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in Blantyre district was high, mean 58.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 53.7, 62.7 per 100,000 person years and peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 108.8 (95%CI: 89.0, 131.7 mirroring the population age prevalence of HIV infection. For pneumococcal bacteraemia in urban Blantyre, mean incidence was 60.6 (95% CI: 55.2, 66.5 per 100,000 person years, peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 114.8 (95%CI: 90.3, 143.9. We suspected that our surveillance may under-ascertain the true burden of disease, so we used location data from bacteraemic subjects and projected population estimates to calculate local sub-district incidence, then examined the impact of community level socio-demographic covariates as possible predictors of local sub-district incidence of pneumococcal and non-pneumococcal pathogenic bacteraemia. Geographic heterogeneity in incidence was marked with localised hotspots but ward level covariates apart from prison were not associated with pneumococcal bacteraemia incidence. Modelling suggests that the current sentinel surveillance system under-ascertains the true burden of disease. We outline a number of challenges to surveillance for pneumococcal disease in our low-resource setting. Subsequent surveillance in the vaccine era will have to account for geographic heterogeneity when evaluating population

  15. Minimum incidence of adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Blantyre, Malawi an urban african setting: a hospital based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Mtunthama, Neema; Gordon, Stephen B; Mwafulirwa, Gershom; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Africa. Evaluating population level indirect impact on adult disease of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programmes in infants requires baseline population incidence rates but these are often lacking in areas with limited disease surveillance. We used hospital based blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid surveillance to calculate minimal incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the adult (≥15 years old) population of Blantyre, a rapidly growing urban centre in southern Malawi, in the period preceding vaccine introduction. Invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in Blantyre district was high, mean 58.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.7, 62.7) per 100,000 person years and peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 108.8 (95%CI: 89.0, 131.7) mirroring the population age prevalence of HIV infection. For pneumococcal bacteraemia in urban Blantyre, mean incidence was 60.6 (95% CI: 55.2, 66.5) per 100,000 person years, peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 114.8 (95%CI: 90.3, 143.9). We suspected that our surveillance may under-ascertain the true burden of disease, so we used location data from bacteraemic subjects and projected population estimates to calculate local sub-district incidence, then examined the impact of community level socio-demographic covariates as possible predictors of local sub-district incidence of pneumococcal and non-pneumococcal pathogenic bacteraemia. Geographic heterogeneity in incidence was marked with localised hotspots but ward level covariates apart from prison were not associated with pneumococcal bacteraemia incidence. Modelling suggests that the current sentinel surveillance system under-ascertains the true burden of disease. We outline a number of challenges to surveillance for pneumococcal disease in our low-resource setting. Subsequent surveillance in the vaccine era will have to account for geographic heterogeneity when evaluating population level indirect

  16. Nocturnal haemoglobin oxygen desaturation in urban and rural East African paediatric cohorts with and without sickle cell anaemia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    L'Esperance, V.S.; Ekong, T.; Cox, S E; Makani, J.; Newton, C R; Soka, D.; Komba, A.; Kirkham, F. J.; Hill, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94-100)%); p

  17. Off-grid Solar PV: Is it an affordable or an appropriate solution for rural electrification in sub-Saharan African countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Saule Baurzhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the feasibility of off-grid solar PV systems in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) is analysed focusing on five major issues in the context of falling system costs: cost-effectiveness, affordability, financing, environmental impact, and poverty alleviation. Solar PV systems are found to be an extremely costly source of electricity for the rural poor in SSA. It is estimated that it will take at least 16.8 years for solar PV systems to become competitive with small diesel generators. The cos...

  18. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  19. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  20. Nocturnal haemoglobin oxygen desaturation in urban and rural East African paediatric cohorts with and without sickle cell anaemia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, V S; Ekong, T; Cox, S E; Makani, J; Newton, C R; Soka, D; Komba, A; Kirkham, F J; Hill, C M

    2016-04-01

    Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94-100)%); pnight-time SpO2 compared with rural Kenyan children with SCA. Possible explanations include differences in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea or asthma, alterations in the oxyhaemoglobin desaturation curve or cardiovascular compromise, for example, to shunting at atrial or pulmonary level secondary to increased pulmonary artery pressure. The fact that non-SCA siblings in the urban area are also affected suggests that environmental exposures, for example, air pollution, nutrition or physical exercise, may play a role. Further studies should determine aetiology and clinical relevance for the SCA phenotype in children resident in Africa. PMID:26699539

  1. Religion-related stigma and discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students at a South African rural-based university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhandu-Mudzusi, Azwihangwisi Helen; Sandy, Peter Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the stigma and discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students at a rural university in South Africa. Twenty lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students recruited through snowball sampling participated in this study. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used as a framework for data analysis. Findings indicate that religion-related stigma and discrimination are common at a rural-based university in South Africa. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students are typically ascribed a range of labels, including 'sinners', 'devils' and 'demon possessed'. They are also exposed to a number of discriminatory acts, such as the denial of financial and healthcare services and threats of and/or actual rape. Study participants reported attempts to convert lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students' sexual orientation which involved the use of intervention in the form of prayers. Derogatory labelling and associated discriminatory acts, for example the threat of rape, led many students to conceal their sexual identity, not attend specific classes, terminate their studies and even attempt suicide. Universities should develop policies to promote greater social inclusion and the acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students. Policies should also specify the steps or approaches to be taken in addressing discriminatory practices. PMID:25732232

  2. Self-rated health and associated factors among older South Africans: evidence from the study on global ageing and adult health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective: To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design: A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE composite health state score. Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II activities of daily living (ADLs, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs, perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL. Results: Overall, more than three quarters (76.8% of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001. Older people (aged 70 years and above reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–2.30. Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70 and (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.18_0.98; 30 p < 0.045, respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80 and less than primary education (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76 were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57 and medium wealth quintile (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13 were more likely to report poorer

  3. Excellent clinical outcomes and retention in care for adults with HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma treated with systemic chemotherapy and integrated antiretroviral therapy in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Herce

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS is the most common cancer in Malawi. In 2008, the non-governmental organization, Partners In Health, and the Ministry of Health established the Neno Kaposi Sarcoma Clinic (NKSC to treat HIV-KS in rural Neno district. We aimed to evaluate 12-month clinical outcomes and retention in care for HIV-KS patients in the NKSC, and to describe our implementation model, which featured protocol-guided chemotherapy, integrated antiretroviral therapy (ART and psychosocial support delivered by community health workers. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using routine clinical data from 114 adult HIV-KS patients who received ART and ≥1 chemotherapy cycle in the NKSC between March 2008 and February 2012. Results: At enrolment 97% of patients (n/N=103/106 had advanced HIV-KS (stage T1. Most patients were male (n/N=85/114, 75% with median age 36 years (interquartile range, IQR: 29–42. Patients started ART a median of 77 days prior to chemotherapy (IQR: 36–252, with 97% (n/N=105/108 receiving nevirapine/lamivudine/stavudine. Following standardized protocols, we treated 20 patients (18% with first-line paclitaxel and 94 patients (82% with bleomycin plus vincristine (BV. Of the 94 BV patients, 24 (26% failed to respond to BV requiring change to second-line paclitaxel. A Division of AIDS grade 3/4 adverse event occurred in 29% of patients (n/N=30/102. Neutropenia was the most common grade 3/4 event (n/N=17/102, 17%. Twelve months after chemotherapy initiation, 83% of patients (95% CI: 74–89% were alive, including 88 (77% retained in care. Overall survival (OS at 12 months did not differ by initial chemotherapy regimen (p=0.6. Among patients with T1 disease, low body mass index (BMI (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR=4.10, 95% CI: 1.06–15.89 and 1 g/dL decrease in baseline haemoglobin (aHR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.03–2.25 were associated with increased death or loss to follow-up at 12 months. Conclusions

  4. Reported physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adult HIV risk behaviour in three African countries: findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p < 0.003)-among men, OR -0.7 (CI: -0.9, -0.5, p < 0.001)-among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p < 0.001)-men, OR 1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p < 0.001)-women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p < 0.001)-women) and two forms of partner violence-recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p < 0.001)-men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p < 0.001)-women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p < 0.001)-women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection. PMID:23474641

  5. Epidemiological Survey on the Prevalence of Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus in Uyghur Adults from Rural Hotan Area in Xinjiang

    OpenAIRE

    Gulinuer Awuti; Kurexi Younusi; Linlin Li; Halmurat Upur; Jun Ren

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims. This study was designed to explore the relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Uygur adults from Xinjiang. Methods and Results. Data were obtained using questionnaire and oral examination. Participants (48.87 ±13.72 yr) were categorized into periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups in accordance with the chronic periodontitis diagnostic criteria. Based on gum inflammation, bleeding on probing, periodontal pocket depth and attachment loss, patien...

  6. Elder mistreatment and emotional symptoms among older adults in a largely rural population: The South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Begle, Angela M.; Strachan, Martha; Cisler, Joshua M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-01-01

    While two recent major studies provide some insight into the prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment, the relationship between elder mistreatment and mental health remains unclear. This study begins to address this issue by examining the relationship between elder mistreatment (i.e., a recent history of emotional and physical abuse) and negative emotional symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression) among 902 older adults aged 60 and above residing in South Carolina. Results demonstrate th...

  7. Trends in population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in a rural area of Northwest China from 1982 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in average blood pressure levels and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in a rural area of Northwest China, and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: Four cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted between 1982 and 2010 among randomly selected adults in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Data on blood pressure, body mass index, family history of hypertension, and socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected in similar way by trained investigators in four surveys. Data of 8575 participants aged 35-64 years was analyzed. Averages and proportions were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Average blood pressure in the population has increased since 1982 from 76.9 mm Hg to 79.6 mm Hg in 2010 (diastolic and from 120.9 to 129.7 mm Hg (systolic. Prevalence of hypertension increased from 18.4% in 1982 to 30.5% in 2010, and awareness of hypertension increased from 16.8% to 38.4% in 2010. Treatment of hypertension increased from 1.0% in 1982 to 17.4% in 2010, and control of hypertension increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 3.5% in 2010. All these gradients were statistically significant (P<0.01 for trend. Population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension were positively associated with increasing age, body mass index and having family history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Average blood pressure levels and the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in rural areas of Hanzhong have increased since 1982. However, awareness, treatment and control rates remain low. Public health programs and practical strategies are required to improve prevention and control of hypertension in rural Northwest China. In particular, attention should be given to the elderly and obese, and to those with a family history of hypertension, while raising awareness and treatment among younger adults.

  8. Determining adult type 2 diabetes-related health care needs in an indigenous population from rural Guatemala: a mixed-methods preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chary Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Guatemala, diabetes is an emerging public health concern. Guatemala has one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America, and this population frequently does not access the formal health care system. Therefore, knowledge about the emergence of diabetes in this population is limited. Methods Interview participants (n=23 were recruited from a convenience sample of indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes at one rural diabetes clinic in Guatemala. A structured interview was used to assess knowledge about diabetes and its complications; access to diabetes-related health care and treatment; dietary and lifestyle changes; and family and social supports for individuals living with diabetes. Interviews were supplemented with two group interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Thematic analysis was used to produce insights into diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In addition, a chart review of the clinic’s electronic medical record identified all adult patients (n=80 presenting in one calendar year for a first-time diabetic consultation. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were extracted and summarized from these records. Results Salient demographic factors in both the structured interview and chart review samples included low educational levels and high indigenous language preference. In the interview sample, major gaps in biomedical knowledge about diabetes included understanding the causes, chronicity, and long-term end-organ complications of diabetes. Medication costs, medical pluralism, and limited social supports for dietary and lifestyles changes were major practical barriers to disease management. Quantitative data from medical records review revealed high rates of poor glycemic control, overweight and obesity, and medication prescription. Conclusions This study provides a preliminary sketch of type 2 diabetes in an indigenous Guatemalan population. Combined qualitative and

  9. Reliability and construct validity of three health-related self-report scales in HIV-positive adults in rural Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epino, Henry M; Rich, Michael L; Kaigamba, Felix; Hakizamungu, Massudi; Socci, Adrienne R; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; Franke, Molly F

    2012-01-01

    Depression, low health-related quality of life, and low perceived social support have been shown to predict poor health outcomes, including HIV-related outcomes. Mental health morbidity and HIV are important public health concerns in Rwanda, where approximately half of the current population is estimated to have survived the genocide and 3% is living with HIV. We examined the reliability and construct validity of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-15 (HSCL-15), the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), and the Duke/UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire (DUFSSQ), which were used to assess depression, health-related quality of life, and perceived social support, respectively, among HIV-infected adults in rural Rwanda. We also studied whether scale reliability differed by gender, literacy status, or antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery strategy. The Kinyarwanda versions of the HSCL-15, MOS-HIV, and DUFSSQ performed well in the study population. Reliability was favorable (Cronbach's alpha coefficients ≥0.75 or above) for the scales overall and across subgroups of gender, literacy, and mode of ART delivery. The scales also demonstrated good convergent, discriminant, and known-group validity. PMID:22428702

  10. The impact of health literacy on rural adults' satisfaction with a multi-component intervention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, A N; Porter, K J; Hill, J L; Chen, Y; Estabrooks, P A; Zoellner, J M

    2016-08-01

    SIPsmartER is a 6-month behavioral intervention designed using a health literacy universal precautions approach that has been found effective at reducing sugary beverage intake in rural, low socioeconomic adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to determine if health literacy status influenced participants' satisfaction and perceptions of each intervention component: small group classes, interactive-voice response (IVR) calls, personal action plans and self-monitoring logs. Of the 155 participants enrolled in SIPsmartER, 105 (68%) completed an interview-administered summative evaluation including 68 high and 37 low health literate participants. The quantitative findings show participant satisfaction with each intervention component was high (i.e. classes = 9.6, IVR calls = 8.1, action plans = 8.9-9.1, logs = 8.7 on a 10-point scale) and similar across both health literacy groups. The majority of qualitative responses were positive (81.8%) and code counts were comparable between literacy groups with a few exceptions. As compared with high health literacy respondents, low health literacy respondents more frequently mentioned liking the content and length of IVR calls, liking the motivational aspects of the personal action plans, and identified numeracy issues with the self-monitoring logs. Overall, applying a health literacy universal precautions approach is an effective and acceptable strategy for both high and low health literacy groups. PMID:27173641

  11. A rural and urban cross-sectional study on alcohol consumption among adult Nigerians in Abia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuonye I.I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The abuse or harmful use of alcohol is a well known risk factor for disability and premature mortality. Aim: The study sought to describe the pattern of alcohol consumption in Abia state, Nigeria. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional and predominantly descriptive study aimed at ascertaining the pattern of alcohol consumption in the state. Participants in the study were recruited from the three senatorial zones in the state. In each of the zones, urban and rural communities were chosen for the study. Data on alcohol consumption and other socio demographic data were collected from the participants by use of a questionnaire. Results: A total of 2977 participants gave data on alcohol consumption. A total of 1549(52.03% of the participants were men, while 1428 were women (47.97%. One thousand, six hundred and sixty three (55.8%, gave history of alcohol consumption, while 1,315 (44.2% had never consumed alcoholic drink. Frequent alcohol consumers were 7.56%, while 30.5 % of the participants were heavy drinkers. Conclusion: The percentage of heavy alcohol consumers in the study is high, and there is need for the various’ authorities to intervene to reduce the health burden associated with heavy drinking. This can be done through health education on the dangers of alcohol misuse at all levels as well as training and retraining of healthcare providers. Taxation on alcohol producing industries and alcohol drinks importation can be increased. High alcohol containing drinks can be banned from entry into the country.

  12. A study on domestic violence against adult and adolescent females in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Madhutandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, domestic violence against females is common across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. There are various reasons for domestic violence and it might have serious health outcomes. Objectives: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, characteristics, reasons and the socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence, if any, and to find out the perceptions of the females to cope with the act of violence and to overcome the situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken by interviewing 141 adult and adolescent females residing in a village of West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance (Chi-square test. Results: Out of 141 respondents, 33 (23.4% adult and adolescent females in this village were exposed to domestic violence in the past year. Among the demographic characteristics, statistically significant maximum prevalence was observed among 30-39 years age group, illiterate and unmarried females. For most of the females who were exposed to domestic violence, their husbands acted as the perpetrators (72.73% and they reported slapping as the specific act of physical assault (72.73%. Majority of the respondents reported that opportunity of education (31.9%, being economically productive (31.9% and better family income (23.4% would help them to overcome the situation. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for justified female empowerment and this calls for multidisciplinary approach to develop public health measures, which would most effectively address the problem of domestic violence.

  13. A Comparison of Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Rural and Non-Rural Transgender Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Keith J.; Iantaffi, Alex; SWINBURNE-ROMINE, REBECCA; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and ...

  14. Nutrient intake in 5-17-year-old African boys and girls in a rural district of Kenya Aporte de nutrientes en chicos y chicas africanos de 5-17 años en un distrito rural de Kenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Semproli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate relationships between nutritional status and growth among a sample of schoolchildren and adolescents living in a rural district of Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional nutritional and anthropometric survey. Setting: The data are from schools in a rural district of south-western Kenya. Subjects: Schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 5 and 17 years of age. Anthropometric measurements and interviews on dietary intake were carried out in 2001 and 2002 on 1,442 subjects. Results: In this African rural sample, the degree of malnutrition differs with age (increasing with age and sex (more accentuated in males. Several correlations (P A pesar de la emergencia en la prevalencia del sobrepeso en escolares de países en vías de desarrollo, se sigue observando una deficiencia de micronutrientes en la infancia. Algunos estudios realizados en Kenia han notificado algunos efectos beneficiosos de los suplementos dietéticos en algunos escolares pero no en otros. De hecho, estos estudios no detectaban la influencia de la ingesta nutricional sobre el crecimiento de los escolares por edad y sexo. Con el fin de investigar las relaciones entre el estado nutricional y el crecimiento entre escolares y adolescentes, diseñamos un estudio nutricional transversal que recogía datos de escuelas de educación primaria en un distrito rural de Kenia. Los individuos eran niños de entre 5 y 17 años. Se realizaron medidas antropométricas y entrevistas sobre la ingesta diaria en 2001 y 2002 en 1.442 individuos. En esta muestra rural africana, el grado de desnutrición difería con la edad (aumentando con la edad y el sexo (más acentuado en los chicos. Se observaron fuertes correlaciones (P < 0,05 entre las tasas de adecuación de los nutrientes y los valores antropométricos, particularmente en los chicos. No hubo correlaciones entre las características antropométricas y el sodio o la vitamina C (en chicos y chicas ni la vitamina A o el potasio

  15. Role of mannose-binding lectin deficiency in HIV-1 and schistosoma infections in a rural adult population in Zimbabwe.

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    Rutendo B L Zinyama-Gutsire

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the MBL2 gene lead to MBL deficiency, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. We assessed role of MBL deficiency in HIV-1 and schistosoma infections in Zimbabwean adults enrolled in the Mupfure Schistosomiasis and HIV Cohort (MUSH Cohort.HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections were determined at baseline. Plasma MBL concentration was measured by ELISA and MBL2 genotypes determined by PCR. We calculated and compared the proportions of plasma MBL deficiency, MBL2 structural variant alleles B (codon 54A>G, C (codon 57A>G, and D (codon 52T>C as well as MBL2 promoter variants -550(H/L, -221(X/Y and +4(P/Q between HIV-1 and schistosoma co-infection and control groups using Chi Square test.We assessed 379 adults, 80% females, median age (IQR 30 (17-41 years. HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni prevalence were 26%, 43% and 18% respectively in the MUSH baseline survey. Median (IQR plasma MBL concentration was 800μg/L (192-1936μg/L. Prevalence of plasma MBL deficiency was 18% with high frequency of the C (codon 57G>A mutant allele (20%. There was no significant difference in median plasma MBL levels between HIV negative (912μg/L and HIV positive (688μg/L, p = 0.066. However plasma MBL levels at the assay detection limit of 20μg/L were more frequent among the HIV-1 infected (p = 0.007. S. haematobium and S. mansoni infected participants had significantly higher MBL levels than uninfected. All MBL2 variants were not associated with HIV-1 infection but promoter variants LY and LL were significantly associated with S. haematobium infection.Our data indicate high prevalence of MBL deficiency, no evidence of association between MBL deficiency and HIV-1 infection. However, lower plasma MBL levels were protective against both S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections and MBL2 promoter and variants LY and LL increased susceptibility to S. haematobium infection.

  16. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Overview State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health Fellows Program Application Volunteer Options NRHA Social Media Rural Health Students Education Liason Program National Rural Task Force NRHA Internships Government Affairs Save Rural ...

  17. Epidemiological Survey on the Prevalence of Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus in Uyghur Adults from Rural Hotan Area in Xinjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulinuer Awuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. This study was designed to explore the relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM in Uygur adults from Xinjiang. Methods and Results. Data were obtained using questionnaire and oral examination. Participants (48.87 ±13.72 yr were categorized into periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups in accordance with the chronic periodontitis diagnostic criteria. Based on gum inflammation, bleeding on probing, periodontal pocket depth and attachment loss, patients were further divided into mild, moderate and severe periodontitis groups. Among 962 subjects, 453 (47.1% suffered from chronic periodontitis with a prevalence of type 2 DM and impaired fasting glucose of 9.5% and 11.4%, respectively. In the periodontitis group, the prevalence of type 2 DM was 75.6% compared with 22.4% in the non-periodontitis group. Likewise, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 71.3% and 28.7% in periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed moderate and severe periodontitis as risk factors for DM (OR=3.4, OR=2.9. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that moderate periodontitis is independently associated with DM (OR=4. Conclusions. Our data revealed that prevalence of DM is overtly higher in periodontitis patients than in individuals without periodontitis. Furthermore, moderate periodontitis is considered an independent risk factor for type 2 DM.

  18. LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.; Kastanis, Angel

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. The rep...

  19. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in adults aged 30 years and above in a rural population in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncorrected refractive errors are a leading cause of visual disability globally. This population-based study was done to estimate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in adults aged 30 years and above of village Pawakah, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey in which 1000 individuals were included randomly. All the individuals were screened for uncorrected refractive errors and those whose visual acuity (VA) was found to be less than 6/6 were refracted. In whom refraction was found to be unsatisfactory (i.e., a best corrected visual acuity of <6/6) further examination was done to establish the cause for the subnormal vision. Results: A total of 917 subjects participated in the survey (response rate 92%). The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors was found to be 23.97% among males and 20% among females. The prevalence of visually disabling refractive errors was 6.89% in males and 5.71% in females. The prevalence was seen to increase with age, with maximum prevalence in 51-60 years age group. Hypermetropia (10.14%) was found to be the commonest refractive error followed by Myopia (6.00%) and Astigmatism (5.6%). The prevalence of Presbyopia was 57.5% (60.45% in males and 55.23% in females). Poor affordability was the commonest barrier to the use of spectacles, followed by unawareness. Cataract was the commonest reason for impaired vision after refractive correction. The prevalence of blindness was 1.96% (1.53% in males and 2.28% in females) in this community with cataract as the commonest cause. Conclusions: Despite being the most easily avoidable cause of subnormal vision uncorrected refractive errors still account for a major proportion of the burden of decreased vision in this area. Effective measures for the screening and affordable correction of uncorrected refractive errors need to be incorporated into the health care delivery system. (author)

  20. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Fasting Glucose, Associated with Risk Factors in Rural Kazakh Adults in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired fasting glucose (IFG in a Kazakh population aged ≥18 years living in the YiLi District of Xinjiang, China and to evaluate the associated risk factors of diabetes. Methods: Randomly selected adults, living for at least 6 months in the YiLi District in Xinjiang had their clinical characteristics and standard blood chemistries measured. DM and IFG were defined according to WHO 1999 criteria. The adjusted odds ratio (ORs and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the association of diabetes risk factors in multivariate logistic regression models. Results: A total of 3919 subjects were randomly selected. The age-and gender-standardized prevalence of DM and IFG were 5.9% and 10.0%, respectively. The prevalence of DM and IFG increased with age and BMI. Prevalence of 7.4%, 12.2% in males and 4.9%, 8.6% in females for DM and IFG. Compared by sex, prevalence of DM and IFG was higher in males. Prevalence of 3.4%, 8.1% in normal, 6.7%, 11.9% in overweight and 12.0%, 13.0% in obesity for diabetes and IFG. In the multivariable logistic models, male sex, older age, unmarried, overweight, obesity, hypertension, triglycerides and smoking were all significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Conclusions: The prevalence of DM and IFG among minorities was lower than the overall national level both in men and women (9.7% in total, 10.6% in males, 8.8% in females, and also lower than among the Han ethnicity (9.26% which predominates in China today.

  1. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme. METHODS: Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms. RESULTS: A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49. CONCLUSIONS: There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  2. Psychosocial stress but not hypertensive status associated with angiogenesis in Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Paul Cristiaan; Malan, Leoné; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Increased angiogenic factors [vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)] have been associated with vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Black Africans undergoing rapid urbanization present with elevated blood pressure (BP) and we aimed to determine whether angiogenic factors are elevated in urban versus rural Africans with normal and elevated BP. Methods and Materials. Africans (n = 272), matched for gender and age, were recruited from rural and urban com...

  3. Use of traditional cooking fuels and the risk of young adult cataract in rural Bangladesh: a hospital-based case-control study

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    Geater Alan F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the independent relationship between the use of various traditional biomass cooking fuels and the occurrence of cataract in young adults in rural Bangladesh. Methods A hospital-based age- and sex-matched case-control study incorporating two control groups was conducted. Cases were cataract patients aged 18 and 49 years diagnosed on the basis of any opacity of the crystalline lens or its capsule and visual acuity poorer than 6/18 on the Log Mar Visual Acuity Chart in either eye, or who had a pseudophakic lens as a result of cataract surgery within the previous 5 years. Non-eye-disease (NE controls were selected from patients from ENT or Orthopaedics departments and non-cataract eye-disease (NC controls from the Ophthalmology department. Data pertaining to history of exposure to various cooking fuels and to established risk factors for cataract were obtained by face-to-face interview and analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results Clean fuels were used by only 4% of subjects. A majority of males (64-80% depending on group had never cooked, while the rest had used biomass cooking fuels, mainly wood/dry leaves, with only 6 having used rice straw and/or cow dung. All females of each group had used wood/dry leaves for cooking. Close to half had also used rice straw and/or cow dung. Among females, after controlling for family history of cataract and education and combining the two control groups, case status was shown to be significantly related to lifetime exposure to rice straw, fitted as a trend variable coded as never, ≤ median of all exposed, > median of all exposed (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22, but not to lifetime exposure to wood/dry leaves. Case status among females showed an inverse association with ever use of cow dung as a cooking fuel (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.22-0.81. Conclusions In this population, where cooking is almost exclusively done using biomass fuels, cases of young adult

  4. Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) Polymorphism and Context-Specific Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in African American and Caucasian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yu; North, Kari E.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Chambless, Lloyd E; Franceschini, Nora; Heiss, Gerardo; Kottgen, Anna; Pankow, James S.; Selvin, Elizabeth; West, Suzanne L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on type 2 diabetes in the context of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We investigated the association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in 2,727 African American and 9,302 Cau...

  5. The Strength of Strong Ties for Older Rural Adults: Regional Distinctions in the Relationship between Social Interaction and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Christine A.; Thivierge-Rikard, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    Classic and contemporary sociological theories suggest that social interaction differs in rural and urban areas. Intimate, informal interactions (strong ties) are theorized to characterize rural areas while urban areas may possess more formal and rationalized interactions (weak ties). Aging and social support literature stresses social interaction…

  6. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  7. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  8. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  9. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  10. Benzodiazepine (BZD) use in community-dwelling older adults: Longitudinal associations with mobility, functioning, and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Megan E; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Bradley, Laurence A; Allman, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prospective association between baseline BZD use and mobility, functioning, and pain among urban and rural African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults. From 1999 to 2001, a cohort of 1000 community-dwelling adults, aged ≥ 65 years, representing a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified by ethnicity, sex, and urban/rural residence were recruited. BZD use was assessed at an in-home visit. Every six months thereafter, study outcomes were assessed via telephone for 8.5-years. Mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Functioning was quantified with level of difficulty in five basic activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating), and six instrumental activities of daily living (IADL: shopping, managing money, preparing meals, light and heavy housework, telephone use). Pain was measured by frequency per week and the magnitude of interference with daily tasks. All analytic models were adjusted for relevant covariates and mental health symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, baseline BZD use was significantly associated with greater difficulty with basic ADL (Estimate=0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.74), and more frequent pain (Estimate=0.41, 95%CI: 0.09-0.74) in the total sample and declines in mobility among rural residents (Estimate=-0.67, t(5,902)=-1.98, p=0.048), over 8.5 years. BZD use was prospectively associated with greater risk for basic ADL difficulties and frequent pain among African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults, and life-space mobility declines among rural-dwellers, independently of relevant covariates. These findings highlight the potential long-term negative impact of BZD use among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24880195

  11. Hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural Chiapas, Mexico Anemia e infección por Necator americanus en mujeres en Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Linnea Capps; Melinda Denson

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between anemia and hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in hospitalized women in rural Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 anemic women (defined as having a hemoglobin level

  12. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    The paper argues that African organization sand business relations reflect pre-industrial social norms found by anthropologists in kinship based, rural communities. African society is a hybrid mixture of an emerging industrial economy and a set of norms and behaviours which have been carried over......-industrial cultural traits and offers a theory showing their inner, social logic. Drawing on examples from the existing literature on African management it is shown how the pre-industrial norms are manifested in organizational practice and business.......The paper argues that African organization sand business relations reflect pre-industrial social norms found by anthropologists in kinship based, rural communities. African society is a hybrid mixture of an emerging industrial economy and a set of norms and behaviours which have been carried over...

  13. Study on prevalence and related factors of chronic diseases among adults in rural area of Zhongshan city%中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况及相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志宏; 梁佩韶; 邝周平

    2010-01-01

    Objective Study on prevalence and related factors of chronic diseases among adults in rural area of Zhongshan city and provide evidences for health care policy making. Methods 15550 adults in rural area of Zhongshan city were investigated about status of chronic diseases and its related factors. Results 46.23% adults suffered from chronic diseases, in which the top five were overweight (30. 8%), hypertension ( 11.9% ), high blood cholesterol level ( 8.5 % ), diabetes ( 8.1% ), and Arthropathy ( 6. 5 % ). The main incorrect life manner were High-fat diet (58.9%), smoking( 25.6% % )and drinking( 15.3 % ). Multi-variable logistic regression analysis showed that time of sitting, salt diet, fat diet, smoking, drinking, quality of sleeping, sport were primary influencing factors of the chronic disease of rural adults. Conclusion The rural adults had high prevalence of chronic disease. Effective health education, active and efficient community service should be Provided, good living habits should be Advocated to promote the health of rural adults.%目的 探讨中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况及相关因素的现状,为农村慢性病综合防治的实施提供依据.方法 对中山市某两镇15550名居民健康调查和健康体检资料进行回顾性研究,分析中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况、行为习惯、就医意向等相关情况.结果 中山市农村居民主要慢性病的总患病率为46.23%,排在前5位的是:超重和肥胖、高血压、高脂血症、糖尿病和关节病,其患病率分别是30.8%、11.9%、8.5%、8.1%和6.5%;不良行为习惯排在前3位的是高脂饮食(58.9%)、吸烟(25.6%)和饮酒(15.3%);就医意向方面;有66.0%的居民表示患病时首选社区卫生服务机构就医,有81.3%的居民曾经到社区卫生服务机构就诊.多因素logistic回归分析显示:长期坐着工作(OR=1.704),高盐饮食(OR=2.752),高脂饮食(OR=2.497),吸烟(OR=1.932),饮酒(OR=1.354),经常熬夜(OR=1.213)是农

  14. Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both individual SES and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage contribute to the mortality risk of older adults but do not completely explain race differences in mortality. The racial mortality crossover persists even after controlling for multilevel SES, suggesting that black older adults experience selective survival at very old ages. Addressing the individual and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage of blacks is necessary to reduce mortality disparities that culminate in older adulthood.

  15. Social marketing in a rural African district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, W; Kabwa, P; Mwesigye, B

    1992-01-01

    21 focus group discussions were held in 5 locations of Kabarole district, Uganda, with 200 male and female participants to assess the demand for and acceptability of condoms in the region. The discussions were also held to obtain information related to the design of products and motivational materials, and included people believed to engage in high-risk sex, lower-risk members of the general population, and shop owners. Condoms and condom use are strongly desired within this population, with participants expressing interest in high-quality products of uniform size which are continuously available at convenient outlets. Moreover, shop and pharmacy owners were more than willing to display subtle messages about condoms and advertise their availability. The main barriers to use were low female acceptance, unavailability, societal attitudes, high cost, and the inability to buy condoms at night when shops are closed. Feedback led to the development of the logo of a man holding a spear and a shield and the adoption of the brand name Engabu, Rutooro terminology for a wooden shield. Comparatively stronger, yet sensitive, brown condoms were eventually packaged in dark brown wrappings in groups of 5. Vendors are offered the packets of 5 condoms for US$0.06, which they are expected t sell at US$0.08; owners expressed the preference for slot-box distribution containers. In addition, people in the sales network were all trained so they could explain proper condom use to clients. A post-study assessment found people content with the product and its presentation, so the social marketing program was officially launched in September, 1992. Condoms were sold heavily in the 1st few weeks of the program despite the lack of media and newspaper coverage per national government condom policy. Knowledge of the availability of condoms will instead be spread through counseling and health education sessions, seminars, and informal talks. PMID:12318243

  16. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas.Aim: The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation.Setting:...

  17. A systematic review of lifestyle interventions for chronic diseases in rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina A.; Ansa, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural Americans suffer disproportionately from lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and breast cancer). Interventions that consider the distinctive characteristics of rural communities (e.g., access to healthcare, income, and education) are needed. As an initial step in planning future research, we completed a systematic review of dietary intake and physical activity interventions targeting rural populations. Methods Manuscripts focused on dietary intake and physical activity and published through March 15, 2016, were identified by use of PubMed and CINAHL databases and MeSH terms and keyword searches. Results A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six involved randomized controlled trials; 7 used quasi-experimental designs; 4 had a pre-/post-design; and 1 was an observational study. Eight studies were multi-site (or multi-county), and 3 focused on churches. Primary emphasis by racial/ethnic group included: African Americans (6); Whites (2); Hispanics (3); and two or more groups (7). Most studies (17) sampled adults; one included children. Two studies targeted families. Conclusions Additional lifestyle intervention research is needed to identify effective approaches promoting healthy diet and exercise and chronic disease prevention in rural communities. Studies that include rigorous designs, adequate sample sizes, and generalizable results are needed to overcome the limitations of published studies.

  18. Baseline morbidity in 2,990 adult African volunteers recruited to characterize laboratory reference intervals for future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Stevens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An understanding of the health of potential volunteers in Africa is essential for the safe and efficient conduct of clinical trials, particularly for trials of preventive technologies such as vaccines that enroll healthy individuals. Clinical safety laboratory values used for screening, enrolment and follow-up of African clinical trial volunteers have largely been based on values derived from industrialized countries in Europe and North America. This report describes baseline morbidity during recruitment for a multi-center, African laboratory reference intervals study. METHODS: Asymptomatic persons, aged 18-60 years, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at seven sites (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; Kangemi, Kenyatta National Hospital and Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia. Gender equivalency was by design. Individuals who were acutely ill, pregnant, menstruating, or had significant clinical findings were not enrolled. Each volunteer provided blood for hematology, immunology, and biochemistry parameters and urine for urinalysis. Enrolled volunteers were excluded if found to be positive for HIV, syphilis or Hepatitis B and C. Laboratory assays were conducted under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of the 2990 volunteers who were screened, 2387 (80% were enrolled, and 2107 (71% were included in the analysis (52% men, 48% women. Major reasons for screening out volunteers included abnormal findings on physical examination (228/603, 38%, significant medical history (76, 13% and inability to complete the informed consent process (73, 13%. Once enrolled, principle reasons for exclusion from analysis included detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (106/280, 38% and antibodies against Hepatitis C (95, 34%. This is the first large scale, multi-site study conducted to the standards of GCLP to describe African laboratory reference intervals applicable to potential volunteers in

  19. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  20. Using doubly labeled water to validate associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and body mass among White and African-American adults

    OpenAIRE

    Emond, Jennifer A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Jardack, Patricia M.; Arab, Lenore

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence is mixed regarding sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and adiposity among adults, perhaps due to reporting bias. OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of reporting bias on any associations between increased SSB intake and overweight/obesity. DESIGN Beverage intake and overweight/obese status (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was examined among adults from a dietary assessment and doubly labeled water study (n=250). Four web-based, 24-hour recalls assessed dietary intake. SSB intake was categ...

  1. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this facility type. Rural Referral Center (RRC) Rural tertiary hospitals that receive referrals from surrounding rural acute ... rural beneficiaries. Where can I get data and statistics regarding the Medicare program in rural America? MedPAC ...

  2. Population uptake of antiretroviral treatment through primary care in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KwaZulu-Natal is the South African province worst affected by HIV and the focus of early modeling studies investigating strategies of antiretroviral treatment (ART delivery. The reality of antiretroviral roll-out through primary care has differed from that anticipated and real world data are needed to inform the planning of further scaling up of services. We investigated the factors associated with uptake of antiretroviral treatment through a primary healthcare system in rural South Africa. Methods Detailed demographic, HIV surveillance and geographic information system (GIS data were used to estimate the proportion of HIV positive adults accessing antiretroviral treatment within northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in the period from initiation of antiretroviral roll-out until the end of 2008. Demographic, spatial and socioeconomic factors influencing the likelihood of individuals accessing antiretroviral treatment were explored using multivariable analysis. Results Mean uptake of ART among HIV positive resident adults was 21.0% (95%CI 20.1-21.9. Uptake among HIV positive men (19.2% was slightly lower than women (21.8%, P = 0.011. An individual's likelihood of accessing ART was not associated with level of education, household assets or urban/rural locale. ART uptake was strongly negatively associated with distance from the nearest primary healthcare facility (aOR = 0.728 per square-root transformed km, 95%CI 0.658-0.963, P = 0.002. Conclusions Despite concerns about the equitable nature of antiretroviral treatment rollout, we find very few differences in ART uptake across a range of socio-demographic variables in a rural South African population. However, even when socio-demographic factors were taken into account, individuals living further away from primary healthcare clinics were still significantly less likely to be accessing ART

  3. Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Paul Daniel; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.; Shinogle, Judith Ann

    2004-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Obesity and physical inactivity are common in the United States, but few studies examine this issue within rural populations. The present study uses nationally representative data to study obesity and physical inactivity in rural populations. Methods: Data came from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult and…

  4. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  5. Rural America in the Global Economy: Socioeconomic Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Rural families in the 1990s have less to support their children and schools than a decade earlier: rural poverty (particularly among children), single-parent families, and maternal employment have increased whereas education and incomes of young adults have decreased. Although education has increased in importance for jobs, rural schools systems…

  6. The Rural Mystique and Tourism Development: Data from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Fern K.

    1993-01-01

    Telephone surveys of 1,881 of 2,729 Pennsylvania households and follow-up with 1,241 showed that rural residents, older adults, and those with less income and education were more likely to accept the image of rurality as wholesome and desirable. Acceptance of the rural mystique was also related to lifestyle and consumer choices, suggesting…

  7. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  8. Intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Clarke, K A; Schafer, K A

    1998-10-01

    Two captive adult female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. Both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. Histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. Extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. These are the first reported cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma in African hedgehogs. PMID:9813852

  9. A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Network Changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-Born Caucasian Urban Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born…

  10. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  11. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, ...

  12. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; DiMartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical tri...

  13. Religion and health connection: a study of African American, Protestant Christians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnerman, Melvin E; Lutz, Gene M; Yehieli, Michele; Meisinger, Bruce K

    2008-02-01

    The roles religious and health promoting behaviors may play in bolstering positive physical and emotional health were assessed using structured, face-to-face interviews conducted using a non-random community sample of 105 adult African American, Protestant Christians in a small city in a rural state in the Midwest. The interview measured health promotion, health locus of control beliefs, emotional health, physical health, religious practices, and demographics. Health promotion, church attendance, or both were related to decreased prevalence of loneliness, depression, trouble sleeping, and family problems. More than 80% of those interviewed ascribed healing power to God and prayer. There was an apparent lack of connection between respondents' attitudes about faith and healing and their actual experiences. PMID:18263995

  14. Early educational foundations for the development of civic responsibility: an African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Mumba, Paul; Chansa-Kabali, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    An innovative curriculum designed to foster the development of social responsibility among pre-adolescent children was introduced at a rural Zambian primary school. The curriculum invoked Child-to-Child principles focusing on health education, advancing a synthesis of Western psychological theories and African cultural traditions. The teacher sought to democratize the educational process through cooperative learning in mixed-gender, mixed-social-class, and mixed-ability study groups. Learners engaged in community service activities and contributed to the nurturant care of younger children. Young adults interviewed seventeen years after completing the program recalled their experience and reflected on how it had promoted their personal agency, cooperative disposition, and civic responsibility in early adulthood. PMID:22147602

  15. Developing Teachers for Rural Education? Reflecting on the 2nd KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education Teacher Development Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikoko, Vitallis

    2008-01-01

    This article reflects on six key themes that emerged from a teacher development conference whose theme was "Developing Teachers for Rural Education". The six themes are the concept "rural" in the South African context; the notion of "rural education"; beyond access, towards success; the practitioner-academic dichotomy; partnership in teacher…

  16. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic ...... limitations of informal organization and community adaptive capacities, and finally, it discusses the issues of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic and environmental change from a household perspective.......Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  17. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  18. Healthy Eating and Risks of Total and Cause-Specific Death among Low-Income Populations of African-Americans and Other Adults in the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danxia Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA, has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations.We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40-79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002-2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI, 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86 for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94 for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95 for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88 for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend 0.50. Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, showed significant inverse associations with total mortality. HEI-2005 score was also associated with lower disease mortality, with a HR of 0.86 (95

  19. Agriculture in African Development: Theories and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Douglas Gollin

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest sector in most sub-Saharan economies in terms of employment, and it plays an important role in supplying food and export earnings. Rural poverty rates remain high, and labor productivity is strikingly low. This article asks how these factors shape the role of agriculture in African development strategies. Is agricultural growth a prerequisite for growth in other sectors? Or will urbanization and nonagricultural export markets ultimately be the forces that pull the r...

  20. THE INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF EYELID XANTHOMA AMONG URBAN AND RURAL ADULT RESIDENTS IN XINGTAI CITY%邢台市城乡成年居民眼睑黄色瘤流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建斌; 马红果

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析邢台市城乡成年居民眼睑黄色瘤的流行现状,为预防控制眼睑黄色瘤提供科学依据.[方法]采用流行病学调查方法,对邢台市城乡18岁以上5 218名成年居民进行年龄、性别、文化程度、职业、体力活动等情况登记后,进行身高、体重和腰围(WC)测量. [结果]邢台市城乡成年居民眼睑黄色瘤在39岁以前患病率为零.在40岁以后,随年龄的增长眼睑黄色瘸的发生呈逐渐增多趋势,城市高于乡村(x2=60.78,P<0.01),女性高于男性(x2=95.54,P<0.01).在118例眼睑黄色瘤患者中,BMI和/或WC超标率为100%,血脂异常率为94.92%. [结论]眼睑黄色瘤多发生于中老年女性,超重或肥胖以及血脂异常是发生眼睑黄色瘤的危险因素.%[Objective] To analyze the trends of eyelid xanthoma among urban and rural adult residents in Xingtai City. In order to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of eyelid xanthoma. [Methods] Used epidemiological methods of investigation, registed the age, sex, educational level, occupation, physical activity, etc. among 5 218 adults over the age of 18 of urban and rural areas in Xingtai City. After registration, measured height (m), weight (kg) and waist circumference (we). [Results] The incidence rate of eyelid xanthelasma before the age of 39 was zero of urban and rural adult residents in Xingtai City. After the age of 40, there was a growing tendency that the incidence of eyelid xanthoma based on the growth of age, and urban than in rural areas (x2 = 60.78, P<0.01), females than males (x2 = 9554, P< 0.01). Xanthoma in 118 cases of eyelid xanthelasma patients, BMI and/or WC exceeding 100%, dyslipidemia was 94.92%. [Conclusion] Eyelid xanthoma mostly occurs in middle-aged women, overweight, obesity and dyslipidemia are the risk factors of occurring eyelid xanthoma.

  1. 辽宁省城乡成年居民血脂异常患病率及其危险因素分析%The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dyslipidemia among Urban and Rural Adults in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖亚新; 李晨嫣; 滕晓春; 陈彦彦; 单忠艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析辽宁省城乡成年居民血脂异常的患病率及其危险因素.方法 抽取辽宁省城市及乡镇2 989名年龄≥20岁的居民为研究对象,进行问卷、体格检查及血脂、血糖测定,计算血脂异常患病率并分析其危险因素.结果 辽宁省成年居民血脂异常的患病率为51.6%,男性患病率为60%,女性患病率为47.4%.血脂异常的患病率随年龄的增加呈现上升趋势.在50岁以前,男性血脂异常的患病率明显高于女性,而50岁以后女性血脂异常的患病率明显高于男性.城市居民血脂谱的异常主要表现为总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平的增高和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平的降低,而乡镇居民血脂谱异常主要表现在甘油三酯水平的增高.多因素非条件Logistic回归分析显示男性、年龄增加10岁、吸烟、超重或肥胖、中心型肥胖、高血压、高血糖均为血脂异常的独立危险因素.结论 辽宁省成年居民血脂异常的患病率已高达51.6%,城市及乡镇血脂谱异常的特点有所不同,应加强对血脂异常高危人群的防治.%Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia among urban and rural adult inhabitants in Liaoning. Methods 2 989 urban and rural adult inhabitants from Liaoning were chosen as the subjects. They answered the questionnaires,received physical examinations and their blood lipids and blood glucose determinations. The prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia were analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia among adult inhabitants in Liaoning was 51.6% ,the prevalence was 60% in male and 47.4% in female. The prevalence of dyslipidemia increased in accordance to aging. Before 50 years old,the prevalence in male was higher than that in female,but after 50 years old,it was just the opposite. In urban areas,the characteristics of dyslipidemia was an increase in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein

  2. Fibrinogen concentration and its role in CVD risk in black South Africans - effect of urbanisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; De Maat, Moniek P. M.; Jerling, Johann C.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate correlates of fibrinogen concentration in black South Africans, as well as its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether urbanisation influences this association. A total of 1,006 rural and 1,004 urban black South Africans from the PURE s

  3. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  4. Nutrient intake in 5-17-year-old African boys and girls in a rural district of Kenya Aporte de nutrientes en chicos y chicas africanos de 5-17 años en un distrito rural de Kenia

    OpenAIRE

    S. Semproli; E. Canducci; E. Ricci; E. Gualdi-Russo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationships between nutritional status and growth among a sample of schoolchildren and adolescents living in a rural district of Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional nutritional and anthropometric survey. Setting: The data are from schools in a rural district of south-western Kenya. Subjects: Schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 5 and 17 years of age. Anthropometric measurements and interviews on dietary intake were carried out in 2001 and 2002 on 1,442 subjects. ...

  5. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African America...

  6. Diabetes Burden in Urban and Rural Senegalese Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Seck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes represents a challenging global health issue in the 21st century. Data from sub-Saharan African populations are scarce and are usually restricted to urban settings. The objective of this study was to compare prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in rural and urban areas in Senegal. Methods. In a community-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1027 adults aged ≥18 years living in northern Senegal. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biological data were collected during household visits. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with diabetes. Results. Mean age of participants was 48.0±16.9 years and 65.7% were female. Participants from urban area represented 55.7%. The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 7.6% (6.0% in men versus 9.0% in women. Prevalence of diabetes was higher in urban areas (8.1% compared to rural areas (4.6%. Disease awareness rate was 43%. After multivariate analysis, age (OR = 1.63, p=0.001, familial history of diabetes (OR = 1.42, p=0.001, and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.17, p=0.05 were associated with diabetes. Conclusion. Diabetes is frequent in urban and rural areas in Senegal. Awareness rate is very low among populations. Age, family history of diabetes, and abdominal obesity are the main risk factors identified.

  7. PREVALENCE OF PREHYPERTENSION AND ASSOCIATED MAJOR BEHAVIOURAL RISK FACTORS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF BANKURA DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eashin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 , the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC 7 proposed the term Prehypertension for elevated blood pressure values below 140/90 mm of Hg to more accurately justify the tendency of blood pressure to rise with age. 1 Prehypertension is considered as a precursor of clinical hypertension which in turn has emerged as a major health problem. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of Prehypertension as well as to find out major behavioural risk factors associated with Prehypertensi on among the study population. It was a community based descriptive cross - sectional study conducted in rural field practice area of Community Medicine Department of BSMC in Bankura district from February to April 2014 among the permanent resident young adu lts (age 18 - 35 years of Descriptive analysis , chi - square and from the 2 x 2 (contingency table OR were calculated. Prehypertension was found to be 43%. The proportion of pre hypertensives was much higher in the male subjects (60.2% compared to the female s (39.8%. Age , alcohol intake , tobacco use , extra salt intake and physical activity were significantly related with Prehypertension but physical exercise , BMI and were not significantly related to it in this study. Prevalence of Prehypertension was found to be substantially high in rural area of Bankura District. Lifestyle modifications can achieve a downward shift in the overall blood pressure , thus reducing the risk of Prehypertension and cardiovascular disease

  8. Failure of a novel, rapid antigen and antibody combination test to detect antigen-positive HIV infection in African adults with early HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kilembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute HIV infection (prior to antibody seroconversion represents a high-risk window for HIV transmission. Development of a test to detect acute infection at the point-of-care is urgent. METHODS: Volunteers enrolled in a prospective study of HIV incidence in four African cities, Kigali in Rwanda and Ndola, Kitwe and Lusaka in Zambia, were tested regularly for HIV by rapid antibody test and p24 antigen ELISA. Five subgroups of samples were also tested by the Determine Ag/Ab Combo test 1 Antigen positive, antibody negative (acute infection; 2 Antigen positive, antibody positive; 3 Antigen negative, antibody positive; 4 Antigen negative, antibody negative; and 5 Antigen false positive, antibody negative (HIV uninfected. A sixth group included serial dilutions from a p24 antigen-positive control sample. Combo test results were reported as antigen positive, antibody positive, or both. RESULTS: Of 34 group 1 samples with VL between 5x105 and >1.5x107 copies/mL (median 3.5x106, 1 (2.9% was detected by the Combo antigen component, 7 (20.6% others were positive by the Combo antibody component. No group 2 samples were antigen positive by the Combo test (0/18. Sensitivity of the Combo antigen test was therefore 1.9% (1/52, 95% CI 0.0, 9.9. One false positive Combo antibody result (1/30, 3.3% was observed in group 4. No false-positive Combo antigen results were observed. The Combo antigen test was positive in group 6 at concentrations of 80 pg/mL, faintly positive at 40 and 20 pg/mL, and negative thereafter. The p24 ELISA antigen test remained positive at 5 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Although the antibody component of the Combo test detected antibodies to HIV earlier than the comparison antibody tests used, less than 2% of the cases of antigen-positive HIV infection were detected by the Combo antigen component. The development of a rapid point-of-care test to diagnose acute HIV infection remains an urgent goal.

  9. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27188876

  10. Grounding Adult Education Research in Rural Areas: Reflections on the Development of a Research Program at the University of Limpopo in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelen, Jacques; Rampedi, Makgwana; van der Linden, Josje

    2014-01-01

    Mission statements of universities in developing countries usually include serving the surrounding communities. Often this service does not reach beyond lip service. This article puts into context the experience of developing an adult education research program responding to the needs of the surrounding community in a historically disadvantaged…

  11. Grounding Adult Education Research in Rural Areas : Reflections on the Development of a Research Program at the University of Limpopo in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelen, Jacques; Rampedi, Makgwana; van der Linden, Josje

    2014-01-01

    Mission statements of universities in developing countries usually include serving the surrounding communities. Often this service does not reach beyond lip service. This article puts into context the experience of developing an adult education research program responding to the needs of the surroun

  12. Cardiac assessment of African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter A; Marshall, Cecilia; Seyfried, Alice W; Bartin, Anne M

    2011-03-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) at postmortem exam. To date, treatment attempts have been mostly empirical and unrewarding. The objective of this study was to determine reference cardiac values for captive African hedgehogs based on echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), and radiographs. Adult African hedgehogs with no clinical signs of cardiac disease (n = 13) were selected. Each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask and an echocardiogram, ECG, and radiographs were performed. Standard measurements were taken and the descriptive statistics performed. Values were comparable to limited data available in other hedgehog species and other similar-sized exotic species. Two animals were removed from consideration of reference values due to valvular defects that were considered significant. These data are the first establishing cardiac parameters in normal African hedgehogs using radiographic cardiac measurement, echocardiogram, and ECG. Evaluating animals with possible cardiomyopathy may allow for earlier diagnosis and more successful treatment. PMID:22946370

  13. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Hypertension Screening and Treatment in Adults with Hypertension in Rural Nigeria in the Context of a Health Insurance Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T A Rosendaal

    Full Text Available High blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. We evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension care provided within the Kwara State Health Insurance (KSHI program in rural Nigeria.A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of population-level hypertension screening and subsequent antihypertensive treatment for the population at-risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD within the KSHI program. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted in the KSHI scenario compared to no access to hypertension care. We used setting-specific and empirically-collected data to inform the model. We defined two strategies to assess eligibility for antihypertensive treatment based on 1 presence of hypertension grade 1 and 10-year CVD risk of >20%, or grade 2 hypertension irrespective of 10-year CVD risk (hypertension and risk based strategy and 2 presence of hypertension in combination with a CVD risk of >20% (risk based strategy. We generated 95% confidence intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the reference scenario.Screening and treatment for hypertension was potentially cost-effective but the results were sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions with a wide range of uncertainty. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the first and second strategy respectively ranged from US$ 1,406 to US$ 7,815 and US$ 732 to US$ 2,959 per DALY averted, depending on the assumptions on risk reduction after treatment and compared to no access to antihypertensive treatment.Hypertension care within a subsidized private health insurance program may be cost-effective in rural Nigeria and public-private partnerships such as the KSHI program may provide opportunities

  14. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Hypertension Screening and Treatment in Adults with Hypertension in Rural Nigeria in the Context of a Health Insurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Mark D.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Sanya, Emmanuel O.; Kolo, Philip M.; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; van Eck, Diederik; Tan, Siok Swan; Akande, Tanimola M.; Redekop, William; Schultsz, Constance; Gomez, Gabriela B.

    2016-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension care provided within the Kwara State Health Insurance (KSHI) program in rural Nigeria. Methods A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of population-level hypertension screening and subsequent antihypertensive treatment for the population at-risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) within the KSHI program. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted in the KSHI scenario compared to no access to hypertension care. We used setting-specific and empirically-collected data to inform the model. We defined two strategies to assess eligibility for antihypertensive treatment based on 1) presence of hypertension grade 1 and 10-year CVD risk of >20%, or grade 2 hypertension irrespective of 10-year CVD risk (hypertension and risk based strategy) and 2) presence of hypertension in combination with a CVD risk of >20% (risk based strategy). We generated 95% confidence intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the reference scenario. Results Screening and treatment for hypertension was potentially cost-effective but the results were sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions with a wide range of uncertainty. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the first and second strategy respectively ranged from US$ 1,406 to US$ 7,815 and US$ 732 to US$ 2,959 per DALY averted, depending on the assumptions on risk reduction after treatment and compared to no access to antihypertensive treatment. Conclusions Hypertension care within a subsidized private health insurance program may be cost-effective in rural Nigeria and public-private partnerships such as the KSHI

  15. Variation of the active sulfur and its leave content in the adult African palm in the piedemonte soils of the Colombian eastern plains, during two climatic periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations carried out until the present in Colombia on critical levels of sulfur in soils and its concentration in plant tissues of the oil palm is very scarce. Therefore, critical levels in soils obtained for other crops in Colombia and investigations about S content in oil palm accomplished in other countries, had been taken into account in order to have an idea of the nutritional S status in the Colombian oil palm crops. The present work had as an objective to measure the concentration of S in the tissue of the 17th leaf of adult oil palms (7-9 years) and the content of the active element in soil (by using the 0.008 m. monocalcic phosphate method) in two climatic periods (wet-dry) on soils (oxisols and inceptisols) of 12 plantations of the western Colombian plains. The evaluated soils were S deficient (< 5 ppm), with the exception of three plantations (Palmeta, Palmallano and Palmar of Manavire) at the first sampling depth (0-30 cm) during the two climatic periods evaluated. The greatest accumulation of S was found in the second sampling depth (30-60 cm). The leave concentration of S in most of the plantations was lower than the critical levels (0,20-0,23%) reported by other investigators (Malavolta, 1994; Hagstron (1988) y Ollagnier et al (1970), cited by Owen (1991), and Von Euxkull, 1996), during the two climatic periods of sampling, with no correlation to the values found in soils. the previous permits to deduce that: a) the concentrations of S in leave tissues for adult oil palm were less than the reported values in other countries. b) The critical levels for S in the soils tend to be in general, lower than those established in Colombia for other crops. C) The fertilization levels with S, tend be insufficient to satisfy the demand of the element in the evaluated plantations d) It is considered necessary to evaluate the efficiency of other methodologies to evaluate the S content in the plant as well as in the soil

  16. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  17. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  18. Sub-Saharan Africa betwixt and between : rural livelihood practices and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    1999-01-01

    Drawing on research findings emanating from the De-Agrarianisation and Rural Employment (DARE) Research Programme, coordinated by the African Studies Centre, Leiden, this paper compares changing economic and social patterns in a wide variety of rural settlements in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently emerg

  19. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  20. 中国农村地区成人乙肝疫苗接种及影响因素%Influencing factors of vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine in rural adults in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大伟; Knut R. Wangen; 王健; 郭娜; 王镇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study influencing factors of the vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine(HBV) in rural adults. Methods Probability proportionate to size sampling was carried out in Ningxia, Hebei, Shandong, and Jiangsu provinces. A sample of 12 499 rural adults aged 18 years or older were recruited and the hepatitis B immunization history and influencing factors were investigated with a questionnaire in 2011. Results The hepatitis B vaccination rate was 13. 89% and the complete vaccination rate was 11. 02% ,with a completion rate of 79. 38% among the adults with HBV vaccination. With the increase of age, the vaccination doses decreased (odds ratio [OR] =0. 942, P = 0. 000). On the contrary, with the increase of income ( OR = 1. 112, P = 0. 005) , knowledge of HBV ( OR = 1. 062, P = 0. 000), immunization (OR = 1. 140,P = 0. 000) .perceived threat(OR = 1. 024,P =0. 043) ,and education level(x2 =1174. 70,P =0. 000) ,the vaccination doses increased. Peasants and farm workers had the lowest doses. Conclusion Lacking of knowledge about hepatitis B and the concern on the cost of vaccine are the main influencing factors of vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Health education of hepatitis B knowledge for peasants and farm workers should be promoted.%目的 了解目前中国农村地区成人乙肝疫苗接种情况,探讨成人乙肝疫苗接种行为的影响因素,为医改后继续深化乙肝防治提供依据.方法 于2011年3-7月采用多阶段与概率比例规模(PPS)抽样结合的方法,抽取宁夏、河北、山东、江苏4个省7个县市23个村12 499名≥18岁农村居民,对其乙肝疫苗接种情况及主要影响因素进行问卷调查.结果 4省农村成人中乙肝疫苗接种率为13.89%(1 736/12 499),全程接种率为11.02%(1 378/12 499),接种人群中全程接种率为79.38%(1 378/1 736);多分类有序logistic回归分析结果表明,年龄越大,乙肝疫苗接种针次越少;人均年收入越高、乙肝认知越好、对乙肝

  1. Epidemiological study of bruxism in rural adult population in Sichuan province%四川省农村地区成年人群磨牙症的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙克华; 李雪; 范旭; 尹伟; 杨晶; 胡德渝

    2011-01-01

    AIM; To investigate and analyze the epidemiology of bruxism in rural adult population in Si-chuan province. METHODS: This study included the adult population from Sichuan province. Written informed consent was obtained before subjects were enrolled into the study. Adult subjects aged 20 - 69 years were interviewed and divided into five age groups. The random sampling of investigation spots were performed in this study. All subjects taking part in the questionnaire were further diagnosed by a blast of air from a triple syringe connected to an air compressor at a pressure of 60 psi under room temperature of about 19 -24 °C. RESULTS: A total of 630 subjects were included into this study and the value of prevalence was 15.1%. In the present study, the happening of bruxism was not related to age, sex, educational level and dentine hypersensitivity. The happening of bruxism was related to types of jobs. CONCLUSION; There was higher prevalence of bruxism in rural adult population in Sichuan province, and subjects with higher socio-economic background had higher prevalence.%目的:通过横断面流行病学调查,了解四川省农村地区成年人群磨牙症的流行情况,并分析社会经济背景因素对成年人群磨牙症患病率的影响.方法:本次调查对象为四川省农村地区20~69岁成年人群,采用问卷和口腔检查相结合的方法进行调查.问卷内容包括年龄、性别、职业、教育背景和磨牙症病史等,并对所有被调查者进行了口腔临床检查,检测是否有牙本质敏感.结果:共有630人参与了此次调查,磨牙症患病率为15.1%.不同年龄组、性别、受教育年限及牙本质敏感与磨牙症患病率均无明显统计学相关性(P>0.05).从事脑力劳动的人群磨牙症患病率明显高于从事体力劳动的人群(P<0.05).结论:四川省农村地区成年人群具有较高的磨牙症患病率,磨牙症与工作性质有相关性.

  2. Gangsta Rap and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Talmadge C.

    2004-01-01

    Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip-hop generation, have little or no background, sensitivity, or understanding of the influence and significance of black popular culture and music for young African American and white adult learners. (Contains 1 note.)

  3. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  4. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  5. Enhancing rural connectivity through an extended internet cafés business models

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Idongesit; Gyaase, Patrick Ohemeng; Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the potentials of an adaptation of the Internet café business model adopted for Internet access in African cities to improve rural Internet access through a partnership between the public and private sectors. The rural areas in most developing countries e lack of Internet connectivity due to commercial unviability of such investment by the private sector alone.. The modernization theory is used to support the concept that the availability of Internet services in rural can...

  6. Rural-to-urban migration, kinship networks, and fertility among the Igbo in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Like many African rural-to-urban migrants, Igbo-speaking migrants to cities in Nigeria maintain close ties to their places of origin. ‘Home people’ constitute a vital core of most migrants’ social networks. The institution of kinship enables migrants to negotiate Nigeria’s clientelistic political economy. In this context, dichotomous distinctions between rural and urban can be inappropriate analytical concepts because kinship obligations and community ties that extend across rural and urban s...

  7. Hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural Chiapas, Mexico Anemia e infección por Necator americanus en mujeres en Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula E. Brentlinger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between anemia and hookworm (Necator americanus infection in hospitalized women in rural Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 anemic women (defined as having a hemoglobin level OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre anemia severa e infección con Necator americanus en una población de mujeres hospitalizadas en el estado de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el registro de ingresos del año 1999 de un hospital rural en Altamirano, Chiapas, se identificaron a las pacientes con diagnósticos de egreso de anemia (definida como hemoglobina<10mg/dl y/o parasitosis intestinal. También se revisó el registro de transfusiones para identificar a las mujeres mayores de 14 años de edad que recibieron sangre. La revisión de expedientes y el análisis de datos se llevó a cabo en el año 2000. Las comparaciones de las características de las pacientes se hicieron con la prueba t de Student (para variables continuas y la prueba ji2 (para variables categóricas. La significancia estadística se estableció con un valor de p< 0.01. RESULTADOS: En las mujeres en quienes se realizó examen coproscópico, 50% tuvieron N. americanus. La presencia de N. americanus no excluyó la presencia de otro factor de riesgo para anemia, por ejemplo embarazo o hemorragia. Los niveles de hemoglobina de las mujeres infectadas con N. americanus fueron significativamente más bajos (promedio 4.1 g/dl que los de las demás mujeres anémicas (promedio 7.0 gm/dl, y la prevalencia de N. americanus en mujeres anémicas fue más alta (50.0% que en la población atendida por el hospital (1.9%. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque la prevalencia de infección con N. americanus no se considera alta en la población general mexicana, fue importante en las mujeres anémicas que se sometieron a coproscopía en nuestro estudio. Las mujeres anémicas ameritan coproscopía donde existe N. americanus, y pueden

  8. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, Justen; Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-08-01

    As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ(2) test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ(2) test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:27002368

  9. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location and coverage (number of different locations, and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409 who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance or coverage (number indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices.

  10. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  11. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  12. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  13. Using African Languages for Democracy and Lifelong Learning in Africa: A Post-2015 Challenge and the Work of CASAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit; Mercer, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Africans speak African languages in their everyday lives while lessons in school are delivered in an exogenous language. In many places adult education is also carried out in a language the majority of people do not speak. The exogenous languages, which are the languages of the former colonial powers and mastered just by a small African elite, are…

  14. African Trypanosomiasis Detection using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization reports that African Trypanosomiasis affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa that can be fatal if properly not treated. This paper presents Dempster-Shafer Theory for the detection of African trypanosomiasis. Sustainable elimination of African trypanosomiasis as a public-health problem is feasible and requires continuous efforts and innovative approaches. In this research, we implement Dempster-Shafer theory for detecting African trypanosomiasis and displaying the result of detection process. We describe eleven symptoms as major symptoms which include fever, red urine, skin rash, paralysis, headache, bleeding around the bite, joint the paint, swollen lymph nodes, sleep disturbances, meningitis and arthritis. Dempster-Shafer theory to quantify the degree of belief, our approach uses Dempster-Shafer theory to combine beliefs under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance, and allows quantitative measurement of the belief and plausibility in our identificat...

  15. Challenges experienced by African educators in developing the school curriculum of the North West province / Mamashaba Christina Ratlebyana

    OpenAIRE

    Ratlebyana, Mamashaba Christina

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problems experienced by African educators in developing the school curriculum. The kinds of attitudes and beliefs of African educators in developing the school curriculum are also determined. The study indicates that African educators experienced problems in developing the school curriculum. Learners in urban areas had more advantages than those in rural areas such as availability of facilities and well qualified staff. Schools need adeq...

  16. Anemia Knowledge and Intention of Visiting Doctor in Rural Adult Residents in Zhongshan City%中山市农村成年居民对贫血知信情况及其就医意向分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩霞; 张玉平; 潘世毅; 黎宇苗; 陈小卫; 王顺清; 周志衡

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨中山市农村居民贫血患病情况及居民对贫血的知-信情况。方法:对中山市两个镇5150名成年居民(>18岁)进行健康调查,对健康体检资料(包括血常规分析)进行回顾性研究,分析该地区农村居民贫血患病情况、居民对贫血的知-信及就医意向情况。结果:该两镇农村居民贫血的总患病率为16.2%,女性患病率(18.9%)高于男性(14.8%)(P18 years old)in rural areas of Zhongshan city were investigated about health survey,the data of the physical examination(including blood routine analysis)was retrospectivity studied. Analysis of the prevalence rate of anemia,the understanding of anemia and intention of visiting doctor were done.Result:16.2%of adults suffered from anemia,in which prevalence rate of female(18.9%)was higher than male (14.8% )(P<0.05). On the cognitive aspect:the answer to anemia symptoms,etiology and prevention methods in correct proportion was 95.1%, 77.3%and 29%respectively. On the intention of visiting doctor aspect:64.7%of the residents preferred community health service institutions for medical treatment when ill. The main reason was that community health clinics was more convenient and the main reason for those who were not willing to take the community health clinics as the first choice(5.3%)was that the quality of community health staff was not high. Conclusion:Prevalence rate of anemia in rural residents of Zhongshan city was slightly lower than that in Chinese residents. Anemia knowledge and intention of visiting doctor in local residents need to be improved. Effective health education,active and efficient community service on anemia should be strengthened.

  17. The Role of Rural Women in the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfan, Barbara

    The role of Polish rural women in the family and in the community is what the African peoples and governments are doing about them. It is stated categorically that a problem does exist. Indicators often used to deny this industralization of agricultural regions, the activity of public organizations, and the development of cultural-educational…

  18. Regional variation in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension and diabetes and their correlates among the adult rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, I I; Vishnu Vardhana Rao, M; Sudershan Rao, V; Laxmaiah, A; Polasa, K

    2016-04-01

    A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of India by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Information was collected from the participants about socio-demographic particulars such as age, sex, occupation, education, etc. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and three measurements of blood pressure were obtained. Fasting blood sugar was assessed using a Glucometer. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, χ 2 test for association and logistic regression analysis. A total of 7531 subjects were covered for anthropometry and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was 29 and 21 %, respectively, and was higher in the Southern region (40 % each) as compared with other regions. The prevalence of hypertension was 18 and 16 % and diabetes was 9·5 % each among men and women, respectively. The risk of hypertension and diabetes was significantly higher among adults from the Southern and Western regions, the among elderly, among overweight/obese individuals and those with abdominal obesity. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension was higher in the Southern region, whereas diabetes was higher in the Southern and Western regions. Factors such as increasing age, male sex, overweight/obesity, and abdominal obesity were important risk factors for hypertension and diabetes. Appropriate health and nutrition education should be given to the community to control these problems. PMID:26867590

  19. Pharmacy Access to Emergency Contraception in Rural and Frontier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, Jeri L.; Abood, Richard; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Maderas, Nicole Monastersky; Foster, Diana Greene; Ravnan, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Context: Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) has emerged as a major public health effort in the prevention of unintended pregnancies. The recent FDA decision to allow over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception for adult women presents important rural health implications. American women, especially those living in rural and…

  20. Learning and Leadership: Evaluation of an Australian Rural Leadership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy; O'Mullan, Cathy; Keen-Dyer, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Leadership programs have been extensively promoted in rural communities in Australia. However, few have been evaluated. The results of the evaluation of a rural leadership program provided in this paper highlight the need for adult learning theories to be more overtly identified and utilised as the basis of planning and implementing leadership…

  1. 河南省某县成年居民不同类型肥胖的家庭聚集性调研%Study on family aggregation of adult obesity in a rural area of Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亮; 王重建; 李永旗; 张卫东; 胡东生

    2012-01-01

    (44 ± 6)%, (48 ±6)% and (46±6)%, respectively. The indexes of obesity among parents and children, siblings and couples were correlated. Conclusion The prevalence of general obesity and central obesity has the characteristic of family aggregation among the adult population in that rural area of Henan Province.

  2. A SURVEY OF ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF ADULTS IN RURAL AREAS OF PINGDU CITY%平度市农村地区成年人口腔健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江煜; 张倩; 孙桂兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the oral health status of adults over the age of 40 in rural areas of Pingdu city.Methods Samples were selected by stratified random sampling and grouped by gender and age (5 years of age as one group). The survey included a questionnaire and oral examination as follows: toothbrushing, dentition, dental prosthesis and the causes of tooth loss. The habits of toothbrushing of different age groups, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), and the reasons of absence of tooth were analyzed. Results A total of 772 cases were surveyed. DMFT increased along with the advance of age, the least was noted in 40- 45-year-old group (5.46 ± 3.95), the most in over-65-year-old group (18.59 ± 10.07). The differences between males and females in 40-45-, 46-50-, and over-65-year-old groups were significant (t=2.12-3.66,P<0.05). In each group,the absence of tooth accounted for 62.5%- 94.7% in DMFT, dental caries was responsible for 53.0% of tooth loss. Population in groups under 65,41.1%-53.7% of them brushed their teeth once a day, and those over 65 years old, 46.2% of them never brushed their teeth. Conclusion DMFT of adults in rural areas of Pingdu is relatively high, the main cause of tooth loss being dental carries. Oral hygiene habits are to be improved.%目的 了解平度农村地区40岁以上人群口腔健康状况.方法 采取分层、系统抽样的方法选取调查对象,按男女性别和年龄分组(每5岁为1组),进行问卷调查和口腔检查,包括刷牙习惯、牙列状况、修复状况以及缺失原因,分析不同性别和年龄段的刷牙习惯、龋失补均数(DMFT)和牙齿缺失原因.结果 共调查772例,DMFT随年龄递增,40~45岁组最少(5.46±3.95),65岁以上组最多(18.59±10.07),40~45、46~50和65以上年龄组男女性别间比较差异有显著性(t=2.12~3.66,P<0.05).各年龄组缺失牙占DMFT的大部分(62.5%~94.7%).龋损占牙齿缺失原因的53.0%以上.在65岁以下

  3. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  4. Donation Intentions for Cancer Genetics Research Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K.; Troxel, Andrea B; Shea, Judy A; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-se...

  5. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  6. African Otter Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  7. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  8. Self-Esteem among Jamaican Children: Exploring the Impact of Skin Color and Rural/Urban Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M. (Anderson); Cramer, Phebe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which two different models predict the relation of self-esteem to skin color and rural/urban residence among Jamaican children. To explain this relation, Crocker and Major's Self-protective hypothesis and Harter's Additive model were examined among 200 African-Caribbean children from rural (n=85) and urban…

  9. Income adequacy and education associated with the prevalence of obesity in rural Saskatchewan, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yue; Rennie, Donna C.; Chandima P. Karunanayake; Janzen, Bonnie; Hagel, Louise; Pickett, William; Dyck, Roland; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is prevalent in rural communities in Canada, however little is known about the social determinants of health and obesity in rural populations. Socioeconomic status has been found to be inversely associated with the risk of obesity in developed countries. This study investigated the relationship between income adequacy, education and obesity in a rural setting. Methods The study used data from 5391 adults aged 18–69 who participated in the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study in ...

  10. Rurality and Race: Inequities in Access to Five Types of Healthcare Services

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Rurality may influence racial/ethnic disparities in access to healthcare. This study sought to: (1) compare and contrast measures used to assess rurality and urbanicity; (2) determine if racial/ethnic disparities in access to healthcare differ for rural vs. urban areas; and, (3) determine if residential segregation and access to healthcare differ for rural vs. urban areas.Sample. The sample was adult respondents to the 2005-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationall...

  11. Young adults’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural tourism community

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Möller

    2016-01-01

    Many rural areas, in Sweden and worldwide, experience population decline where the young leave for education and work in urban areas. Employment has declined in several rural industries, such as agriculture, forestry, and fishing, while growing in other industries are often located in urban areas. Politicians and organizations have put much hope in tourism as a tool of rural development, but can tourism help reverse the rural out-migration trend among young adults? This paper explores how tou...

  12. Seroepidemiology of Leptospira Exposure in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel; Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano; Jesús Hernández-Tinoco

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of Leptospira exposure in rural Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira IgG antibodies in adults in rural Durango, Mexico, and to determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and housing characteristics of the subjects associated with Leptospira seropositivity. We performed a cross-sectional study in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially availab...

  13. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have...

  14. Prevalence of asthma in Rhodesian Africans.

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, J B; Makoni, G

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma in a small African town has been assessed using two questionnaires. The first was put to 9768 subjects aged 5 years and older and the second, more detailed, questionnaire to random selections of these subjects grouped according to their replies. The overall prevalence of asthma was 1.40%. In those under 20 years of age it was 1.20% and in adults, 1.57%. This adult rate is similar to those in developed countries but that in children is lower. The relative paucity of ch...

  15. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-01-01

    A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congre...

  16. Strategies for Achieving Healthy Energy Balance Among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Groesbeck P. Parham, MD; Isabel C. Scarinci, PhD

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Low-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1) their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2) t...

  17. Islands in a desert: breeding ecology of the African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Eising, CM; Komdeur, J.; Buys, J.; Reemer, M.; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The continental African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus, like its relative the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, breeds in isolated patches. We studied the mating system of the African Reed Warbler to see whether this species, like the Seychelles Warbler, shows co-operative breeding. The African Reed Warbler is not polygynous. The majority breed monogamously (88%, n = 65), however in 12% of the territories three adult unrelated birds (mostly males) were observed participating...

  18. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  19. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  20. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)