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Sample records for adult respiratory distress

  1. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  2. The adult respiratory distress syndrome bronchogenic pulmonary tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Dyer; Potgieter, P D

    1984-01-01

    In three cases of pulmonary tuberculosis associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome the clinical features, which were similar to those of patients with miliary tuberculosis and adult respiratory distress syndrome, included a history of cough, fever, and dyspnoea on effort, and the physical signs of fever, tachypnoea, pulmonary adventitious sounds, tachycardia, and hepatomegaly. In these cases the radiological features, though suggestive of diffuse pulmonary oedema, were more prom...

  3. Pyogenic sacroiliitis and adult respiratory distress syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavamongkolkul, A; Keerasuntonpong, A; Kuagoolwongse, C

    2007-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus sacroiliitis is uncommon and may lead to bacteraemia, sepsis, and death if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Its association with pulmonary symptoms has not been reported. We report a 36-year-old Thai woman who presented with a 4-day history of right buttock pain, aggravated by walking, which came on after having a traditional foot massage. She later developed adult respiratory distress syndrome. She was treated with open drainage, respiratory support, and antibiotics. PMID:17709867

  4. Radiological diagnosis of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bedside chest radiograph represents the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis and monitoring of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Imaging findings are strongly influenced by means of mechanical ventilation therapy. The chest radiograph is relatively insensitive and not specific for the diagnosis of complications such as pneumonia or interstitial emphysema. Computed tomography (CT) is suitable for quantitative assessment of lung compartments with respect to the underlying pathophysiology and the effects of ventilation therapy (PEEP) could be improved. The role of CT in the clinical routine is still limited due to the high risk to transport patients with ARDS. (author)

  5. Respiratory Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  6. Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Dengue -A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Amulya C. Belagavi; H.S. Sunil; Sudhir, U.; K Punith

    2011-01-01

    Background: Being on the verge of Dengue epidemic, there are newer and more complicated versions of the disease being reported worldwide. In the present article, we report a case of Dengue who progressed into Adult Respiratory Disease Syndrome during the illness. Results: The patient did well with the symptomatic treatment for the latter and with appropriate management of Dengue. With the other causes ruled out, Adult Respiratory Disease Syndrome was considered as part of the spectrum of the ...

  7. Association of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with thoracic irradiation (RT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report two cases of apparent adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following limited thoracic irradiation for lung cancer. Respiratory failure followed rapidly after irradiation with diffuse bilateral infiltrates, both in and out of the irradiated volume along with progressive hypoxemia unresponsive to oxygen management. Other potential causes of lung injury such as lymphangitic tumor, cardiac failure, and infections were excluded by both premortem and postmortem examination. Autopsy findings in both irradiated and unirradiated volumes of lung were consistent with hyaline membrane changes. The possible relationship between radiation therapy to limited lung volumes and the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome is discussed

  8. ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS) DUE TO BACTEREMIC PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANNES, GPM; BOERSMA, WG; BAUR, CHJM; POSTMUS, PE

    1991-01-01

    We describe a patient, who had no pre-existing disease, with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a rare complication. In spite of the use of antibiotics and intensive treatment the mortality rate of this kind of infection remains high. Streptococcus pne

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in an adult patient with a myelodysplastic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Cini, G; Meola, N; Ferrannini, E

    1983-01-01

    A 58-year-old man was diagnosed to have refractory anaemia with excessive blasts. After 3 1/2 years of relative control on periodic blood transfusions, the patient developed an acute leukaemia. Although the blastic crisis was not extreme (WBC counts less than 100 X 10(9)/l), a severe, intractable respiratory distress syndrome set in and brought the patient to the exitus in a few days. Overt signs of septic shock were absent, as was evidence of any other known cause of adult respiratory distress. Acute pulmonary failure can be the cause of death in leukaemic patients even in the absence of overwhelming sepsis or hyperleucocytosis. PMID:6404107

  10. Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to mycoplasma pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, D. C.; Muthiah, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    A previously fit 48-year-old man was admitted with an acute respiratory failure due to mycoplasma pneumonia that was confirmed by raised mycoplasma titre on complement fixation test. It was also associated with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The patient made a full recovery but required intermittent positive pressure ventilation.

  11. Perfusion lung imaging in the adult respiratory distress syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Di Ricco, G.; Marini, C.; Giuntini, C.

    1986-07-01

    In 29 perfusion lung scans (PLS) of 19 patients with ARDS, 20 of which were obtained within six days from the onset of respiratory symptoms, perfusion abnormalities were the rule. These included focal, nonsegmental defects, mostly peripheral and dorsal, and perfusion redistribution away from the dependent lung zones. PLS were scored for the presence and intensity of perfusion abnormalities and the scores of perfusion redistribution were validated against numerical indices of blood flow distribution per unit lung volume. PLS scores were correlated with arterial blood gas values, hemodynamic parameters, and chest radiographic scores of ARDS. Arterial oxygen tension correlated with the scores of both perfusion defects and redistribution. Perfusion defects correlated better with the radiographic score of ARDS, and perfusion redistribution with PAP and vascular resistance. ARDS patients exhibit peculiar patterns of PLS abnormalities not observed in other disorders. Thus, PLS may help considerably in the detection and evaluation of pulmonary vascular injury in ARDS.

  12. Perfusion lung imaging in the adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 29 perfusion lung scans (PLS) of 19 patients with ARDS, 20 of which were obtained within six days from the onset of respiratory symptoms, perfusion abnormalities were the rule. These included focal, nonsegmental defects, mostly peripheral and dorsal, and perfusion redistribution away from the dependent lung zones. PLS were scored for the presence and intensity of perfusion abnormalities and the scores of perfusion redistribution were validated against numerical indices of blood flow distribution per unit lung volume. PLS scores were correlated with arterial blood gas values, hemodynamic parameters, and chest radiographic scores of ARDS. Arterial oxygen tension correlated with the scores of both perfusion defects and redistribution. Perfusion defects correlated better with the radiographic score of ARDS, and perfusion redistribution with PAP and vascular resistance. ARDS patients exhibit peculiar patterns of PLS abnormalities not observed in other disorders. Thus, PLS may help considerably in the detection and evaluation of pulmonary vascular injury in ARDS

  13. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine during adult respiratory distress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, S; Herlevsen, P; Knudsen, P;

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine could ameliorate the course of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in man. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Medical and surgical ICU in a regional hospital. PATIENTS: Sixty-six ICU patients...... radiograph or on survival rate. We documented that N-acetylcysteine acts as an anticoagulant and perhaps decreases pulmonary fibrin uptake during ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: N-acetylcysteine might be of benefit in ARDS. Before further clinical studies are started, problems with N-acetylcysteine and coagulation have...

  14. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn. PMID:26760414

  15. Pulmonary accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) plays an integral role in the development of permeability pulmonary edema associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This report describes 3 patients with ARDS secondary to systemic sepsis who demonstrated an abnormal diffuse accumulation of Indium (111In)-labeled PMNs in their lungs, without concomitant clinical or laboratory evidence of a primary chest infection. In one patient, the accumulation of the pulmonary activity during an initial pass suggested that this observation was related to diffuse leukoaggregation within the pulmonary microvasculature. A 4th patient with ARDS was on high-dose corticosteroids at the time of a similar study, and showed no pulmonary accumulation of PMNs, suggesting a possible reason for the reported beneficial effect of corticosteroids in human ARDS

  16. Increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability in patients at risk for adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for predicting adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated prospectively in a group of 81 multitrauma and sepsis patients considered at clinical high risk. A popular ARDS risk-scoring method, employing discriminant analysis equations (weighted risk criteria and oxygenation characteristics), yielded a predictive accuracy of 59% and a false-negative rate of 22%. Pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability (PACP) was determined with a radioaerosol lung-scan technique in 23 of these 81 patients, representing a statistically similar subgroup. Lung scanning achieved a predictive accuracy of 71% (after excluding patients with unilateral pulmonary contusion) and gave no false-negatives. We propose a combination of clinical risk identification and functional determination of PACP to assess a patient's risk of developing ARDS

  17. Clinical trials of an intravenous oxygenator in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, K M; Snider, M T; Richard, R; Russell, G B; Stene, J K; Campbell, D B; Aufiero, T X; Thieme, G A

    1992-11-01

    In patients with severe adult respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation may not be able to ensure gas exchange sufficient to sustain life. We report the use of an intravenous oxygenator (IVOX) in five patients who were suffering from severe adult respiratory distress syndrome as a result of aspiration, fat embolism, or pneumonia. IVOX was used in an attempt to provide supplemental transfer of CO2 and O2 and thereby reduce O2 toxicity and barotrauma. All patients were tracheally intubated, sedated, and chemically paralyzed and had a PaO2 ventilated with an FIO2 = 1.0 and a positive end expiratory pressure of > or = 5 cmH2O. The right common femoral vein was located surgically, and the patient was systemically anticoagulated with heparin. A hollow introducer tube was inserted into the right common femoral vein, and the furled IVOX was passed into the inferior vena cava and advanced until the tip was in the lower portion of the superior vena cava. IVOX use ranged from 2 h to 4 days. In this group of patients, IVOX gas exchange ranged from 21 to 87 ml x min-1 of CO2 and from 28 to 85 ml x min-1 of O2. One of the five patients survived and was discharged from the hospital. The IVOX transferred up to 28% of metabolic gas-exchange requirements. One patient with a small vena cava showed signs of caval obstruction. Three other patients demonstrated signs of a septic syndrome after the device was inserted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1443737

  18. Potential therapeutic application of adult stem cells in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-xin; LI Li

    2009-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a poor prognosis in spite of the recent development of new therapeutic strategies. Cell-based therapy with stem cells has been considered as a promising way for the treatment of vital organ damage. Putative endogenous stem cells have been shown to be located within the adult lung in the basal layer of the upper airways, within or near pulmonary neu-roendocrine cell rests, at the bronchoalveolar junction, as well as within the alveolar epithelium. These stem cells are hypothesized to be the source of lung regeneration and repair. But this mechanism seems to be insufficient after lung injury. There is increasing excitement over the last few years with the suggestion that exogenous stem cells may offer new treatment options for ARDS. Exogenous stem cells have the abihty to differentiate and function as both airway and lung parenchymal epithelial cells in both in vitro and in-creasingly in vivo experiments. However, there is great con-troversy concerning the repair effect of adult stem cells in lung injury. This review evaluates the advances in endog-enous respiratory stem cells, and assesses the evidence for the use of stem cells in the repair of lung injury.

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to viral pneumonitis in case of varicella zoster in adult: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Anaz Binazeez; Saurabh Kothari; Dhaval Dave; Manish Pendse; Divya Lala; Smita Patil; Archana Bhate

    2015-01-01

    Chickenpox, is a highly contagious disease caused by infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). The disease is often more severe in adults than children. Here we present a case of adult male suffering from chicken pox who presented with complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] due to viral pneumonitis. Due to his late presentation, despite of giving antivirals, patient had a fatal outcome. So this case highlights the necessity and importance of early administration of a...

  20. ADULT RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME SECONDARY TO END-STAGE LIVER DISEASE—SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME FOLLOWING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION1

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Howard R.; Marino, Ignazio R.; Miro, Adelaida; Scott, Victor; Martin, Maureen; Fung, John; Kramer, David; Starzl, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    The adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicating liver failure carries a 100% mortality. Two cases of ARDS that resolved following liver transplantation have been reported, one associated with acute allograft rejection, and the second due to sepsis. There is, however, a great reluctance to transplant these very-high-risk patients. We report the first series of patients with ARDS secondary to liver failure who successfully underwent OLTX. No patient had sepsis or pneumonia. Posttran...

  1. Unmasking of tracheomalacia following short-term mechanical ventilation in a patient of adult respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Harihar V; Bhat, Ravi L; Shanbag, Raghunath D; M P Bharat; P Raghavendra Rao

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are susceptible to airway malacia, which may be unmasked following mechanical ventilation or tracheostomy decannulation. Dynamic imaging of central airways, a non-invasive test as effective as bronchoscopy to diagnose airway malacia, has increased the recognition of this disorder. We describe a 70-year-old woman admitted with adult respiratory distress syndrome. She had cardiorespiratory arrest on admission, from which she was success...

  2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to viral pneumonitis in case of varicella zoster in adult: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaz Binazeez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox, is a highly contagious disease caused by infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV. The disease is often more severe in adults than children. Here we present a case of adult male suffering from chicken pox who presented with complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] due to viral pneumonitis. Due to his late presentation, despite of giving antivirals, patient had a fatal outcome. So this case highlights the necessity and importance of early administration of antivirals, especially in adult pox, to tackle the complications of disease and get a favourable outcome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3924-3927

  3. Pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapru, Anil; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael W; Dahmer, Mary K

    2015-06-01

    The unique characteristics of pulmonary circulation and alveolar-epithelial capillary-endothelial barrier allow for maintenance of the air-filled, fluid-free status of the alveoli essential for facilitating gas exchange, maintaining alveolar stability, and defending the lung against inhaled pathogens. The hallmark of pathophysiology in acute respiratory distress syndrome is the loss of the alveolar capillary permeability barrier and the presence of protein-rich edema fluid in the alveoli. This alteration in permeability and accumulation of fluid in the alveoli accompanies damage to the lung epithelium and vascular endothelium along with dysregulated inflammation and inappropriate activity of leukocytes and platelets. In addition, there is uncontrolled activation of coagulation along with suppression of fibrinolysis and loss of surfactant. These pathophysiological changes result in the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which include hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, decreased functional residual capacity, increased physiologic deadspace, and decreased lung compliance. Resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves the migration of cells to the site of injury and re-establishment of the epithelium and endothelium with or without the development of fibrosis. Most of the data related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, originate from studies in adults or in mature animals with very few studies performed in children or juvenile animals. The lack of studies in children is particularly problematic because the lungs and immune system are still developing during childhood and consequently the pathophysiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ in significant ways from that seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. This article describes what is known of the pathophysiologic processes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome as we know it today while also presenting the much

  4. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadam, Suman; Bihler, Eric; Balaan, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious inflammatory disorder with high mortality. Its main pathologic mechanism seems to result from increased alveolar permeability. Its definition has also changed since first being described according to the Berlin definition, which now classifies ARDS on a severity scale based on PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen, arterial)/FIO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio. The cornerstone of therapy was found to be a low tidal volume strategy featuring volumes of 6 to 8 mL per kg of ideal body weight that has been shown to have decreased mortality as proven by the ARDSnet trials. There are other areas of treatment right now that include extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, as well for severe refractory hypoxemia. Other methods that include prone positioning for ventilation have also shown improvements in oxygenation. Positive end-expiratory pressure with lung recruitment maneuvers has also been found to be helpful. Other therapies that include vasodilators and neuromuscular agents are still being explored and need further studies to define their role in ARDS. PMID:26919679

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  6. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Respiratory Failure Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  7. The acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Modrykamien, Ariel M.; Gupta, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Its development leads to high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this devastating entity. In this review article, we describe updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss t...

  8. Complement-mediated neutrophil activation in sepsis- and trauma-related adult respiratory distress syndrome. Clarification with radioaerosol lung scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complement-mediated neutrophil activation (CMNA) has been proposed as an important pathogenic mechanism causing acute microvascular lung injury in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To clarify the relationship between CMNA and evolving lung injury, we studied 26 patients with multiple trauma and sepsis within 24 hours of risk establishment for ARDS. Pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability (PACP) was quantified as the clearance rate of a particulate radioaerosol. Seventeen patients (65%) had increased PACP (six developed ARDS) while nine (35%) had normal PACP (none developed ARDS; clearance rates of 3.4%/min and 1.5%/min, respectively). These patients, regardless of evidence of early lung injury, had elevated plasma C3adesArg levels and neutrophil chemotactic desensitization to C5a/C5adesArg. Plasma C3adesArg levels correlated weakly, but significantly, with PACP. Thus, CMNA may be a necessary, but not a sufficient, pathogenic mechanism in the evolution of ARDS

  9. Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, André Nathan; Mendes, Daniel Melo; Toufen, Carlos; Arrunátegui, Gino; Caruso, Pedro; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common causes of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures. PMID:18797748

  10. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann;

    2010-01-01

    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has...

  11. Incidence of respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in hospital born babies. Subjects and Methods: All live born infants delivered at the hospital and who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were included in the study. Results: Ninety-four neonates developed RDS. Out of these, 88 (93.61%) were preterm and 06 (6.38%) were term infants. There was a male preponderance (65.95%). RDS was documented in 1.72% of total live births. 37.28% of preterm and 0.11% of term neonates born at the hospital. The incidence of RDS was 100% at 26 or less weeks of gestation, 57.14% at 32 weeks, and 3.70% at 36 weeks. The mortality with RDS was 41 (43.61%). Conclusion: RDS is the commonest cause of respiratory distress in the newborn, particularly, in preterm infants. It carries a high mortality rate and the incidence is more than that documented in the Western world. (author)

  12. Progress and perspectives in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotta, Alexandre Tellechea; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a disease of acute onset characterized by hypoxemia and infiltrates on chest radiographs that affects both adults and children of all ages. It is an important cause of respiratory failure in pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, until recently, the definitions and diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome have focused on the adult population. In this article, we review the evolution of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome over nearly five decades, with a special focus on the new pediatric definition. We also discuss recommendations for the implementation of mechanical ventilation strategies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and the use of adjuvant therapies. PMID:26331971

  13. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Kale Cekinmez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing efforts. Respiratory distress syndrome or complications caused by respiratory distress syndrome are the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. This article briefly reviews respiratory distress syndrome and its complications. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 615-630

  14. Experimental studies on the pathogenesis of adult respiratory distress syndrome using 111In-labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to clarify the mechanism of the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to improve its treatment by studying the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in an endotoxin shock model of rats. PMNs from a rat were labeled with 111In by the use of tropolone and were injected into rats pretreated with endotoxin. Then the biodistribution of PMNs was studied by either counting the radioactivity of excised organs or using a gamma scintillation camera on the anesthetized rats. The two methods facilitated to observe the distribution of PMNs faily a short time after the injection of endotoxin. There was a significantly higher radioactivity in the lungs of the endotoxin group than in the control group. The accumulation of PMNs into the lungs occurred immediately after endotoxin injection. In rats depleted of the complement by cobra venom factor (CVF), an increase in radioactivity in the lung was not observed. These results indicate that the complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS. When rats were injected with methylprednisolone, the pulmonary accumulation of 111In-PMNs by endotoxin were suppressed. This is an experimental support of possible beneficial effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of ARDS. (author)

  15. Studies on monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics of adult respiratory distress syndrome secondary to high altitude pulmonary edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Siqing; Wu Tianyi; Cheng Qiang; Li Pei; Bian Huiping

    2013-01-01

    To study monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)secondary to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE),we performed clinic and laboratory studies in 8 patients who preliminarily developed high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) and then ARDS occurred at an altitude of 4500 m.After an initial emergency treatment on high mountains,all the patients were rapidly transported to a hospital at a lower altitude of 2808 m.The right cardiac catheterizations were carried out within 5 h after hospitalized.The monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics were studied via a thermodilution Swan-Gaze catheter.The results showed that before treatments at the beginning of monitoring,there presented a significant pulmonary artery hypertension with a decreased cardiac function,and a lower oxygen metabolism in all the 8 patients.However,after some effective treatments,including mechanical ventilation and using dexamethasone,furosemide,etc,four days later the result of a repeated monitoring showed that their pulmonary artery pressure had been decreased with an improved cardiac function with all the oxygen metabolic indexes increased significantly.Our studies suggested that performing monitoring hemodynamics in patients with ARDS secondary to HAPE will define the clinical therapeutic measures which will benefit the outcome.

  16. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Eren Kale Cekinmez; Hacer Yapicioglu Yildizdas; Ferda Ozlu

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing effor...

  17. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    of INO on mortality at 28 days: 202/587 deaths (34.4%) in the INO group compared with 166/518 deaths (32.0%) in the control group (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.27; I² statistic = 0%; moderate quality of evidence). In children, there was no statistically significant effects of INO on mortality: 25...... used to improve oxygenation, but its role remains controversial. This Cochrane review was originally published in 2003, and has been updated in 2010 and 2016. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effects of administration of inhaled nitric oxide on mortality in adults and children with...... data and resolved disagreements by discussion. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity analyses to assess the effects of INO in adults and children and on various clinical and physiological outcomes. We presented pooled estimates of the effects...

  18. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Waide, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  19. Absence of association between angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphism and development of adult respiratory distress syndrome in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Rossa WK

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that genetic predisposition may influence the susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and disease outcomes. A recent study has suggested that the deletion allele (D allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene is associated with hypoxemia in SARS patients. Moreover, the ACE D allele has been shown to be more prevalent in patients suffering from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in a previous study. Thus, we have investigated the association between ACE insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism and the progression to ARDS or requirement of intensive care in SARS patients. Method One hundred and forty genetically unrelated Chinese SARS patients and 326 healthy volunteers were recruited. The ACE I/D genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results There is no significant difference in the genotypic distributions and the allelic frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between the SARS patients and the healthy control subjects. Moreover, there is also no evidence that ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with the progression to ARDS or the requirement of intensive care in the SARS patients. In multivariate logistic analysis, age is the only factor associated with the development of ARDS while age and male sex are independent factors associated with the requirement of intensive care. Conclusion The ACE I/D polymorphism is not directly related to increased susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and is not associated with poor outcomes after SARS-coronavirus infection.

  20. CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Karambin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nThere is a lack of large, prospective epidemiologic studies concerning acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in pediatric population. To determine the different causes of respiratory distress in children, we prepared a retrospective study and included the whole 567 children with respiratory distress referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, and causes of respiratory distress were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. Pneumonia, asthma, and croup were the major causes of ARDS in children with a rate of 38.4, 19.04, and 16.5 percent, respectively. It seems that infectious factors are at the top of the list of ARDS causing factors which can be helpful to approach and manage such patients. We suggest vaccinating these at risk groups against common infectious factors such as H. Influenza and RSV which can cause either pneumonia or inducing asthma.

  1. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting. PMID:2785158

  2. Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia and severe respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Halawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mucoepithelial disruption of the skin, hair and mucous membranes. It results from defective gap junction formation and leads to non-scarring alopecia, mucosal erythema, perineal erythematous intertrigo, involvement of the conjunctival mucosa, and pulmonary disease. We present a case of severe respiratory distress in an initially healthy full term infant born to a mother with HMD. This infant later developed signs and symptoms of HMD. A high index of suspicion for pulmonary infection with atypical organism is essential in infants with a family history of HMD who present with respiratory distress.

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Due to Methane Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Jun Yeon; Kwon, Yong Sik; Lee, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Seok; Rho, Byung Hak; Choi, Won-Il

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of toxic gases can lead to pneumonitis. It has been known that methane gas intoxication causes loss of consciousness or asphyxia. There is, however, a paucity of information about acute pulmonary toxicity from methane gas inhalation. A 21-year-old man was presented with respiratory distress after an accidental exposure to methane gas for one minute. He came in with a drowsy mentality and hypoxemia. Mechanical ventilation was applied immediately. The patient's symptoms and chest rad...

  4. Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia and severe respiratory distress

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Halawa; Abu-Hasan, Mutasim N; ElMallah, Mai K.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mucoepithelial disruption of the skin, hair and mucous membranes. It results from defective gap junction formation and leads to non-scarring alopecia, mucosal erythema, perineal erythematous intertrigo, involvement of the conjunctival mucosa, and pulmonary disease. We present a case of severe respiratory distress in an initially healthy full term infant born to a mother with HMD. This infant later...

  5. Resonance frequency in respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.; Milner, A

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To observe how the resonance frequency changes with the course of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), by examining the effect of changing static compliance on the resonance frequency in premature infants.
METHODS—In 12 ventilated premature infants with RDS (mean gestational age 26.6 weeks, mean birth weight 0.84 kg), resonance frequency and static compliance were determined serially using phase analysis and single breath mechanics technique respectively in the first ...

  6. Videodensitometry and chest radiography in the evaluation of pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary oedema in a porcine model of early adult respiratory distress syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegenius, G.; Forsgren, P.; Modig, J.

    The adult respiratory distress syndrome was induced in pigs (n=11) by a continuous infusion of E. coli endotoxin in order to evaluate the use of radiographic videodensitometry and chest radiography for assessment of pulmonary circulation and pulmonary oedema. A further aim was to determine the effect of an ionic contrast medium, Urografin 60%, on extravascular lung water (EVLW). The infusion resulted in a decline in arterial oxygen tension. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased, and cardiac output decreased, resulting in a marked rise in pulmonary vascular resistance. EVLW increased moderately. The corresponding variables in control animals (saline infusion; n=5) changed very little. Good correlations were found (r=0.87-1.0) between absolute flows as measured by the thermodilution technique and relative flows as determined by videodensitometry in animals with pulmonary damage. In the endotoxin group there was a significant correlation (r=0.75) between the change in EVLW from baseline to the final measurement (at 6 hours) and the corresponding change in radiographic density. Radiographic signs of pulmonary damage were sparse. Only 3 of 11 animals displayed increased radiographic desnity of the lung parenchyma indicative of pulmonary oedema. Pleural effusion developed in 4 animals. Injection of Urografin 60%, 1 mlxkg/sup -1/, caused a slight but significant decrease in EVLW. We propose that at this concentration and dosage the contrast medium acts mainly as an osmotic diuretic.

  7. Abnormal neutrophil-pulmonary interaction in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of pulmonary neutrophil kinetics in humans with in vivo 111indium neutrophil scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of direct toxins, the majority of evidence from animal models suggests that neutrophils (PMN) are necessary for the full expression of the abnormal pulmonary permeability accompanying acute microvascular lung injury. We therefore studied the role of the PMN in the human correlate of this disease, the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), by assessing the pulmonary retention of infused autologous 111Indium-labeled PMN (PMN-In). We evaluated 79 patients, prospectively categorized as: active ARDS (Aa; n = 30), active ARDS and concurrent corticosteroid therapy (As; n = 11), resolving ARDS (Ar; n = 13), sepsis without pulmonary edema (S; n = 7), and cardiac pulmonary edema (C; n = 18). This clinical separation was confirmed by retrospective analysis of associated measures of hemodynamic and respiratory dysfunction. We found that both analog scintigrams (positive/negative for diffuse pulmonary PMN-In sequestration) and computer-assisted quantitative analysis in 46 patients (T 1/2 of first hour demargination and percentage of peak activity/pixel/second remaining at 17 to 20 h) showed a significant rank order decrease in the pulmonary retention of labeled PMN-In through the Groups Aa----As----S----Ar----C. Our findings recognized aspects of in vivo PMN-In behavior that implied pathophysiologic differences between groups of critically ill patients in either the PMN themselves or in PMN-pulmonary endothelial interaction. This demonstrates the possibility of abnormal in vivo PMN-endothelial interaction in ARDS by virtue of the greater pulmonary localization of PMN in active ARDS versus resolving disease, septic non-ARDS states, and cardiac pulmonary edema

  8. Surfactant treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Herce, J.; de Lucas, N; Carrillo, A.; Bustinza, A.; Moral, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine prospectively the efficacy of surfactant in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
STUDY DESIGN—Twenty patients, 1 month to 16 years of age, diagnosed with an acute pulmonary disease with severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100) (13 with systemic or pulmonary disease and seven with cardiac disease) were treated with one to six doses of 50-200 mg/kg of porcine surfactant administered directly into the trachea. The surfactant was considered to be effectiv...

  9. Acute respiratory distress in a silversmith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Mukeshkumar Parikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old young male patient presented in casualty department with severe respiratory distress on the fourth day from onset of symptoms. The patient was nonsmoker and had no antecedent medical or drug history. Prior to admission, patient had dry cough and bilateral pleuritic chest pain for the last three days. He was in severe respiratory distress with use of accessory muscles of respiration. On examination, he had heart rate of 120 beats/min, blood pressure (BP of 150/80, respiratory rate of 48-52/min and central cyanosis present. On systemic examination, reduced intensity of breath sounds with extensive rhonchi and crepitation was found in both lung fields, with other examination being within normal limits. On pulse oximetry, oxygen saturation was 28% on room air, which increased up to 36% with the help of 4 L oxygen via nasal prongs. PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio was 100. Chest X-ray analysis was suggestive of non-cardiac pulmonary edema in view of bilateral fluffy opacity without cardiomegaly. In view of 2/3 positive criteria, his provisional diagnosis was Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. He required mechanical ventilatory support and was gradually weaned over a period of 10 days. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and other supportive measures. On re-evaluation of history, we found that he was a goldsmith by occupation, smelting silver and gold for the past 8-10 years. On the day of onset of symptoms, while smelting silver he was exposed to golden yellow fumes for around 15 minutes, with the quantum of exposure more than any other day earlier. From previous experience and analysis of similar silver metals, he was able to tell us that the silver was adulterated with large amount of cadmium on that day than before. Serum level of cadmium was 2.9 μg/L 6 days after initial exposure. At the time of discharge, he had residual opacities in the chest radiograph and resting oxygen saturation was 94% on room air.

  10. Lung microvascular transport properties measured by multiple indicator dilution methods in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. A comparison between patients reversing respiratory failure and those failing to reverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted indicator dilution studies on the lungs of patients in the early phases of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to test the hypothesis that capillary permeability was increased in patients with respiratory failure. Indicator dilution studies were performed using 51Cr-erythrocytes, 125I-albumin, 14C-urea, and 3H-water as tracers. The injectate was infused as a bolus into a central venous line. Peripheral arterial blood was collected and counted for radioactivity. Mathematical analysis of the indicator curves yielded cardiac output, measures of the product of capillary permeability and surface area for urea (PS and D1/2S), the intravascular lung volume (Vv), and the extravascular lung water volume (Ve). Permeability was separated from surface area by normalizing PS and D1/2S to Vv. Patients could be divided into 16 in whom blood gas determinations and radiologic criteria for ARDS were reversed and 23 in whom they were not. We examined indicator dilution and other measures of lung function in the two groups to determine whether significant differences in microvascular function existed. PS and PS/Vv were significantly higher in the nonreversal patients. Ve was above normal, but not different between groups. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations for all of the following in the nonreversal group: Ve and all measures of permeability, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and the inverse of permeability-surface area measures and AaDO2 and PVR. Only measures of Ve and PS correlated in the reversal group. These results support the hypothesis that capillary permeability is increased in patients with early ARDS and continuing respiratory failure

  11. Prevalence and etiology of respiratory distress in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and etiology of respiratory distress in the newborns delivered over the period of one year from 1st January 2008 to 31st Dec 2008. Study Design: A descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Armed Forces Hospital Sharurah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over a period of one year from January 2008 to Dec 2008 Patients and methods: All live newborns delivered at Armed Forces Hospital Sharurah during the study period were included and observed for development of respiratory distress. Results: All newborns (n=659), delivered at this hospital over the period of 12 months, were observed for respiratory distress. The overall prevalence of respiratory distress (RD) was 4.24%. Prevalence was 19.7% in preterm and 2.3% in full term. Transient tachypnea of newborn(TTN) was found to be the commonest 35.7% cause of Respiratory Distress (RD) followed by Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) 25%, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) 17.9%, congenital pneumonia 7.1% and other congenital anomalies 14.3%. TTN was found to be common among both term and preterm babies, while hyaline membrane disease was seen among preterm, and meconium aspiration syndrome among term and post term babies. Conclusion: Respiratory distress is a common neonatal problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Majority of cases are due to TTN followed by hyaline membrane disease and meconium aspiration syndrome. (author)

  12. Surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Corrado Moretti; Barbàra, Caterina S; Rosanna Grossi; Stefano Luciani; Fabio Midulla; Paola Papoff

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains the primary indication for admission to paediatric intensive care units and accounts for significant mortality, morbidity and resource utilization. Respiratory infections, in particular pneumonia and severe bronchiolitis, are the most common causes of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in infants and children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of ARDS and the management of paediatric patients with acute lung injury. Dat...

  13. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Pulmonary and extrapulmonary not so similar

    OpenAIRE

    Inderpaul Singh Sehgal; Sahajal Dhooria; Digambar Behera; Ritesh Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by acute onset respiratory failure with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia. Current evidence suggests different respiratory mechanics in pulmonary ARDS (ARDSp) and extrapulmonary ARDS (ARDSexp) with disproportionate decrease in lung compliance in the former and chest wall compliance in the latter. Herein, we report two patients of ARDS, one each with ARDSp and ARDSexp that were managed using real-time esophageal pressure m...

  14. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  15. Intrathoracic cystic hygroma with sudden respiratory distress mimicking pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Goneppanavar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign cystic lesions such as cystic hygroma commonly manifest as progressively increasing swelling in the neck with or without compression effects. Rarely, they present with sudden respiratory distress in instances such as infection or haematoma resulting in a sudden increase in the size of the tumour. We present a seven month old child with sudden onset respiratory distress without any obvious neck swelling. The chest X ray findings correlated with the history and were suggestive of right upper lobe pneumonia that leads to a wrong diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia. However, presence of a deviated trachea in the neck raised a suspicion of possible mass. Computed tomogram showed a large cystic mass in the right upper mediastinum with tracheal collapse. We caution intensivists and paediatricians that sudden respiratory distress in infants in the absence of obvious neck swelling does not rule out possibility of intrathoracic tumour.

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: epidemiology and management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkey AJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Allan J Walkey,1 Ross Summer,1 Vu Ho,1 Philip Alkana21The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 2Asthma Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Acute lung injury and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome represent a spectrum of lung disease characterized by the sudden onset of inflammatory pulmonary edema secondary to myriad local or systemic insults. The present article provides a review of current evidence in the epidemiology and treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with a focus on significant knowledge gaps that may be addressed through epidemiologic methods.Keywords: acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, review, epidemiology

  17. Pharmacotherapy of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendran, Krishnan; Pryhuber, Gloria S.; Chess, Patricia R.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Paul R. Knight; Notter, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are characterized by rapid-onset respiratory failure following a variety of direct and indirect insults to the parenchyma or vasculature of the lungs. Mortality from ALI/ARDS is substantial, and current therapy primarily emphasizes mechanical ventilation and judicial fluid management plus standard treatment of the initiating insult and any known underlying disease. Current pharmacotherapy for ALI/ARDS is not optimal, a...

  18. The acute respiratory distress syndrome: from mechanism to translation

    OpenAIRE

    Han, SeungHye; Mallampalli, Rama K.

    2015-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of severe hypoxemic respiratory failure characterized by inflammatory injury to the alveolar capillary barrier with extravasation of protein-rich edema fluid into the airspace. Although many modalities have been investigated to treat ARDS for the past several decades, supportive therapies still remain the mainstay of treatment. Here, we briefly review the definition, epidemiology and pathophysiology of ARDS. Next, we present emerging as...

  19. Surfactant function in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Griese, Matthias; Westerburg, Bettina

    1998-01-01

    The function of pulmonary surfactant of a group of 14 preterm neonates (birth weight 907 +/- 60 g) who suffered from severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and who had received exogenous bovine lipid extracted surfactant on the first day of life was compared to that in a second group of 8 neonates (birth weight 940 +/- 110 g) with mild RDS who had not received surfactant treatment. Mechanical respiratory support from day 2 on was the same in both groups. The minimal surface tension (gamma...

  20. Hearing evaluation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome by TEOAE test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahya Sharifinik

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: According to results, it seems that the respiratory distress syndrome could affects the cochlear and the function of outer hair cell in it so in infants who suffer respiratory distress syndrome we should use the test battery of hearing.

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in an alpaca cria

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; Genova, Suzanne G.

    2011-01-01

    A 7-hour-old alpaca was presented for lethargy and depression. The cria responded favorably to initial treatment but developed acute-onset dyspnea 48 hours later. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed by thoracic imaging and blood gas analysis. The cria was successfully treated with corticosteroids and discharged from the hospital.

  2. Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Curacao - Conventional versus surfactant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, AAE; van der Meulen, GN; Wiersma, HE; Keli, SO

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and to evaluate the efficacy of surfactant treatment at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at the St Elisabeth Hospital, Curaqao, Netherlands, Antilles, This was a retrospective cohort study of 86 infant

  3. Increased Extravascular Lung Water Reduces the Efficacy of Alveolar Recruitment Maneuver in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey A. Smetkin; Kuzkov, Vsevolod V; Eugeny V. Suborov; Bjertnaes, Lars J; Kirov, Mikhail Y.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the recruitment maneuver (RM) is used to reexpand atelectatic areas of the lungs aiming to improve arterial oxygenation. The goal of our paper was to evaluate the response to RM, as assessed by measurements of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in ARDS patients. Materials and Methods. Seventeen adult ARDS patients were enrolled into a prospective study. Patients received protective ventilation. The RM was performed by applying a ...

  4. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome%全身炎症反应综合征、急性肺损伤与急性呼吸窘迫综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱桂生

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1967年Ashbaugh等首次报道了成人急性呼吸窘迫(acute respiratory distress in adult),为了和新生儿或婴儿呼吸窘迫综合征(infantile respiratory distress syndrome,IRDS)相区别,被命名为成人呼吸窘迫综合征(adult respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS).

  5. Serum biomarkers in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome an ailing prognosticator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pneumatikos Ioannis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of biomarkers in medicine lies in their ability to detect disease and support diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. New research and novel understanding of the molecular basis of the disease reveals an abundance of exciting new biomarkers who present a promise for use in the everyday clinical practice. The past fifteen years have seen the emergence of numerous clinical applications of several new molecules as biologic markers in the research field relevant to acute respiratory distress syndrome (translational research. The scope of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge about serum biomarkers in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome and their potential value as prognostic tools and present some of the future perspectives and challenges.

  6. Surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Moretti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains the primary indication for admission to paediatric intensive care units and accounts for significant mortality, morbidity and resource utilization. Respiratory infections, in particular pneumonia and severe bronchiolitis, are the most common causes of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in infants and children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of ARDS and the management of paediatric patients with acute lung injury. Data indicate that adoption of a lung protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and of an open-lung ventilation strategy, characterized by sufficient positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP to avoid atelectasis, provides the greatest likelihood of survival and minimizes lung injury. The relative benefits of strategies such as high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO, recruiting manoeuvres and prone position are also considered. Moreover this article examines exogenous lung surfactant replacement therapy and its efficacy in the treatment of paediatric ARDS. In infants and children with acute lung injury the endogenous surfactant system is not only deficient, as observed in preterm infants, but altered via a variety of other mechanisms like inhibition and dysfunction. All factors contribute to the altered physiology seen in ARDS. The role of exogenous surfactant in lung injury beyond the neonatal period is therefore more complex and its limited efficacy may be related to a number of factors, among them inadequacy of pharmaceutical surfactants, insufficient dosing or drug delivery, poor drug distribution or, simply, an inability of the drug to counteract the underlying pathophysiology of ARDS. Several trials have found no clinical benefit from various surfactant supplementation methods in adult patients with ARDS, however some studies have shown that this therapy can improve oxygenation and decrease mortality in some specific

  7. Extracorporeal life support for acute respiratory distress syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome remain to be high. Over the last 50 years, the clinical management of these patients has undergone vast changes. Significant improvement in the care of these patients involves the development of mechanical ventilation strategies, but the benefits of these strategies remain controversial. With a growing trend of extracorporeal support for critically ill patients, we provide a historical review of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO including its failures and successes as well as discussing extracorporeal devices now available or nearly accessible while examining current clinical indications and trends of ECMO in respiratory failure.

  8. Surfactant alteration and replacement in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Walmrath Dieter; Grimminger Friedrich; Markart Philipp; Schmidt Reinhold; Ruppert Clemens; Günther Andreas; Seeger Werner

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a frequent, life-threatening disease in which a marked increase in alveolar surface tension has been repeatedly observed. It is caused by factors including a lack of surface-active compounds, changes in the phospholipid, fatty acid, neutral lipid, and surfactant apoprotein composition, imbalance of the extracellular surfactant subtype distribution, inhibition of surfactant function by plasma protein leakage, incorporation of surfactan...

  9. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pierrakos, Charalampos; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Scolletta, Sabino; Karamouzos, Vasilios; Velissaris, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a common entity in critical care. ARDS is associated with many diagnoses, including trauma and sepsis, can lead to multiple organ failure and has high mortality. The present article is a narrative review of the literature on ARDS, including ARDS pathophysiology and therapeutic options currently being evaluated or in use in clinical practice. The literature review covers relevant publications until January 2011. Recent developments in the therapeut...

  10. Scrub Typhus with Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kurup, Asok; Issac, Aneesh; Loh, Jin Phang; Lee, Too Bou; Chua, Robert; Bist, Pradeep; Chao, Chien-Chung; Lewis, Michael; Gubler, Duane J.; Ching, Wei Mei; Ooi, Eng Eong; Sukumaran, Bindu

    2013-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a major infectious threat in the Asia-Pacific region. We report an unusual case of scrub typhus in a patient in Singapore who presented with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome but lacked the pathognomonic eschar. The patient recovered after appropriate diagnosis and doxycycline treatment. Rickettsial diseases should be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses in regions where the diseases are endemic, and absence of eschar should not be the crite...

  11. Extracorporeal life support for acute respiratory distress syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Don Hayes; Joseph D Tobias; Jasleen Kukreja; Preston, Thomas J.; Yates, Andrew R; Stephen Kirkby; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome remain to be high. Over the last 50 years, the clinical management of these patients has undergone vast changes. Significant improvement in the care of these patients involves the development of mechanical ventilation strategies, but the benefits of these strategies remain controversial. With a growing trend of extracorporeal support for critically ill patients, we provide a historical review of extracorporeal membrane oxygena...

  12. The Current Care for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamae, Kaneyuki; Iseki, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been still high. A many kinds of strategies for ARDS are being tried in the world. The important factors which influence for pathological-physiology of ARDS during the mechanical ventilation are gravity consolidation, atelectasis, and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). VILI is caused by shear stress that is induced by the repeated collapse and recruit of alveolus. Alveolar over-distention caused by large tidal volume als...

  13. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiho; Sagara; Yasuo; Horie; Yumiko; Anezaki; Hideaki; Miyazawa; Masahiro; Iizuka

    2010-01-01

    Various extraintestinal manifestations including pulmonary abnormalities have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious and fatal pulmonary manifestation. We have experienced a 67-year-old male patient with ARDS associated with a severe type of ulcerative colitis (UC). Severe dyspnea symptoms occurred during the treatment of UC in a previous hospital and the patient was transferred to our hospital on June 27, 2007. Both blood and sputa culture...

  14. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Min; Xiao, Zhen-Liang; Fu-xiang LI

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI) is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI) in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, ...

  15. Atrial natriuretic factor and postnatal diuresis in respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Rozycki, H J; Baumgart, S.

    1991-01-01

    To find out if atrial natriuretic factor plays a part in the control of urine output during the initiation alone or throughout postnatal diuresis in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, atrial natriuretic factor concentrations and clinical and renal variables were measured prospectively three times during the first three days of life in 13 premature infants. Atrial natriuretic factor concentrations rose significantly between the first and second sample times as did the urine output an...

  16. The Role of Surfactant in Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Christopher Cheng-Hwa; Ma, Sze

    2012-01-01

    The key feature of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the insufficient production of surfactant in the lungs of preterm infants. As a result, researchers have looked into the possibility of surfactant replacement therapy as a means of preventing and treating RDS. We sought to identify the role of surfactant in the prevention and management of RDS, comparing the various types, doses, and modes of administration, and the recent development. A PubMed search was carried out up to March 2012 u...

  17. Genetic risk factors associated with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Heui Seung

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) among preterm infants is typically due to a quantitative deficiency of pulmonary surfactant. Aside from the degree of prematurity, diverse environmental and genetic factors can affect the development of RDS. The variance of the risk of RDS in various races/ethnicities or monozygotic/dizygotic twins has suggested genetic influences on this disorder. So far, several specific mutations in genes encoding surfactant-associated molecules have confirmed this. Spec...

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome assessment after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is one of the most important complications associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI. ARDS is caused by inflammation of the lungs and hypoxic damage with lung physiology abnormalities associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Aim of this study is to determine the epidemiology of ARDS and the prevalence of risk factors. Methods: This prospective study performed on patients with acute traumatic head injury hospitalization in the intensive care unit of the Shohaday-e Haftom-e-Tir Hospital (September 2012 to September 2013 done. About 12 months, the data were evaluated. Information including age, sex, education, employment, drug and alcohol addiction, were collected and analyzed. The inclusion criteria were head traumatic patients and exclusion was the patients with chest trauma. Questionnaire was designed with doctors supervision of neurosurgery. Then the collected data were analysis. Results: In this study, the incidence of ARDS was 23.8% and prevalence of metabolic acidosis was 31.4%. Most injury with metabolic acidosis was Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH 48 (60% and Subdural hemorrhage (SDH was Next Level with 39 (48% Correlation between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS were significantly decreased (P< 0.0001. The level of consciousness in patients with skull fractures significantly lower than those without fractures (P= 0.009 [(2.3±4.6 vs (4.02±7.07]. Prevalence of metabolic acidosis during hospitalization was 80 patients (31.4%. Conclusion: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Management and treatment is essential to reduce the mortality. In this study it was found the age of patients with ARDS was higher than patients without complications. ARDS risk factor for high blood pressure was higher in men. Most victims were pedestrians. The most common injury associated with ARDS was SDH. Our analysis

  19. Alternative therapies for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha IP

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ian P Sinha1, Sunil K Sinha21Division of Women’s and Children’s Health, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 2Department of Neonatology, University of Durham and James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, UKAbstract: There is growing interest in the use of noninvasive methods of providing respiratory support to preterm infants, especially those born at the limits of viability. This paper relates to the use of noninvasive forms of respiratory support, which could be used to treat preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Evidence is reviewed from clinical trials that have evaluated the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, nasal intermittent positive airway pressure (NIPPV, and high flow nasal cannulae (HFNC.Keywords: CPAP, NIPPV, RDS, preterm

  20. Involvement of Mycoplasma synoviae in Respiratory Distress Cases of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ehtisham-ul-Haque*, S. U. Rahman, M. Siddique and A. S. Qureshi1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. The study was designed to detect M. synoviae through serology, culture isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to document the involvement of MS infection in respiratory distress cases of broiler birds. The validated PCR assay amplifying the conserved gene region of 16SrRNA gene was applied for the detection of M. synoviae from culture as well as in clinical samples. The results indicated that 04 out of total 17 commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory distress signs were found positive with M. synoviae infection indicating 76.57% sero-positivity as, determined with rapid serum agglutination (RSA test. Out of 85 clinical specimens (collected from sero-positive birds; M. synoviae culture isolation was successfully attained in 36 (42.35% samples. Whereas, PCR test has detected 84 (98.82% positive cases. The prevalence of MS in broiler birds was observed maximum as measured through PCR. It is suggested that the true prevalence of MS may best be reflected by combining RSA and PCR test findings.

  1. Early Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, Thomas M; Heffner, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by acute diffuse inflammatory lung injury invoked by a variety of systemic or pulmonary insults. Despite medical progress in management, mortality remains 27% to 45%. Patients with ARDS should be managed with low tidal volume ventilation. Permissive hypercapnea is well tolerated. Conservative fluid strategy can reduce ventilator and hospital days in patients without shock. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers reduce mortality in some patients. Early management of ARDS is relevant to emergency medicine. Identifying ARDS patients who should be transferred to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center is an important task for emergency providers. PMID:26614238

  2. X-ray picture of the respiratory distress syndrome (shock lung)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-Ray picture of the respiratory distress syndrome (shock lung) in 78 patients exposed to high temperature as a result of gas condensate explosion is analyzed. X-ray and morphologic fundings in these patients are compared to those in 13 similar patients in whom acute respiratory failure developed because of other causes. Morphologic basis of the4 majority of x-ray signs of acute respiratory distress has been investigated. A relationship between respiratory distress syndrome development and changes in the heart size has been revealed, which may serve the prediction criterion

  3. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min GAO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, atypical pathogens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, HAI is mainly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA, and other drug-resistant bacteria. The drug-resistant bacterial infection not only makes treatment difficult, but also leads to an increase in mechanical ventilation time, length of ICU stay, mortality rate, and medical costs. The present paper has reviewed the relationship between ARDS and infection, therapeutic principles and measures of ARDS related infection, and introduced the optimal strategy of anti-infectious treatment of ARDS.

  4. Chest associated to motor physiotherapy improves cardiovascular variables in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the effects of chest and motor physiotherapy treatment on hemodynamic variables in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. Methods We evaluated heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), temperature and oxygen saturation (SO2%) in 44 newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. We compared all variables between before physiotherapy treatment vs. after the last physiotherapy treatment. N...

  5. Neonatal respiratory distress: recent progress in understanding pathogenesis and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN are the three most common disorders that cause respiratory distress after birth. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders and the development of effective therapeutic strategies is required to control these conditions. Here, we review recent papers on the pathogenesis and treatment of neonatal respiratory disease.

  6. Immotile cilia syndrome: a new cause of neonatal respiratory distress.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelaw, A; Evans, A.; Corrin, B.

    1981-01-01

    Kartagener's syndrome is a condition that consists of situs inversus, bronchiectasis, and sinusitis. Some patients have respiratory symptoms that date from early infancy, and electron microscopical examination has shown that adults with this condition lack dynein arms in ciliary microtubules. It has been suggested that an inherited defect in ciliary ultrastructure, the immotile cilia, is the basis for the syndrome. We report 6 patients who presented within the first 24 hours of life with tac...

  7. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation against conventional artificial ventilation for adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The OSCAR (OSCillation in ARDS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Ranjit; Hamilton, Patrick; Young, Duncan; Hulme, Claire; Hall, Peter; Shah, Sanjoy; MacKenzie, Iain; Tunnicliffe, William; Rowan, Kathy; Cuthbertson, Brian; McCabe, Chris; Lamb, Sallie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require artificial ventilation but this treatment may produce secondary lung damage. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may reduce this damage. OBJECTIVES To determine the clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of HFOV in patients with ARDS compared with standard mechanical ventilation. DESIGN A parallel, randomised, unblinded clinical trial. SETTING UK intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS Mechanically ventilated patients with a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fractional concentration of inspired oxygen (P : F) ratio of 26.7 kPa (200 mmHg) or less and an expected duration of ventilation of at least 2 days at recruitment. INTERVENTIONS Treatment arm HFOV using a Novalung R100(®) ventilator (Metran Co. Ltd, Saitama, Japan) ventilator until the start of weaning. Control arm Conventional mechanical ventilation using the devices available in the participating centres. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary clinical outcome was all-cause mortality at 30 days after randomisation. The primary health economic outcome was the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. RESULTS One hundred and sixty-six of 398 patients (41.7%) randomised to the HFOV group and 163 of 397 patients (41.1%) randomised to the conventional mechanical ventilation group died within 30 days of randomisation (p = 0.85), for an absolute difference of 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) -6.1% to 7.5%]. After adjustment for study centre, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and the initial P : F ratio, the odds ratio for survival in the conventional ventilation group was 1.03 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.40; p = 0.87 logistic regression). Survival analysis showed no difference in the probability of survival up to 12 months after randomisation. The average QALY at 1 year in the HFOV group was 0.302 compared to 0.246. This gives an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the cost to

  8. Traumatic retropharyngeal emphysema as a cause for severe respiratory distress in a newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traumatic injury to the pharynx or esophagus in a newborn from intubation or tube suctioning may have various presentations. Difficulty passing a gastric tube or feeding problems may erroneously suggest the diagnosis of esophageal atresia. Associated respiratory distress may be caused by pneumothorax or pleural effusion if the pleural space is entered. We report the case of a full-term newborn presenting with severe respiratory distress caused by a large retropharyngeal air collection resulting from hypopharyngeal perforation from prior intubation and suctioning. Chest abnormality, sufficient to account for the degree of respiratory distress, was not demonstrated. (orig.)

  9. Psychological Distress in Young Adult Males with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Si-Heon; Hur, Jae; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hae-Sim; Hong, Chang Hyung; Son, Sang Joon; Chang, Ki Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and psychological distress has been well established for children and adolescents. However, it is unclear whether this relationship exists in young adults. This study aimed to assess the relationship between AD and psychological distress in young male adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional study was conducted using regional conscription data from 2008 to 2012. A dermatologist diagnosed AD based on historical and clinical features, and...

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): HRCT findings in survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Song, Jeong Sup; Lee, Kyo Young [The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of the lung in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Among eleven patients who survived ARDS for one year, chest radiography and HRCT revealed pulmonary fibrosis in four. Causes of ARDS included pneumonia during pregnancy, near drowning, pneumonia during liver cirrhosis, and postoperative sepsis. Thoracoscopic biopsy and histopathologic correlation were available in one patient. HRCT showed diffuse interlobular septal thickening, ground glass opacity, parenchymal distortion, and traction bronchiectasis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules were seen in two patients and one patient had multiple, large bullae in the left hemithorax. In all patients, lesions affected the upper and anterior zones of the lung more prominently. The distribution of pulmonary fibrosis was characteristic and reflected the pathogenesis of lung injury; fibrosis was largely due to hyperoxia caused by ventilator care. In one patient, histopathologic correlation showed that imaging findings were accounted for by thickening of the alveolar septum along with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells and fibrosis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules corresponded with bronchiolitis.

  11. Surfactant alteration and replacement in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmrath Dieter

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a frequent, life-threatening disease in which a marked increase in alveolar surface tension has been repeatedly observed. It is caused by factors including a lack of surface-active compounds, changes in the phospholipid, fatty acid, neutral lipid, and surfactant apoprotein composition, imbalance of the extracellular surfactant subtype distribution, inhibition of surfactant function by plasma protein leakage, incorporation of surfactant phospholipids and apoproteins into polymerizing fibrin, and damage/inhibition of surfactant compounds by inflammatory mediators. There is now good evidence that these surfactant abnormalities promote alveolar instability and collapse and, consequently, loss of compliance and the profound gas exchange abnormalities seen in ARDS. An acute improvement of gas exchange properties together with a far-reaching restoration of surfactant properties was encountered in recently performed pilot studies. Here we summarize what is known about the kind and severity of surfactant changes occuring in ARDS, the contribution of these changes to lung failure, and the role of surfactant administration for therapy of ARDS.

  12. Pulmonary hypertension due to acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ñamendys-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to describe the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, to characterize their hemodynamic cardiopulmonary profiles, and to correlate these parameters with outcome. All consecutive patients over 16 years of age who were in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of ARDS and an in situ pulmonary artery catheter for hemodynamic monitoring were studied. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was >25 mmHg at rest with a pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or left atrial pressure <15 mmHg. During the study period, 30 of 402 critically ill patients (7.46% who were admitted to the ICU fulfilled the criteria for ARDS. Of the 30 patients with ARDS, 14 met the criteria for pulmonary hypertension, a prevalence of 46.6% (95% CI; 28-66%. The most common cause of ARDS was pneumonia (56.3%. The overall mortality was 36.6% and was similar in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Differences in patients' hemodynamic profiles were influenced by the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The levels of positive end-expiratory pressure and peak pressure were higher in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and the PaCO2 was higher in those who died. The level of airway pressure seemed to influence the onset of pulmonary hypertension. Survival was determined by the severity of organ failure at admission to the intensive care unit.

  13. Association between lamellar body count and respiratory distress in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of fetal lung maturity by a simple and rapid test has a pivotal role in obstetric managements. Lack of modern laboratory techniques in our country made US investigate whether lamellar body count (Lb) can be applied efficiently in the evaluation of fetal lung maturity. Lamellar body count was assessed in 104 un spun amniotic fluid samples taken from pregnant women admitted at A kbar Aba di Hospital, Tehran, Iran between May 2003 and November 2003 whose fetuses were at risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Cut-off points for LBC were determined to evaluate the risk of RDS. Standard clinical and radiographic criteria were used to diagnose RDS. An LBC of less than 10,000 was 99.1% specific for lung immaturity (positive predictive value = 99.1%, negative predictive value = 83.5%). The LBCs of greater than 45,000 eliminates RDS (negative predictive value = 98.9%). Lamellar body count is an easy, rapid and cost-effective test to assess fetal lung maturity in high-risk fetuses. Using the cut-off points of 10,000 and 45,000, LBC can serve as the first screening test of fetal lung maturity. (author)

  14. Fluid in the management of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is the hallmark of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The amount of fluid and which fluid should be used in these patients is controversial. Methods 43 patients with ARDS treated in the intensive care unit (ICU of the Second Hospital, Jilin University between November 1, 2011-November 1, 2012 were prospectively analyzed and was observational. Volume and the type of fluid administered were compared to 90 day mortality and the 24 and 72 hour sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score, lactate level, oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2, duration of ICU stay, total ventilator days, and need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Results Mortality was increased when hydroxylethyl starch (HES was used in the first day or plasma substitutes were used during the first 3 days (P3000 ml during the first 24 hours or >8000 ml during the first 72 hours were associated with higher SOFA scores at 24 and 72 hours (P<0.05, both comparisons. Colloid, especially higher volume colloid use was also associated with increased SOFA scores at either 24 or 72 hours. Conclusions Limiting the use of colloids and the total amount of fluid administered to patients with ARDS is associated with improved mortality and SOFA scores.

  15. Surfactant in the Treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Fatehi

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn infant is still the most common problem in nursery and major cause of neonatal mortality. Surfactant deficiency is a major factor in the pathogenesis of RDS. The induction of pulmonary surfactant with maternally administered steroids plays an important role in reducing the incidence of this disease. Combination of betamethasone plus TRH for the prevention of RDS will prove not only more effective for acceleration of fetal lung maturation, it may also decrease the interval that is required between administration of the hormone and delivery. The most exciting recent advance in management of RDS appears to be administration of exogenous surfactant. Administration of natural bovine surfactant resulted in remarkable improvement in pulmonary status in RDS. Whereas surfactant replacement offers great clinical promise, the ideal preparation and the amount, time, and method of administration remain under study. It thus seems likely that in the future both hormonal enhancement of lung maturation and surfactant therapy may be used in combination to further reduce the morbidity and mortality from RDS

  16. Lung tissue remodeling in the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Alba Barros de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, and evolves progressively with three phases: exsudative, fibroproliferative, and fibrotic. In the exudative phase, there are interstitial and alveolar edemas with hyaline membrane. The fibropro­liferative phase is characterized by exudate organization and fibroelastogenesis. There is proliferation of type II pneumocytes to cover the damaged epithelial surface, followed by differentiation into type I pneumocytes. The fibroproliferative phase starts early, and its severity is related to the patient?s prognosis. The alterations observed in the phenotype of the pulmonary parenchyma cells steer the tissue remodeling towards either progressive fibrosis or the restoration of normal alveolar architecture. The fibrotic phase is characterized by abnormal and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen. The dynamic control of collagen deposition and degradation is regulated by metalloproteinases and their tissular regulators. The deposition of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of ARDS patients needs better study. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling, in normal conditions or in several pulmonary diseases, such as ARDS, results from a complex mechanism that integrate the transcription of elements that destroy the matrix protein and produce activation/inhibition of several cellular types of lung tissue. This review article will analyze the ECM organization in ARDS, the different pulmonary parenchyma remodeling mechanisms, and the role of cytokines in the regulation of the different matrix components during the remodeling process.

  17. European consensus guidelines on the management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants - 2010 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, David G; Carnielli, Virgilio; Greisen, Gorm;

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the perinatal management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), controversies still exist. We report the updated recommendations of a European panel of expert neonatologists who had developed consensus guidelines after critical examination of the most up...

  18. Aerosolized prostacyclin for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann;

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far....

  19. Surfactant treatment in premature infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, AAE; Keli, SO; van der Meulen, GN; Wiersma, H; Arias, M; Angelista, IR; Muskiet, FD

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy for Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in premature neonates has been established as an effective treatment, although significant mortality and morbidity remain. In Curacao, surfactant became available as a therapeutic option in 1994. A retrospective cohort study was

  20. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant metabol

  1. The role of inflammation and clotting in the development of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Anna Saakje

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (neonatal RDS) occurs in preterm infants, due to structural immaturity of the lungs and immaturity of the pulmonary surfactant metabolism, resulting in surfactant deficiency and surfactant dysfunction. Apart from these factors there is increasing evidence that

  2. Aerosolized prostacyclin for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann;

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.......Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far....

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Russell; Aric Storck; Martha Ainslie

    2011-01-01

    Several case reports have described acute lung injury and respiratory distress following the intravascular injection of oil. Although biochemical and mechanical theories explaining the pathological mechanism of pulmonary oil embolism have been proposed, the phenomenon is not completely understood. This report describes a case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia involving a 21-year-old bodybuilder who self-administered an injection of anabolic steroids suspended in oil. The ensuing bri...

  4. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharie, Gabriela; Antonia POPESCU; BLAGA, LIGIA; Melinda MATYAS

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations...

  5. Frequency Distribution of Opportunistic Avian Pathogens in Respiratory Distress Cases of Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Baker Siddique*, Sajjad-ur-Rahman, Iftikhar Hussain and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Involvement of opportunistic pathogens in the respiratory distress cases of poultry was detected from the poultry flocks scattered in some districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Serum plate agglutination (SPA) test for serological screening of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) were performed separately and it revealed 80% flocks were sero-positive among respiratory distress cases. Specimen samples including trachea (n=157), lungs (n=40), spleen (n=93), oral (n=201) and nasal ...

  6. Effects of artificial surfactant on lung function and blood gases in idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, A D; Vyas, H.; Hopkin, I E

    1983-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of giving two 25 mg doses of dry surfactant powder to the airways of 10 preterm babies with severe idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome requiring intermittent positive pressure ventilation. No useful change in static total compliance or blood gases was seen. We conclude that dry surfactant powder does not have a role in the management of severe idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome.

  7. DO LARGE PRETERM INFANTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME BENEFIT FROM EARLY SURFACTANT?

    OpenAIRE

    N Khosravi; P Mohagheghi

    2008-01-01

    "nLarge preterm infants are generally not considered good candidates for surfactant treatment until they have been intubated for progressing respiratory distress. This study has been done to detect the effect of electively providing early single-dose surfactant to large preterm babies with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A randomized clinical trial was performed on 45 infants with birth weight > 1250 grams, gestational age < 36 weeks, postnatal age 0-1...

  8. Cost of surfactant replacement treatment for severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Tubman, T. R.; Halliday, H. L.; Normand, C

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the cost of treating babies with severe respiratory distress syndrome with natural porcine surfactant. DESIGN--Retrospective controlled survey. SETTING--Regional neonatal intensive care unit, Belfast. PATIENTS--33 Preterm babies with severe respiratory distress syndrome who were enrolled in a European multicentre trial during 1985-7. 19 Babies were treated with surfactant and 14 served as controls. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with natural porcine surfactant. MAIN OUTCOME M...

  9. Randomised controlled study of early use of inhaled corticosteroid in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fok, T; Lam, K.; Dolovich, M.; Ng, P; Wong, Van W.; Cheung, K; So, K

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate, started on day 1 of age, on ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome.
METHODS—Starting within 24 hours of age, ventilated preterm infants (gestation < 32 weeks, birthweight < 1.5 kg) with respiratory distress syndrome were given a 14 day course (two puffs, 12 hourly) of either fluticasone propionate (250 µg/puff) (group 1, n=27) or placebo (group 2, n=26) with a metered dose i...

  10. 胆红素对成人肝移植术后急性呼吸窘迫综合征的影响%The impact of bilirubin for acute respiratory distress syndrome in post-liver transplantation adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蔚; Victor W.Xia

    2014-01-01

    目的:回顾性分析成人肝移植患者术后急性呼吸窘迫综合征(acute respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS)的发生和临床危险因素,探讨胆红素对ARDS发病和预后的影响。方法经医学伦理委员会同意,选择2004年1月1日至2011年12月31日的成人(年龄≥18岁)肝移植患者,所有数据来自加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)的移植数据中心。诊断标准采用2011年ARDS柏林新定义,将患者分为ARDS组和非ARDS(No-ARDS)组两组,均采用全身麻醉。分析数据包括一般情况,实验室检查如总胆红素、肌酐、电解质(K+、Na+)及预后情况。数据分析软件采用IBM SPSS 20.0软件。结果1335例肝移植患者中有57例术后出现ARDS,发生率为4.3%;终末期肝病模型(MELD)评分和术前是否已经气管内插管两组之间差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。电解质和肌酐两组间无明显差异(P>0.05)。总胆红素在术前〔(411.01±322.16)μmol/L比(250.17±271.04)μmol/L〕和术后第7天〔(164.84±146.55)μmol/L比(84.13±91.83)μmol/L〕ARDS组明显高于No-ARDS组(均P<0.05);经logistic分析,术前总胆红素≥324.9μmol/L(P=0.013,95%CI=1.164~3.578)和术后第7天总胆红素≥188.1μmol/L(P=0.001,95%CI=1.488~5.331)是ARDS发生的独立危险因素。ARDS组1年病死率明显高于No-ARDS组(6.10%比3.30%,P=0.033)。结论①肝移植术后ARDS发生率为4.3%,是多个因素作用的结果;②胆红素对ARDS的作用与剂量有关,术前总胆红素≥324.9μmol/L、术后第7天总胆红素≥188.1μmol/L是术后ARDS发生的危险因素。%Objective To retrospectively analyze the incidence and risk factors of acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)in post-liver transplant adult patients, and to approach the effect of bilirubin on morbidity and prognosis of ARDS. Methods After winning institutional review board approval

  11. Role of alveolar type II cells and of surfactant-associated protein C mRNA levels in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress in mink kits infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Viuff, B; Aasted, B; Alexandersen, S.

    1994-01-01

    Neonatal mink kits infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) develop an acute interstitial pneumonia with clinical symptoms and pathological lesions that resemble those seen in preterm human infants with respiratory distress syndrome and in human adults with adult respiratory distress syndrome. We have previously suggested that ADV replicates in the alveolar type II epithelial cells of the lung. By using double in situ hybridization, with the simultaneous use of a probe to detect A...

  12. Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Fibrosis versus Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Daniel; Shi, Wei; Driscoll, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and basic experimental approaches to pediatric acute lung injury (ALI), including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), have historically focused on acute care and management of the patient. Additional efforts have focused on the etiology of pediatric ALI and ARDS, clinically defined as diffuse, bilateral diseases of the lung that compromise function leading to severe hypoxemia within 7 days of defined insult. Insults can include ancillary events related to prematurity, can follow trauma and/or transfusion, or can present as sequelae of pulmonary infections and cardiovascular disease and/or injury. Pediatric ALI/ARDS remains one of the leading causes of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Though incidence is relatively low, ranging from 2.9 to 9.5 cases/100,000 patients/year, mortality remains high, approaching 35% in some studies. However, this is a significant decrease from the historical mortality rate of over 50%. Several decades of advances in acute management and treatment, as well as better understanding of approaches to ventilation, oxygenation, and surfactant regulation have contributed to improvements in patient recovery. As such, there is a burgeoning interest in the long-term impact of pediatric ALI/ARDS. Chronic pulmonary deficiencies in survivors appear to be caused by inappropriate injury repair, with fibrosis and predisposition to emphysema arising as irreversible secondary events that can severely compromise pulmonary development and function, as well as the overall health of the patient. In this chapter, the long-term effectiveness of current treatments will be examined, as will the potential efficacy of novel, acute, and long-term therapies that support repair and delay or even impede the onset of secondary events, including fibrosis. PMID:27066462

  13. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Outcomes after Near-hanging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Sahar; Afshar, Majid; Barrett, Matthew; Smith, Gordon S.; Barr, Erik A.; Lissauer, Matthew E.; McCurdy, Michael T.; Murthi, Sarah B.; Netzer, Giora

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assess the case rate of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) after near-hanging, and the secondary outcomes of traumatic and/or anoxic brain injury, and death. Risk factors for the outcomes were assessed. Method Single-center, state-wide retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients admitted between August, 2002, and September, 2011, with a primary diagnosis of non-judicial "hanging injury". Results Of 56 patients, 73% were male. The median age was 31 (IQR: 16–56). Upon arrival, 9% (5/56) did not have a pulse, and 23% (13/56) patients were intubated. The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 13 (IQR: 3–15); 14% (8/56) had a GCS=3. ARDS developed in 9% (5/56) of patients. Traumatic anoxic brain injury resulted in 9% (5/56) of patients. The in-hospital case fatality was 5% (3/56). Lower median GCS [3 (IQR: 3–7) vs. 14 (IQR: 3–15), p=0.0003] and intubation in field or in trauma resuscitation unit [100% (5/5) vs. 16% (8/51), p=0.0003] were associated with ARDS development. Risk factors of death were GCS=3 [100% (3/3) vs. 9% (5/53), p=0.002]; pulselessness upon arrival of emergency medical services [100% (3/3) vs. 4% (2/53), p<0.001]; and abnormal neurologic imaging [50% (1/2) vs. zero, p=0.04]. Conclusions The ARDS case rate after near-hanging is similar to the general trauma population. Low GCS and intubation are associated with increased risk of ARDS development. The rate of traumatic and/or anoxic brain injury in this population is low. PMID:25596627

  14. Argument against the Routine Use of Steroids for Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvia M.; Hough, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Steroids have a plausible mechanism of action of reducing severity of lung disease in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but have failed to show consistent benefits in patient-centered outcomes. Many studies have confounding from the likely presence of ventilator-induced lung injury and steroids may have shown benefit because administration minimized ongoing inflammation incited by injurious ventilator settings. If steroids have benefit, it is likely for specific populations that fall within the heterogeneous diagnosis of ARDS. Those pediatric patients with concurrent active asthma or reactive airway disease of prematurity, in addition to ARDS, are the most common group likely to derive benefit from steroids, but are poorly studied. With the information currently available, it does not appear that the typical adult or pediatric patient with ARDS derives benefit from steroids and steroids should not be given on a routine basis.

  15. Clinical and mutational characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, Xenia L.; Verrips, Aad; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Snoeck, Irma N.; de Coo, Irenaeus F. M.; Brooks, Alice; Bulk, Saskia; Gooskens, Rob; Fock, Annemarie; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien; Sinke, Richard J.; de Visser, Marianne; Lemmink, Henny H.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder with early respiratory difficulties, distal muscle weakness, and contractures leading to foot deformities as the most striking clinical symptoms. Mutations of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain

  16. Pilot observational study on haemodynamic changes after surfactant administration in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali, Francesca; Galletti, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Aquilano, Giulia; Fabi, Marianna; Balducci, Anna; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Background Surfactant treatment reduces respiratory morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Data on its haemodynamic consequences are conflicting. The aim was to characterise the haemodynamic effects of surfactant treatment on cardiac function in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Methods Preterm infants (gestational age

  17. Escalas para evaluar la mortalidad de pacientes con trauma y síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria progresiva del adulto Scales to evaluate mortality of patients with trauma and adult respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA HERNÁNDEZ-GUTIÉRREZ

    1997-05-01

    ínicos de choque y consolidación en tres o más cuadrantes en la radiografía de tórax, entre otros factores.Objective. To compare different scores and scales used to evaluate mortality in patients with trauma and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Material and methods. The clinical charts of 80 adult patients, 70 men and 10 women, who were admitted during the period from January 1st, 1990, to December 31st, 1993, to the Hospital Guillermo Barroso C., Cruz Roja Mexicana in Mexico City with trauma and ARDS, were revised. The following data were evaluated: sex, age, injury-producing mechanisms, associated morbid conditions (shock, multiple blood transfusions, long bone fracture, pulmonary contusion and sepsis, ARDS diagnostic criteria, systemic failure, multiple organ failure, injury severity score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Scoring System, time elapsed to ARDS diagnosis, period of tracheal intubation and stay at the intensive care unit. Results. Of the 80 patients, 26 died (32.5%, 2 women and 24 men. Injury-producing mechanisms were: running over (31.3%, car accidents (27.5%, gunshot wounds (15%, stab wounds (13.7% multiple contusions (7.5% and falls (5%. A highly significant relationship was found between all scores and scales investigated and mortality. In pulmonary contusion and gastrointestinal failure correlation was doubtful; period of tracheal intubation and stay at the intensive care unit showed no correlation to mortality. Conclusions. Adult patients with trauma who develop ARDS showed high probability of death if additional clinical data of shock and consolidation in three or four quadrants of thorax X-rays are present, among other factors.

  18. [Current approaches to the treatment of severe hypoxic respiratory insufficiency (acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, S; Müller, T; Pfeifer, M

    2011-02-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with a low tidal volume, plateau pressure 90% and permissive hypercapnia results in reduction of the mortality rate in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The level of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) must be chosen in relation to oxygen requirement. High frequency oscillatory ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist are promising methods. However, further studies with firm end-points have to be awaited before a final judgment is possible. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can ensure life-sustaining gas exchange in patients with severe vitally compromised pulmonary failure, to provide time for lung tissue to heal and reduce ventilatory stress. The latest guidelines for analgesia and sedation in intensive care medicine demand consistent monitoring of the level of sedation and the intensity of pain. The sedation should be interrupted daily, with phases of awakenings and, if possible, spontaneous breathing. Methods of supportive treatment: Positional treatment (prone position) and inhalation of vasodilators can improve ventilation/perfusion mismatch and thus oxygenation. However, administration of surfactant is currently not advised in adult respiratory failure. PMID:21271478

  19. Umbilical cord blood and neonatal endothelin-1 levels in preterm newborns with and without respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    A.C.W. Benjamin; R.C. Silveira; R.S. Procianoy

    2005-01-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome is suggested, and endothelin-1 plays an important role in pulmonary vascular reactivity in newborns. We determined umbilical cord blood and neonatal (second sample) levels of endothelin-1 in 18 preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome who had no clinical or echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and 22 without respiratory distress syndrome (gestational ages: 31.4 ± 1...

  20. Flashbulb Memories of Menarche and Adult Menstrual Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Female college students (N=99) recounted memories of menarche, described menarcheal circumstances, and completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Found inadequate emotional preparation for menstruation to be associated with negative feelings at menarche. Menarcheal circumstances were not strongly predictive of adult MDQ scores. (Author)

  1. Recent insights: mesenchymal stromal/stem cell therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Shahd; Laffey, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes respiratory failure, which is associated with severe inflammation and lung damage and has a high mortality and for which there is no therapy. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are adult multi-progenitor cells that can modulate the immune response and enhance repair of damaged tissue and thus may provide a therapeutic option for ARDS. MSCs demonstrate efficacy in diverse in vivo models of ARDS, decreasing bacterial pneumonia and ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury while enhancing repair following ventilator-induced lung injury. MSCs reduce the pro-inflammatory response to injury while augmenting the host response to bacterial infection. MSCs appear to exert their effects via multiple mechanisms—some are cell interaction dependent whereas others are paracrine dependent resulting from both soluble secreted products and microvesicles/exosomes derived from the cells. Strategies to further enhance the efficacy of MSCs, such as by overexpressing anti-inflammatory or pro-repair molecules, are also being investigated. Encouragingly, early phase clinical trials of MSCs in patients with ARDS are under way, and experience with these cells in trials for other diseases suggests that the cells are well tolerated. Although considerable translational challenges, such as concerns regarding cell manufacture scale-up and issues regarding cell potency and batch variability, must be overcome, MSCs constitute a highly promising potential therapy for ARDS.

  2. Respiratory Distress Secondary to Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Tongue and Co-existent Choanal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatopadhayay, Rahul; Tiwari, Preeti; Gangopadhyay, A N; Pandey, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    Whilst rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the third most common solid tumour in children, congenital RMS of the tongue is extremely rare and usually present as painless progressive mass since birth (Dagher and Helman in Oncologist 4:34-44, 1999; Childs and Goudy in Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 5:126-128, 2010). In neonates, presentation with respiratory distress is unexpected as neonates are preferential nasal breathers and restricted oral breathing due to tumour usually poses no problem. We herein report a case of rhabdomyosarcoma of the tongue with co-existent unilateral choanal atresia, presenting with respiratory distress. The baby developed upper respiratory tract infection following which developed severe respiratory distress. Airway symptoms were precipitated as there was combined obstruction of both the nostrils due to infection or adenoid enlargement and unilateral chonal atresia. Treatment of respiratory distress in the presence of RMS and bilateral nasal pathology must first prioritise the security of the airway, before taking a multi-factorial approach to the therapy of the lingual mass (Childs and Goudy in Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 5:126-128, 2010). This case illustrates the importance of vigilance with respect to co-existent nasal pathology, in order to avoid the occurrence of complete airway obstruction. We therefore feel that any diagnosis of lingual RMS should warrant a formal examination of both nasal cavities. PMID:27408448

  3. ROLE OF SURFACTANT ADMINISTRATION IN PREMATURE INFANTS WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamseedhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The significant advancement in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome can be attributed to prenatal identification of high risk pregnancies, prevention of illness through antenatal care, prenatal administration of glucocorticoids, advancemen t in respiratory support and surfactant therapy. These measures resulted in the reduction of mortality and morbidity rates in preterm infants. AIM OF THE STUDY : To find the efficacy of surfactant therapy in relation to time of administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data of 122 preterm babies with Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS hospitalized in the Special Neonatal Care Unit (SNCU of the Pediatric Department, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS, Kadapa, A. P., India. RESU LTS: We investigated the clinical efficacy of surfactant therapy in relation to the time of administration and found that early treatment with surfactant is more effective and resulted in highly significant reduction of mortality rate (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Surfactant therapy is beneficial in preterm babies with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. So a reasonable recommendation is to treat the infants with surfactant as soon as the clinical signs of respiratory distress appear.

  4. A rare cause of respiratory distress after transthoracic oesophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Garg, Rakesh; Bharati, Sachidanand Jee; Gupta, Nishkarsh

    2015-01-01

    Transthoracic oesophagectomy is a standard surgical procedure for oesophageal cancer. Because of thoracotomy and lung handling, perioperative pulmonary complications make such procedures challenging. The issues related to respiratory complications may be predicted and managed accordingly. However, we report two cases of respiratory compromise caused due to a peculiar iatrogenic component. PMID:26755841

  5. Two Mutations in Surfactant Protein C Gene Associated with Neonatal Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tarocco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mutations of surfactant genes causing surfactant dysfunction have been described. Surfactant protein C (SP-C deficiency is associated with variable clinical manifestations ranging from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome to lethal lung disease. We present an extremely low birth weight male infant with an unusual course of respiratory distress syndrome associated with two mutations in the SFTPC gene: C43-7G>A and 12T>A. He required mechanical ventilation for 26 days and was treated with 5 subsequent doses of surfactant with temporary and short-term efficacy. He was discharged at 37 weeks of postconceptional age without any respiratory support. During the first 16 months of life he developed five respiratory infections that did not require hospitalization. Conclusion. This mild course in our patient with two mutations is peculiar because the outcome in patients with a single SFTPC mutation is usually poor.

  6. Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Volutrauma and Molecular Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Loza, R; Villamizar Rodríguez, G; Medel Fernández, N

    2015-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical condition secondary to a variety of insults leading to a severe acute respiratory failure and high mortality in critically ill patients. Patients with ARDS generally require mechanical ventilation, which is another important factor that may increase the ALI (acute lung injury) by a series of pathophysiological mechanisms, whose common element is the initial volutrauma in the alveolar units, and forming part of an entity known clinically...

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells - a promising therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes M; Curley G; Laffey JG.

    2012-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) constitutes a spectrum of severe acute respiratory failure in response to a variety of inciting stimuli that is the leading cause of death and disability in the critically ill. Despite decades of research, there are no therapies for ARDS, and management remains supportive. A growing understanding of the complexity of the pathophysiology of ARDS, coupled with advances in stem cell biology, has lead to a renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of...

  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a TH17-like and Treg immune disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wan-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a very severe syndrome leading to respiratory failure and subsequent mortality. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of ARDS. Thus, extracellular bacteria play an important role in the pathophysiology of ARDS. Overactivated neutrophils are the major effector cells in ARDS. Thus, extracellular bacteria triggered TH17-like innate immunity with neutrophil activation might accounts for the etiology of ARDS. Here, microarray analysis was employed to des...

  9. Bubble–CPAP vs. Ventilatory–CPAP in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Bahman-Bijari; Arash Malekiyan; Pedram Niknafs; Mohammad-Reza Baneshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Application of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) in neonate with respiratory distress is associated with reduction of respiratory failure, reduced complications and mortality. Bubble CPAP (B-CPAP) and ventilator-derived CPAP (V-CPAP) are two most popular CPAP modes. We aimed to determine whether B-CPAP and V-CPAP would have different survival rate and possible complications. Methods: This prospective clinical trial was performed on 50 preterm neonates weighing 1000-2000 gr ...

  10. Altered molecular specificity of surfactant phosphatidycholine synthesis in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dushianthan, Ahilanandan; Goss, Victoria; Cusack, Rebecca; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Postle, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening critical illness, characterised by qualitative and quantitative surfactant compositional changes associated with premature airway collapse, gas-exchange abnormalities and acute hypoxic respiratory failure. The underlying mechanisms for this dysregulation in surfactant metabolisms are not fully explored. Lack of therapeutic benefits from clinical trials, highlight the importance of detailed in-vivo analysis and charact...

  11. Azathioprine associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Scherbak D; Wyckoff R; Singarajah C

    2014-01-01

    A 58-year-old Caucasian man treated with azathioprine to prevent rejection of an orthotopic liver transplant, presented to the Carl Hayden VA Medical Center with rapid respiratory decline and appeared septic. He required urgent intubation, mechanical ventilator support and empiric antibiotics. His clinical picture and imaging studies were consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, extensive infectious work up failed to reveal an offending organism. Review of his current med...

  12. ROLE OF SURFACTANT ADMINISTRATION IN PREMATURE INFANTS WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Vamseedhar; Praveen Raju; Rama Mohan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The significant advancement in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome can be attributed to prenatal identification of high risk pregnancies, prevention of illness through antenatal care, prenatal administration of glucocorticoids, advancemen t in respiratory support and surfactant therapy. These measures resulted in the reduction of mortality and morbidity rates in preterm infants. AIM OF THE STUDY : To find the efficacy of surfactant therapy ...

  13. MULTIPLE PULMONARY CHONDROMATA - A RARE CAUSE OF NEONATAL RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, MO; BERTUS, PM; NIKKELS, PGJ; KIMPEN, JLL

    1994-01-01

    A neonate with respiratory distress due to a right pneumothorax is presented. After drainage of the pneumothorax, atelectasis of the entire right lung developed. Because the atelectasis persisted, bronchoscopy was performed. On bronchoscopy the carina and right main-stem bronchus could not be visual

  14. Interleukin-10 polymorphism in position -1082 and acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, M.N.; Thompson, B T; Williams, P.L.; Zhou, W.; Wang, M. Z.; Pothier, L.; Christiani, D C

    2006-01-01

    The GG genotype of the interleukin (IL)-10 promoter polymorphism in position -1082 (-1082GG) has been associated with increased IL-10 production. The current authors hypothesised that the -1082GG genotype is associated with the development of, and outcomes in, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

  15. Intranasal caseous fibrinous plug causing upper respiratory distress in two African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, E W

    1981-01-01

    Two cases of intranasal caseous fibrinous plugs causing upper respiratory distress in two African grey parrots are described. The causal bacterial agents in one case were Klebsiella spp., Bacillus mycoides, Staphylococcus epidermitis, and Pasteurella multocida. Both cases produced pressure necrosis and obstruction of the naris. PMID:7259689

  16. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ZAHARIE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations were carried out using venous blood. Statistical data analyses were performed using Statistica software. The comparisons between groups (study and controls were performed by applying parametric and non-parametric tests according with the type of distribution. Results: Statistically significant correlations were found between the value of protein carbonyls (PC and the weight of premature newborns in the case group (p < 0.05, as well as between the PC value and the presence of respiratory distress due to surfactant deficiency in the study group. The average PC value in the study group was higher in the third day as compared with the first day. The PC value was significantly higher in the control group as compared with study group. Conclusion: The results of our study revealed that the respiratory distress in the premature newborn and oxygen therapy stimulate the peroxidation of proteins.

  17. IMMUNE-RESPONSE AFTER SURFACTANT TREATMENT OF NEWBORN-INFANTS WITH RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bambang Oetomo, S.; Bos, A.F.; de Lei, L.; Okken, A.; VANSONDEREN, L; HALLIDAY, HL; WALTI, H

    1993-01-01

    We examined the sera of 68 newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome; 49 were treated with a natural porcine-derived surfactant preparation and 19 were controls. Serum of the patients was collected before, 3 weeks and 3 months after surfactant treatment. To detect any antibody that had been

  18. Acute respiratory distress associated with external jugular vein catheterization in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Fadi F; Obeid, Mounir; Dabbous, Ibrahim; Hayek, Paula; Akel, Samir; Mroueh, Salman

    2003-12-01

    We report on the acute onset of respiratory distress secondary to fluid accumulation in the chest within hours of placement of an external jugular venous line in a newborn. External jugular venous catheterization in the newborn is a procedure with potentially serious complications, and should be avoided unless the patient is monitored closely. PMID:14618649

  19. Comparing the Efficacy of two Natural Surfactants, Curosurf and Alveofact, in Treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi; Sanaz Yasrebi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant replacement therapy and respiratory support are the corn stones for respiratory distress syndrome treatment. Natural surfactants, which are animal derived, have been considered superior to synthetic ones, but the superior type of natural surfactant is still unknown. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of two types of natural surfactants, Poractan alfa (Curosurf) and Alveofact, in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Materials and Methods:...

  20. Single dose surfactant early rescue therapy in respiratory distress syndrome-experience and outcome at a tertiary care centre

    OpenAIRE

    Keerti Swarnkar; Manish Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a progressive respiratory failure that is caused primarily by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactants (PS). We undertook a prospective study to evaluate outcomes of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) patients treated with early rescue pulmonary surfactant. Methods: This was a prospective cross sectional study conducted at level III NICU. A total of 47 eligible patients out of 142 diagnosed RDS on chest x-ray or FiO2 and ...

  1. Bilateral dacryocystocele with an intranasal cyst as the cause of respiratory distress in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, A; Yildizoğlu, Ü; Arslan, F; Uysal, Y

    2016-01-01

    A congenital dacryocystocele with an intranasal cyst is an uncommon lesion that is usually treated by ophthalmologists, although sometimes an otorhinolaryngologist is consulted first because of nasal obstruction. The nasal cavity is narrow in newborns and can easily be obstructed, even by small lesions. Prolapse or expansion of the cyst into the nose may lead to respiratory distress and difficulty in feeding, since newborns are obligate nose breathers. Here we report a case of bilatera dacryocystocele with intranasal extension in a 3-day-old female infant. The infant presented with respiratory distress and episodic desaturation and was managed successfully by bilateral endoscopic marsupialization of the intranasal cysts. This case report discusses the diagnosis and management and reviews the relevant literature. These finding suggest tha congenital dacryocystocele with an intranasal cyst must be considered in the differential diagnosis of newborns suffering from nasal respiratory difficulty. PMID:27097390

  2. Respiratory function of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and caregiver distress level: a correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagnini Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no curative treatment characterized by degeneration of motor neurons involving a progressive impairment of motor and respiratory functions. Most patients die of ventilator respiratory failure. Caregivers have a great influence on the patient”s quality of life as well as on the quality of care. Home influence of the caregiver on patient care is notable. To date, no study has investigated how psychological issues of caregivers would influence respiratory variables of ALS patients. The study aimed at finding out if there is a relationship between the respiratory function of ALS patients and the level of distress of their caregivers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate respiratory issues (PCF and FVC and the perception of social support of ALS patients. Caregivers filled questionnaires about trait anxiety, depression, and burden of care. Forty ALS patients and their caregivers were recruited. Results FVC and PCF were positively related to patient perception of social support and negatively related to caregiver anxiety, depression, and burden. Discussion The distress of ALS caregivers is related to patient respiratory issues. The first and more intuitive explanation emphasizes the impact that the patient’s clinical condition has with respect to the caregiver. However, it is possible to hypothesize that if caregivers feel psychologically better, their patient’s quality of life improves and that a condition of greater well-being and relaxation could also increase ventilatory capacity. Furthermore, care management could be carried out more easily by caregivers who pay more attention to the patient's respiratory needs. Conclusion Patient perception of social support and caregiver distress are related to respiratory issues in ALS.

  3. Increased extravascular lung water reduces the efficacy of alveolar recruitment maneuver in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetkin, Alexey A; Kuzkov, Vsevolod V; Suborov, Eugeny V; Bjertnaes, Lars J; Kirov, Mikhail Y

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the recruitment maneuver (RM) is used to reexpand atelectatic areas of the lungs aiming to improve arterial oxygenation. The goal of our paper was to evaluate the response to RM, as assessed by measurements of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in ARDS patients. Materials and Methods. Seventeen adult ARDS patients were enrolled into a prospective study. Patients received protective ventilation. The RM was performed by applying a continuous positive airway pressure of 40 cm H(2)O for 40 sec. The efficacy of the RM was assessed 5 min later. Patients were identified as responders if PaO(2)/FiO(2) increased by >20% above the baseline. EVLWI was assessed by transpulmonary thermodilution before the RM, and patients were divided into groups of low EVLWI (recruitment maneuver might be related to the severity of pulmonary edema. In patients with incresed EVLWI, the recruitment maneuver is less effective. PMID:22649717

  4. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). ...

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome--two decades later.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty years have now elapsed since Ashbaugh and Petty first described the syndrome of acute respiratory failure associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. During the past two decades, significant advances have emerged in our understanding of the clinical conditions associated with the syndrome and the pathophysiological changes affecting the alveolar-capillary membrane responsible for the characteristic non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Recent data have reaffirmed the notion that...

  6. Bubble–CPAP vs. Ventilatory–CPAP in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Baneshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Application of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP in neonate with respiratory distress is associated with reduction of respiratory failure, reduced complications and mortality. Bubble CPAP (B-CPAP and ventilator-derived CPAP (V-CPAP are two most popular CPAP modes. We aimed to determine whether B-CPAP and V-CPAP would have different survival rate and possible complications. Methods: This prospective clinical trial was performed on 50 preterm neonates weighing 1000-2000 gr who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Afzalipoor Hospital because of respiratory distress between June 2009 and May 2010. Patients were randomly allocated into treatment groups using minimization technique. Survival analysis was applied to estimate and compare survival rates. Duration of oxygen therapy, hospital stay as well as hospitalization costs were compared using independent sample t-test. Findings:Estimated survival rates at 24 hours in B-CPAP and V-CPAP groups were 100% and 77% respectively. Corresponding figures at 48 hours were 100% and 71%. In addition the hospitalization cost in V-CPAP group was significantly higher than in B-CPAP group. Conclusion: According to our results, B-CPAP was effective in the treatment of neonates who were suffering from respiratory distress and reduced the duration of hospital stay. In addition to mentioned benefits, its low cost may be the reason to use B-CPAP broadly compared with V-CPAP.

  7. Infantile spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type I presenting without respiratory involvement: Novel mutations and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xinghua; Huang, Xiaojun; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Haiyan; Chen, Shengdi; Cao, Li

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1), also known as distal spinal muscular atrophy 1 (DSMA1) or distal hereditary motor neuropathies type 6 (dHMN6), is a rare autosomal recessive motor neuron disorder that affects infants and is characterized by diaphragmatic palsy, distal muscular weakness and muscle atrophy. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding immunoglobulinm-binding protein 2 (IGHMBP2). We present a female child with novel compound heterozygous mutations in IGHMBP2 gene c.344C>T (p.115T>M) and c.1737C>A (p.579F>L), displaying distal limbs weakness and atrophy without signs of diaphragmatic palsy or respiratory insufficiency. We review 20 reported SMARD1 cases that have no respiratory involvement or have late onsets. We propose that IGHMBP2 gene mutations are characterized by significant phenotypic heterogeneity. Diaphragmatic palsy and respiratory distress may be absent and SMARD1 should be considered in infantile with the onset of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26922252

  8. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in adenovirus type 4 pneumonia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, R; Bono, P; Zoccoli, A; Orlandi, A; Piconi, S; Grasselli, G; Crotti, S; Girello, A; Piralla, A; Baldanti, F; Lunghi, G

    2016-08-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, depending on species and types, from mild respiratory infections to deadly pneumonia: in particular, severe infections occur in immunocompromised patients. In this report, we describe the case of a 36 years-old woman admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with severe respiratory distress syndrome caused by adenovirus pneumonia, that required invasive respiratory support (mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). Molecular assays detected the virus in respiratory and plasma specimen and sequencing procedure identified HAdV type 4. Patient improved after cidofovir administration. Leukopenia and subsequent bacterial infection occurred, but the patient recovered completely and was discharged from the hospital after 54days. PMID:27354307

  10. The effect of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in acute respiratory distress syndrome: experimental evidence from a lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, M-A; Mankikian, J; Auvet, A; Dequin, P-F; Guillon, A

    2016-02-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy is essential for appropriate care during mechanical ventilation, but can significantly affect mechanical ventilation of the lungs, particularly for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We aimed to describe the consequences of bronchoscopy during lung-protective ventilation in a bench study, and thereby to determine the optimal diameter of the bronchoscope for avoiding disruption of the protective-ventilation strategy during the procedure. Immediately following the insertion of the bronchoscope into the tracheal tube, either minute ventilation decreased significantly, or positive end-expiratory pressure increased substantially, according to the setting of the inspiratory pressure limit. The increase in end-expiratory pressure led to an equivalent increase in the plateau pressure, and lung-protective ventilation was significantly altered during the procedure. We showed that a bronchoscope with an external diameter of 4 mm (or less) would allow safer bronchoscopic interventions in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:26559154

  11. Acute pancreatitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating dengue haemorrhagic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Avinash; Jain, Nirdesh; Gutch, Manish; Shankar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Dengue infection is now known to present with wide spectrum of complications. Isolated cases of acute pancreatitis complicating dengue haemorrhagic fever have been reported in literature. Here the authors report a case of dengue haemorrhagic fever that develops acute pancreatitis and presented with acute onset of breathlessness, which then progressed to full-blown acute respiratory distress syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of dengue haemorrhagic fever complicated wi...

  12. Not all infantile respiratory distress in winter is bronchiolitis: congenital lobar emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Taqvi, Laura; Griksaitis, Michael; Eastham, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 4-week-old male infant presented during the winter period with respiratory distress. He had a 3 day history of cough and coryza, and a 2 day history of breathlessness and reduced feeding. He had evidence of tachypnoea, subcostal recession and hypoxia on examination. An initial diagnosis of bronchiolitis was made. The authors explore how the correct diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) was reached, highlighting key clinical signs and investigations. He...

  13. Surfactant chemical composition and biophysical activity in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, T J; Longmore, W J; Moxley, M A; Whitsett, J A; Reed, C R; Fowler, A. A.; Hudson, L D; Maunder, R. J.; Crim, C.; Hyers, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by lung injury and damage to the alveolar type II cells. This study sought to determine if endogenous surfactant is altered in ARDS. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in patients at-risk to develop ARDS (AR, n = 20), with ARDS (A, n = 66) and in normal subjects (N, n = 29). The crude surfactant pellet was analyzed for total phospholipids (PL), individual phospholipids, SP-A, SP-B, and minimum surface tension (STmin). PL was decrea...

  14. Trace elements deficiencies in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome in the mature newborn calf

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Aliaoui, Hamani; Rollin, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    In Belgium, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in the mature hypermuscled Belgian Blue calf (BB) but also occurs in other cattle breeds. Major clinical signs (tachypnea, tachycardia and sometimes depression) develop in the first hours after birth and are due to insufficiency of functional surfactant. Knowing that trace elements deficiencies can slow pulmonary maturation, the aim of this study was to investigate trace elements stat...

  15. Education and support needs during recovery in acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christie M; Herridge, Margaret S.; Matte, Andrea; Cameron, Jill I

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There is a limited understanding of the long-term needs of survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as they recover from their episode of critical illness. The Timing it Right (TIR) framework, which emphasizes ARDS survivors' journey from the ICU through to community re-integration, may provide a valuable construct to explore the support needs of ARDS survivors during their recovery. Methods Twenty-five ARDS survivors participated in qualitative interviews exam...

  16. Acute respiratory distress in diabetic ketoacidosis: possible contribution of low colloid osmotic pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, R. C.; Asplin, C; McCormick, C. V.; Hockaday, T. D.

    1983-01-01

    The "shock lung" syndrome may occur in diabetic ketoacidosis in association with disseminated intravascular coagulation; occasionally it occurs alone after treatment of the ketoacidosis. Two patients developed pulmonary opacities with clinical features of acute respiratory distress such as are seen in the shock lung syndrome; in both, however, the findings suggested a different mechanism from that occurring in the syndrome. Hypoalbuminaemia was prominent, and it is postulated that a low plasm...

  17. Lung sonography and recruitment in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Tripodaki, Elli-Sophia; Vitzilaios, Konstantinos; Politis, Panagiotis; Piperopoulos, Ploutarchos; Nanas, Serafim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Bedside lung sonography is a useful imaging tool to assess lung aeration in critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of lung sonography in estimating the nonaerated area changes in the dependent lung regions during a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial of patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods Ten patients (mean ± standard deviation (SD): age 64 ± 7 years, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation ...

  18. Should Immune-Enhancing Formulations Be Used for Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosevelt, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    The potential for regulating immune function in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) through enteral-administered anti-inflammatory lipids has generated much interest over the past 20 years. Yet recommendations remain inconclusive regarding the utilization of ω-3 fatty acids in patients with ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI). Studies are limited in number, with differing methods, small sample sizes, and conflicting results, making recommendations difficult to interpret. PMID:27339156

  19. Respiratory distress syndrome aspects of inhaled nitric oxide, surfactant and nasal CPAP.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindwall, Robert BI

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) still represents one of the main problems in the treatment of premature infants. Despite the use of surfactant replacement therapy RDS adds to the need for endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (M). Enhancing the efficacy of CPAP treatment could reduce the use of MV thereby possibly minimising complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The overall aim was to find methods to reduce the severity of lung damage i...

  20. Surfactants in the Management of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Rangasamy

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is primarily due to decreased production of pulmonary surfactant, and it is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Exogenous pulmonary surfactant therapy is currently the treatment of choice for RDS, as it demonstrates the best clinical and economic outcomes. Studies confirm the benefits of surfactant therapy to include reductions in mortality, pneumothorax, and pulmonary interstitial emphysema, as well as improvements in oxygenation ...

  1. Pulmonary haemodynamics after surfactant replacement in severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, M. C.; Roques-Gineste, M.; Fries, F; Lelong-Tissier, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Aortopulmonary pressure difference and pulmonary blood flow velocity were studied during the first 48 hours of life in 12 premature neonates with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), treated by natural surfactant, and in 25 premature neonates with mild RDS. A non-invasive Doppler ultrasound method was used to estimate aortopulmonary pressure difference and pulmonary blood flow velocity from the left pulmonary artery. Aortopulmonary pressure difference was significantly lower at 6 hours...

  2. Measurement of pulmonary status and surfactant protein levels during dexamethasone treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J Y; Yeh, T F; Lin, Y C; Miyamura, K; Holmskov, U.; Reid, K B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early postnatal use of dexamethasone in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been shown effectively to improve pulmonary status and to allow early weaning off mechanical ventilation. However, the mechanisms to explain the beneficial effects of dexamethasone in ventilatory dependent preterm infants remain unclear. METHODS: A double blind, placebo controlled study was performed to determine the change in pulmonary ventilation of premature infants with RDS as a result...

  3. Pulmonary sequelae of neonatal respiratory distress in very low birthweight infants: a clinical and physiological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Y. C. Wong; Beardsmore, C S; Silverman, M

    1982-01-01

    Twenty infants, mechanically ventilated in the neonatal period for respiratory distress syndrome, were compared with 15 healthy controls, matched for birthweight(less than 1501 g) but greater in mean gestational age. Clinical features and lung mechanics (by whole body plethysmography) were recorded at 6-monthly intervals until about one year. THe neonatal course of the mechanically ventilated infants was commonly complicated by tracheobronchial hypersecretion and the later course by a fairly ...

  4. Evaluation of lung recruitment maneuvers in acute respiratory distress syndrome using computer simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Das(2), Anup; Cole, Oana; Chikhani, Marc; Wang, Wenfei; Ali, Tayyba; Haque, Mainul; Bates, Declan G; Hardman, Jonathan G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Direct comparison of the relative efficacy of different recruitment maneuvers (RMs) for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) via clinical trials is difficult, due to the heterogeneity of patient populations and disease states, as well as a variety of practical issues. There is also significant uncertainty regarding the minimum values of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) required to ensure maintenance of effective lung recruitment using RMs. We used patie...

  5. Efficacy of prone position in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients: A pathophysiology-based review

    OpenAIRE

    Koulouras, Vasilios; Papathanakos, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Nakos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome with heterogeneous underlying pathological processes. It represents a common clinical problem in intensive care unit patients and it is characterized by high mortality. The mainstay of treatment for ARDS is lung protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure sufficient for alveolar recruitment. Prone positioning is a supplementary strategy available in managing patients with ARDS. It was first describ...

  6. A comparison between two different alveolar recruitment maneuvers in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Khaled M; Ammar, Amany S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alveolar recruitment is a physiological process that denotes the reopening of previously gasless lung units exposed to positive pressure ventilation. The current study was aimed to compare two recruitment maneuvers, a high continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and an extended sigh in patients with ARDS. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were randomly divided into two groups, 20 patients each. Group I received a CPAP of 40 cm H2O f...

  7. Role of Ventilation in Cases of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome /Acute Lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant M Shah; Shilpa B Sutariya; Parul M Bhatt; Nishil Shah; Shweta Gamit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute lung injury (ALI) and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are characterized by refractory hypoxemia that develops secondary to high-permeability pulmonary edema. These syndromes are gaining more attention as a means of better comprehending the pathophysiology of ARDS and possiblyfor modifying ventilatory management. In this context a study was done to compare role of invasive and non-invasive ventilation in cases of ARDS/ALI. Methods: in this study patients of AR...

  8. Immunogold localization of SP-A in lungs of infants dying from respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    deMello, D E; Heyman, S.; Phelps, D. S.; Floros, J.

    1993-01-01

    Prematurely born infants can develop the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) because of a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant. This lipoprotein complex synthesized by type II pneumocytes has different ultrastructural forms--intra- and extracellular lamellar bodies, which within the alveoli are transformed into tubular myelin, and this in turn gives rise to the surface monolayer, the functionally active form of surfactant. We have previously shown that at autopsy RDS lungs lack tubular...

  9. Diffuse alveolar damage associated mortality in selected acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with open lung biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Kuo-Chin; Hu, Han-Chung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Hung, Chen-Yiu; Chiu, Li-Chung; Li, Shih-Hong; Lin, Shih-Wei; Chuang, Li-Pang; Wang, Chih-Wei; Li, Li-Fu; Chen, Ning-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is the pathological hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), however, the presence of DAD in the clinical criteria of ARDS patients by Berlin definition is little known. This study is designed to investigate the role of DAD in ARDS patients who underwent open lung biopsy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all ARDS patients who met the Berlin definition and underwent open lung biopsy from January 1999 to January 2014 in a referred med...

  10. Severe neonatal hypercalcemia in 4-month-old, presented with respiratory distress and chest wall deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Aljahdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT is a rare disease affecting calcium metabolism and results in severe life-treating hypocalcemia of the neonates. Diagnosis can be challenging due to variable and nonspecific symptomatology. We are reporting on a 4-month-old female infant presenting with respiratory distress and chest wall deformity. We are trying to highlight different surgical options for this rare disease and importance of close collaboration with the pediatric endocrinologist in the treatment plan for those patients.

  11. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pulmonary involvement by neoplastic plasma cells in multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Marmor, D B; Farber, J. L.; Gottlieb, J E

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma occurs infrequently and may be difficult to distinguish from more common primary lung tumours, metastatic disease, or other pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A patient who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was subsequently found to have multiple myeloma with involvement of lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Only one other report of ARDS in association with multiple myeloma was found, and there are no previous reports...

  12. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    OpenAIRE

    E.N.G. Vinhaes; Dolhnikoff, M; Saldiva, P. H. N.

    2002-01-01

    Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia). The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of the present study was to perform a quantita...

  13. Noninvasive Ventilation for Preterm Twin Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Long Chen; Li Wang; Jie Li; Nan Wang; Yuan Shi

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation has been proven to be effective strategies for reducing the need for endotracheal ventilation in preterm infant with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), however the best option needs to be further determined. A single center, paired design, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between Jan 2011 and July 2014. Preterm twins with RDS were included. One of a pair was randomized to NIPPV, while another to NCPAP. Surfactant was administrated as rescue treatment. The p...

  14. Surfactant-anti-surfactant immune complexes in infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Strayer, D. S.; Merritt, T. A.; Lwebuga-Mukasa, J.; Hallman, M

    1986-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with human surfactant resulted in the formation of detectable circulating immune complexes. Preterm infants with severe RDS were divided into two groups: one group received human surfactant by intratracheal instillation and the other group did not. Both groups received ventilatory management involving intermittent mandatory ventilation. Plasma samples were drawn from these babies prior to treatment and at...

  15. Efficacy of surfactant at different gestational ages for infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Chen, Long; Li, Renjun; Zhao, Jinning; Wu, Xiushuang; Li, Xue; Shi, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Since exogenous surfactant replacement therapy was first used to prevent respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), it has become the main method for treatment of RDS. However, in some infants, death is inevitable despite intensive care and surfactant replacement therapy, especially in near-term and term infants. The main purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of pulmonary surfactant for infants at different gestational ages and to investigate whether exogenous surfactant repla...

  16. Optimizing Sedative Dose in Preterm Infants Undergoing Treatment for Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Thall, Peter F.; Nguyen, Hoang Q.; Zohar, Sarah; Maton, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The Intubation-Surfactant-Extubation (INSURE) procedure is used worldwide to treat pre-term newborn infants suffering from respiratory distress syndrome, which is caused by an insufficient amount of the chemical surfactant in the lungs. With INSURE, the infant is intubated, surfactant is administered via the tube to the trachea, and at completion the infant is extubated. This improves the infant’s ability to breathe and thus decreases the risk of long term neurological or motor disabilities. ...

  17. Familial Clustering of Unexplained Transient Respiratory Distress in 12 Newborns from Three Unrelated Families Suggests an Autosomal-Recessive Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guala

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 12 near-term babies from three families in which an unexplained transient respiratory distress was observed. No known risk factor was present in any family and no sequelae were recorded at follow-up. The most common causes of respiratory distress at birth are Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRD and Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN, and their cumulative incidence is estimated to be about 2%. Genetic factors have been identified in NRD (surfactant genes or suggested for TTN (genes affecting lung liquid clearance. Survivors from NRD may develop clinically relevant sequelae, while TTN does not cause any problem later in life. Our cases do not immediately fit NRD or TTN, while familial recurrence suggests the existence of a previously unreported subgroup on patients with respiratory distress for which autosomal-recessive inheritance is likely.

  18. Anesthetic management of parturient with thoracic kyphoscoliosis, malaria and acute respiratory distress syndrome for urgent cesarean section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravindra Kr; Batra, Meenu M; Darlong, Vanlal; Garg, Rakesh; Punj, Jyotsna; Kumar, Sri

    2015-01-01

    The management of cesarean section in kyphoscoliotic patient is challenging. The respiratory changes and increased metabolic demands due to pregnancy may compromise the limited respiratory reserves in such patients. Presence of other comorbidities like malaria and respiratory tract infection will further compromise the effective oxygenation. We report a case of kyphoscoliosis along with malaria and acute respiratory distress syndrome for urgent cesarean section. PMID:26702219

  19. Development and validation of a simple algorithm for initiation of CPAP in neonates with respiratory distress in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Hundalani, Shilpa G; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Oden, Maria; Kawaza, Kondwani; Gest, Alfred; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-cost bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) systems have been shown to improve survival in neonates with respiratory distress, in developing countries including Malawi. District hospitals in Malawi implementing CPAP requested simple and reliable guidelines to enable healthcare workers with basic skills and minimal training to determine when treatment with CPAP is necessary. We developed and validated TRY (T: Tone is good, R: Respiratory Distress and Y=Yes) CPAP, a s...

  20. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS): the mechanism, present strategies and future perspectives of therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Luh, Shi-Ping; Chiang, Chi-huei

    2006-01-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), which manifests as non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, respiratory distress and hypoxemia, could be resulted from various processes that directly or indirectly injure the lung. Extensive investigations in experimental models and humans with ALI/ARDS have revealed many molecular mechanisms that offer therapeutic opportunities for cell or gene therapy. Herein the present strategies and future perspectives of the treatment for ALI/AR...

  1. Acute respiratory distress following the inhalation of an aerosol upholstery cleaner: the importance of reporting from the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Dipak; Meredith, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols are commonplace in the home and in industry as they provide a quick and controlled way of distributing chemicals or perfumes. It is well known that deliberating concentrating and inhaling vapours may result in dizziness, euphoria, blackouts, respiratory distress, cardiac and renal failure. However, in the most part, warnings and guidance on use are sparse. Here, a proven case of acute respiratory distress is presented and a reporting mechanism via the UK National Poisons Information ...

  2. Umbilical cord blood and neonatal endothelin-1 levels in preterm newborns with and without respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.W. Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased pulmonary vascular resistance in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome is suggested, and endothelin-1 plays an important role in pulmonary vascular reactivity in newborns. We determined umbilical cord blood and neonatal (second sample levels of endothelin-1 in 18 preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome who had no clinical or echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and 22 without respiratory distress syndrome (gestational ages: 31.4 ± 1.6 and 29.3 ± 2.3 weeks, respectively. Umbilical cord blood and a second blood sample taken 18 to 40 h after birth were used for endothelin-1 determination by enzyme immunoassay. Median umbilical cord blood endothelin-1 levels were similar in both groups (control: 10.9 and respiratory distress syndrome: 11.4 pg/mL and were significantly higher than in the second sample (control: 1.7 pg/mL and respiratory distress syndrome: 3.5 pg/mL, P < 0.001 for both groups. Median endothelin-1 levels in the second sample were significantly higher in children with respiratory distress syndrome than in control infants (P < 0.001. There were significant positive correlations between second sample endothelin-1 and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology and Perinatal Extension II (r = 0.36, P = 0.02, and duration of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.64, P = 0.02. A slower decline of endothelin-1 from birth to 40 h of life was observed in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome when compared to controls. A significant correlation between neonatal endothelin-1 levels and some illness-severity signs suggests that endothelin-1 plays a role in the natural course of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm newborns.

  3. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress. PMID:25089936

  4. Recurrent Admissions for Respiratory Distress Caused by Large Renal AVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Weston William; Miserlis, Dimitrios; Suh, Melissa; Dale, Matthew; Sayyed, Samer; Baxter, B Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Renal arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are an uncommon complication of nephrectomy. In this report, we present the case of a 66-year-old female presenting with progressive dyspnea on exertion and exercise intolerance. She was diagnosed and treated for adult onset reactive airway disease. The patient underwent nephrectomy at age 18 secondary to recurrent pyelonephritis from vesicoureteral reflux. She underwent a surveillance computed tomography (CT) scan to evaluate a small ascending aneurysm that was initially detected on cardiac echocardiogram. A large left renal AVF was detected incidentally on the CT scan. The fistula was successfully treated by ligation of the renal artery with resolution of pulmonary symptoms. PMID:26912528

  5. 体外膜肺氧合对成人急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者预后影响的Meta分析和系统评价%Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on adults with adult acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松桥; 金辉; 黄英姿; 郭凤梅; 刘玲; 杨丛山; 杨毅; 邱海波

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨体外膜肺氧合(ECMO)对急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)患者预后的影响.方法 计算机检索和手工检索收集1966-2010年ECMO治疗成人ARDS的英文和中文临床研究,按纳入与排除标准选择文献,提取资料,采用RevMan 5.0软件对数据进行Meta分析,对ECMO临床研究进行系统评价.结果 共纳入3篇随机对照研究,随机效应模型显示ECMO不降低成人重症ARDS患者病死率[RR=0.95(95%CI:0.76-1.18),P=0.64],但按发表时间的累积Meta分析显示ECMO呈现保护性效应;与以往临床研究相比,最近一项观察性临床研究显示ECMO明显降低甲型H1N1流感导致的重症ARDS患者病死率.结论 现有研究尚不能证实ECMO能改善成人ARDS患者预后,但对于病因可逆的重症ARDS患者早期应用ECMO可取得较好临床效益.%Objective To investigate the effects of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on survival of adult from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Method We searched Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science databases to find relevant literatues on ECMO in treatment of ARDS, which are reported from January 1966 to June 2010. Meta analyses was performed. Results Three papers about randomized controlled trial (RCT) of evaluating ECMO in patients with severe ARDS were enrolled for analyses. Meta-analysis of the three randomized controlled trials revealed ECMO did not decrease the mortality of ARDS patients. However, the cumulative meta-analysis of randomized trials showed ECMO had a protective effect on patients with ARDS. The most recent observational studies suggested that ECMO significantly decreased the mortality of ARDS caused by H1 N1 viral pneumonia. Conclusions There is no evidence to prove the benefit of ECMO in patients with ARDS. However, ECMO should be considered to use in early stage of ARDS as a last rescue resort for potentially reversible severe acute respiratory failure. Further investigation of large sample of high

  6. Surfactant therapy for maternal blood aspiration: an unusual cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Istemi Han; Demirel, Gamze; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-10-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy is the main treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, surfactant therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of other diseases causing neonatal respiratory diseases such as pulmonary hemorrhage, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia/sepsis, pulmonary edema or acute lung injury resulting a secondary surfactant deficiency (SSD). Rarely, as like as in the present patient, exogenous blood aspiration such as breast milk or formula aspiration may lead to SSD. Blood in alveolus leads to a significant biochemical and functional disturbance of the surfactant system and inhibits surfactant production. Here, the authors report a preterm infant of 33 wk gestational age with secondary surfactant deficiency due to maternal blood aspiration because of abruptio placentae. She was received two courses of beractant, a natural bovine surfactant, therapy in 24 h. She was extubated on second day and did not require oxygen on 4(th) day. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of SSD due to maternal blood aspiration treated with surfactant. In conditions such as abruptio placentae, infant should be protected from blood aspiration and if respiratory distress occurs, surfactant inhibition and need for surfactant administration should be considered. PMID:22120615

  7. Frequency Distribution of Opportunistic Avian Pathogens in Respiratory Distress Cases of Poultry

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    Abu Baker Siddique*, Sajjad-ur-Rahman, Iftikhar Hussain and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of opportunistic pathogens in the respiratory distress cases of poultry was detected from the poultry flocks scattered in some districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Serum plate agglutination (SPA test for serological screening of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS were performed separately and it revealed 80% flocks were sero-positive among respiratory distress cases. Specimen samples including trachea (n=157, lungs (n=40, spleen (n=93, oral (n=201 and nasal swabs (n=147 were collected from both sero-positive and sero-negative flocks. On the basis of multiplex PCR, the percentage of opportunistic pathogens in sero-positive flocks was found maximum with Newcastle disease virus (28.6%, followed by E. coli (24.4%, Avibacterium paragallinarum (5.7%, Infectious bronchitis virus (4.7% and Avian Influenza (1.6%, while in case of sero-negative flocks highest distribution was found in NDV (12.6%, followed by E. coli (8.4%, Av. Paragallinarum (3.8%, IBV (3.1% and AIV (1.1%. The Frequency of respiratory tract pathogens including NDV and E. coli in combination with MG and MS was recorded significantly high.

  8. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

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    Clarissa Gutierrez Carvalho

    Full Text Available Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet.To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants.Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP.23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP.Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  9. The Role of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in the Management of Respiratory Distress in Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sekar, Kris

    2006-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in low birth weight infants may cause barotrauma, volutrauma, and chronic lung disease. Different continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivery systems exist, each with its own practical and clinical advantages and disadvantages. CPAP can be used as either a primary or an adjunctive respiratory support for RDS. Research demonstrates that CPAP decreases the incidence of respiratory failure after ex...

  10. The role of heparin-binding protein in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the role of heparin-binding protein(HBP)in sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS),and to evaluate the prognostic value of HBP in ARDS.Methods Sixty seven sepsis patients were enrolled in the prospective study.According to whether present ARDS,patients were divided into two groups:ARDS group and non-ARDS group.Blood samples were obtained within 2 hours after patients were diagnosed with sepsis.We measured the level of interleukin-6,interleukin-8 and HBP by ELISA,counted the

  11. A 17-month-old patient with severe anemia and respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-01-01

    Anemia can be caused by, or be associated with, many clinical conditions, including pulmonary diseases, some of which are rare and can be misdiagnosed. Nontraumatic pulmonary bleeding may be caused by a variety of conditions and results in anemia and pulmonary hemosiderosis, even when it is subtle. The differential diagnosis in such cases is extensive. We present the case of a diagnostic dilemma in a 17-month-old child hospitalized for severe anemia and respiratory distress in which the diagnosis was settled through an allergy/immunology consultation. PMID:26534758

  12. Recent Advances in the Management of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, David N

    2015-09-01

    Advances in management of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) include the use of volume and pressure-limited ventilation and a fluid conservative strategy. Despite the extensive study of positive end expiratory pressure, consensus regarding the best approach to its application is lacking. The use of neuromuscular blocking agents and prone positioning in the setting of refractory hypoxemia is supported by the outcomes of recent studies. Alternate modes of ventilation remain unproven. A focus on ARDS risk factor reduction and the development of tools predicting progression to ARDS have the potential to further reduce its incidence. PMID:26304285

  13. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia following accidental intravenous injection of an oil-steroid solution in a body builder is presented. Chest roentography at the time of presentation showed diffuse bilateral opacities, and computed tomography revealed predominantly peripheral ground-glass opacifications. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved over 48 h and imaging of the chest was unremarkable one week later. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this rare but potentially life-threatening complication of intravenous oil injection are discussed.

  14. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether a...... deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate...

  15. Acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae without elevated pulmonary vascular permeability: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Naoki; Shinohara, Tsutomu; Oi, Rie; Ota, Muneyuki; Toriumi, Shinichi; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2016-05-01

    Sporadic patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been reported. However, knowledge about the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of this condition is insufficient. Moreover, the pulmonary vascular permeability in ARDS related to M. pneumoniae infection has not been reported. We report a case of ARDS caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae without elevated pulmonary vascular permeability, which was successfully treated using low-dose short-term hydrocortisone, suggesting that pulmonary infiltration in ARDS caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae does not match the criteria of permeability edema observed in typical ARDS. PMID:27162691

  16. Use of computed radiography in respiratory distress syndrome in the neonatal nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to establish the value of a computed radiography (CR) system in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). CR images obtained with various X-ray doses were compared with the images of a standard film-screen system. The image quality of CR taken with about one half radiation exposure, was comparable to that of the standard high speed film-screen combination. The use of CR could lead to a significant reduction in radiation in the neonatal I.C.U. (orig.)

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a woman with heroin and methamphetamine misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, P S; Yuan, A; Yu, C J; Kuo, S H; Luh, K T; Yang, P C

    2001-08-01

    Methamphetamine, heroin, and cannabis are three of the most commonly misused drugs in Asia. In Taiwan, cases of misuse of methamphetamine have been increasing. In this paper, we report the case of a 23-year-old woman who had a 10-year history of smoking methamphetamine and intermittent use of heroin for 3 to 4 years. She developed pulmonary toxic effects associated with misuse of heroin and methamphetamine. She was brought to the emergency room because of consciousness disturbance and acute respiratory failure. Her symptoms of rapid progression of refractory hypoxemia, ill-defined densities over both lung fields, and normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure were consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Rapid resolution of infiltrations and improvement of oxygenation were observed after mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure support and oxygen therapy. She was discharged on the fifteenth hospital day without any sequela except for mild exertional dyspnea. PMID:11678007

  18. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as the Initial Clinical Manifestation of an Antisynthetase Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo-Hyun; Park, I-Nae

    2016-07-01

    Antisynthetase syndrome has been recognized as an important cause of autoimmune inflammatory myopathy in a subset of patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. It is associated with serum antibody to aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases and is characterized by a constellation of manifestations, including fever, myositis, interstitial lung disease, mechanic's hand-like cutaneous involvement, Raynaud phenomenon, and polyarthritis. Lung disease is the presenting feature in 50% of the cases. We report a case of a 60-year-old female with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which later proved to be an unexpected and initial manifestation of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive antisynthetase syndrome. The present case showed resolution of ARDS after treatment with high-dose corticosteroids. Given that steroids are not greatly beneficial in the treatment of ARDS, it is likely that the improvement of the respiratory symptoms in this patient also resulted from the prompt suppression of the inflammatory systemic response by corticosteroids. PMID:27433180

  19. Pros and cons of recruitment maneuvers in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Patricia R M; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2010-08-01

    In patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, a protective mechanical ventilation strategy characterized by low tidal volumes has been associated with reduced mortality. However, such a strategy may result in alveolar collapse, leading to cyclic opening and closing of atelectatic alveoli and distal airways. Thus, recruitment maneuvers (RMs) have been used to open up collapsed lungs, while adequate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels may counteract alveolar derecruitment during low tidal volume ventilation, improving respiratory function and minimizing ventilator-associated lung injury. Nevertheless, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the appropriateness of RMs. The most commonly used RM is conventional sustained inflation, associated with respiratory and cardiovascular side effects, which may be minimized by newly proposed strategies: prolonged or incremental PEEP elevation; pressure-controlled ventilation with fixed PEEP and increased driving pressure; pressure-controlled ventilation applied with escalating PEEP and constant driving pressure; and long and slow increase in pressure. The efficiency of RMs may be affected by different factors, including the nature and extent of lung injury, capability of increasing inspiratory transpulmonary pressures, patient positioning and cardiac preload. Current evidence suggests that RMs can be used before setting PEEP, after ventilator circuit disconnection or as a rescue maneuver to overcome severe hypoxemia; however, their routine use does not seem to be justified at present. The development of new lung recruitment strategies that have fewer hemodynamic and biological effects on the lungs, as well as randomized clinical trials analyzing the impact of RMs on morbidity and mortality of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, are warranted. PMID:20658909

  20. Molecular evidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum colonization in preterm infants during respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germani Rossella

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum have been associated with respiratory diseases in premature newborns, but their role in the pathogenesis of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS is unclear. The aim of this study was to detect, using molecular techniques, the role of Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp. in respiratory secretion and blood specimens of preterm newborns with or without RDS and to evaluate the prevalence of perinatal U. urealyticum or U. parvum infection. The influence of chemotherapy on the clinical course was also evaluated. Methods Tracheal aspirate or nasopharingeal fluid samples from 50 preterm babies with (24 or without RDS (26 were analysed for detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum by culture identification assay and PCR. Sequencing analysis of amplicons allowed us to verify the specificity of methods. Clarithromycin (10 mg kg-1 twice a day was administered in ureaplasma-positive patients who presented clinical signs of RDS. Results 15/24 neonates with RDS (p U. urealyticum or U. parvum. Culture identification assay was positive in 5/50 newborns, three of which with RDS. Sequencing analyses confirmed the specificity of these methods. Association of patent ductus arteriosus with ureaplasma colonization was more statistically significant (p = 0.0004 in patients with RDS than in those without RDS. Conclusion Colonization of the lower respiratory tract by Ureaplasma spp. and particularly by U. parvum in preterm newborns was related to RDS. The routine use of molecular methods could be useful to screen candidate babies for etiologic therapy.

  1. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor is preferentially increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, J M; Donnelly, S C; Grant, I S; Robertson, C; Gauldie, J; Haslett, C

    1999-05-01

    Inappropriate release of proteases from inflammatory and stromal cells can lead to destruction of the lung parenchyma. Antiproteinases such as alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-Pi), secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and elastase-specific inhibitor (elafin) control excess production of human neutrophil elastase. In the present study, the concentrations of alpha1-Pi, SLPI and elafin found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from control subjects, patients at risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and patients with established ARDS were determined. Levels of all three inhibitors were raised in patients compared with normal subjects. SLPI was increased in the group of patients who were at risk of ARDS and went on to develop the condition, compared with the "at-risk" group who did not progress to ARDS (p=0.0083). Alpha1-Pi and elafin levels were similar in these two populations. In patients with established ARDS, both alpha1-Pi and SLPI levels were significantly increased, compared to patients at risk of ARDS who did (p=0.0089) or did not (p=0.0003) progress to ARDS. The finding of increased antiproteinases shortly before the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome provide further evidence for enhanced inflammation prior to clinical disease. PMID:10414400

  2. Most frequent causes, complications and differential diagnosis of neonatal respiratory distress in chest X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponhold, W. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik)

    1982-01-01

    The radiologic changes of the chest X-ray of 270 newborns with respiratory distress were analyzed. In cases of Hyaline Membranes the chest X-Ray showed finely granular evenly disseminated structures combined with signs of hypoventilation. Localized, patchy, streaky, homogenous and reticulonodular shadows were found in cases of pneumonia and hemorrhage. Hyperinflation were an additional sign for an inflammatory disease. This symptom was also demonstrated in pulmonary bleeding, but was less common. The bilateral interstitial augmentation of the pulmonary structure in combination with cardiomegaly was mainly a symptom for cardial insufficiency and transient tachypnea. The differentiation between fine granular and reticulo-nodular structures should create no problem if the chest X-ray is of good quality. Extrapulmonary air collections were found in a high percentage in the course of artificial ventilation as a consequence of the 'baro-trauma'. The radiologic diagnosis of BPD was no problem. The value of the chest X-ray lies in the demonstration of a pulmonary cause for the respiratory distress, in the demonstration of complications and in the radiological observation of the disease.

  3. Orbital and Subcutaneous Emphysema Following Enucleation and Respiratory Distress in a Japanese Chin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, Kara R; Pirie, Christopher G; Alario, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old, neutered male Japanese chin presented to the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University (CSVMTU) for evaluation of chronic unilateral orbital swelling that worsened following an episode of respiratory distress. The left eye had been enucleated 5 yr previously. Intermittent mild-to-moderate left orbital swelling had been noted by the owner since the initial surgery. Examination demonstrated a moderate-to-severe, soft, fluctuant swelling involving the left orbit with erythema of the overlying skin. Crepitus was noted over the occipital tuberosity. Computed tomography revealed a large volume of gas involving the left orbit. The gas extended caudally within the subcutaneous tissues to both hemimandibles, dorsal to the cranium, and partially surrounded the cranial neck. The presence of a mucosa-lined, air-filled space with a patent nasolacrimal duct was noted on orbital exploration. The lining was removed and the duct closed. Histopathology confirmed the presence of an epithelial lining. No recurrence of the swelling was observed on examination 8 wk after surgery. This is the first report documenting acute worsening of orbital swelling following an episode of respiratory distress. This case highlights the importance of addressing the nasolacrimal duct while performing an enculeation in a brachycephalic dog. PMID:26535462

  4. Effect and mechanism analysis of continuous blood purification on acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Xu; Jia-Bin Chen; Yin-Wen Xia

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect and mechanism of continuous blood purification (CBP) on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and provide reference for clinical treatment. Methods:80 cases of patients with ARDS in our hospital were analyzed, the clinical indicators and hemodynamic parameters before and after CBP were compared, and ELISA was used to detect expression change of serum interleukin family and ERK signaling pathway protein. 80 cases of healthy subjects during the same period were taken as control group.Results:Compared with before treatment, heart rate, pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure were effectively normalized after CBP, hemodynamic parameters were effectively improved, and compared with control group, there were significant statistical differences (P<0.05); meanwhile, after CBP, interleukins IL2, IL6 and IL10 as well as TGFβlevels significantly decreased, MEK signaling pathway protein Ras, MEK and ERK1/2 expression significantly decreased, and compared with before treatment, there were significant statistical differences (P<0.01,P<0.05).Conclusions:Continuous blood purification may play the role of treating acute respiratory distress syndrome through reducing levels of interleukins and TGFβ as well as inhibiting MEK signaling pathway.

  5. DO LARGE PRETERM INFANTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME BENEFIT FROM EARLY SURFACTANT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khosravi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nLarge preterm infants are generally not considered good candidates for surfactant treatment until they have been intubated for progressing respiratory distress. This study has been done to detect the effect of electively providing early single-dose surfactant to large preterm babies with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. A randomized clinical trial was performed on 45 infants with birth weight > 1250 grams, gestational age < 36 weeks, postnatal age 0-12 hours, FiO2 > 40% and no immediate need for intubation. They were randomly divided into two interventional (n = 22 and control (n = 23 groups. Interventional group infants were intubated and received surfactant in the first 12 hours of life with signs of mild to moderate RDS and were extubated as soon as possible. The control group infants were only intubated and received surfactant when clinically or radiographically indicated. The primary outcome was duration of assisted ventilation. Interventional group infants had a median duration of assisted ventilation of 4.45 hours compared to 1.02 hours in the control group in the first 24 hours of life, since only 8 of 23 infants in the control group (34% needed intubation and mechanical ventilation. There were no differences in the two groups for need of subsequent retreatment with surfactant and requirement for supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation, hospital stay and adverse outcomes. Results of this study indicate that elective intubation for administration of early single-dose surfactant to large preterm infants is not necessary.

  6. Analysis of the expressivity of chest X-ray in newborns with respiratory distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the role of chest X-ray in the diagnosis, clinical evaluation and follow-up of the infant born with lung disease-related respiratory distress. To establish general radiological patterns, studying their utility in orienting the differential diagnosis between primary diseases and pulmonary complications responsible for the distress. The necropsy and radiological findings of 71 infants born with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) were correlated with the clinical records. The etiology was hyaline membrane disease in 40 newborns, neonatal pneumonia in 17, aspiration of clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid in 6 and 7, respectively, and primary pulmonary lymphangiectasis in the remaining case. Additional lung complications consisted of loss of alveolar airspace in 17 infants, massive pulmonary hemorrhage in 7 and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in 8. There was a high incidence of normal X-rays (25.35%) during the initial period despite the presence of well-established and severe disease. The sensitivity of chest X-ray for each of the underlying lung diseases causing NRDS was as follows: 80% for hyaline membrane disease, 71.4% for aspiration of meconium-stained amniotic fluid 70.6% for neonatal pneumonia, 50% for massive aspiration of clear amniotic fluid and 100% for the remaining causes. Although there are no radiological patterns showing significant sensitivity and specificity for a given primary disease or pulmonary complication, the radiological differential diagnosis serves to orient the study. Given the complexity and lack of clinical specificity of NRDS, it is necessary to approach this disease from both the clinical and radiological points of view. (Author) 25 refs

  7. Interpretation of chest radiographs in both cancer and other critical care patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Yilmaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a clinical, pathophysiological and radiographic pattern that has signs of pulmonary edema occur without elevated pulmonary venous pressures. Clinical presentation and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome are followed by frequently ordered portable chest X-ray in critically ill patients. We evaluated chest radiographs of ten cancer and other six critical care pediatric patients. The parenchymal imaging of lung in patients with cancer was reported the same as that of other critically ill children despite underlying pathophysiological variations in our investigation. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 270-273

  8. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…

  9. Hyaline membrane disease or respiratory distress syndrome? A new approach for an old disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Grappone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “hyaline membrane disease” refers to the histological aspect of the most frequent pulmonary pathology in preterm newborn patients. The lung of the preterm baby is morphologically and functionally immature. Surfactant deficiency in the immature lungs causes alveolar instability and collapse, capillary edema and the formation of hyaline membrane. Thus, the hyaline membranes are epiphenomena and are not the cause of respiratory failure in infants with immature lungs. This definition is presently used to indicate surfactant deficit alone and should not be used for other causes of respiratory distress. Clinicians prefer to talk of “respiratory distress syndrome” (RDS. Improvement in neonatal treatment has changed the natural course of the illness, its clinical and radiological features and has enabled extremely low birth weight newborns (ELBW to survive. Alveoli paucity and pulmonary interstitial thickness in ELBW impair gas exchange and may necessitate prolonged ventilation treatment, increasing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. RDS, therefore, is a complex illness where pulmonary immaturity and surfactant deficit play a role together with other pathological conditions that determine the course of the illness and both short and long-term results. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  10. Candidate genes and pathogenesis investigation for sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome based on gene expression profile

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Min; Yan, Jingjun; He, Xingxing; Zhong, Qiang; Zhan, Chengye; Li, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a potentially devastating form of acute inflammatory lung injury as well as a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Although researchers have made significant progresses in elucidating the pathophysiology of this complex syndrome over the years, the absence of a universal detail disease mechanism up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive treatment. This study aimed to predict some genes or pathways asso...

  11. The role of surfactant protein A and B genes in heritable susceptibility to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Haataja, R.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a disease characterized by neonatal respiratory failure. It is principally caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, which is a lipoprotein mixture essential for reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the alveolus. Prematurity is the major risk factor predisposing to RDS. Several pieces of evidence suggest the role of genetic factors in the susceptibility to this multifactorial disease. The pres...

  12. QL-04FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUICIDAL IDEATION IN CLINICALLY DISTRESSED ADULT GLIOMA PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Pia; Cloughesy, Timothy; Cervantes, Sandra; Pham, Jennifer; Nghiemphu, Phioanh; Lai, Albert; Wellisch, David

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During patient care, it is critical to identify the glioma patients who are experiencing suicidal ideation among those who present with elevated levels of psychological distress, so appropriate interventions can be implemented. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that differentiated adult glioma patients with possible suicidal ideation from those without suicidal ideation among patients experiencing psychological distress. METHODS: 317 adult patients with WHO Grade I...

  13. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Rare Complication in Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhanshu, Siddhnath; Jevalikar, Ganesh; Das, Pravin K; Singh, Pramod K; Bhatia, Eesh; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral edema (CE) and non cardiogenic pulmonary edema (acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS) are life-threatening complications of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In contrast to CE complicating DKA, which is primarily reported in pediatric patients, ARDS is rarely described in this age group. Here, the authors present a child with DKA who developed both cerebral edema and ARDS during the course of her management. It is feasible that severe acidosis, hypotension, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia and the superimposed aggressive intravenous fluid administration were important risk factors for the development of cerebral edema and ARDS in the index patient. The report highlights the importance of early diagnosis and aggressive therapy in the management of ARDS, and summarizes the published literature on this rarely reported complication of pediatric DKA. PMID:26666907

  14. [Current application of noninvasive ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Pan, Jia-Hua

    2014-11-01

    In order to reduce the serious complications associated with invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has increasingly been chosen as the primary ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In the last 4 decades, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) has been as a main, or even the only mode of NIV in preterm infants with RDS. In the recent decade, improvements in sensors and nasal airway interfaces have resulted in the introduction of a variety of other new types of NIV, such as nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP). Subsequent studies have shown that some new modes may be more superior to NCPAP in preterm infants with RDS. In order to further understand the application of various NIV modes, we review literatures about all kinds of NIV as a primary mode of ventilation in preterm infants with RDS. PMID:25406569

  15. Hemodynamics of Acute Right Heart Failure in Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    In critically ill patients with circulatory shock, the role of the left ventricle has long been appreciated and the object of measurement and therapeutic targeting. The right ventricle is often under appreciated and dysfunction may be overlooked. Generally, the right ventricle operates passively to support the ejection of the left ventricular diastolic volume. A loss of right ventricular wall compliance secondary to pulmonary pressures may result in an alteration in the normal pressure-volume relationship, ultimately affecting the stroke volume and cardiac output. Traditional right heart filling indices may increase because of decreasing compliance, further complicating the picture. The pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome combined with the effects of a mean airway pressure strategy may create an acute cor pulmonale. PMID:26567491

  16. Can differential regional ventilation protect the spared lung in acute respiratory distress syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kapil Dev; Dash, Devi Prasad; Aggrawal, Richa; Kumar, Narendra; Kumar, Niraj

    2015-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical problem prevalent in intensive care settings. It can complicate many critical illnesses. The general treatment is mainly supportive. Mechanical ventilation, low tidal volume strategy, and control of plateau pressure form the basis of current management. No specific treatment exists for ARDS. Various interventions have been tested for the lethal condition including steroids, fluid restriction, statins, high-frequency ventilation, nitric oxide, and prone ventilation strategy. However, none has shown improvement apart from prone positioning and low tidal volume ventilation. We report our observation in a patient with ARDS, which may potentially show a new mechanism to protect normal alveoli in ARDS lung and thereby may improve survival. PMID:25770594

  17. Recent advances in mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttapol Rittayamai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterised by different degrees of severity and different stages. Understanding these differences can help to better adapt the ventilatory settings to protect the lung from ventilator-induced lung injury by reducing hyperinflation or keeping the lung open when it is possible. The same therapies may be useful and beneficial in certain forms of ARDS, and risky or harmful at other stages: this includes high positive end-expiratory pressure, allowance of spontaneous breathing activity or use of noninvasive ventilation. The severity of the disease is the primary indicator to individualise treatment. Monitoring tools such as oesophageal pressure or lung volume measurements may also help to set the ventilator. At an earlier stage, an adequate lung protective strategy may also help to prevent the development of ARDS.

  18. Recent advances in mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Brochard, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterised by different degrees of severity and different stages. Understanding these differences can help to better adapt the ventilatory settings to protect the lung from ventilator-induced lung injury by reducing hyperinflation or keeping the lung open when it is possible. The same therapies may be useful and beneficial in certain forms of ARDS, and risky or harmful at other stages: this includes high positive end-expiratory pressure, allowance of spontaneous breathing activity or use of noninvasive ventilation. The severity of the disease is the primary indicator to individualise treatment. Monitoring tools such as oesophageal pressure or lung volume measurements may also help to set the ventilator. At an earlier stage, an adequate lung protective strategy may also help to prevent the development of ARDS. PMID:25726563

  19. [Role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Guerrini, Susanna; Cioffi Squitieri, Nevada; Franchi, Federico; Volterrani, Luca; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Macarini, Luca

    2012-11-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a complex pulmonary pathology with high mortality rates, manifesting over a wide range of severity. Clinical diagnosis relies on the following 4 criteria stated by the American-European Consensus Conference: acute onset of impaired gas exchange, severe hypoxemia defined as a PaO2 to FiO2 ratio <300 (PaO2 in mmHg), bilateral diffuse infiltration on chest X-ray; pulmonary artery wedge pressure of ≤18 mmHg to rule out cardiogenic causes of pulmonary edema. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of CT in the diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:23096732

  20. Surfactant Treatment Threshold during NCPAP for the Treatment of Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    Although surfactant is the most studied drug in the preterm infant, the best criteria for treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with surfactant have been not extensively investigated. We assessed the criteria used for deciding the rescue surfactant treatment of preterm infants with RDS in combination with nasal continuous positive airway pressure as reported by the main recent randomized controlled trials. We evaluated 10 studies and found that the criteria chosen for administering selective surfactant were very heterogeneous, different types and doses of surfactant were used, and this limits their applicability in the clinical practice. In conclusion, although current data seem to suggest that low threshold is better than high threshold, additional studies are necessary to identify the most effective criteria for selective surfactant treatment of preterm infants with RDS. PMID:27120482

  1. Analysis of high risk factors related to acute respiratory distress syndrome following severe thoracoabdominal injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guo-shou; BAI Xiang-jun; ZHAN Cheng-ye

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the high risk factors related to acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ) following serious thoracoabdominal injuries.Methods: The clinical data of 282 patients with serious thoracoabdominal injuries were retrospectively studied. Univariate and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors related to ARDS following serious thoracoabdominal injuries.Results: The incidence of ARDS was 31.9% (90/282) in patients with serious thoracoabdominal injuries.The mortality caused by ARDS was 37.8% (34/90). The univariate analysis and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the clinical conditions such as elder age, shock,dyspnea, abnormal arterial blood gas, hemopneumothorax,pulmonary contusion, flail chest, coexisting pulmonary diseases, multiple abdominal injury and high ISS score were the independent high risk factors related to ARDS.Conclusion: There are many high risk factors related to ARDS following severe thoracoabdominal injuries, which should be detected early and treated timely to decrease the incidence and mortality of ARDS.

  2. Increased levels of inflammatory mediators in children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria with respiratory distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awandare, Gordon A; Goka, Bamenla; Boeuf, Philippe;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress (RD), a symptom of underlying metabolic acidosis, has been identified as a major risk factor for mortality in children with severe malaria in Africa, yet the molecular mediators involved in the pathogenesis of RD have not been identified. METHODS: We studied...... involved in the pathogenesis of the underlying metabolic acidosis....

  3. Safety and Effectiveness of Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Neonates With Respiratory Distress and Its Failure Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sethi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is safe, efficacious and easy to use in preterm and term neonates with mild to moderate respiratory distress. The major failure factors in our study were sepsis, recurrent apnea, and shock. The survival rate in our study was 60%. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 202-206

  4. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  5. Respiratory distress syndrome: comparison between radiographic finding after surfactant replacement therapy and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hoon Sik; Kim, Kun Il; Park, Jae Hong [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Sung Sook; Kwon, Jeong Mi [Il Sin Christian Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between radiographic findings after surfactant replacement therapy and prognosis in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDs). The chest radiographs and medical records of 78 infants (body weight 840-3600g, mean 1682g, gestational age 20-38 (mean, 31) weeks) who had been treated with surfactant were retrospectively analysed. Surfactant was applied 1-12 (mean, 5) hours after birth. By comparing pre-and post-surfactant radiographs, radiographic changes were graded as either uniform bilateral improvement (grade 1), asymmetrical unilateral improvement (grade 2), or no improvement (grade 3). complications such as barotrauma, bilateral diffuse consolidation, or intracranial hemorrhage were tabulated. We correlated the prognosis with (a) the radiographic improvement pattern, (b) the time of surfactant application, and (c) the incidence of pulmonary complications, respectively. Forty-six (59%) of 78 infants survived, and 32 (41%) died. The survivors comprised 38 infants in group 1 (67%, n=3D57), six in group 1 (46%, n=3D13), and two in group 3 (25%, n=3D8) (p less than 0.05). The survival rate did not correlate with the time of surfactant application (p greater than 0.05). Infants with barotrauma had a lower survival rate (42%, 10/24) than those not suffering from this condition (67%, 36/54) (p less than 0.05). The condition occurred in 12 (21%) of 57 infants in group 1, six (46%) of 13 in group 2, and six (75%) of eight in group 3 (p less than 0.05). Eleven (92%) of 12 infants with pulmonary hemorrhage, seven (100%) of seven with intracranial hemorrhage above grade 3, and seven (41%) of 17 with sepsis died. The radiographic changes occurring after surfactant replacement therapy correlated closely with the incidence of barotrauma and the prognosis of newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. Close observation of follow-up radiographic findings plays an important role in therapy and prognosis. (author)

  6. Respiratory distress syndrome: comparison between radiographic finding after surfactant replacement therapy and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the relationship between radiographic findings after surfactant replacement therapy and prognosis in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDs). The chest radiographs and medical records of 78 infants (body weight 840-3600g, mean 1682g, gestational age 20-38 (mean, 31) weeks) who had been treated with surfactant were retrospectively analysed. Surfactant was applied 1-12 (mean, 5) hours after birth. By comparing pre-and post-surfactant radiographs, radiographic changes were graded as either uniform bilateral improvement (grade 1), asymmetrical unilateral improvement (grade 2), or no improvement (grade 3). complications such as barotrauma, bilateral diffuse consolidation, or intracranial hemorrhage were tabulated. We correlated the prognosis with (a) the radiographic improvement pattern, (b) the time of surfactant application, and (c) the incidence of pulmonary complications, respectively. Forty-six (59%) of 78 infants survived, and 32 (41%) died. The survivors comprised 38 infants in group 1 (67%, n=3D57), six in group 1 (46%, n=3D13), and two in group 3 (25%, n=3D8) (p less than 0.05). The survival rate did not correlate with the time of surfactant application (p greater than 0.05). Infants with barotrauma had a lower survival rate (42%, 10/24) than those not suffering from this condition (67%, 36/54) (p less than 0.05). The condition occurred in 12 (21%) of 57 infants in group 1, six (46%) of 13 in group 2, and six (75%) of eight in group 3 (p less than 0.05). Eleven (92%) of 12 infants with pulmonary hemorrhage, seven (100%) of seven with intracranial hemorrhage above grade 3, and seven (41%) of 17 with sepsis died. The radiographic changes occurring after surfactant replacement therapy correlated closely with the incidence of barotrauma and the prognosis of newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. Close observation of follow-up radiographic findings plays an important role in therapy and prognosis. (author)

  7. 肺表面活性物质治疗成人急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征效果的Meta分析%Effects of Pulmonary Surfactant in Adult Patients with Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史家欣; 施毅; 苏欣; 徐瑾; 孙文逵; 高伟; 张艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the effects of pulmonary surfactant in adult patients with acute lung injury (ALJ) /acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS). Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were recruited from PubMed ( 1966. 1-2011. 3), ISI Web of Knowledge (all the years) and Wanfang Database (1982-2011). Related published data and attached references were hand searched. All the RCTs about pulmonary surfactant for the adult patients with ALJ/ARDS were included,then a meta-analysis was performed. Results Eight eligible trials were enrolled. Pooled analysis showed that treatment with pulmonary surfactant was not associated with reduction in 28 or 30-day mortality compared with the control group [ OR 1. 05, 95% CI (0. 90, 1. 22 ), P = 0. 55 ], neither did subgroup analysis in the pneumoia/ aspiration,sepsis,and trauma/surgery induced ALJ/ARDS patients. Three RCTs showed the oxygenation was significantly improved in adult ALJ/ARDS patients receiving pulmonary surfactant compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). Shorter mechanical ventilation days was shown in the ALJ/ARDS patients receiving pulmonary surfactant in one RCT( P <0.05 ). Conclusions Meta-analysis showed pulmonary surfactant did not reduce the 28 or 30-day mortality of adult patients with ALJ/ARDS,however,improved the oxygenation. Pulmonary surfactant can be considered a therapy in ALJ/ARDS.%目的 评价肺表面活性物质对成人急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ALI/ARDS)的治疗效果。方法 计算机检索PubMed(1966年1月至2011年3月)、ISI Web of Knowledge(所有年份)和万方数据库(1982年至2011年),手工检索初步入选文献的全文和参考文献中所列的相关文献,收集国内外关于肺表面活性物质对成人ALI/ARDS影响的随机对照研究,利用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析。结果 共纳人8篇随机对照研究文献。合并分析结果 显示,肺表面活性物质不能降低成人ALI/ARDS患者28 d或30 d死亡率[OR 1.05,95

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsey, Ann R; Walsh, Edward E

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is now recognised as a significant problem in elderly adults. Epidemiological evidence indicates the impact of RSV in older adults may be similar to non-pandemic influenza, both in the community and in long-term care facilities. Attack rates in nursing homes are approximately 5-10% per year with significant rates of pneumonia (10-20%) and death (2-5%). Estimates using US health care databases and viral surveillance results over a 9-year period indicate that RSV infection causes approximately 10,000 all-cause deaths annually among persons >64 years of age. In contrast, influenza A accounted for approximately 37,000 yearly deaths in the same age group. The clinical features of RSV infection may be difficult to distinguish from those of influenza but include nasal congestion, cough, wheezing and low-grade fever. Older persons with underlying heart and lung disease and immunocompromised patients are at highest risk for RSV infection-related pneumonia and death. Diagnosis of RSV infection in adults is difficult because viral culture and antigen detection are insensitive, presumably because of low viral titres. The combination of serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay offers the best sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of RSV but unfortunately these techniques are not widely available; consequently, most adult RSV disease goes unrecognised. Although treatment of RSV infection in the elderly is largely supportive, early therapy with ribavirin and intravenous gamma-globulin improves survival in immunocompromised persons. An effective RSV vaccine has not yet been developed. Therefore, prevention of RSV is limited to standard infection control practices, such as hand washing and the use of gowns and gloves. PMID:16038573

  9. Síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Nathan Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A embolia gordurosa é definida como a ocorrência de bloqueio mecânico da luz vascular por gotículas circulantes de gordura. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, podendo afetar também o sistema nervoso central, a retina e a pele. A síndrome da embolia gordurosa é uma disfunção desses órgãos causada pelos êmbolos gordurosos. As causas mais comuns de embolia gordurosa e síndrome da embolia gordurosa são as fraturas de ossos longos, mas há relatos de sua ocorrência após procedimentos estéticos. O diagnóstico é clínico, e o tratamento ainda se restringe a medidas de suporte. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia e respondeu bem às manobras de recrutamento alveolar e à ventilação mecânica protetora.Apresentamos também uma análise epidemiológica e fisiopatológica da síndrome da embolia gordurosa após procedimentos estéticos.Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common causes of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures.

  10. Early respiratory management of respiratory distress syndrome in very preterm infants and bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan B Te Pas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the period immediately after birth, preterm infants are highly susceptible to lung injury. Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (ENCPAP is an attempt to avoid intubation and may minimize lung injury. In contrast, ENCPAP can fail, and at that time surfactant rescue can be less effective. OBJECTIVE: To compare the pulmonary clinical course and outcome of very preterm infants (gestational age 25-32 weeks with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS who started with ENCPAP and failed (ECF group, with a control group of infants matched for gestational age, who were directly intubated in the delivery room (DRI group. Primary outcome consisted of death during admission or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. RESULTS: 25 infants were included in the ECF group and 50 control infants matched for gestational age were included in the DRI group. Mean gestational age and birth weight in the ECF group were 29.7 weeks and 1,393 g and in the DRI group 29.1 weeks and 1,261 g (p = NS. The incidence of BPD was significantly lower in the ECF group than in the DRI group (4% vs. 35%; P<0.004; OR 12.6 (95% CI 1.6-101. Neonatal mortality was similar in both groups (4%. The incidence of neonatal morbidities such as severe cerebral injury, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity, was not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A trial of ENCPAP at birth may reduce the incidence of BPD and does not seem to be detrimental in very preterm infants. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether early respiratory management of preterm infants with RDS plays an important role in the development of BPD.

  11. Lung Postmortem Autopsy Revealing Extramedullary Involvement in Multiple Myeloma Causing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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    Aurélie Ravinet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with past medical history of chronic respiratory failure with emphysema, and a known multiple myeloma (Durie and Salmon stage III B and t(4;14 translocation. Six months after diagnosis and first line of treatment, he presented acute dyspnea with interstitial lung disease. Computed tomography showed severe bullous emphysema and diffuse, patchy, multifocal infiltrations bilaterally with nodular character, small bilateral pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and a known lytic lesion of the 12th vertebra. He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, oseltamivir, and methylprednisolone. Finally, outcome was unfavourable. Postmortem analysis revealed diffuse and nodular infracentimetric infiltration of the lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Physicians should be aware that acute respiratory distress syndrome not responding to treatment of common causes could be a manifestation of the disease, even with negative BAL or biopsy and could be promptly treated with salvage therapy.

  12. Efficacy of prone position in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients: A pathophysiology-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouras, Vasilios; Papathanakos, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Nakos, Georgios

    2016-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome with heterogeneous underlying pathological processes. It represents a common clinical problem in intensive care unit patients and it is characterized by high mortality. The mainstay of treatment for ARDS is lung protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure sufficient for alveolar recruitment. Prone positioning is a supplementary strategy available in managing patients with ARDS. It was first described 40 years ago and it proves to be in alignment with two major ARDS pathophysiological lung models; the "sponge lung" - and the "shape matching" -model. Current evidence strongly supports that prone positioning has beneficial effects on gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, lung protection and hemodynamics as it redistributes transpulmonary pressure, stress and strain throughout the lung and unloads the right ventricle. The factors that individually influence the time course of alveolar recruitment and the improvement in oxygenation during prone positioning have not been well characterized. Although patients' response to prone positioning is quite variable and hard to predict, large randomized trials and recent meta-analyses show that prone position in conjunction with a lung-protective strategy, when performed early and in sufficient duration, may improve survival in patients with ARDS. This pathophysiology-based review and recent clinical evidence strongly support the use of prone positioning in the early management of severe ARDS systematically and not as a rescue maneuver or a last-ditch effort. PMID:27152255

  13. A case of lung cancer associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome after thoracic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 73-year-old man presented with dyspnea, cough, fever, appetite loss and stridor due to bronchial stenosis. Fiber-optic bronchoscopy revealed an endobronchial lesion in the right main bronchus and biopsy specimens showed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical stage of lung cancer was IIIB (T4N2M0). The patient received 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 43 days to a field including the right hilum and mediastinum. The tumor decreased in size and stenosis of the bronchus disappeared. A week after completion of radiation the patient began to have high grade fever and dyspnea, and progressive hypoxia developed. A chest radiograph showed diffuse bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Despite mechanical ventilation with PEEP and the administration of steroids, he died of respiratory failure three weeks after completion of radiation. Necropsy specimens obtained from the left lung revealed massive deposition of fibrin in the alveolar airspaces associated with hyaline membranes and hyperplasia of type II cells indicating diffuse alveolar damage. The patient had mild pulmonary fibrosis on a CT scan taken before the start of radiotherapy. We conclude that care should be taken if the case has pulmonary fibrosis because radiation therapy can precipitate severe radiation pneumonitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome in such cases. (author)

  14. Positive predictive value of the infant respiratory distress syndrome diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry

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    Thygesen SK

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Kruchov Thygesen, Morten Olsen, Christian Fynbo ChristiansenDepartment of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkBackground: Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS is the most common respiratory disease in preterm infants, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Valid data on IRDS are important in clinical epidemiological research.Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the positive predictive value (PPV of the IRDS diagnosis registered in the population-based Danish National Patient Registry according to the International Classification of Diseases, 8th and 10th revisions.Methods: Between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2008, we randomly selected three patients per year, 96 in total, who were registered with an IRDS diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry and living in the northern part of Denmark. Data on the infants included information on the presence of predefined clinical symptoms. We defined IRDS as the presence of at least two of four clinical symptoms (tachypnea, retractions or nasal flaring, grunting, and central cyanosis, which had to be present for more than 30 minutes. Using medical record review as the reference standard, we computed the positive predictive value of the registered IRDS diagnosis including 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: We located the medical record for 90 of the 96 patients (94%, and found an overall PPV of the IRDS diagnosis of 81% (95% CI 72%–88%. This did not vary substantially between primary and secondary diagnoses. The PPV was higher, at 89% (95% CI 80%–95%, for preterm infants born before 37 weeks of gestation.Conclusion: The PPV of the IRDS diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry is reasonable when compared with symptoms described in the corresponding medical records. The Danish National Patient Registry is a useful data source for studies of IRDS, particularly if restricted to preterm infants

  15. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondwani Kawaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care. METHODS: We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups. FINDINGS: 87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62 compared with 44.0% (11/25 for controls. 65.5% (19/29 of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13 of controls. 64.6% (31/48 of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17 of controls. 61.5% (16/26 of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived. INTERPRETATION: Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  16. Adult-onset nemaline myopathy presenting as respiratory failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Emer

    2008-11-01

    Nemaline myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy that generally presents in childhood. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented with severe hypoxic hypercapnic respiratory failure as the initial manifestation of nemaline myopathy. After starting noninvasive ventilation, his pulmonary function test results improved substantially, and over the 4 years since diagnosis his respiratory function remained stable. There are few reported cases of respiratory failure in patients with adult-onset nemaline myopathy, and the insidious onset in this case is even more unusual. This case highlights the varied presenting features of adult-onset nemaline myopathy and that noninvasive ventilation improves respiratory function.

  17. Partial ventilatory support modalities in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome-a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M McMullen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The efficacy of partial ventilatory support modes that allow spontaneous breathing in patients with acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is unclear. The objective of this scoping review was to assess the effects of partial ventilatory support on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and both hospital and intensive care unit (ICU lengths of stay (LOS for patients with ALI and ARDS; the secondary objective was to describe physiologic effects on hemodynamics, respiratory system and other organ function. METHODS: MEDLINE (1966-2009, Cochrane, and EmBase (1980-2009 databases were searched using common ventilator modes as keywords and reference lists from retrieved manuscripts hand searched for additional studies. Two researchers independently reviewed and graded the studies using a modified Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine grading system. Studies in adult ALI/ARDS patients were included for primary objectives and pre-clinical studies for supporting evidence. RESULTS: Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified, in addition to six prospective cohort studies, one retrospective cohort study, one case control study, 41 clinical physiologic studies and 28 pre-clinical studies. No study was powered to assess mortality, one RCT showed shorter ICU length of stay, and the other demonstrated more ventilator free days. Beneficial effects of preserved spontaneous breathing were mainly physiological effects demonstrated as improvement of gas exchange, hemodynamics and non-pulmonary organ perfusion and function. CONCLUSIONS: The use of partial ventilatory support modalities is often feasible in patients with ALI/ARDS, and may be associated with short-term physiological benefits without appreciable impact on clinically important outcomes.

  18. Outcome of neonates with idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome; where do we go wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MBKC Dayasiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study focuses on assessing the modifiable risk factors, which are aetiologic in IRDS and the outcome of children who were treated with surfactant therapy. Methods All neonates received by the neonatal intensive care of Anuradhapura teaching hospital with early onset respiratory distress leading to surfactant therapy and among whom chest roentgenograms were supportive of a diagnosis of IRDS, were recruited to study. Appropriate information regarding antenatal and perinatal care, NICU management, complications, and outcomes were collected using a structured questionnaire by the investigators prospectively for one year from January 2012 and retrospectively for the calendar year 2011. Results Seventy one neonates were treated for two year study period and 45(63.4% were males. Antenatal problems included poor antenatal follow up 5(7% and bad obstetric history 3(4.2% with only 52 (73.2% mothers receiving antenatal steroids. Perinatal problems included eclampsia 8 (11.3%, abruption 5(7% and fetal distress 2(2.8% with 23(32.4% children needing resuscitation at birth. The proportion of pulmonary haemorrhage following surfactant was 14/71(19.7%. Twenty three children (32.4% were discharged lively and successfully, while 48 children (67.6% succumbed secondary to extreme prematurity (maturity < 28 weeks and IRDS 34(70.8%, pulmonary haemorrage 8(17%, septicaemia 8(17%, and severe birth asphyxia 2(4.1%. Conclusion Antenatal glucocorticoids to preterm deliveries, management of maternal medical problems, and control of sepsis in NICU need further improvement to optimize care and to bring down neonatal mortality following IRDS. As pulmonary heamorrhage following surfactant therapy remains a significant factor in increasing neonatal mortality and reducing the weight of the recognized beneficial effects of surfactant, effectiveness of these low cost interventions should be further evaluated.

  19. Urinary incontinence (UI) and new psychological distress among community dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; BOGNER, HILLARY R.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether UI is associated with increased risk for the onset of psychological distress. This was a population based longitudinal survey of adults aged 50 and older who did not report psychological distress in 1993 and for whom complete data were available. Participants were classified as having UI if they reported uncontrolled urine loss within 12 months of the 1993 interview. Condition-specific functional loss secondary to UI was assessed by questions on partici...

  20. Vision Loss and Psychological Distress among Ethiopians Adults: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abateneh, Aemero; Tesfaye, Markos; Bekele, Sisay; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the E...

  1. High frequency oscillatory ventilation for adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome:an updated systematic review and meta-analysis%高频振荡通气治疗成人急性呼吸窘迫综合征:更新的系统评价及meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵停婷; 邓旺; 朱林燕; 李长毅; 王导新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) could reduce the 30 day mortality of adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or increase ventilation associated risks compared with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV).Methods Databases:VIP database,Wanfang Database,CBM,Pubmed,Embase,etc.were searched,including all related papers published up to May 2013.Revman 5.1 and Stata 12.0 were used to analyze data.Results Five randomized controlled trials with 1 677 participants with ARDS were included.There were no significant differences in 30 day mortality between HFOV and CMV (RR =0.92,95% CI:0.67-1.27,P =0.62>0.05).HFOV could not reduce the duration of ventilation compared with CMV (SMD=0.09,95% CI:0.02-0.19,P =0.095>0.05).The partial pressure of oxygen to inspired fraction of oxygen at day 1,day 2 and day 3 was higher in HFOV group than that in CMV group.And the use of HFOV would not lead to additional risks of ventilation.Conclusions HFOV might not improve survival of adult patients with ARDS compared with CMV,but it would not increase ventilation associated risks.%目的 探索高频振荡通气与传统机械通气相比是否能降低成人ARDS患者的30 d死亡率,是否会增加人工通气相关风险.方法 在国内外各大主要数据库检索了2013年5月以前的所有相关文献,使用Revman 5.1及Stata 12.0软件分析处理数据.结果 meta分析纳入了5个随机对照试验共l 677例ARDS患者.通过分析发现,在降低30 d死亡率上高频振荡通气与传统机械通气没有明显差别(RR =0.92,95% CI:0.67~1.27,P=0.62>0.05).高频振荡通气不能减少呼吸机平均的使用时间(SMD=0.09,95% CI:-0.02~0.19,P=0.095>0.05).第1、2、3天的氧合指数高频振荡通气组较传统机械通气组有明显升高.同时分析发现使用高频振荡通气不会额外增加通气的相关风险.结论 高频振荡通气与传统机械通气相比不会显著改

  2. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results (unemployment (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.02 to 21.20) had positive association, whereas those under medical care at the Salak health clinics (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63), and those with a blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89) were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics were related to DRD and depression. PMID:27002728

  3. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon-How Chew

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS, and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ. Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results ( 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89 were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics were related to DRD and depression.

  4. Extracorporeal blood therapy in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome: the "purifying dream"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xuefeng; Dai Huaping; Jia Chun'e; Wang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the rationale,hypothesis,modality of extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients,and to summarize the experimental and clinical studies with inconsistent data which explored the EBP's efficacy in the areas of critical care medicine.Data sources Articles referred in this review were collected from the database of PubMed published in English up to June 2014.Study selection We had done a literature search by using the term "(sepsis OR acute lung injury OR acute respiratory distress syndrome) AND (extracorporeal blood purification OR hemofiltration OR hemoperfusion OR plasma exchange OR plasmapheresis OR adsorpiton)".Related original or review articles were included and carefully analyzed.Results Acute cellular and humoral immune disturbances occur in both sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Treatments aimed at targeting one single pro-/anti-inflammatory mediator have largely failed with no proven clinical benefits.Such failure shifts the therapeutic rationale to the nonspecific,broad-spectrum methods for modulating the over-activated inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response.Therefore,EBP techniques have become the potential weapons with high promise for removing the circulating pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and promoting immune reconstitution.Over the years,multiple extracorporeal techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients have been developed,including hemofiltration (HF),high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF),high-cutoff hemofiltration (HCO-HF),hemo-perfusion or-adsorption (HP/HA),coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA),and plasma exchange (PE).These previous studies showed that EBP therapy was feasible and safe for the critically ill animal models or patients.However,data on their efficacy (especially on the clinical benefits,such as mortality) were inconsistent.Conclusions It is not now to conclude that EBP intervention can purify septic or ARDS

  5. Mortality and morbidity of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in infants and young children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan-feng; YU Wen-liang; XIE Min-hui; YAN Chao-ying; LU Zhu-jin; SUN Bo; XU Feng; LU Xiu-lan; WANG Ying; CHEN Jian-li; CHAO Jian-xin; ZHOU Xiao-wen; ZHANG Jian-hui; HUANG Yan-zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) often develops acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),and its incidence and mortalities in critically ill pediatric patients in China were 2% and 40% respectively.This study aimed at prospectively investigating incidence,causes,mortality and its risk factors,and any relationship to initial tidal volume (VT) levels of mechanical ventilation,in children ≤5 years of age with AHRF and ARDS.Methods In 12 consecutive months in 23 pediatric intensive care units (PICU),AHRF and ARDS were identified in those requiring >12 hour intratracheal mechanical ventilation and followed up for 90 days or until death or discharge.ARDS was diagnosed according to the American-European Consensus definitions.The mortality and ventilation free days (VFD) were measured as the primary outcome,and major complications,initial disease severity,and burden were measured as the secondary outcome.Results In 13 491 PICU admissions,there were 439 AHRE,of which 345 (78.6%) developed ARDS,resulting in incidences of 3.3% and 2.6%,and corresponding mortalities of 30.3% and 32.8% respectively along with 8.2 and 6.7 times of relative risk of death in those with pneumonia (62.9%) and sepsis (33.7%) as major underlying diseases respectively.No association was found in VT levels during the first 7 days with mortality,nor for VT at levels <6,6-8,8-10,and >10 ml/kg in the first 3 days with mortality or length of VFD.By binary Logistic regression analyses,higher pediatric risk of mortality score Ⅲ,higher initial oxygenation index,and age <1 year were associated with higher mortality or shorter VFD in AHRF.Conclusions The incidence and mortalities of AHRF and ARDS in children ≤5 years were similar to or lower than the previously reported rates (in age up to 15 years),associated with initial disease severity and other confounders,but causal relationship for the initial VT levels as the independent factor to the major outcome

  6. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal for patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Marianne; Millar, Jonathan; Blackwood, Bronagh; Davies, Andrew; Brett, Stephen J; McAuley, Daniel F; McNamee, James J

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues to have significant mortality and morbidity. The only intervention proven to reduce mortality is the use of lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies, although such a strategy may lead to problematic hypercapnia. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO₂R) devices allow uncoupling of ventilation from oxygenation, thereby removing carbon dioxide and facilitating lower tidal volume ventilation. We performed a systematic review to assess efficacy, complication rates, and utility of ECCO₂R devices. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), case-control studies and case series with 10 or more patients. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde), and ISI Web of Science, in addition to grey literature and clinical trials registries. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers against predefined criteria and agreement was reached by consensus. Outcomes of interest included mortality, intensive care and hospital lengths of stay, respiratory parameters and complications. The review included 14 studies with 495 patients (two RCTs and 12 observational studies). Arteriovenous ECCO₂R was used in seven studies, and venovenous ECCO₂R in seven studies. Available evidence suggests no mortality benefit to ECCO₂R, although post hoc analysis of data from the most recent RCT showed an improvement in ventilator-free days in more severe ARDS. Organ failure-free days or ICU stay have not been shown to decrease with ECCOvR. Carbon dioxide removal was widely demonstrated as feasible, facilitating the use of lower tidal volume ventilation. Complication rates varied greatly across the included studies, representing technological advances. There was a general paucity of high-quality data and significant variation in both practice and technology used among studies, which confounded analysis. ECCO₂R is a rapidly evolving technology and is an efficacious treatment

  7. Even mild respiratory distress alters tissue oxygenation significantly in preterm infants during neonatal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous non-invasive measurements of regional oxygen saturation (rSO2). The aim was to evaluate the dynamics of rSO2 of the brain, preductal and postductal tissues during postnatal transition in preterm infants with and without respiratory support (RS). This single-centre study was designed as an exploratory prospective observational study. Fifty one preterm infants (≥ 30 + 0 and < 37 + 0 weeks) delivered by caesarean section were included. RS using a T-Piece-Resuscitator and supplemental oxygen were given according to guidelines. NIRS measurements were carried out by using Invos Monitor (Covidien; USA) for the first 15 min of life. Three NIRS transducers were attached on the forehead (rSO2brain), the right forearm (rSO2arm) and the left lower leg (rSO2leg). Two groups were compared based on need for RS: normal transition (NT) and RS group. Results: In NT group rSO2brain increased over time and was significantly higher than rSO2arm, whereas in RS group rSO2brain and rSO2arm increased without significant differences. Courses of rSO2arm and rSO2leg increased over time and showed a converging pattern with initially lower values of rSO2leg in NT group and a diverging pattern with lower levels of rSO2leg in RS group. Overall, rSO2 levels were higher in NT compared to RS group. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the decreased rSO2 levels in RS group compared to NT group are not only caused by lower arterial oxygen saturation levels, but also by a compromised perfusion even in infants with only mild respiratory distress. (paper)

  8. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhaes E.N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  9. Pressure controlled inverse ratio ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate ventilatory intervention is life saving in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Pressure controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PC-IRV is the likely mode of ventilation benefiting in extreme conditions of ARDS. However, guidelines when to start PC-IRV is not yet well defined. The ventilation-related dilemma, which we faced in two illustrative cases of ARDS are presented. The first patient presenting clinically with ARDS but with high peak airway pressure (PIP and low dynamic lung compliance, PC-IRV helped in reducing PIP, improved haemodynamics and the oxygenation of blood. In second patient with similar clinical presentation of ARDS, where although PIP was high but the dynamic compliance was better, the PC-IRV caused deterioration in PaO2. Here, patient rather did better with high PEEP (15 cm H2O and usual I: E ratio (1:2. It is probable that the dynamic lung compliance (< 20ml/cmH2O, PIP (> 50 cm H2O at conventional I: E ratio (1:2 ventilation (10 ml/kg with hypotension might form the basis to develop a scoring system for guidance to switch over to PC-IRV ventilation. Further randomised prospective controlled clinical trials will then be required to establish indication to start PC-IRV in ARDS.

  10. Recruitment maneuvers in acute respiratory distress syndrome and during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumello, Davide; Algieri, Ilaria; Grasso, Salvatore; Terragni, Pierpaolo; Pelosi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The use of low tidal volume ventilation and low to moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels is a widespread strategy to ventilate patients with non-injured lungs during general anesthesia and in intensive care as well with mild to moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Higher PEEP levels have been recommended in severe ARDS. Due to the presence of alveolar collapse, recruitment maneuvers (RMs) by causing a transient elevation in airway pressure (i.e. transpulmonary pressure) have been suggested to improve lung inflation in non-inflated and poorly-inflated lung regions. Various types of RMs such as sustained inflation at high pressure, intermittent sighs and stepwise increases of PEEP and/or airway plateau inspiratory pressure have been proposed. The use of RMs has been associated with mixed results in terms of physiological and clinical outcomes. The optimal method for RMs has not yet been identified. The use of RMs is not standardized and left to the individual physician based on his/her experience. Based on the same grounds, RMs have been proposed to improve lung aeration during general anesthesia. The aim of this review was to present the clinical evidence supporting the use of RMs in patients with ARDS and during general anesthesia and as well their potential biological effects in experimental models of acute lung injury. PMID:25881732

  11. MicroRNA Regulation of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Pattarayan, Dhamotharan; Rajaguru, P; Sudhakar Gandhi, P S; Thimmulappa, Rajesh K

    2016-10-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI), is a very common condition associated with critically ill patients, which causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite decades of research, effective therapeutic strategies for clinical ALI/ARDS are not available. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding molecules have emerged as a major area of biomedical research as they post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in diverse biological and pathological processes, including ALI/ARDS. In this context, this present review summarizes a large body of evidence implicating miRNAs and their target molecules in ALI/ARDS originating largely from studies using animal and cell culture model systems of ALI/ARDS. We have also focused on the involvement of miRNAs in macrophage polarization, which play a critical role in regulating the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. Finally, the possible future directions that might lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ALI/ARDS are also reviewed. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2097-2106, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26790856

  12. Recovery and outcomes after the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herridge, Margaret S; Moss, Marc; Hough, Catherine L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Rice, Todd W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Outcomes after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are similar to those of other survivors of critical illness and largely affect the nerve, muscle, and central nervous system but also include a constellation of varied physical devastations ranging from contractures and frozen joints to tooth loss and cosmesis. Compromised quality of life is related to a spectrum of impairment of physical, social, emotional, and neurocognitive function and to a much lesser extent discrete pulmonary disability. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is ubiquitous and includes contributions from both critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy, and recovery from these lesions may be incomplete at 5 years after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment in ARDS survivors ranges from 70 to 100 % at hospital discharge, 46 to 80 % at 1 year, and 20 % at 5 years, and mood disorders including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also sustained and prevalent. Robust multidisciplinary and longitudinal interventions that improve these outcomes are still uncertain and data in our literature are conflicting. Studies are needed in family members of ARDS survivors to better understand long-term outcomes of the post-ICU family syndrome and to evaluate how it affects patient recovery. PMID:27025938

  13. Pulmonar recruitment in acute respiratory distress syndrome. What is the best strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Lourenço Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Supporting patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, using a protective mechanical ventilation strategy characterized by low tidal volume and limitation of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP is a standard practice in the intensive care unit. However, these strategies can promote lung de-recruitment, leading to the cyclic closing and reopening of collapsed alveoli and small airways. Recruitment maneuvers (RM can be used to augment other methods, like positive end-expiratory pressure and positioning, to improve aerated lung volume. Clinical practice varies widely, and the optimal method and patient selection for recruitment maneuvers have not been determined, considerable uncertainty remaining regarding the appropriateness of RM. This review aims to discuss recent findings about the available types of RM, and compare the effectiveness, indications and adverse effects among them, as well as their impact on morbidity and mortality in ARDS patients. Recent developments include experimental and clinical evidence that a stepwise extended recruitment maneuver may cause an improvement in aerated lung volume and decrease the biological impact seen with the traditionally used sustained inflation, with less adverse effects. Prone positioning can reduce mortality in severe ARDS patients and may be an useful adjunct to recruitment maneuvers and advanced ventilatory strategies, such noisy ventilation and BIVENT, which have been useful in providing lung recruitment.

  14. Distinct Proteasome Subpopulations in the Alveolar Space of Patients with the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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    S. U. Sixt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that proteasomes have a biological role in the extracellular alveolar space, but inflammation could change their composition. We tested whether immunoproteasome protein-containing subpopulations are present in the alveolar space of patients with lung inflammation evoking the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL supernatants and cell pellet lysate from ARDS patients (n=28 and healthy subjects (n=10 were analyzed for the presence of immunoproteasome proteins (LMP2 and LMP7 and proteasome subtypes by western blot, chromatographic purification, and 2D-dimensional gelelectrophoresis. In all ARDS patients but not in healthy subjects LMP7 and LMP2 were observed in BAL supernatants. Proteasomes purified from pooled ARDS BAL supernatant showed an altered enzyme activity ratio. Chromatography revealed a distinct pattern with 7 proteasome subtype peaks in BAL supernatant of ARDS patients that differed from healthy subjects. Total proteasome concentration in BAL supernatant was increased in ARDS (971 ng/mL ± 1116 versus 59±25; P<0.001, and all fluorogenic substrates were hydrolyzed, albeit to a lesser extent, with inhibition by epoxomicin (P=0.0001. Thus, we identified for the first time immunoproteasome proteins and a distinct proteasomal subtype pattern in the alveolar space of ARDS patients, presumably in response to inflammation.

  15. Noninvasive Ventilation for Preterm Twin Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Li; Li, Jie; Wang, Nan; Shi, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation has been proven to be effective strategies for reducing the need for endotracheal ventilation in preterm infant with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), however the best option needs to be further determined. A single center, paired design, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between Jan 2011 and July 2014. Preterm twins with RDS were included. One of a pair was randomized to NIPPV, while another to NCPAP. Surfactant was administrated as rescue treatment. The primary outcome was the need for endotracheal ventilation. The secondary outcomes were the complications. 143 pairs were randomized and 129 pairs finished the trial. The rates of endotracheal ventilation did not differ significantly between NIPPV and NCPAP groups (11.9% vs 19.6%, P = 0.080). This difference was not observed in the subgroup of infants who received surfactant therapy (11.1% vs 19.7%, P = 0.087). No secondary outcomes also differed significantly between the two groups. NIPPV did not result in a significantly lower incidence of intubation as compared with NCPAP in preterm twins with RDS. PMID:26399752

  16. Association of a FGFR-4 Gene Polymorphism with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Neonatal Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Rezvani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is the most common chronic lung disease of premature birth, characterized by impaired alveolar development and inflammation. Pathomechanisms contributing to BPD are poorly understood. However, it is assumed that genetic factors predispose to BPD and other pulmonary diseases of preterm neonates, such as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. For association studies, genes upregulated during alveolarization are major candidates for genetic analysis, for example, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and their receptors (FGFR. Objective. Determining genetic risk variants in a Caucasian population of premature neonates with BPD and RDS. Methods. We genotyped 27 polymorphisms within 14 candidate genes via restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP: MMP-1, -2, -9, and -12, -16, FGF receptors 2 and 4, FGF-2, -3, -4, -7, and -18, Signal-Regulatory Protein α (SIRPA and Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 (TTF-1. Results. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in MMP-9, MMP-12, FGFR-4, FGF-3, and FGF-7 are associated ( with RDS, defined as surfactant application within the first 24 hours after birth. One of them, in FGFR-4 (rs1966265, is associated with both RDS ( and BPD (. Conclusion. rs1966265 in FGF receptor 4 is a possible genetic key variant in alveolar diseases of preterm newborns.

  17. The significance of recurrent lung opacities in neonates on surfactant treatment for respiratory distress syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odita, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Louisiana State Univ. Health Sciences Center, Shreveport (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Purpose. To determine the significance of recurrent opacities in chest radiographs of neonates on surfactant therapy for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) after an initial period of improvement. Materials and methods. Serial pre- and post-surfactant chest radiographs on 94 preterm infants with RDS were analyzed and the pattern of chest radiographic response was classified as (a) clear, (b) recurrent opacities, and (c) no response. Their clinical characteristics were also recorded. Results. In 34 infants the RDS changes cleared within 3 days. 31 infants developed lung opacities within 10 days after an initial period of improvement. Twenty-nine infants failed to respond to the surfactant. The corresponding mean birth weights for the three groups were 1.74, 1.19, and 0.76 kg and the mean gestation ages 32.6, 27.7, and 25.4 weeks. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was highest among the slumping infants (72. % vs 50 % in no responders, P < 0.001) Conclusions. The pattern of chest radiographic response is primarily affected by gestation age and birth weight. Recurrent lung opacity after an initial positive response to surfactant therapy may be caused by such factors as edema from barotrauma and patent ductus arteriosus. Infants with intraventricular hemorrhage may demonstrate neurogenic edema. Other contributory factors include pneumonia and abnormal consumption of surfactant. Recurrent lung opacities after surfactant may be a predictor of chronic lung disease in the preterm infant. (orig.)

  18. Association of SCNN1A Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Long, Chen; Renjun, Li; Zhangxue, Hu; Yin, Hu; Wanwei, Li; Juan, Ma; Yuan, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that lung fluid absorption disorders might be an important cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by influencing gas exchange or surfactant function. The SCNN1A gene, which encodes the α-ENaC, might predispose infants to RDS. To explore whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SCNN1A are associated with RDS, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the RDS-associated loci in Han Chinese infants. Seven target SNPs were selected from the SCNN1A gene and were genotyped using the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR). In the total sample, only rs4149570 was associated with NRDS; this association was further confirmed in logistic regression analysis after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age and sex. In the subgroup of infants whose gestational age was 37 weeks and older, in addition to rs4149570, rs7956915 also showed a significant association with RDS. Interestingly, these associations were only observed in term infants. No significant association was observed between the target SNPs and the risk of RDS in preterm infants. We report for the first time that the rs4149570 and rs7956915 polymorphisms of SCNN1A might play important roles in the susceptibility to RDS, particularly in term infants. PMID:26611714

  19. The significance of recurrent lung opacities in neonates on surfactant treatment for respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To determine the significance of recurrent opacities in chest radiographs of neonates on surfactant therapy for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) after an initial period of improvement. Materials and methods. Serial pre- and post-surfactant chest radiographs on 94 preterm infants with RDS were analyzed and the pattern of chest radiographic response was classified as (a) clear, (b) recurrent opacities, and (c) no response. Their clinical characteristics were also recorded. Results. In 34 infants the RDS changes cleared within 3 days. 31 infants developed lung opacities within 10 days after an initial period of improvement. Twenty-nine infants failed to respond to the surfactant. The corresponding mean birth weights for the three groups were 1.74, 1.19, and 0.76 kg and the mean gestation ages 32.6, 27.7, and 25.4 weeks. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was highest among the slumping infants (72. % vs 50 % in no responders, P < 0.001) Conclusions. The pattern of chest radiographic response is primarily affected by gestation age and birth weight. Recurrent lung opacity after an initial positive response to surfactant therapy may be caused by such factors as edema from barotrauma and patent ductus arteriosus. Infants with intraventricular hemorrhage may demonstrate neurogenic edema. Other contributory factors include pneumonia and abnormal consumption of surfactant. Recurrent lung opacities after surfactant may be a predictor of chronic lung disease in the preterm infant. (orig.)

  20. Biotinidase Deficiency in Newborns as Respiratory Distress and Tachypnea: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin KOOHMANAEE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Kohmanaee Sh, Zarkesh M, Tabrizi M, Hassanzadeh Rad A, Divshali S, Dalili S. Biotinidase Deficiency in Newborns as Respiratory Distress and Tachypnea: A Case Report. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015; 9(2:58-60.AbstractObjectiveBiotin is a coenzyme composed of four carboxylases. It presents in amino acid catabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and gluconeogenesis. Biotinidase recycles the vitamin biotin. A biotinidase deficiency is a neurocutaneous disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. The symptoms can be successfully treatedor prevented by administering pharmacological doses of biotin. Although, according to neonatal prenatal medicine (2011, a biotinidase deficiency does not manifest during the neonatal period. In this study, we report on a case of biotinidase deficiency in the first week of birth.Case ReportA 3100 g term boy was born via cesarean section. After 3 days, he was referred to the 17th Shahrivar Hospital with the chief complaint of tachypnea and grunting.Laboratory results revealed that liver and renal function tests, serum electrolytes, and blood indexes except ammonia were all normal. Within few days after the administration of oral biotin, the patient showed dramatic improvement and was discharged. However, within 4 months he was admitted two other times with the complaints of diarrhea and pneumonia. Unfortunately, he expired after 4 months.ConclusionAccording to our results, it seems that clinicians should accurately assess suspicious patients and even assess infants for biotinidase deficiency.

  1. A STUDY OF CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN NEWBORN BABIES IN KING GEORGE HOSPITAL, ANDHRA MEDICAL COLLEGE, VISAKHAPATNAM, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaka Sujatha Devi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A variety of disorders of respiratory system and non-respiratory disorders like intracranial injury, cardiac failure metabolic disorders, septicaemia and congenital malformations can manifest clinically with respiratory distress. (1,2 RDS DEFINITION = RESPIRATORY DISTRESS (RDS Is diagnosed clinically by the presence of at least two of the following criteria namely, respiratory rate of >60/minute, retractions, flaring of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt and cyanosis at room air on two consecutive examinations at least hour apart. AIMS OF THE STUDY To assess the clinical outcome of respiratory distress in new-born. To study the various Risk factors associated with development of severe respiratory distress in the new-born. To study the usefulness of chest x-ray to identify the cause of respiratory distress in neonate. METHODS The study was carried out in the Department of Paediatrics, AMC, KGH. Prospective study of 200 new-borns with respiratory distress who were admitted in NICU, between July 2014 to August 2015. INCLUSION CRITERIA All new-borns admitted to NICU within 24 hrs. of birth with RDS in both pre and term babies. EXCLUSION CRITERIA All new-borns admitted to NICU after 24 hrs. of birth with RDS. The severity was assessed by using Downes. (3 clinical scoring and X-rays. Therapy/Treatment and mortality was documented to assess the severity of RDS. RESULTS 154 cases with distress are of respiratory system in origin out of which 45% were due to Meconium aspiration syndrome, 56% of other conditions responsible for RDS. CONCLUSION Meconium aspiration syndrome (MSA is the most common cause of RDS in new-born, risk factors like meconium stained liquor, vaginally delivered new-borns, preterm gestation age, & female sex.

  2. KL-6 concentration in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid is a useful prognostic indicator in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Hattori, Noboru; Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; MURAI, HIROSHI; Haruta, Yoshinori; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2011-01-01

    Background: KL-6 is a mucin-like glycoprotein expressed on the surface of alveolar type II cells. Elevated concentrations of KL-6 in serum and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been previously reported; however, kinetics and prognostic significance of KL-6 have not been extensively studied. This study was conducted to clarify these points in ARDS patients.Methods: Thirty-two patients with ARDS who received mechanical ventilation und...

  3. KL-6 concentration in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid is a useful prognostic indicator in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tanigawa Koichi; Hirohashi Nobuyuki; Haruta Yoshinori; Murai Hiroshi; Ishikawa Nobuhisa; Hattori Noboru; Kondo Tomohiro; Kohno Nobuoki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background KL-6 is a mucin-like glycoprotein expressed on the surface of alveolar type II cells. Elevated concentrations of KL-6 in serum and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been previously reported; however, kinetics and prognostic significance of KL-6 have not been extensively studied. This study was conducted to clarify these points in ARDS patients. Methods Thirty-two patients with ARDS who received mechanical ventila...

  4. Bi-level CPAP does not change central blood flow in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Aquilano, Giulia; Galletti, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Vitali, Francesca; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Background Current literature provides limited data on the hemodynamic changes that may occur during bi-level continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) support in preterm infants. However, the application of a positive end-expiratory pressure may be transmitted to the heart and the great vessels resulting in changes of central blood flow. Objective To assess changes in central blood flow in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during bi-level CPAP support. Design A prospective st...

  5. Efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure titration after the alveolar recruitment manoeuvre in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Jin Won; Jung, Hoon; Choi, Hye Sook; Hong, Sang-Bum; Lim, Chae-Man; Koh, Younsuck

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), adequate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may decrease ventilator-induced lung injury by minimising overinflation and cyclic recruitment-derecruitment of the lung. We evaluated whether setting the PEEP using decremental PEEP titration after an alveolar recruitment manoeuvre (ARM) affects the clinical outcome in patients with ARDS. Methods Fifty-seven patients with early ARDS were randomly assigned to a group given decremental ...

  6. Enhanced Surfactant Adsorption via Polymer Depletion Forces: A Simple Model for Reversing Surfactant Inhibition in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Stenger, Patrick C.; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Lung surfactant adsorption to an air-water interface is strongly inhibited by an energy barrier imposed by the competitive adsorption of albumin and other surface-active serum proteins that are present in the lung during acute respiratory distress syndrome. This reduction in surfactant adsorption results in an increased surface tension in the lung and an increase in the work of breathing. The reduction in surfactant adsorption is quantitatively described using a variation of the classical Smo...

  7. Association between the surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene locus and respiratory-distress syndrome in the Finnish population.

    OpenAIRE

    Rämet, M; Haataja, R.; Marttila, R; Floros, J; Hallman, M

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory-distress syndrome (RDS) in the newborn is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Although prematurity is the most-important risk factor for RDS, the syndrome does not develop in many premature infants. The main cause of RDS is a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, which consists of phospholipids and specific proteins. The genes underlying susceptibility to RDS are insufficiently known. The candidate-gene approach was used to study the association between the surfactant...

  8. Surfactant disaturated-phosphatidylcholine kinetics in acute respiratory distress syndrome by stable isotopes and a two compartment model

    OpenAIRE

    Cogo Paola E; Toffolo Gianna; Ori Carlo; Vianello Andrea; Chierici Marco; Gucciardi Antonina; Cobelli Claudio; Baritussio Aldo; Carnielli Virgilio P

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it is well known that only part of the lungs is aerated and surfactant function is impaired, but the extent of lung damage and changes in surfactant turnover remain unclear. The objective of the study was to evaluate surfactant disaturated-phosphatidylcholine turnover in patients with ARDS using stable isotopes. Methods We studied 12 patients with ARDS and 7 subjects with normal lungs. After the tracheal instilla...

  9. Epidemiological and genetic study of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants:specific aspects of twin and multiple births

    OpenAIRE

    Marttila, R

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory distress syndrome, RDS, is a multifactorial lung disease of premature infants. The main cause of RDS is a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein mixture required to reduce surface tension at the air-liquid interface and to prevent generalized atelectasis of the alveolar ducts and alveoli. Prematurity is the most important factor predisposing to RDS. During the past decade the number of multiple pregnancies has increased significantly as a result of diversif...

  10. Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Patients without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Paradigm Shift in Mechanical Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Jed Lipes; Francois Lellouche; Azadeh Bojmehrani

    2012-01-01

    Protective ventilation with low tidal volume has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low tidal volume ventilation is associated with particular clinical challenges and is therefore often underutilized as a therapeutic option in clinical practice. Despite some potential difficulties, data have been published examining the application of protective ventilation in patients without lung inj...

  11. Comparison of INSURE method with conventional mechanical ventilation after surfactant administration in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: therapeutic challenge.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri; Tahereh Esmaeilnia Shirvani; Majid Aminnezhad; Elaheh Amini; Hossein Dalili; Faezeh Moghimpour Bijani

    2014-01-01

    Administration of endotracheal surfactant is potentially the main treatment for neonates suffering from RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome), which is followed by mechanical ventilation. Late and severe complications may develop as a consequence of using mechanical ventilation. In this study, conventional methods for treatment of RDS are compared with surfactant administration, use of mechanical ventilation for a brief period and NCPAP (Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure), (INSURE metho...

  12. A conceptual framework: the early and late phases of skeletal muscle dysfunction in the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Files, D. Clark; Sanchez, Michael A; Morris, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often develop severe diaphragmatic and limb skeletal muscle dysfunction. Impaired muscle function in ARDS is associated with increased mortality, increased duration of mechanical ventilation, and functional disability in survivors. In this review, we propose that muscle dysfunction in ARDS can be categorized into an early and a late phase. These early and late phases are based on the timing in relationship to lung injury and the underly...

  13. Early administration of surfactant via a thin intratracheal catheter in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: Feasibility and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Ardestani, Azam Ghehsareh; Sadeghnia, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Currently, the method of early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and selective administration of surfactant via an endotracheal tube is widely used in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. To prevent complications related to endotracheal intubation and even a brief period of mechanical ventilation, in this study, we compared the effectiveness of surfactant administration via a thin intratracheal catheter versus the current method...

  14. Expression of SP-C and Ki67 in lungs of preterm infants dying from respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, H.; Li, W; G Shao; H. Wang

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the expression of Surfactant protein-C (SP-C) and Ki67 in autopsy lung tissues of premature infants dying from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who were exposed to mechanical ventilation and elevated oxygen concentrations. The possible influence of pulmonary surfactant (PS) on the expression of SP-C and Ki67 was also investigated. Thirty preterm infants were selected who were histologically and clinically diagnosed as RDS. Preterm infants with RDS were divided...

  15. Intramuscular adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in neonates delivered by elective caesarean section at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Avlund, O L; Pedersen, B L; Pryds, Ole

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To test whether intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline decreased the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section before active labour. METHOD: The study was randomised and double-blinded. A total of 270 neonates were...... respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia was 14% among infants treated with adrenaline compared with 7% in those who received saline injection (p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress or hypoglycaemia after elective caesarean...... assigned to intramuscular treatment with saline (0.30 ml) or 30 microg adrenaline (0.30 ml) immediately after birth. The primary endpoint was referral to the neonatal ward because of respiratory distress or a blood glucose level <1.8 mmol/l measured 2 h after birth. The first 50 infants were monitored with...

  16. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure combined with surfactant and NO for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome, prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and brain protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henrik Verder

    2010-01-01

    @@ Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the single most important cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)is a leading cause of neuro-muscular disablement and decreased lung function in the most preterm infants.

  17. Early versus delayed initiation of nasal continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature newborns: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Early n CPAP is more effective than late n CPAP for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, the early use of n CPAP would reduce the need for some invasive procedures such as intubation and mechanical ventilation.

  18. Comparing effects of Beractant and Poractant alfa in decreasing mortality rate due to respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Exogenous natural and synthetic surfactants is a rescue treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The goals of the study were to compare the clinical response and side-effects of two frequently used surfactants, poractant alfa (Curosurf and beractant (Survanta, for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants."n "nMethods: This clinical trial study was performed during a two-year period in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Sample size calculated by a 95% confidence and power of 80, included 104 premature neonates, 74 in survanta and 30 in curosurf groups. The level of statistical significance was considered to be < 0.05."n "nResults: There were no statistically significant differences between the infants treated by survanta or cursurf groups regarding their mean gestational age (30.58 Vs. 29.00 weeks and birth weight (1388 Vs. 1330 g, (p=0.3 There were also no significant differences between the two groups regarding incidences of broncho- pulmonary dysplasia (BPD (40.5% Vs. 40%, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH grades III/IV (13.5% Vs. 13.3%, pneumothorax (both 20%, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (28/3% Vs. 20% or death (28% Vs. 26.6% on the 28th day postpartum."n "nConclusion: This study showed that survanta and curosurf had similar therapeutic effects in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  19. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

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    Xianming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS.Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP. All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment.For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg, lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7 and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9 in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1.Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  20. Spirometry-related pain and distress in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis: The role of acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Casier, Annabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Vervoort, Tine; Theunis, Marleen; Huse, Danielle; De Baets, Frans; Matthys, Dirk; Crombez, Geert

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of spirometry-related pain and distress in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF), and to investigate the role of acceptance of illness in spirometry-related pain and distress.METHODS: A total of 36 adolescents and young adults with CF (12 to 22 years of age) completed a questionnaire assessing acceptance of illness. Spirometry-related distress was assessed using self-report (ie, anxiety/worry about the procedure) and physiological outc...

  1. Comparison of chest radiography and static respiratory compliance in the assessment of the severity of pulmonary diseases in newborns with respiratory distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 55 newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) we compared chest radiographs and static respiratory compliance to see which of the two methods would best characterize the severity of pulmonary disease. There was a significant correlation between radiological score and compliance (rsub(s)=-0.5776, n=55, p=0.001). Healthy newborns, newborns with RDS who did not need artificial ventilation and those newborns who needed respirator treatment had significantly different values of radiological score and compliance. RDS may be differentiated into groups of diagnoses. New-borns with HMD could be separated from those with wet lung syndrome or aspiration pneumonia by analyzing the radiogram or measuring the compliance. When survivors are compared with those newborns who died, the static respiratory compliance alone could predict the final outcome. (orig.)

  2. Mortality risk factors in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome treated by mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidanovski Duško

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS is the most common cause of respiratory failure and requirement for mechanical ventilation (MV of newborns. RDS is also common cause of mortality and severe morbidity in premature infants. In developing countries, despite facilities for respiratory care of newborn infants, RDS mortality rate and percentage of complications still remain high in comparison to the developed countries. Survival rates of RDS infants requiring MV ranged from 25% in those newborns with birth weight <1000 grams up to 53% in those with birth weight >2500 grams. There have been limited data about causes of high mortality rate in infants with RDS from developing countries. AIM The objectives of the study were to determine (I the incidence of severe RDS at Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU, University Children's Hospital Skopje (UCHS and main characteristics of infants with RDS, as well as (II the survival rate and mortality risk factors of these infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 126 premature infants with clinical and radiological signs of RDS requiring mechanical ventilation who were admitted to PICU, UCHS between January 1996 and December 2003. The mean gestational age (GA of the infants was 31.5+2.5 weeks, and the mean birth weight (BW was 1663+489 grams. The management of newborns with RDS at PICU, UCHS, follows the standard protocol, with emphasis on minimal manipulation, maintenance of thermo neutral environment, administration of humidified oxygen and non-invasive cardio respiratory monitoring. Pressure-limited time-cycled mechanical ventilation with pediatric/neonatal ventilators was performed in all infants. In those newborn infants with clinical and radiological signs of RDS and need for MV with FiO2>0.4, synthetic (Exosurf or natural (Survanta surfactants were administered. Out of all newborns, 43 infants (34% were not treated with surfactant, because it was not available at that time. RESULTS In the period

  3. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results (DRD, depression and the combination DRD-depression with demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed using generalized linear models. From 752 invited people, 700 participated (mean age 56.9 years, 52.8% female, 52.9% Malay, 79.1% married). Prevalence of DRD and depression were 49.2% and 41.7%, respectively. Distress and depression were correlated, spearman's r = 0.50. Patients with higher DRD were younger (OR 0.995, 95% CI 0.996 to 0.991), Chinese (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29), attending Dengkil health clinic (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.22) and had higher scores on the PHQ (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06). Depression was less likely in the unmarried compared to divorced/separately living and those attending Dengkil health clinic, but more likely in patients with microvascular complications (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.73) and higher DDS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03). For the combination of DRD and depression, unemployment (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.02 to 21.20) had positive association, whereas those under medical care at the Salak health clinics (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63), and those with a blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89) were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics

  4. Clinical characteristics, diagnosis and management of respiratory distress syndrome in full-term neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhi-chun; SHI Yun; DONG Jian-ying; ZHENG Tian; LI Jing-ya; LU Li-li; LIU Jing-jing; LIANG Jing; ZHANG Hao

    2010-01-01

    Background Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the most common causes of neonatal respiratory failure and neonatal death, however, its clinical characteristics are very different from premature RDS, and these characteristics have not been well documented as yet. This study was to investigate the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics and management strategies of RDS in full-term neonates, with the aim of developing a working protocol for improving the outcome in full-term neonates with RDS.Methods A total of 125 full-term infants with RDS were enrolled in this study. Their clinical and laboratory data were collected for analyzing the characteristics of full-term neonatal RDS.Results (1) The 125 cases included 94 male and 31 female infants, vaginal delivery occurred in 80 cases and cesarean section in 45 cases. (2) The onset time of RDS was (3.11±3.59) hours after birth. (3)The possible reasons included severe perinatal infections in 63 patients, elective cesarean section in 34 cases, severe birth asphyxia in 12 patients,meconium aspiration syndrome in 9 patients, pulmonary hemorrhage in 4 patients and matemal diabetes in 3 patients. (4)Complications included multiple organ system failure (MOSF) in 49 patients, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) in 25 patients, acute renal failure in 18 patients, severe hyperkalemia in 25 patients, severe metabolic acidosis in 6 cases, severe myocardial injury in 9 cases, pulmonary hemorrhage in 3 cases, disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 patients and shock in 12 patients.(5) Four patients died, the mortality was therefore 3.2% with the main cause of septicemia complicating of MOSF, but their prognosis was improved while comprehensive treatment measures including early mechanical ventilation and broad spectrum antibiotics were taken into account.Conclusions RDS is not an uncommon disease in full-term infants and is associated with a higher mortality, its clinical characteristics are very

  5. Lung ventilation strategies for acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changsong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Chi, Chunjie; Guo, Libo; Guo, Lei; Zhao, Nana; Wang, Weiwei; Pi, Xin; Sun, Bo; Lian, Ailing; Shi, Jinghui; Li, Enyou

    2016-01-01

    To identify the best lung ventilation strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), we performed a network meta-analysis. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Web of Science were searched, and 36 eligible articles were included. Compared with higher tidal volumes with FiO2-guided lower positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP], the hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were 0.624 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.419-0.98) for lower tidal volumes with FiO2-guided lower PEEP and prone positioning and 0.572 (0.34-0.968) for pressure-controlled ventilation with FiO2-guided lower PEEP. Lower tidal volumes with FiO2-guided higher PEEP and prone positioning had the greatest potential to reduce mortality, and the possibility of receiving the first ranking was 61.6%. Permissive hypercapnia, recruitment maneuver, and low airway pressures were most likely to be the worst in terms of all-cause mortality. Compared with higher tidal volumes with FiO2-guided lower PEEP, pressure-controlled ventilation with FiO2-guided lower PEEP and lower tidal volumes with FiO2-guided lower PEEP and prone positioning ventilation are associated with lower mortality in ARDS patients. Lower tidal volumes with FiO2-guided higher PEEP and prone positioning ventilation and lower tidal volumes with pressure-volume (P-V) static curve-guided individual PEEP are potential optimal strategies for ARDS patients. PMID:26955891

  6. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome by exome-seq.

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    Katherine Shortt

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a lung condition characterized by impaired gas exchange with systemic release of inflammatory mediators, causing pulmonary inflammation, vascular leak and hypoxemia. Existing biomarkers have limited effectiveness as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. To identify disease-associating variants in ARDS patients, whole-exome sequencing was performed on 96 ARDS patients, detecting 1,382,399 SNPs. By comparing these exome data to those of the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP which are potentially associated with ARDS. 50,190SNPs were found in all case subgroups and controls, of which89 SNPs were associated with susceptibility. We validated three SNPs (rs78142040, rs9605146 and rs3848719 in additional ARDS patients to substantiate their associations with susceptibility, severity and outcome of ARDS. rs78142040 (C>T occurs within a histone mark (intron 6 of the Arylsulfatase D gene. rs9605146 (G>A causes a deleterious coding change (proline to leucine in the XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 3 gene. rs3848719 (G>A is a synonymous SNP in the Zinc-Finger/Leucine-Zipper Co-Transducer NIF1 gene. rs78142040, rs9605146, and rs3848719 are associated significantly with susceptibility to ARDS. rs3848719 is associated with APACHE II score quartile. rs78142040 is associated with 60-day mortality in the overall ARDS patient population. Exome-seq is a powerful tool to identify potential new biomarkers for ARDS. We selectively validated three SNPs which have not been previously associated with ARDS and represent potential new genetic biomarkers for ARDS. Additional validation in larger patient populations and further exploration of underlying molecular mechanisms are warranted.

  7. A preterm pig model of lung immaturity and spontaneous infant respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminita, Frank; van der Merwe, Marie; Hance, Brittany; Krishnan, Ramesh; Miller, Sarah; Buddington, Karyl; Buddington, Randal K

    2015-01-15

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia remain the leading causes of preterm infant morbidity, mortality, and lifelong disability. Research to improve outcomes requires translational large animal models for RDS. Preterm pigs delivered by caesarian section at gestation days (GD) 98, 100, 102, and 104 were provided 24 h of neonatal intensive care, monitoring (pulse oximetry, blood gases, serum biomarkers, radiography), and nutritional support, with or without intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV; pressure control ventilation with volume guarantee). Spontaneous development of RDS and mortality without MV are inversely related with GD at delivery and correspond with inadequacy of tidal volume and gas exchange. GD 98 and 100 pigs have consolidated lungs, immature alveolar architecture, and minimal surfactant protein-B expression, and MV is essential at GD 98. Although GD 102 pigs had some alveoli lined by pneumocytes and surfactant was released in response to MV, blood gases and radiography revealed limited recruitment 1-2 h after delivery, and mortality at 24 h was 66% (35/53) with supplemental oxygen provided by a mask and 69% (9/13) with bubble continuous positive airway pressure (8-9 cmH2O). The lungs at GD 104 had higher densities of thin-walled alveoli that secreted surfactant, and MV was not essential. Between GD 98 and 102, preterm pigs have ventilation inadequacies and risks of RDS that mimic those of preterm infants born during the saccular phase of lung development, are compatible with standards of neonatal intensive care, and are alternative to fetal nonhuman primates and lambs. PMID:25398985

  8. Prophylaxis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome by intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 王英兰; 王蕴慧; 张睿; 陈环; 苏浩彬

    2004-01-01

    Background Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is caused by a deficiency in pulmonary surfactant (PS) and is one of the main reasons of neonatal mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant for prophylaxis of NRDS.Methods Forty-five pregnant women who were due for preterm delivery and whose fetuses' lungs proved immature were divided into two groups. Fifteen women (study group) were administered one dose of pulmonary surfactant injected into the amniotic cavity and delivered within several hours. Nothing was injected into the amniotic cavity of 30 women of the control group. The proportion of neonatal asphyxia, NRDS, mortality and the time in hospital were analyzed to determine if there was any difference between the two groups. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups for neonatal asphyxia. Foam tests showed that higher proportion of neonates in the study group than in the control group (56.3% vs 13.3%, P<0.05) had lung maturity. A greater number of control neonates (11/30, 32.3%) had NRDS, compared with the neonates given PS via the amniotic cavity before delivery (1/16, 6.3%, P<0.05). The neonates in the study group spent nearly 10 days less in hospital than the control group [(32.4±7.6) days vs (42.0±15.7) days, P<0.05], but the difference in mortality between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions Intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant can significantly reduce the proportion of NRDS and the time in hospital of preterm neonates. Whether this method can reduce the mortality of preterm neonates needs to be evaluated further. Intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant provides an additional effectual means for NRDS prophylaxis.

  9. Surfactant protein B gene polymorphism in preterm babies with respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.R. Lyra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS is multifactorial and multigenic. Studies have suggested that polymorphisms and mutations in the surfactant protein B (SP-B gene are associated with the pathogenesis of RDS. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the frequencies of SP-B gene polymorphisms in preterm babies with and without RDS. We studied 151 neonates: 79 preterm babies without RDS and 72 preterm newborns with RDS. The following four SP-B gene polymorphisms were analyzed: A/C at -18, C/T at 1580, A/G at 9306, and G/C at nucleotide 8714. The polymorphisms were detected by PCR amplification of genomic DNA and genotyping. The genotypes were determined using PCR-based converted restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The control group consisted of 42 (53% girls and 37 (47% boys. Weight ranged from 1170 to 3260 g and mean gestational age (GA was 33.9 weeks (range: 29 to 35 weeks and 6 days. The RDS group consisted of 31 (43% girls and 41 (57% boys. Weight ranged from 614 to 2410 g and mean GA was 32 weeks (range: 26 to 35 weeks. The logistic regression model showed that GA was the variable that most contributed to the occurrence of RDS. The AG genotype of the A/G polymorphism at position 9306 of the SP-B gene was a protective factor in this population (OR = 0.1681; 95%CI = 0.0426-0.6629. We did not detect differences in the frequencies of the other polymorphisms between the two groups of newborns.

  10. Pneumothorax in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome: focus on risk factors

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    Sabina Terzic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumothorax is a life threatening condition, more often seen in immature infants receiving mechanical ventilation. It carries a significant risk of death and impaired outcome.Objective: To determine predictive factors for the occurrence of pneumothorax in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.Patients and methods: The present study was conducted in a tertiary research and educational hospital, NICU, Pediatric Clinic UKC Sarajevo, from January 2010 to December 2013. All infants had chest X-ray at admission, and were treated due to RDS with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, or high frequency oscillatory ventilation. At admission we registered data regarding birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, prenatally given steroids. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 417 infants. Data about timing, circumstances, side and treatment of pneumothorax were gathered from medical records.Results: Mean birth weight was 1,477 g, mean gestational age 29.6 weeks. We report 98 infants who did not survive. We also report incidence of pneumothorax in 5% of the infants with RDS. In this study pneumothorax and non-pneumothorax groups didn’t differ regarding sex, gestational age (median 29 and 30 nor birth weight (p = 0.818. Apgar score at the 1st and 5th minute of life had no influence in genesis of pulmonary air leak, neither prenatally given steroids (p = 0.639, nor surfactant administration. There was a low coverage of preterm infants with prenatal steroids (overall 28.29%. We found that FiO2 ≥ 0.4 in the first 12 hours of life, and need for mechanical ventilation are predicting factors for developing pneumothorax (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Together with mechanical ventilation, inspired fraction of oxygen higher than 40%, needed to provide adequate oxygenation in the first 12 hours of life in preterm infants, could be a predictive factor in selecting the highest risk babies for development of

  11. Chest roentgenographic findings of thymic size and shape in respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thymic size can be affected by both exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids. Development of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is influenced by adrenal cortical function. Thus, thymic size in RDS is considered to be enlarged due to decreased adrenal cortical function. To find whether the presence of RDS correlates with the thymus, the size and shape of the thymus were evaluated in the radiographs of premature infants with RDS, without RDS (control prematurity) and normal infants. The subjects were consisted of chest films of Korean premature infants, 120 with RDS, 60 without RDS, and 60 of normal infants taken at the Department of Radiology, Our Lady of Mercy Hospital during the period of 62 months since January 1978. Relative size of the thymus was determine by cardiothymic/thoracic ratio (CT /T ratio). Grading and location of the thymic prominence as well as incidence of the shape were examined. And all the relations among the radiographs of RDS, control prematurity and normal infants were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The CT/T ratio of premature infants with RDS was significantly greater than that of control prematurity and normal infants (P< 0.01). 2. The incidence of bilateral thymic prominence was more frequent in premature infant with RDS than in control prematurity and normal infants (P<0.05). 3. The frequency of thymic prominence was greater in the right than left side in all the three groups (P<0.05). 4. As in the shape of the thymus, a rounded type was most frequent, and a triangular type was least frequent in all three groups. 5. Incident of RDS was very low (9.8%) when the CT/T ratio is below 0.3 and it was very high (90.9%) when the CT/T ratio is above 0.49.

  12. Marriage Amendments and Psychological Distress in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Riggle, Ellen D. B.; Horne, Sharon G.; Miller, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    An online survey of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults (N = 1,552) examined minority stress (I. H. Meyer, 2003) and psychological distress following the 2006 general election in which constitutional amendments to limit marriage to 1 man and 1 woman were on the ballot in 9 states. Following the November election, participants living in states…

  13. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  14. Rapidly progressive Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia presenting with pneumothorax, persistent air leak, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ dysfunction: a case report

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    Chakravorty Indranil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia (BOOP may often present initially as a recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax and then develop multi-system complications. Case presentation A 17-year-old boy presented with a pneumothorax, which developed into rapidly progressive Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia (BOOP. He developed multi-organ dysfunction (including adult respiratory distress syndrome, oliguric renal failure, acute coronary syndrome, cardiac failure and a right atrial thrombus which necessitated prolonged intensive care. Diagnosis was confirmed on open lung biopsy and he responded well to treatment with corticosteroids. Conclusion BOOP is exquisitely sensitive to oral corticosteroids but if the diagnosis is not considered in such patients and appropriate treatment instituted early, BOOP may often lead to prolonged hospital admission with considerable morbidity.

  15. Test of the depression distress amplification model in young adults with elevated risk of current suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Daniel W; Lamis, Dorian A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-11-30

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults and the rate of suicide has been increasing for decades. A depression distress amplification model posits that young adults with comorbid depression and anxiety have elevated suicide rates due to the intensification of their depressive symptoms by anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The current study tested the effects of anxiety sensitivity subfactors as well as the depression distress amplification model in a very large sample of college students with elevated suicide risk. Participants were 721 college students who were at elevated risk of suicidality (scored>0 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation). Consistent with prior work, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, but not physical or social concerns, were associated with suicidal ideation. Consistent with the depression distress amplification model, in individuals high in depression, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns predicted elevated suicidal ideation but not among those with low depression. The results of this study corroborate the role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and the depression distress amplification model in suicidal ideation among a large potentially high-risk group of college students. The depression distress amplification model suggests a specific mechanism, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, that may be responsible for increased suicide rates among those with comorbid anxiety and depression. PMID:25063018

  16. QL-04FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUICIDAL IDEATION IN CLINICALLY DISTRESSED ADULT GLIOMA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pia; Cloughesy, Timothy; Cervantes, Sandra; Pham, Jennifer; Nghiemphu, Phioanh; Lai, Albert; Wellisch, David

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During patient care, it is critical to identify the glioma patients who are experiencing suicidal ideation among those who present with elevated levels of psychological distress, so appropriate interventions can be implemented. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that differentiated adult glioma patients with possible suicidal ideation from those without suicidal ideation among patients experiencing psychological distress. METHODS: 317 adult patients with WHO Grade II-IV glioma completed a psychosocial questionnaire comprised of several measures: Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) on general psychological distress, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 on depressive symptoms, General Anxiety Disorder-7 on anxiety symptoms, Revised Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale on fatigue, and CCSS Neurocognitive Questionnaire on cognitive symptoms. Patients with clinically elevated levels of psychological distress were identified, as determined by a BSI-18 Total T Score ≥ 50 (per Recklitis, 2007). Possible suicidal ideation was identified by endorsement of a positive response to BSI-18 item "thoughts of ending your life.“ T-tests, chi-square tests, and regression were utilized to identify the factors that distinguished the patients who endorsed possible suicidal ideation from those who did not, among the subset of patients with clinically elevated distress levels. RESULTS: 116 patients (36.6%) endorsed clinically significant distress levels. Of these, 17 patients (14.7%) endorsed possible suicidal ideation. Significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety, overall fatigue, emotional fatigue, emotional lability, task inefficiency, and memory concerns (p < .01) distinguished the patients with suicidal ideation. No medical characteristics (e.g., tumor location, grade, KPS, chemotherapy) or demographics (e.g., age, gender) significantly differentiated those with suicidal ideation from those without. CONCLUSION: The rates of clinically elevated psychological

  17. A 2-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF BABIES ENROLLED IN A EUROPEAN MULTICENTER TRIAL OF PORCINE SURFACTANT REPLACEMENT FOR SEVERE NEONATAL RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROBERTSON, B; CURSTEDT, T; TUBMAN, R; STRAYER, D; BERGGREN, P; KOK, J; KOPPE, J; VANSONDEREN, L; HALLIDAY, H; MCCLURE, G; REID, M; OETEMO, SB; OKKEN, A; SPEER, C; SCHROTER, W; SVENNINGSEN, N; WALTI, H; RELIER, JP

    1992-01-01

    The postnatal growth, respiratory status and neurodevelopmental outcome of surviving babies enrolled in the first European multicentre trial of porcine surfactant (Curosurf) replacement for severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, were assessed at corrected ages of 1 and 2 years. Follow up rat

  18. Prevalence and diagnosis of chronic respiratory symptoms in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Littlejohns, P; Ebrahim, S; Anderson, R

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence and diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease in adults. DESIGN--Screening questionnaire was sent to all patients aged 40-70 on the register of a group general practice; those responding positively were sent a detailed questionnaire and invited for assessment of respiratory function by forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity, peak flow rate, and reversibility studies with a beta adrenergic inhaler. SETTING--Group general practice i...

  19. Current Issues and Challenges in the Use of Aerosolized Surfactant for Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborns

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    Dion Darius Samsudin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surfactant replacement therapy is a recognized treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in the newborns. Over the past 30 years, human and animal trials have been performed regarding administration of aerosolized surfactant to the injured lung, however the result has been unsatisfactory when compared with instilled surfactant delivery via endotracheal tube (ETT. This review aims to investigate the current issues, challenges and future recommendation of aerosolized surfactant therapy. CONTENT: Five randomized clinical trials in humans and 13 animal trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Most animal trials agree that this method of treatment is feasible. However, human trials presented conflicting results, and generally showed it to be ineffective. When compared with surfactant delivery via ETT, aerosolized surfactant is less effective in improving respiratory function. SUMMARY: The current data from human trials does not support the implementation of aerosolized surfactant therapy to treat newborns with RDS. Further research is necessary to improve nebulization, delivery, distribution and deposition in the lung, to investigate aerosolized surfactant delivery via ETT and to determine the appropriate dose. KEYWORDS: surfactant, aerosol, prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome.

  20. Evaluation of Serum Levels of N-terminal Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Neonates with Respiratory Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Mohammad Noori; Sima Savadkoohi; Alireza Teimouri; Fatemeh Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory distress (ARD) is a critical respiratory failure due to lung injury of neonates leading to the clinical appearance of poor lung compliance. The aimed of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic values in differentiating respiratory from heart diseases with using of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) and Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) in neonates. Material and Methods: Ninety  neonates  randomly collected from those who hospitalized in the neon...

  1. Vision loss and psychological distress among Ethiopians adults: a comparative cross-sectional study.

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    Aemero Abateneh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62. Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015 and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54 were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of

  2. Vision Loss and Psychological Distress among Ethiopians Adults: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abateneh, Aemero; Tesfaye, Markos; Bekele, Sisay; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. Results The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62). Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015) and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54) were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. Conclusion Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of psychosocial care into the

  3. Demographic Correlates of Psychological Well-Being and Distress Among Older African Americans and Caribbean Black Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of psychological distress and psychological well-being among older African American and black Caribbean adults. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life revealed that psychological well-being and psychological distress are distinct concepts. Findings also identify distinct correlates of psychological well-being (e.g., happiness, life satisfaction, self-rated mental health) and psychological distress (e.g., depressive symptoms, serious psy...

  4. Effect of parenterally l-arginine supplementation on the respiratory distress syndrome in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Murat; Akin, Mustafa Ali; Akcakus, Mustafa; Ozcan, Alper; Gunes, Tamer; Ozturk, Adnan; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2016-07-01

    l-Arginine (l-Arg) is the precursor of nitric oxide which plays an important role on pulmonary circulation and pulmonary vascular tone. Earlier studies suggested that l-Arg levels in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were low due to its consumption and l-Arg supplementation may reduce the severity of RDS. Our aim was detect the effect of the parenterally l-Arg supplementation on RDS severity. The subjects were chosen between preterm newborns (gestational age <34 weeks) (n = 30). Twenty of the subjects were diagnosed with permaturity and RDS, and 10 of the subjects were healthy preterm newborns. Ten of the subjects was taken l-Arg (1.5 mmol/kg/d) in addition to routine RDS treatment and assumed as "Group 1". In this group, daily l-Arg supplementation was started end of the first day, and continued at end of fifth day. The others of the subjects diagnosed with RDS was take routine RDS treatment and assumed as "Group 2". Healthy preterm newbors assumed as "Group 3". Blood collections for l-Arg levels via tandem mass spectrometry were made in first day and repeated on the seventh days. Oxygenation index was used to determine severity of RDS. l-Arg consentrations in Group 1 were 8.7 ± 4.1 μM/L and 11.9 ± 5.0 μM/L in first and seventh day, respectively. l-Arg consentrations were 12.6±4.5 μM/Land 10.9 ± 5.4 μM/L in Group 2 and 8.6 ± 5.1 μM/L and 9.4 ± 4.1 μM/L in Group 3. There is no correlation between l-Arg concentrations and OI also duration of the mechanical ventilation of the subjects in patient groups (Group 1 and 2). PMID:26365434

  5. Innate Lymphoid Cells are the Predominant Source of Interleukin-17A During the Early Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, Roshell; Osbourn, Megan; Dubois, Alice V.; Doran, Emma; Small, Donna M; Monahan, Avril; O'Kane, Cecilia M.; McAllister, Katherine; Fitzgerald, Denise C; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; McAuley, Daniel F; Ingram, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: IL-17A is purported to help drive early pathogenesis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by enhancing neutrophil recruitment. Whilst IL-17A is the archetypal cytokine of T helper (Th)17 cells, it is produced by a number of lymphocytes, the source during ARDS being unknown. Objectives: To identify the cellular source and the role of IL17A in the early phase of lung injuryMethods: Lung injury was induced in WT (C57BL/6) and IL-17 KO mice with aerosolised LPS (100 µg) or Pse...

  6. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis as a cause of respiratory distress in newborns: presentation diagnosed by menas of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of newborn airway obstruction. It can be clinically indistinguishable from choanal atresia, which is much more frequent. CT confirms the diagnosis by revealing in detail the anatomical alterations underlying this anomaly. These might or might not occur in association with other alterations. We present 4 cases of CNPAS, all of which presented respiratory distress and clinical symptoms similar to those of choanal atresia in newborn children. The premature diagnosis and a conventional treatment of tube placement in order to keep the airway open, until the pyriform aperture grows large enough to permit normal breathing, resulted in recovery of the patients. (Author) 12 refs

  7. Efficacy of Surfactant-TA, Calfactant and Poractant Alfa for Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Ga Won; Oh, Minkyung; Sin, Jong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of the new drug calfactant with the commonly used drugs surfactant-TA and poractant alfa. Materials and Methods A total of 332 preterm infants at 24-31 weeks' gestation with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were enrolled and allocated to three groups according to the surfactant instilled; Group 1 (n=146, surfactant-TA), Group 2 (n=96, calfactant), and Group 3 (n=90, poractant alfa). The diagnosis of RDS and the decision to replace the pulmonary surfactant we...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inherited condition that causes muscle weakness and respiratory failure typically beginning in infancy. Early features of this ... of the disorder later in childhood. Soon after respiratory failure occurs, individuals with SMARD1 develop muscle weakness in ...

  9. Comparing the Efficacy of two Natural Surfactants, Curosurf and Alveofact, in Treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Surfactant replacement therapy and respiratory support are the corn stones for respiratory distress syndrome treatment. Natural surfactants, which are animal derived, have been considered superior to synthetic ones, but the superior type of natural surfactant is still unknown. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of two types of natural surfactants, Poractan alfa (Curosurf and Alveofact, in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial 130 inborn preterm newborn infants with gestation age less than 32 weeks were randomly allocated to two groups; 66 neonates received Curosurf and 64 infants treated with Alveofact. Results: Demographic characteristics of infants were similar in two groups' patients. The mean number of surfactant replacement therapy was significantly more in Alveofact group (1.79 ±0.92 vs. 1.22±0.48, p<0.001. The remaining on ventilator support through 7 days was noted in 9 infants that all of them was treated with Alveofact, p=0.001. The mean duration of oxygen supplementation and hospital stay were 10.97±2.21 and 24.50±23.85 days in Alveofact group vs. 7.31±1.65 and 25.25±20.61days in Curosurf group, p=0.03 and p=0.16 respectively. The rate of complications was similar among patients in two groups. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate short term benefit with respect to respiratory support in Curosurf treated patients without significant difference in other consequences till discharge. Future studies with larger number of patients are recommended for determining superior natural surfactant.

  10. Immigration, transition into adult life and social adversity in relation to psychological distress and suicide attempts among young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kosidou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people is a major concern in many Western countries. The causal mechanisms underlying these trends are not well established, but factors influenced by current societal changes ought to be implicated. Such factors include immigration and social adversity as well as the timing of taking on adult social roles (e.g. gainful employment, parenthood and own housing tenure. We therefore examined relationships between these factors and the risks of psychological distress as well as suicide attempts in young adults, with a focus on gender differences. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study including 10,081 individuals aged 18-29, recruited in 2002 and 2006 in Stockholm, Sweden. Data were collected by record linkage and questionnaires. RESULTS: Non-European immigrants had an increased risk of distress, and female non-European immigrants had a markedly higher risk of suicide attempts. Both early parenthood (≤ 24 years and not being a parent, being a student and the lack of own housing tenure were associated with distress, but only in women. In both sexes, financial strain was associated with the increased risk of distress and suicide attempts, while unemployment was only associated with distress. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration from outside Europe and social adversity are associated with mental health problems in young adults, especially females. Postponed transition into adulthood is associated with poor mental health in young women. These factors are influenced by current societal changes, and may have contributed to the increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people in Western countries.

  11. Assisting the Adult with a Respiratory Condition: Pharmacology. Care of the Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoka-Hennepin Area Vocational Technical Inst., MN.

    These two units for students in a practical nursing program provide supplemental instruction, with a focus on pharmacology, in caring for adult patients with a respiratory condition. Unit titles are Antibiotics, and Drugs that Affect the Respiratory System. Each unit contains the following: objectives, an introduction, and five to nine learning…

  12. Follow-up after acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza a (H1N1 virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Toufen Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no reports on the long-term follow-up of patients with swine-origin influenza A virus infection that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Four patients were prospectively followed up with pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography for six months after admission to an intensive care unit. RESULTS: Pulmonary function test results assessed two months after admission to the intensive care unit showed reduced forced vital capacity in all patients and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide in two patients. At six months, pulmonary function test results were available for three patients. Two patients continued to have a restrictive pattern, and none of the patients presented with abnormal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. All of them had a diffuse ground-glass pattern on high-resolution computed tomography that improved after six months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the marked severity of lung disease at admission, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by swine-origin influenza A virus infection presented a late but substantial recovery over six months of follow-up.

  13. Changes in lung parenchyma after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): assessment with high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the appearance, extent, and distribution of parenchymal changes in the lung after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a function of disease severity and therapeutic procedures. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), clinical examination, and lung function tests were performed in 15 patients, 6-10 months after ARDS. The appearance and extent of parenchymal changes were compared with the severity of ARDS, as well as with clinical and therapeutic data. Lung parenchymal changes resembling those found in the presence of pulmonary fibrosis were observed in 13 of 15 patients (87%). The changes were significantly more frequent and more pronounced in the ventral than in the dorsal portions of the lung (p<0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the extent of lung alterations and the severity of ARDS (p<0.01), and the duration in which patients had received mechanical ventilation either with a peak inspiratory pressure greater than 30 mmHg (p<0.05), or with more than 70% oxygen (p<0.01). Acute respiratory distress syndrome frequently is followed by fibrotic changes in lung parenchyma. The predominantly ventral distribution of these changes indicates that they may be caused by the ventilation regimen and the oxygen therapy rather than by the ARDS. (orig.)

  14. Polytraumatization in an adult national sample and its association with psychological distress and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Doris; Dahlström, Örjan; Pribe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2014-01-01

    AbstractObjective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. Method A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a...

  15. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review

    OpenAIRE

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M.; Wakefield, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This ...

  16. Distress and Recurrence of Intrusive Thoughts in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Magee, Joshua C; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study incorporated a lifespan perspective into existing theories of intrusive thoughts to examine age-related differences in the difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts, the distress following intrusive thought recurrences, and the meanings assigned to these recurrences. Younger (N = 51) and older (N = 49) community adults were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought. Participants rated their positive and negative affect throughout ...

  17. Psychological Distress and Health Insurance Coverage among Formerly Incarcerated Young Adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Larrell L. Wilkinson; Glover, Saundra H.; Janice C. Probst; Bo Cai; Wigfall, Lisa T.

    2015-01-01

    The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation. Studies have consistently demonstrated higher prevalence of serious mental illness among the incarcerated. Although health care may be available to individuals while incarcerated, research is needed to understand the context of health care coverage and mental health after incarceration. The purpose of this study is to estimate the point prevalence of psychological distress (PD) among young adults with incarceration e...

  18. Risk factors of mortality in road traffic injury patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-gang; WU Jun-song; HE Xiao-di; MA Yue-feng; ZHANG Mao; GAN Jian-xin; XU Shao-wen; JIANG Guan-yu

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the deaths due to trauma,about one half of the patients suffer from road traffic injury(RTI).Most of RTI patients complicate acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)and severe multiple injuries.ARDS is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in trauma patients.Although many injuries and conditions are believed to be associated with ARDS independent risk factors in trauma patients.their relative importance in development of the syndrome are undefined.We hypothesize that not all of the traditionaI risk factors impacting mortality are independently associated with patients strictly identified by traffic injury.This study aimed to sieve distinctive risk factors in our RTI population,meanwhile,we also hypothesize that there may exist significantly different risk factors in these patients.Methods This was a retrospective cohort study regarding RTI as a single cause for emergency intensive care unit (EICU)admission.Patients identified as severe RTI with post-traumatic ARDS were enrolled in a prospectively maintained database between May 2002 and April 2007 and observed.Twenty-three items of potential risk impacting mortality were calculated by univariate and multivariate Logistic analyses in order to find distinctive iterns in these severe RTI patients.Results There were 247 RTI patients with post-traumatic ARDS admitted to EICU during the study period.The unadjusted odds ratio(OR)and 95% confidence intervals(CI) of mortality were associated with six risk factors out of 23:APACHE Ⅱ score,duration of trauma factor,pulmonary contusion,aspiration of gastric contents,sepsis and duration of mechanical ventilation.The adjusted ORs with 95% CI were denoted with respect to surviving beyond 96 hours EICU admission(APACHE Ⅱ score,duration of trauma factor,aspiration of gastric contents),APACHE Ⅱ score beyond 20 EICU admission(duration of trauma factor,sepsis,duration of mechanical ventilation)and mechanicaI ventilation beyond 7 days EICU admission

  19. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome diagnosis after coronary artery bypass: comparison between diagnostic criteria and clinical picture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzar Vakili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS is a potential complication of cardiac surgery, given that patients undergoing CABG frequently have hypoxemia and pulmonary dysfunction during initial hours after surgery. Thus, ARDS criteria in these patients are more likely to be positive while these criteria may not match the patient`s clinical picture. We aimed to investigate frequency of rapid onset hypoxemia in Pressure of Arterial Oxygen to Fractional Inspired Oxygen Concentration (PaO2/FiO2 less than 200 and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates as two diagnostic criteria forwards and compared these criteria with the clinical picture of the patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG in this study. The study was prospective case series which carried out in about six months. All patients admitted to intensive care unit of Tehran Heart Center, who had undergone CABG on cardiopulmonary pump (CPB recruited in the study. After considering inclusion criteria, age, sex, duration of intubation, arterial blood gas and chest radiography, on 24 hours and 48 hours after admission to the ICU were recorded. Then, patients with rapid onset of hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2≤200mmHg and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and without sign or symptoms of obvious heart failure (probable positive ARDS cases criteria were recorded and comparison between these probable positive cases with clinician`s clinical diagnosis (blinded to the study was performed. In this study, a total of 300 patients after on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were included. Postoperatively, 2 (0.66 % in the 24 hours and 4 (1.33% patients in 48 hours after surgery were positive for the two ARDS criteria according to the checklists, but; nobody had saved persistently ARDS criteria persistently during 48 hours after surgery. At the same time, clinician did not report any case of ARDS among 300 patients. In this study patients with ARDS criteria had no significant differences in age (P.value=0.937 and sex (P

  20. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert Tr; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. PMID:27300271

  1. Successful use of inhaled nitric oxide to decrease intracranial pressure in a patient with severe traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome: a role for an anti-inflammatory mechanism?

    OpenAIRE

    Medhkour Azedine; Papadimos Thomas J; Yermal Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Use of inhaled nitric oxide in humans with traumatic brain injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome has twice previously been reported to be beneficial. Here we report a third case. We propose that INO may decrease the inflammatory response in patients with increased intracranial pressure caused by traumatic brain injury accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome thereby contributing to improved outcomes.

  2. Distress tolerance predicts coping motives for marijuana use among treatment seeking young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semcho, Stephen; Bilsky, Sarah A; Lewis, Sarah F; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-07-01

    Given increasing marijuana use and abuse among young adults in the United States and the associated physical and mental health consequences, it is important to improve our understanding of factors that may contribute to problematic marijuana use. A convergence of theory and research underscores the relevance of particular marijuana use motives generally, and coping-related motives specifically, in enhancing risk for marijuana use problems. Distress tolerance is a transdiagnostic emotion vulnerability factor that may relate to coping-related motives for marijuana use. The current study was designed to further explore this relationship within a treatment-seeking sample of young adults (Mage=24.40; SD=2.06 years). Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting distress tolerance is related to coping motives for marijuana use within this treatment-seeking sample, even after accounting for a number of theoretically relevant covariates. Theoretical and applied implications of distress tolerance as it relates to coping motives for marijuana use as treatment targets are discussed. PMID:26921722

  3. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  4. The role of surfactant and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in early management of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narayan Prabhu Iyer; Maroun Jean Mhanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surfactant replacement therapy has been used for few decades for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and has significantly improved morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Non-invasive respiratory support has recently emerged as a strategy in the early management of RDS. In this review, we discuss the different strategies of early management of RDS. Data sources: A literature search of PubMed database was conducted to review the subject. The quality of evidence of key clinical studies was graded according to a modified grading system of the international GRADE group. Results: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with selective surfactant is a safe alternative to routine intubation, surfactant and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants with spontaneous breathing, and such an approach has been associated with decreased risk of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There is a risk of pneumothorax when using a high pressure of CPAP (≥8 cm of H2O), a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 >75 mm of Hg), and a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 >0.6) as a threshold for intubation while on CPAP. Conclusion: Not all preterm infants need surfactant treatment, and non-invasive respiratory support is a safe and effective approach.

  5. Use of an oscillatory PEP device to enhance bronchial hygiene in a patient of post-H1NI pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome with pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Narula, Deepali; Nangia, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old, 14 week pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital with pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome in an intubated and mechanically ventilated state. She was diagnosed to have polymicrobial infection and left-sided pneumothorax and was put on a ventilator for 2 weeks. Postextubation, she found it difficult to clear her respiratory secretions despite aggressive routine chest physiotherapy. She was planned to undergo a mini-tracheostomy for tracheobronchial toileting. Ho...

  6. Roles of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in improving gas exchange in a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome patient after weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Yuya; Katayama, Shinshu; Shono, Atsuko; Mori, Yosuke; Miyazaki, Yuya; Sato, Yoko; Ozaki, Makoto; Kotani, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a major cause of difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is reported useful to improve the synchrony in patients with sustained low lung compliance. However, the role of NAVA has not been fully investigated. Case presentation The patient was a 63-year-old Japanese man with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to respiratory infection. He was treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ...

  7. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of surfactant treatment (Curosurf®) in respiratory distress syndrome therapy in preterm infants: early treatment compared to late treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dani, Carlo; Ravasio, Roberto; Fioravanti, Leonardo; Circelli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The best criteria for surfactant treatment in the perinatal period are unknown and this makes it of interest to consider the possible economic implications of lessening the use of more restrictive criteria. Objective The objective of this study is the evaluation of the costs of respiratory care for preterm infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) treated with "early rescue" surfactant compared to a "late rescue" strategy. Methods The study was carried out applying the costs...

  8. The relationship between psychological distress and multiple tender points across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deborah; Mulvey, Matthew; Cordingley, Lis; Rashid, Amir; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Duncan, Rosie; McBeth, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple tender points are common in the population and, in studies of mid-life adults, are strongly associated with high levels of psychological distress. Whether this relationship occurs in older adults is unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated whether high levels of psychological distress would be associated with a high tender point count and whether the relationship would be moderated by age. Three thousand three hundred and seventy-nine individuals were mailed a questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A random sample of approximately 10% of subjects who returned the questionnaire undertook a physical assessment, including a manual tender point count assessment. A total of 2385 (71%) subjects completed the questionnaire, of whom 798 (33%) were invited to take part in the physical assessment and 290 (12%) participated. Of the 290 participants the median age was 64 years (range 34-97) and 63% were female. The median HAD score was 9 (IQR 5-14) and the median number of tender points was 3 (range 0-7). Increasing HAD score was positively and significantly associated with tender point count, but this relationship was not moderated by age. In a final multivariable model, sex, HAD score and PSQI score were independent predictors of multiple tender points. Psychological distress was associated with multiple tender points independent of age. Psychological distress and trouble sleeping were important, potentially modifiable factors associated with the outcome. PMID:26607869

  9. The relationship between psychological distress and multiple tender points across the adult lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deborah; Mulvey, Matthew; Cordingley, Lis; Rashid, Amir; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Duncan, Rosie; McBeth, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple tender points are common in the population and, in studies of mid-life adults, are strongly associated with high levels of psychological distress. Whether this relationship occurs in older adults is unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated whether high levels of psychological distress would be associated with a high tender point count and whether the relationship would be moderated by age. Three thousand three hundred and seventy-nine individuals were mailed a questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A random sample of approximately 10% of subjects who returned the questionnaire undertook a physical assessment, including a manual tender point count assessment. A total of 2385 (71%) subjects completed the questionnaire, of whom 798 (33%) were invited to take part in the physical assessment and 290 (12%) participated. Of the 290 participants the median age was 64 years (range 34–97) and 63% were female. The median HAD score was 9 (IQR 5–14) and the median number of tender points was 3 (range 0–7). Increasing HAD score was positively and significantly associated with tender point count, but this relationship was not moderated by age. In a final multivariable model, sex, HAD score and PSQI score were independent predictors of multiple tender points. Psychological distress was associated with multiple tender points independent of age. Psychological distress and trouble sleeping were important, potentially modifiable factors associated with the outcome. PMID:26607869

  10. Epidemiology of respiratory distress and the illness severity in late preterm or term infants: a prospective multi-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-lu; YI Bin; SHI Jing-yun; DU Li-zhong; XU Xue-feng; CHEN Chao; YAN Chao-ying; LIU Ya-ming; LIU Ling; XIONG Hong; SUN Hui-qing; LAI Jian-pu

    2010-01-01

    Background The severity of respiratory distress was associated with neonatal prognosis. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics, therapeutic interventions and short-term outcomes of late preterm or term infants who required respiratory support, and compare the usage of different illness severity assessment tools.Methods Seven neonatal intensive care units in tertiary hospitals were recruited. From November 2008 to October 2009, neonates born at ≥34 weeks' gestational age, admitted at <72 hours of age, requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation for respiratory support were enrolled. Clinical data including demographic variables, underlying disease, complications, therapeutic interventions and short-term outcomes were collected. All infants were divided into three groups by Acute care of at-risk newborns (ACoRN) Respiratory Score <5, 5-8, and >8.Results During the study period, 503 newborn late preterm or term infants required respiratory support. The mean gestational age was (36.8±2.2) weeks, mean birth weight was (2734.5±603.5) g. The majority of the neonates were male (69.4%), late preterm (63.3%), delivered by cesarean section (74.8%), admitted in the first day of life (89.3%) and outborn (born at other hospitals, 76.9%). Of the cesarean section, 51.1% were performed electively. Infants in the severe group were more mature, had the highest rate of elective cesarean section, Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes and resuscitated with intubation, the in-hospital mortality increased significantly. In total, 58.1% of the patients were supported with mechanical ventilation and 17.3% received high frequency oscillation. Adjunctive therapies were commonly needed.Higher rate of infants in severe group needed mechanical ventilation or high frequency oscillation, volume expansion,bicarbonate infusion or vasopressors therapy (P <0.05). The incidence of complications was also increased significantly in severe group (P

  11. Scrub Typhus with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and its Management in Intensive Care Unit: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankuratri, Srinivas; Kalagara, Pavani; Samala, Kartika Balaji; Veledandi, Prabhakar Krishna; Atiketi, Srinadh Babu

    2015-05-01

    Scrub typhus is zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O tsutsugamushi). It is transmitted to humans by the bite of trombiculid mite larvae (chiggers). It is a re-emerging infectious disease in India. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, anorexia, myalgia, eschar, adenopathy and maculopapular rash. Complications of Scrub typhus develop after first week of illness. Complications include meningoencephalitis, jaundice, myocarditis, ARDS and renal failure. Eschar and rash may be unnoticed or absent. Thorough physical examination, identification of eschar/rash throws light in thinking about scrub typhus, treating and preventing further complications. Here, we report a case of scrub typhus with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and its management with non invasive ventilation in the intensive care unit. PMID:26155511

  12. Sleep after critical illness: Study of survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome and systematic review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Agrawal, Anshu Kumar; Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Behera, Digambar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study aims to evaluate the sleep quality, architecture, sleep-related quality of life, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors early after discharge. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, observational study, consecutive patients with ARDS discharged from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) underwent evaluation with Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and overnight polysomnography. Patients having one or more of the following characteristics were classified as having abnormal sleep: ESS>10, PSQI>5, FOSQ 10, seven (35%) had global PSQI>5 and one had FOSQ <17.9. Ten (50%) patients had at least one characteristic that suggested abnormal sleep (4 insomnia, 2 central sleep apnea, 1 obstructive sleep apnea, 1 REM-SDB, and 2 with a high PSQI, but no specific sleep abnormality). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are common in ARDS survivors early after discharge from the ICU. PMID:27390455

  13. DYNAMICS OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN-70 SYNTHESIS IN LUNGS DEPENDS ON THE STAGE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Prutkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS was reproduced in a rat model, by means of intratracheal instillation of granulocyte lysates (a method protected by Russian patent. Expression of HSP-70 in lung cells was determined by immunohistochemical technique at each ARDS stage. A significant increase of HSP-70 expression by all cell types was revealed during exudative stage, being more intensive in alveolocytes type 1, and less expressed in endothelium. During proliferative stage of the disorder, a decreased HSP-70 expression was noted in all cell populations. At these terms, it proved to be high in neutrophils and alveveolocytes type 1, whereas lower expression was registered in endothelium. At fibrotic stage, HSP-70 synthesis remained at high levels in neutrophils, macrophages, fibroblasts and alveolocytes type 1. Endothelium and alveolocytes type 2 exhibited a recurrent increase at fibrotic stage of ARDS, however it did not reach the values typical to the initial stage of the syndrome.

  14. Traumatic memories, post-traumatic stress disorder and serum cortisol levels in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Daniela; Weis, Florian; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often report traumatic memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and display a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As it is known that subjects with PTSD often show sustained reductions in circulating cortisol concent

  15. Distress Tolerance: Associations With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Trauma-Exposed, Cocaine-Dependent Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Amador, Christina D; Schmitz, Joy M

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined associations between distress tolerance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a cocaine-dependent sample. Participants were comprised of 138 cocaine-dependent adults (Mage = 45.4, SD = 9.9; 81% male; 76.3% African American) who endorsed trauma exposure, defined according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) PTSD Criterion A. Participants were administered interview-based measures and completed a series of self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that distress tolerance was significantly, incrementally (negatively) associated with PTSD symptom severity, contributing 6.8% of unique variance to the model (p < .001); notably, the overall model explained 44.8% of variance in PTSD symptomatology. Distress tolerance also contributed between 2.7% and 6.8% of unique variance across each of the PTSD symptom clusters (ps < .05). Incremental effects were documented, after accounting for the variance explained by theoretically relevant covariates (i.e., gender, cocaine-use severity, depressive symptoms, trauma-exposure severity). Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26681735

  16. Positive end expiratory pressure titrated by transpulmonary pressure improved oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with intra-abdominal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yi; LI Yang; LIU Song-qiao; LIU Ling; HUANG Ying-zi; GUO Feng-mei; QIU Hai-bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is common in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and when resulting in decrease of chest wall compliance will weaken the effect of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP).We investigated the effect of PEEP titrated by transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) on oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in ARDS patients with IAH compared with PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol.Methods ARDS patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Zhongda Hospital were enrolled.Patients were ventilated with volume control mode with tidal volume of 6 ml/kg under two different PEEP levels titrated by Ptp method and ARDSnet protocol.Respiratory mechanics,gas exchange and haemodynamics were measured after 30 minutes of ventilation in each round.IAH was defined as intra-abdominal pressure of 12 mmHg or more.Results Seven ARDS patients with IAH and 8 ARDS patients without IAH were enrolled.PEEP titrated by Ptp were significant higher than PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol in both ARDS patients with IAH ((17.3±2.6) cmH2O vs.(6.3±1.6)cmH2O and without IAH ((9.5±2.1) cmH2O vs.(7.8±1.9) cmH2O).Arterial pressure of O2/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2)was much higher under PEEP titrated by Ptp when compared with PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol in ARDS patients with IAH ((27.2±4.0) cmHg vs.(20.9± 5.0) cmHg.But no significant difference of PaO2/FiO2 between the two methods was found in ARDS patients without IAH.In ARDS patients with IAH,static compliance of lung and respiratory system were higher under PEEP titrated by Ptp than by ARDSnet protocol.In ARDS patients with IAH,central venous pressure (CVP) was higher during PEEP titrated by Ptp than byARDSnet protocol.Conclusion Positive end expiratory pressure titrated by transpulmonary pressure was higher than PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol and improved oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in ARDS patients with IAH.

  17. Comparative Study of pressure-control ventilation and volume-control ventilation in treating traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 黄卫东; 沈美亚; 徐哲荣

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect and side effect of pressure-control ventilation (PCV) on traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared with volume-control ventilation (VCV).Methods: Forty patients with traumatic ARDS were hospitalized in our department from June 1996 to December 2002. Twenty were treated with PCV (PCV group) and 20 with VCV (VCV group). The changes of the peak inflating pressure and the mean pressure of the airway were observed at the very beginning of the mechanical ventilation and the following 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The transcutaneous saturation of oxygen pressure, the pressure of oxygen in artery, the mean blood pressure, the central venous pressure, the heart rate and the incidence of the pressure injury were also monitored before ventilation and 12 hours after ventilation.Results: The pressure of oxygen in artery, the transcutaneous saturation of oxygen pressure, the heart rate and the respiratory rate in the PCV group were obviously improved after ventilation treatment. The peak inflating pressure, the mean pressure of the airway and the central venous pressure in the PCV group were lower than in the VCV group. The incidence of pressure injury was 0 in the PCV group while 10% in the VCV group. Conclusions: The clinical effect of PCV on traumatic ARDS is better and the incidence rate of pressure injury is lower than that of VCV. PCV has minimal effects on the hemodynamics.

  18. Prenatally Diagnosed Cases of Binder Phenotype Complicated by Respiratory Distress in the Immediate Postnatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Yair J; Davis, Alexis S; Hintz, Susan R; Milan, Kristina; Messner, Anna H; Barth, Richard A; Hudgins, Louanne; Chueh, Jane; Homeyer, Margaret; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Enns, Gregory; Atwal, Paldeep; Manning, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Binder phenotype, or maxillonasal dysostosis, is a distinctive pattern of facial development characterized by a short nose with a flat nasal bridge, an acute nasolabial angle, a short columella, a convex upper lip, and class III malocclusion. We report 3 cases of prenatally diagnosed Binder phenotype associated with perinatal respiratory impairment. PMID:27162279

  19. Video-Assisted Minithoracotomy Diaphragmatic Plication: Respiratory Effects in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos; Crespo, Marta Genovés; López, Pedro Tárraga; Martínez, Antonio Honguero; Atance, Pablo León; Ramírez, Ana Triviño; Montes, José Antonio Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical respiratory and spirometric effects of video-assisted minithoracotomy diaphragmatic plication (VAM-T DP) in the treatment of diaphragmatic eventration. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of 18 patients who underwent a VAM-T DP in our service between February 2005 and July 2011 was performed. Data of patient characteristics, preoperative clinical variables, and postoperative results (3, 6, and 12 months) were collected for statistical analysis using the software package SPSS 13.0 for Windows (Wilcoxon test, Friedman test, and Z-test). Results The main clinical respiratory and spirometric variables improved significantly and remained stable over 1 year. Conclusions VAM-T DP is a viable and safe procedure that improves the spirometry values and offers stable results during the first year. To our knowledge, the present series is the second largest published report in English relating to this procedure in adults. PMID:25184611

  20. Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bava Amadeo Javier Bava; Domnguez Cecilia; Troncoso Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods: The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1 500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results: It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions: The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.

  1. Open lung high frequency ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: practical considerations and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    De Jaegere, A.P.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In premature infants ventilated because of RDS the favorable effect of HFV OLV compared to conventional mechanical ventilation on the incidence of BPD remains a matter of debate. An important lack in published human studies is the clinical practice surrounding the thorough application of OLV with HFV from the acute stage of RDS through the weaning process until extubation. Studies in this thesis demonstrate that applying a "full package" OLV from start to finish in respiratory failure with hi...

  2. Hyaline membrane disease or respiratory distress syndrome? A new approach for an old disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Grappone; Francesco Messina

    2014-01-01

    The term “hyaline membrane disease” refers to the histological aspect of the most frequent pulmonary pathology in preterm newborn patients. The lung of the preterm baby is morphologically and functionally immature. Surfactant deficiency in the immature lungs causes alveolar instability and collapse, capillary edema and the formation of hyaline membrane. Thus, the hyaline membranes are epiphenomena and are not the cause of respiratory failure in infants with immature lungs. This definition is ...

  3. PCR use in miliary tuberculosis presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Riachy, Moussa Albert

    2011-01-01

    A 30-year-old pregnant woman admitted to the hospital for rapidly progressive dyspnoea, non-productive cough and altered general status evolving over 1-month period. Her vital signs showed a low blood pressure 90/60 mm Hg, pulse rate 100 beats/min, respiratory rate 32 breaths/min and oxygen saturation on room air of 88%. Laboratory findings showed haemoglobin 9.7 g/dl, white blood cells 15 000/mm3 (neutrophils 82%), C reactive protein 74 mg/l, alkaline phosphatase 320 U/l, alanine aminotransf...

  4. Case Report: Severe acute respiratory distress by tracheal obstruction due to a congenital thyroid teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleti Junior, Jose; Tannuri, Uenis; Monti Lora, Felipe; Armelin Benites, Eliana Carla; Koga, Walter; Honda Imamura, Janete; Rute Moutinho, Patricia; Brunow de Carvalho, Werther

    2015-01-01

    Congenital teratoma is a rare condition and is a germ cell tumor composed of elements from one or more of the embryonic germ layers and contain tissues usually foreign to the anatomic site of origin. We report a case of a neck tumor diagnosed during pregnancy, initially thought to be a goiter. After birth the neck mass kept growing until it compressed the trachea and produced respiratory failure. The infant had a difficult tracheal intubation because of the compressing mass. The staff decided to surgically remove the neck mass. After that, the infant became eupneic. The histological analysis showed a mature teratoma with no atypias. PMID:26664704

  5. European Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Infants - 2013 Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, David G; Carnielli, Virgilio; Greisen, Gorm;

    2013-01-01

    adverse outcomes in the short and long term. Many practices involved in preterm neonatal stabilization at birth are not evidence based, including oxygen administration and positive pressure lung inflation, and they may at times be harmful. Surfactant replacement therapy is crucial in the management of RDS...... but the best preparation, optimal dose and timing of administration at different gestations is not completely clear. In addition, use of very early continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has altered the indications for prophylactic surfactant administration. Respiratory support in the form of...

  6. "Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Marilyn; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares

    2013-02-01

    Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher-up" residents legitimize their feelings of superiority by stigmatizing "lowlanders" as taboo, diseased (with porcine cysticercosis, swine flu) "filthy pigs, stuck in the muck" (atolados na lama). Animalizing inhabitants' identities demotes them to nonpersons. Besides infections, children suffer social stigma, ostracism, and barriers for accessing care. Promoting a "favorable environment" requires reducing ecological risk, challenging class-based prejudice, and restoring human dignity. PMID:23459816

  7. Intramuscular adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in neonates delivered by elective caesarean section at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Avlund, O L; Pedersen, B L;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To test whether intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline decreased the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section before active labour. METHOD: The study was randomised and double-blinded. A total of 270 neonates were...... assigned to intramuscular treatment with saline (0.30 ml) or 30 microg adrenaline (0.30 ml) immediately after birth. The primary endpoint was referral to the neonatal ward because of respiratory distress or a blood glucose level ... with pulse oximetry to disclose potential side effects. RESULTS: Pulse-oximetry recordings revealed a modest systemic effect by intramuscular adrenaline as the heart rate and the haemoglobin oxygen saturation were significantly higher in infants who received adrenaline. In contrast, the incidence...

  8. A 16-Year-Old Girl with Acute Onset Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl with an intellectual disability (known case of Down syndrome arrived in the emergency eepartment with complaints of severe breathlessness, bloody salivation (bright red blood or clots, and difficulty in speaking and swallowing of liquids and solids. The patient gradually developed progressive bloody salivation and hoarseness, never had any history of trauma to the head and neck and respiratory problems, and was symptomatic from the previous 48 h. Furthermore, the patient had a positive history of peptic ulcer, chronic consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and traveled out of town and drank water from a well in the mentioned period. On admission, the patient had a respiratory rate of 17 per min, pulse rate of 89 per min, blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg, 90% O2 saturation in room air, and 38°C axillary temperature. The only positive finding on physical examination was inspiratory stridor. The auscultation of lung and heart sounds was normal. Digital rectal examination revealed brown feces. Throat examination was not possible owing to lack of patient cooperation. After initial assessment and essential consideration, electrocardiography (ECG and imaging was performed. The ECG showed normal sinus rhythm, and analysis of arterial blood gas revealed the following: pH = 7. 35, Pa-CO2 = 39 mmHg, HCO3 = 24 mEq/L, PaO2 = 89 mmHg, and O2 saturation = 92%. All other laboratory data, including complete blood counts (CBC, urine analysis, hepatic and renal function tests, and coagulation profile were in the normal range.  What is your diagnosis?

  9. Increased Risk of Post-Trauma Stroke after Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gunng-Shinng; Liao, Kuo-Hsing; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2016-07-01

    This study determines whether acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an independent risk factor for an increased risk of post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) stroke during 3-month, 1-year, and 5-year follow-ups, respectively, after adjusting for other covariates. Clinical data for the analysis were from the National Health Insurance Database 2000, which covered a total of 2121 TBI patients and 101 patients with a diagnosis of TBI complicated with ARDS (TBI-ARDS) hospitalized between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005. Each patient was tracked for 5 years to record stroke occurrences after discharge from the hospital. The prognostic value of TBI-ARDS was evaluated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. The main outcome found that stroke occurred in nearly 40% of patients with TBI-ARDS, and the hazard ratio for post-TBI stroke increased fourfold during the 5-year follow-up period after adjusting for other covariates. The increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in the ARDS group was considerably higher than in the TBI-only cohort. This is the first study to report that post-traumatic ARDS yielded an approximate fourfold increased risk of stroke in TBI-only patients. We suggest intensive and appropriate medical management and intensive follow-up of TBI-ARDS patients during the beginning of the hospital discharge. PMID:26426583

  10. INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN NEUTRO PHIL ENZYMES AND THEIR INHIBITORS IN PATHOGENESIS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH INFLUENZA PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Prutkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amounts of several neutrophil enzymes (elastase, myeloperoxidase (MPO, MMP-2 and their local inhibitors, i.e., Clara cell protein (CC16 and HSP-70, have been determined in blood plasma from fifty-two patients with various forms of influenza A/H1N1. Sixteen patients have developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. In cases of uncomplicated influenza, elastase and MPO levels were shown to be increased, while MMP-2 levels did not change, along with higher contents of HSP-70 and unchanged CC16 amounts. Upon development of influenza-associated pneumonia, elastase and MPO concentrations became elevated, whereas MMP-2 levels were decreased, along with unchanged amounts of CC16 and HSP-70. In cases of ARDS development, CC16 amounts exhibited a sharp decrease. Meanwhile, contents of other proteins remained at the levels shown for pneumonia patients. It has been shown that increased concentrations of neutrophil elastase and MPO with a relative CC16 deficiency and decreased MMP-2 may represent a mechanism of pneumonia development. Decreased CC16 concentration may serve as a risk predictor of ARDS development.

  11. Kerbs von Lungren 6 antigen is a marker of alveolar inflammation but not of infection in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nathani, Nazim; Perkins, Gavin D; Tunnicliffe, William; Murphy, Nick; Manji, Mav; Thickett, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Kerbs von Lungren 6 antigen (KL-6) is expressed on the surface of alveolar type II cells, and elevated plasma and epithelial lining fluid levels of KL-6 have previously been shown to correlate with the severity of disease and survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The relationship between alveolar inflammation and KL-6 measurements has not been ascertained. We hypothesized that the elevation of KL-6 in ARDS is dependent upon the severity of neutrophilic inflammatio...

  12. Monitoring extravascular lung water in acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by probable 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus: report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-liang; WANG Zong-yu; YAO Gai-qi; ZHU Xi

    2010-01-01

    @@ During the spring of 2009, a pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) vims emerged and spread globally. As of January 3, 2009, more than 208 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 12 799 death cases.1 Critical cases developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) rapidly, which was refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation and rescue therapies.

  13. NOX1 is responsible for cell death through STAT3 activation in hyperoxia and is associated with the pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Carnesecchi, Stephanie; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Zanetti, Filippo; Singovski, Grigory; Deffert, Christine; Donati, Yves; Cagarelli, Thomas; Pache, Jean-Claude; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Reith, Walter; Barazzone-Argiroffo, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to alveolar cell death in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and we previously demonstrated that NOX1-derived ROS contributed to hyperoxia-induced alveolar cell death in mice. The study investigates whether NOX1 expression is modulated in epithelial cells concomitantly to cell death and associated to STAT3 signaling in the exudative phase of ARDS. In addition, the role of STAT3 activation in NOX1-dependent epithelial cell death was confirmed by...

  14. Effectiveness of intratracheal salbutamol in addition to surfactant on the clinical course of newborns with respiratory distress syndrome: a clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dehdashtian, Masoud; Malakian, Arash; Aramesh, Mohammad Reza; Mazori, Ali; Aletayeb, Mohammad Hasan; Shirani, Afsaneh; Bashirnejad, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to surfactant deficiency, increase of lung fluid content and secretion of fluid derived from the blood participate in the pathogenesis of RDS in newborns. We hypothesized that the administration of salbutamol (β-agonist) to increase lung fluid absorption would decrease the INSURE failure rate in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) treated with intratracheal surfactant. Methods Design Blinded, randomized clinical trial study. Setting/population Level III NI...

  15. Surfactant Use for Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Three New York City Hospitals: Discordance of Practice from a Community Clinician Consensus Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Holzman, Ian; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Wang, Jason; Chassin, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess concordance with a locally developed standard of care for premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) for whom the standard recommends surfactant treatment within two hours of birth, and to examine the association between clinical, demographic, and hospital characteristics with discordance from the standard. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of 773 infants weighing ≤ 1750 grams born in any of three New York City hospitals between 1999 and 2002. Result...

  16. Administration of intrapulmonary sodium polyacrylate to induce lung injury for the development of a porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, William R.; Barnbrook, Julian; Dominelli, Paolo B.; Griesdale, Donald EG; Arndt, Tara; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen; Ackland, Gareth L; Xu, James; Ayas, Najib T.; Sheel, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The loss of alveolar epithelial and endothelial integrity is a central component in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, experimental models investigating the mechanisms of epithelial injury are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to design and develop an experimental porcine model of ARDS by inducing lung injury with intrapulmonary administration of sodium polyacrylate (SPA). Methods The present study was performed at the Centre for Comparative Medicine, ...

  17. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to liver transplantation for acute respiratory distress syndrome-induced life-threatening hypoxaemia aggravated by hepatopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Monsel, Antoine; Mal, Hervé; Brisson, Hélène; Luo, Rubin; Eyraud, Daniel; Vézinet, Corinne; Do, Chung Hi; Lu, Qin; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun, Laurent; Houssel, Pauline; Durand, François; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Combined with massive lung aeration loss resulting from acute respiratory distress syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, a liver-induced vascular lung disorder characterized by diffuse or localized dilated pulmonary capillaries, may induce hypoxaemia and death in patients with end-stage liver disease. Methods The case of such a patient presenting with both disorders and in whom an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used is described. Results A 51-year-old man with a five-year ...

  18. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Passaro Patrizia; Vernetti Gilberto; Salvia Gennaro; Stoppoloni Fabrizio; Iafusco Dario; Petrovski Goran; Prisco Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where...

  19. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  20. Screening for psychological distress in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers: considerations for cancer care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa eTrad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT in adult primary brain tumor (PBT patients and caregivers in a clinic setting, and ascertain if any high risk sub-groups for PD exist. Material and MethodsFrom May 2012 to August 2013, n=96 patients and n=32 caregivers (CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n=12 patients and n=14 caregivers at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grade, low grade and benign, and English versus non-English speaking. Those with DT score≥4 met caseness criteria for referral to psycho-oncology services. One-way ANOVA tests were conducted to test for between group differences where appropriate.ResultsAt diagnosis and first recurrence, 37.5% and 75.0% (respectively of patients had DT scores above the cut-off for distress. At diagnosis, 78.1% of caregivers met caseness criteria for distress. All caregivers at recurrence met distress criterion. Patients with high grade glioma had significantly higher scores than those with a benign tumor. For patients at diagnosis, non-English speaking participants did not report significantly higher DT scores than English speaking participants.DiscussionPsychological distress is particularly elevated in caregivers, and in patients with high grade glioma at diagnosis. Effective PD screening, triage and referral by skilled care coordinators is vital to enable timely needs assessment, psychological support and effective intervention.

  1. PCR use in miliary tuberculosis presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachy, Moussa Albert

    2011-01-01

    A 30-year-old pregnant woman admitted to the hospital for rapidly progressive dyspnoea, non-productive cough and altered general status evolving over 1-month period. Her vital signs showed a low blood pressure 90/60 mm Hg, pulse rate 100 beats/min, respiratory rate 32 breaths/min and oxygen saturation on room air of 88%. Laboratory findings showed haemoglobin 9.7 g/dl, white blood cells 15 000/mm(3) (neutrophils 82%), C reactive protein 74 mg/l, alkaline phosphatase 320 U/l, alanine aminotransferase 62 IU/l, aspartate aminotransferase 120 IU/l, γ glutamyl transpeptidase 125 U/l; brain natriuretic peptide 25.4 pg/ml, procalcitonine >2, lactate dehydrogenase 1618 U/l. Chest radiographics showed diffuse bilateral micronodular pulmonary infiltrates and CT of the chest confirmed 1-3 mm diffuse bilateral micronodular infiltrates with ground glass opacities. Complete investigation including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for any viral, bacteriologic, acid-fast bacilli and full serum antibodies panel were all negative. DNA amplification for mycobacterium using PCR on the BAL rapidly rectified the diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:22694890

  2. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Valentina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Fallerini, Chiara; Bianciardi, Laura; Ariani, Francesca; Furini, Simone; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother's compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available. PMID:26927095

  3. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Imperatore

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother’s compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available.

  4. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced

    OpenAIRE

    Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quali...

  5. Psychological Distress and Health Insurance Coverage among Formerly Incarcerated Young Adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrell L. Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation. Studies have consistently demonstrated higher prevalence of serious mental illness among the incarcerated. Although health care may be available to individuals while incarcerated, research is needed to understand the context of health care coverage and mental health after incarceration. The purpose of this study is to estimate the point prevalence of psychological distress (PD among young adults with incarceration experience, while comparing the prevalence to that of young adults in the general population. Additionally, this study characterizes the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, while also examining this association given an individual's health insurance coverage status among young adults. Lastly, we examine if other individual, contextual, and behavioral factors influences the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, in addition to their health insurance coverage status. This study utilizes data from the 2008 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97, a population based survey dataset from the U.S. Department of Labor. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use provided the conceptual framework for the study. The Mental Health Index 5 (MHI-5 was used to determine PD or normal mental health. Chi-square testing and multivariate logistic regression were performed to examine incarceration experience in association to PD. The sample with incarceration experience reported almost double the proportion of PD (21% compared to those without an incarceration experience (11%. Young adults who have been incarcerated reported greater odds of PD than those with no incarceration experience (COR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.68-2.83 and the association was diminished in the presence of health insurance status and model covariates. Future health prevention and health management efforts should consider the impact of health insurance coverage

  6. The global burden of chronic respiratory disease in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, P; Jarvis, D; Perez-Padilla, R

    2015-01-01

    With an aging global population, chronic respiratory diseases are becoming a more prominent cause of death and disability. Age-standardised death rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highest in low-income regions of the world, particularly South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, although airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in these areas. Airflow obstruction is, by contrast, more common in regions with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. COPD mortality is much more closely related to the prevalence of a low forced vital capacity which is, in turn, associated with poverty. Mortality from asthma is less common than mortality from COPD, but it is also relatively more common in poorer areas, particularly Oceania, South and South-East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Again this contrasts with the asthma prevalence among adults, which is highest in high-income regions. In high-income areas, mortality due to asthma, which is predominantly an adult problem, has fallen substantially in recent decades with the spread of new guidelines for treatment that emphasise the use of inhaled steroids to control the disease. Although mortality rates have been falling, the prevalence of atopy has been increasing between generations in Western Europe. Changes in the prevalence of wheeze among adults has been more varied and may have been influenced by the reduction in smoking and the increase in the use of inhaled steroids. PMID:25519785

  7. Modeling of longitudinal polytomous outcome from complex survey data - application to investigate an association between mental distress and non-malignant respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahwa Punam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The data from longitudinal complex surveys based on multi-stage sampling designs contain cross-sectional dependencies among units due to clustered nature of the data and within-subject dependencies due to repeated measurements. Special statistical methods are required to analyze longitudinal complex survey data. Methods Statistics Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey (NPHS dataset from the first five cycles (1994/1995 to 2002/2003 was used to investigate the effects of demographic, social, life-style, and health-related factors on the longitudinal changes of mental distress scores among the NPHS participants who self-reported physician diagnosed respiratory diseases, specifically asthma and chronic bronchitis. The NPHS longitudinal sample includes 17,276 persons of all ages. In this report, participants 15 years and older (n = 14,713 were considered for statistical analysis. Mental distress, an ordinal outcome variable (categories: no/low, moderate, and high was examined. Ordered logistic regression models based on the weighted generalized estimating equations approach were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory diseases and mental distress adjusting for other covariates of interest. Variance estimates of regression coefficients were computed by using bootstrap methods. The final model was used to predict the probabilities of prevalence of no/low, moderate or high mental distress scores. Results Accounting for design effects does not vary the significance of the coefficients of the model. Participants suffering with chronic bronchitis were significantly at a higher risk (ORadj = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12-1.66 of reporting high levels of mental distress compared to those who did not self-report chronic bronchitis. There was no significant association between asthma and mental distress. There was a significant interaction between sex and self-perceived general health status indicating a dose

  8. Unusual respiratory manifestations in two young adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Lemay; Frédéric Sériès; Mario Sénéchal; Bruno Maranda; François Maltais

    2012-01-01

    Adult respirologists are often involved in the evaluation and treatment of young adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this context, the most frequent respiratory complication is nocturnal and daytime hypoventilation related to respiratory muscle weakness. The present article describes cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy involving two brothers, 17 and 19 years of age, respectively, who presented with less frequently reported respiratory complications of their disease: obstructi...

  9. Screening for Psychological Distress in Adult Primary Brain Tumor Patients and Caregivers: Considerations for Cancer Care Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Trad, Wafa; Koh, Eng-Siew; Daher, Maysaa; Bailey, Alanah; Kastelan, Marina; Legge, Dianne; Fleet, Marcia; Simpson, Grahame K.; Hovey, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD) as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT) in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers (CGs) in a clinic setting and ascertain if any high-risk subgroups for PD exist. Material and methods From May 2012 to August 2013, n = 96 patients and n = 32 CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n = 12 patients and n = 14 CGs at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grad...

  10. Evaluation of lung infiltration score to predict postural hypoxemia in ventilated acute respiratory distress syndrome patients and the lateralization of skin pressure sore

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    Tripathi Mukesh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP is associated with unequal aeration of lungs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS patients. Therefore, patients may develop asymmetric atelectasis and postural hypoxemia during lateral positioning. Aims: To validate proposed lung infiltration score (LIS based on chest x-ray to predict postural hypoxemia and lateralization of skin sores in ARDS patients. Settings and Design: University hospital ICU. Prospective, observational study of consecutive patients. Materials and Methods: Sixteen adult patients of both genders on mechanical ventilation with PEEP for 24 to < 48 hours. On chest x-ray, 6 segments were identified on each lung. The proposed LIS points (0- normal; 1- patchy infiltrates; 2- white infiltrates matching heart shadow were assigned to each segment. Without changing ventilation parameters, supine, left and right lateral positions at 45° tilt were randomly changed. At the end of 20 minutes of ventilation in each position, we observed arterial oxygen saturation, hemodynamic and arterial blood gases. Later, position change protocol (4 hourly was practiced in ICU, and skin pressure sore grading was noted within a week of ICU stay. Statistical Analysis Used: Nonparametric Bland and Altman correlation analysis, ANOVA and Student t test. Results: Arterial oxygenation (PaO 2 /FiO 2 = 313± 145.6 was significantly (P< 0.01 higher in better lung (lower LIS-down position than supine (PaO 2 /FiO 2 = 199± 70.2 or a better lung-up position (PaO 2 /FiO 2 = 165± 64.8. The positioning-related arterial oxygenation was significant (P< 0.05 at LIS asymmetry ≥3 between two lungs. Conclusions: The LIS mapping on chest x-ray was useful to differentiate between asymmetric lung disease and postural hypoxemia in ICU patients, which predisposed patients to early skin sore changes on higher LIS side.

  11. ERS/EBAP European Accreditation of Training Centres in Adult Respiratory Medicine: how could it benefit your centre?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Sutter; Daiana Stolz; Gernot Rohde

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the European Respiratory Society (ERS) launched an accreditation programme for training centres in adult respiratory medicine in Europe, in partnership with the European Board for Accreditation in Pneumology (EBAP). The European Accreditation of Training Centres in Adult Respiratory Medicine forms part of the overall objective for harmonised education in respiratory medicine for European specialists (HERMES).

  12. Psychometric properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an adult community sample in Finland

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    Raimo K. R. Salokangas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that a history of childhood abuse and neglect is not uncommon among individuals who experience mental disorder and that childhood trauma experiences are associated with adult psychopathology. Although several interview and self-report instruments for retrospective trauma assessment have been developed, many focus on sexual abuse (SexAb rather than on multiple types of trauma or adversity. Methods: Within the European Prediction of Psychosis Study, the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS was developed as a new self-report assessment of multiple types of childhood trauma and distressing experiences. The TADS includes 43 items and, following previous measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, focuses on five core domains: emotional neglect (EmoNeg, emotional abuse (EmoAb, physical neglect (PhyNeg, physical abuse (PhyAb, and SexAb.This study explores the psychometric properties of the TADS (internal consistency and concurrent validity in 692 participants drawn from the general population who completed a mailed questionnaire, including the TADS, a depression self-report and questions on help-seeking for mental health problems. Inter-method reliability was examined in a random sample of 100 responders who were reassessed in telephone interviews. Results: After minor revisions of PhyNeg and PhyAb, internal consistencies were good for TADS totals and the domain raw score sums. Intra-class coefficients for TADS total score and the five revised core domains were all good to excellent when compared to the interviewed TADS as a gold standard. In the concurrent validity analyses, the total TADS and its all core domains were significantly associated with depression and help-seeking for mental problems as proxy measures for traumatisation. In addition, robust cutoffs for the total TADS and its domains were calculated. Conclusions: Our results suggest the TADS as a valid, reliable, and clinically useful

  13. Psychometric properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an adult community sample in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salokangas, Raimo K. R.; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Patterson, Paul; von Reventlow, Heinrich Graf; Heinimaa, Markus; From, Tiina; Luutonen, Sinikka; Hankala, Juha; Kotimäki, Mika; Tuominen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that a history of childhood abuse and neglect is not uncommon among individuals who experience mental disorder and that childhood trauma experiences are associated with adult psychopathology. Although several interview and self-report instruments for retrospective trauma assessment have been developed, many focus on sexual abuse (SexAb) rather than on multiple types of trauma or adversity. Methods Within the European Prediction of Psychosis Study, the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) was developed as a new self-report assessment of multiple types of childhood trauma and distressing experiences. The TADS includes 43 items and, following previous measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, focuses on five core domains: emotional neglect (EmoNeg), emotional abuse (EmoAb), physical neglect (PhyNeg), physical abuse (PhyAb), and SexAb. This study explores the psychometric properties of the TADS (internal consistency and concurrent validity) in 692 participants drawn from the general population who completed a mailed questionnaire, including the TADS, a depression self-report and questions on help-seeking for mental health problems. Inter-method reliability was examined in a random sample of 100 responders who were reassessed in telephone interviews. Results After minor revisions of PhyNeg and PhyAb, internal consistencies were good for TADS totals and the domain raw score sums. Intra-class coefficients for TADS total score and the five revised core domains were all good to excellent when compared to the interviewed TADS as a gold standard. In the concurrent validity analyses, the total TADS and its all core domains were significantly associated with depression and help-seeking for mental problems as proxy measures for traumatisation. In addition, robust cutoffs for the total TADS and its domains were calculated. Conclusions Our results suggest the TADS as a valid, reliable, and clinically useful instrument for assessing

  14. Bayesian inference of the lung alveolar spatial model for the identification of alveolar mechanics associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Christley, Scott; Emr, Bryanna; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Josh; Gatto, Louis; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary F.; An, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung failure secondary to severe systemic inflammation, resulting in a derangement of alveolar mechanics (i.e. the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during tidal ventilation), leading to alveolar instability that can cause further damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay in the treatment of ARDS, but may induce mechano-physical stresses on unstable alveoli, which can paradoxically propagate the cellular and molecular processes exacerbating ARDS pathology. This phenomenon is called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), and plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. In order to identify optimal ventilation strategies to limit VILI and treat ARDS, it is necessary to understand the complex interplay between biological and physical mechanisms of VILI, first at the alveolar level, and then in aggregate at the whole-lung level. Since there is no current consensus about the underlying dynamics of alveolar mechanics, as an initial step we investigate the ventilatory dynamics of an alveolar sac (AS) with the lung alveolar spatial model (LASM), a 3D spatial biomechanical representation of the AS and its interaction with airflow pressure and the surface tension effects of pulmonary surfactant. We use the LASM to identify the mechanical ramifications of alveolar dynamics associated with ARDS. Using graphical processing unit parallel algorithms, we perform Bayesian inference on the model parameters using experimental data from rat lung under control and Tween-induced ARDS conditions. Our results provide two plausible models that recapitulate two fundamental hypotheses about volume change at the alveolar level: (1) increase in alveolar size through isotropic volume change, or (2) minimal change in AS radius with primary expansion of the mouth of the AS, with the implication that the majority of change in lung volume during the respiratory cycle occurs in the

  15. Bayesian inference of the lung alveolar spatial model for the identification of alveolar mechanics associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung failure secondary to severe systemic inflammation, resulting in a derangement of alveolar mechanics (i.e. the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during tidal ventilation), leading to alveolar instability that can cause further damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay in the treatment of ARDS, but may induce mechano-physical stresses on unstable alveoli, which can paradoxically propagate the cellular and molecular processes exacerbating ARDS pathology. This phenomenon is called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), and plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. In order to identify optimal ventilation strategies to limit VILI and treat ARDS, it is necessary to understand the complex interplay between biological and physical mechanisms of VILI, first at the alveolar level, and then in aggregate at the whole-lung level. Since there is no current consensus about the underlying dynamics of alveolar mechanics, as an initial step we investigate the ventilatory dynamics of an alveolar sac (AS) with the lung alveolar spatial model (LASM), a 3D spatial biomechanical representation of the AS and its interaction with airflow pressure and the surface tension effects of pulmonary surfactant. We use the LASM to identify the mechanical ramifications of alveolar dynamics associated with ARDS. Using graphical processing unit parallel algorithms, we perform Bayesian inference on the model parameters using experimental data from rat lung under control and Tween-induced ARDS conditions. Our results provide two plausible models that recapitulate two fundamental hypotheses about volume change at the alveolar level: (1) increase in alveolar size through isotropic volume change, or (2) minimal change in AS radius with primary expansion of the mouth of the AS, with the implication that the majority of change in lung volume during the respiratory cycle occurs in the

  16. Clinical study of critical patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome.

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    Hong Du

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critical patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To observe the demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and to explore the predictive effects for prognosis in laboratory findings, we conducted a detailed retrospective analysis of clinical records for critical patients with HFRS complicated by ARDS, treated at the center for infectious diseases, Tangdu Hospital, between January 2008 and December 2012. RESULTS: A total of 48 critical patients with laboratory confirmed HFRS accompanied by ARDS were enrolled in the study, including 27 survivors and 21 non-survivors, with a fatality rate of 43.75%. Thirty-one individuals (64.6% contracted HFRS between the months of September and December. The non-survivors tended to have lower incidence of overlapping phase (P = 0.025. There were no obvious differences in the needs for mechanical ventilation (MV and renal replacement therapy (RRT, except for the need for vasoactive drugs between the survivors and non-survivors (P = 0.001. The non-survivors were found to have higher frequencies of encephalopathy, refractory shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, lower incidences of acute renal failure (ARF and secondary hypertension (P<0.05. The non-survivors tended to have lower levels of serum creatinine (Scr (P<0.001 and fibrinogen (Fib (P = 0.003, higher incidences of prolonged prothrombin time (PT (P = 0.006 and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT (P = 0.020 and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST (P = 0.015, and the laboratory parameters mentioned above reached statistical significance for predicting prognosis (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The high mortality rate of critical patients with HFRS complicated by ARDS emphasizes the importance of

  17. Extremes of Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression Associate with Worse Outcomes in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Jerry A; Caceres, Silvia M; Kret, Jennifer E; Poch, Katie R; Strand, Matthew; Faino, Anna V; Nichols, David P; Saavedra, Milene T; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L; Geraci, Mark W; Burnham, Ellen L; Fessler, Michael B; Suratt, Benjamin T; Abraham, Edward; Moss, Marc; Malcolm, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) severity may be influenced by heterogeneity of neutrophil activation. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) are a broad gene family induced by Type I interferons, often as a response to viral infections, which evokes extensive immunomodulation. We tested the hypothesis that over- or under-expression of immunomodulatory ISG by neutrophils is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of circulating neutrophils isolated from patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 19) were used to characterize ISG expression. Hierarchical clustering of expression identified 3 distinct subject groups with Low, Mid and High ISG expression. ISG accounting for the greatest variability in expression were identified (MX1, IFIT1, and ISG15) and used to analyze a prospective cohort at the Colorado ARDS Network site. One hundred twenty ARDS patients from four urban hospitals were enrolled within 72 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation. Circulating neutrophils were isolated from patients and expression of ISG determined by PCR. Samples were stratified by standard deviation from the mean into High (n = 21), Mid, (n = 82) or Low (n = 17) ISG expression. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with High or Low ISG expression to those with Mid-range expression. At enrollment, there were no differences in age, gender, co-existing medical conditions, or type of physiologic injury between cohorts. After adjusting for age, race, gender and BMI, patients with either High or Low ISG expression had significantly worse clinical outcomes than those in the Mid for number of 28-day ventilator- and ICU-free days (P = 0.0006 and 0.0004), as well as 90-day mortality and 90-day home with unassisted breathing (P = 0.02 and 0.004). These findings suggest extremes of ISG expression by circulating neutrophils from ARDS patients recovered early in the syndrome are associated

  18. The Hemagglutinin Stem-Binding Monoclonal Antibody VIS410 Controls Influenza Virus-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Jones, Jeremy C; Russier, Marion; Vogel, Peter; Szretter, Kristy J; Sloan, Susan E; Seiler, Patrick; Trevejo, Jose M; Webby, Richard J; Govorkova, Elena A

    2016-04-01

    Most cases of severe influenza are associated with pulmonary complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and no antiviral drugs of proven value for treating such complications are currently available. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the stem of the influenza virus surface hemagglutinin (HA) is a rapidly developing strategy for the control of viruses of multiple HA subtypes. However, the mechanisms of action of these antibodies are not fully understood, and their ability to mitigate severe complications of influenza has been poorly studied. We evaluated the effect of treatment with VIS410, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the HA stem region, on the development of ARDS in BALB/c mice after infection with influenza A(H7N9) viruses. Prophylactic administration of VIS410 resulted in the complete protection of mice against lethal A(H7N9) virus challenge. A single therapeutic dose of VIS410 given 24 h after virus inoculation resulted in dose-dependent protection of up to 100% of mice inoculated with neuraminidase inhibitor-susceptible or -resistant A(H7N9) viruses. Compared to the outcomes in mock-treated controls, a single administration of VIS410 improved viral clearance from the lungs, reduced virus spread in lungs in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a lower lung injury score, reduced the extent of the alteration in lung vascular permeability and protein accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and improved lung physiologic function. Thus, antibodies targeting the HA stem can reduce the severity of ARDS and show promise as agents for controlling pulmonary complications in influenza. PMID:26787699

  19. Surfactant disaturated-phosphatidylcholine kinetics in acute respiratory distress syndrome by stable isotopes and a two compartment model

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    Cogo Paola E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, it is well known that only part of the lungs is aerated and surfactant function is impaired, but the extent of lung damage and changes in surfactant turnover remain unclear. The objective of the study was to evaluate surfactant disaturated-phosphatidylcholine turnover in patients with ARDS using stable isotopes. Methods We studied 12 patients with ARDS and 7 subjects with normal lungs. After the tracheal instillation of a trace dose of 13C-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, we measured the 13C enrichment over time of palmitate residues of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine isolated from tracheal aspirates. Data were interpreted using a model with two compartments, alveoli and lung tissue, and kinetic parameters were derived assuming that, in controls, alveolar macrophages may degrade between 5 and 50% of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine, the rest being lost from tissue. In ARDS we assumed that 5–100% of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine is degraded in the alveolar space, due to release of hydrolytic enzymes. Some of the kinetic parameters were uniquely determined, while others were identified as lower and upper bounds. Results In ARDS, the alveolar pool of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine was significantly lower than in controls (0.16 ± 0.04 vs. 1.31 ± 0.40 mg/kg, p de novo synthesis of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine were also significantly lower, while mean resident time in lung tissue was significantly higher in ARDS than in controls. Recycling was 16.2 ± 3.5 in ARDS and 31.9 ± 7.3 in controls (p = 0.08. Conclusion In ARDS the alveolar pool of surfactant is reduced and disaturated-phosphatidylcholine turnover is altered.

  20. A Markov computer simulation model of the economics of neuromuscular blockade in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Chow John L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in the intensive care unit (ICU is clinically challenging and costly. Neuromuscular blocking agents may facilitate mechanical ventilation and improve oxygenation, but may result in prolonged recovery of neuromuscular function and acute quadriplegic myopathy syndrome (AQMS. The goal of this study was to address a hypothetical question via computer modeling: Would a reduction in intubation time of 6 hours and/or a reduction in the incidence of AQMS from 25% to 21%, provide enough benefit to justify a drug with an additional expenditure of $267 (the difference in acquisition cost between a generic and brand name neuromuscular blocker? Methods The base case was a 55 year-old man in the ICU with ARDS who receives neuromuscular blockade for 3.5 days. A Markov model was designed with hypothetical patients in 1 of 6 mutually exclusive health states: ICU-intubated, ICU-extubated, hospital ward, long-term care, home, or death, over a period of 6 months. The net monetary benefit was computed. Results Our computer simulation modeling predicted the mean cost for ARDS patients receiving standard care for 6 months to be $62,238 (5% – 95% percentiles $42,259 – $83,766, with an overall 6-month mortality of 39%. Assuming a ceiling ratio of $35,000, even if a drug (that cost $267 more hypothetically reduced AQMS from 25% to 21% and decreased intubation time by 6 hours, the net monetary benefit would only equal $137. Conclusion ARDS patients receiving a neuromuscular blocker have a high mortality, and unpredictable outcome, which results in large variability in costs per case. If a patient dies, there is no benefit to any drug that reduces ventilation time or AQMS incidence. A prospective, randomized pharmacoeconomic study of neuromuscular blockers in the ICU to asses AQMS or intubation times is impractical because of the highly variable clinical course of patients with ARDS.

  1. A specific phospholipase C activity regulates phosphatidylinositol levels in lung surfactant of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridakis, Spyros; Leondaritis, George; Nakos, George; Lekka, Marilena E; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2010-03-01

    Lung surfactant (LS) is a lipid-rich material lining the inside of the lungs. It reduces surface tension at the liquid/air interface and thus, it confers protection of the alveoli from collapsing. The surface-active component of LS is dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, while anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and primarily phosphatidylglycerol are involved in the stabilization of the LS monolayer. The exact role of PtdIns in this system is not well-understood; however, PtdIns levels change dramatically during the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) evolution. In this report we present evidence of a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, which may regulate PtdIns levels. Characterization of this extracellular activity showed specificity for PtdIns and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, sharing the typical substrate concentration-, pH-, and calcium-dependencies with mammalian PI-PLCs. Fractionation of BAL fluid showed that PI-PLC did not co-fractionate with large surfactant aggregates, but it was found mainly in the soluble fraction. Importantly, analysis of BAL samples from control subjects and from patients with ARDS showed that the PI-PLC specific activity was decreased by 4-fold in ARDS samples concurrently with the increase in BAL PtdIns levels. Thus, we have identified for the first time an extracellular PI-PLC enzyme activity that may be acutely involved in the regulation of PtdIns levels in LS. PMID:19491339

  2. ROLE OF ECHOGENIC AMNIOTIC FLUID PARTICLES AND OPTICAL DENSITY IN PREDICTION OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME AND LABOR

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    Dr. Shankar H S Ram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to correlate echogenic amniotic fluid particle size (AFPS in late third trimester to fetal lung maturity and amniotic fluid optical density (AFOD at labor. AFPS were measured with specified criteria by real time transabdominal USG (3.5MHz while Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI was measured during routine antenatal visits. The criteria for AFPS score which are taken into account are the amniotic fluid particle size, number and distribution. Serial AFPS measurements were done till onset of labor. AFPS was correlated to AFOD value at spontaneous labor in 123 women. Uncentrifuged fresh amniotic fluid samples were obtained during ARM/amniotomy and used for AFOD estimation at 650 nm. The mean AFPS and AFOD at onset of labor was found to be 5.14 ± 0.69 mm (3.67 – 6.7 CI 95% and 1.03 ± 0.31 (0.35 -1.69 CI 95% respectively in 116 women who delivered normal babies devoid of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Serial AFPS measurements showed a definite AFOD surge after a value in the region of 3.8 mm which is obtained culminating in onset of Labor. 28 women (24.1% had dense clusters of free floating particles across the vertical pool in amniotic fluid with mean AFPS and AFOD of 5.6 ± 0.68 mm and 1.12 ± 0.21 respectively. In 123 women, AFPS < 3.8 mm had sensitivity of 85.74% and positive predictive value of 66.67% in predicting RDS. AFPS serves as a sonological marker for fetal lung maturity and labor. The range of AFOD values can be measured in terms of AFPS (r =0.6, F = 69.8, β= + 0.23, p < 0.001. Serial AFPS estimation predicts fetal maturity and onset of labor.

  3. A conceptual framework: the early and late phases of skeletal muscle dysfunction in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, D Clark; Sanchez, Michael A; Morris, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often develop severe diaphragmatic and limb skeletal muscle dysfunction. Impaired muscle function in ARDS is associated with increased mortality, increased duration of mechanical ventilation, and functional disability in survivors. In this review, we propose that muscle dysfunction in ARDS can be categorized into an early and a late phase. These early and late phases are based on the timing in relationship to lung injury and the underlying mechanisms. The early phase occurs temporally with the onset of lung injury, is driven by inflammation and disuse, and is marked predominantly by muscle atrophy from increased protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome, autophagy, and calpain-caspase pathways have all been implicated in early-phase muscle dysfunction. Late-phase muscle weakness persists in many patients despite resolution of lung injury and cessation of ongoing acute inflammation-driven muscle atrophy. The clinical characteristics and mechanisms underlying late-phase muscle dysfunction do not involve the massive protein degradation and atrophy of the early phase and may reflect a failure of the musculoskeletal system to regain homeostatic balance. Owing to these underlying mechanistic differences, therapeutic interventions for treating muscle dysfunction in ARDS may differ during the early and late phases. Here, we review clinical and translational investigations of muscle dysfunction in ARDS, placing them in the conceptual framework of the early and late phases. We hypothesize that this conceptual model will aid in the design of future mechanistic and clinical investigations of the skeletal muscle system in ARDS and other critical illnesses. PMID:26134116

  4. Expression of SP-C and Ki67 in lungs of preterm infants dying from respiratory distress syndrome

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    H. Lu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring the expression of Surfactant protein-C (SP-C and Ki67 in autopsy lung tissues of premature infants dying from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS who were exposed to mechanical ventilation and elevated oxygen concentrations. The possible influence of pulmonary surfactant (PS on the expression of SP-C and Ki67 was also investigated. Thirty preterm infants were selected who were histologically and clinically diagnosed as RDS. Preterm infants with RDS were divided into 4 groups, according to the time of death: infants ventilated for 1-3 days, 4-8 days, 9-16 days and >6 days. Five premature infants died within 1 day after delivery for non- pulmonary reasons served as controls. The expression of SP-C and Ki67 in lungs was detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the expression of SP-C and Ki67 in RDS infants decreased significantly after 1-3 days of ventilation, but increased after 4 days and reached peak value after 9-16 days. No significant difference in the expression of SP-C and Ki67 was found between infants treated with PS and those without. Thus our results suggest SP-C and Ki67 may have participated in the pulmonary pathological process in ventilated/oxygen treated preterm infants with RDS, and exogenous surfactant had no effect on the expression of SP-C and Ki67 in the lungs of ventilated/oxygen treated preterm infants with RDS.

  5. Comparison of surfactant protein B polymorphisms of healthy term newborns with preterm newborns having respiratory distress syndrome

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    P.P.R. Lyra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms and mutations in the surfactant protein B (SP-B gene have been associated with the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The objective of the present study was to compare the frequencies of SP-B gene polymorphisms between preterm babies with RDS and healthy term newborns. We studied 50 preterm babies with RDS (inclusion criteria - newborns with RDS and gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks and 6 days, and 100 healthy term newborns. Four SP-B gene polymorphisms were analyzed: A/C at nucleotide -18, C/T at nucleotide 1580, A/G at nucleotide 9306, and G/C at nucleotide 8714, by PCR amplification of genomic DNA and genotyping by cRFLP. The healthy newborns comprised 42 female and 58 male neonates; 39 were white and 61 non-white. The RDS group comprised 21 female and 29 male preterm neonates; 28 were white and 22 non-white. Weight ranged from 640 to 2080 g (mean: 1273 g; mean gestational age was 31 weeks and 2 days (range: 28-33 weeks and 6 days. When white children were analyzed separately, a statistically significant difference in the G/C polymorphism at 8714 was observed between groups (P = 0.028. All other genotype frequencies were similar for both groups when sex and race were analyzed together. Analysis of the SP-B polymorphism G/C at nucleotide 8714 showed that among white neonates the GG genotype was found only in the RDS group at a frequency of 17% and the GC genotype was more frequently found in healthy term newborns. These data demonstrate an association of GG genotype with RDS.

  6. Comparison of INSURE method with conventional mechanical ventilation after surfactant administration in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: therapeutic challenge.

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    Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Administration of endotracheal surfactant is potentially the main treatment for neonates suffering from RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which is followed by mechanical ventilation. Late and severe complications may develop as a consequence of using mechanical ventilation. In this study, conventional methods for treatment of RDS are compared with surfactant administration, use of mechanical ventilation for a brief period and NCPAP (Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, (INSURE method ((Intubation, Surfactant administration and extubation. A randomized clinical trial study was performed, including all newborn infants with diagnosed RDS and a gestational age of 35 weeks or less, who were admitted in NICU of Valiasr hospital. The patients were then divided randomly into two CMV (Conventional Mechanical Ventilation and INSURE groups. Surfactant administration and consequent long-term mechanical ventilation were done in the first group (CMV group. In the second group (INSURE group, surfactant was administered followed by a short-term period of mechanical ventilation. The infants were then extubated, and NCPAP was embedded. The comparison included crucial duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, IVH (Intraventricular Hemorrhage, PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus, air-leak syndromes, BPD (Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia and mortality rate. The need for mechanical ventilation in 5th day of admission was 43% decreased (P=0.005 in INSURE group in comparison to CMV group. A decline (P=0.01 in the incidence of IVH and PDA was also achieved. Pneumothorax, chronic pulmonary disease and mortality rates, were not significantly different among two groups. (P=0.25, P=0.14, P=0.25, respectively. This study indicated that INSURE method in the treatment of RDS decreases the need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen-therapy in preterm neonates. Moreover, relevant complications as IVH and PDA were observed to be reduced. Thus, it seems rationale to

  7. Psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a dental clinic: a case-control study

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    Adebayo Rasheed Erinfolami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls, was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12 and 36 (±13 years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22 of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003. Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38 had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001. In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls.

  8. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-05-18

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  9. Surfactant treatment before first breath for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm lambs: comparison of a peptide-containing synthetic lung surfactant with porcine-derived surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zyl JM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Johann M van Zyl,1 Johan Smith2 1Division of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa Background: In a recent study utilizing a saline-lavaged adult rabbit model, we described a significant improvement in systemic oxygenation and pulmonary shunt after the instillation of a novel synthetic peptide-containing surfactant, Synsurf. Respiratory distress syndrome in the preterm lamb more closely resembles that of the human infant, as their blood gas, pH values, and lung mechanics deteriorate dramatically from birth despite ventilator support. Moreover, premature lambs have lungs which are mechanically unstable, with the advantage of being able to measure multiple variables over extended periods. Our objective in this study was to investigate if Synsurf leads to improved systemic oxygenation, lung mechanics, and histology in comparison to the commercially available porcine-derived lung surfactant Curosurf® when administered before first breath in a preterm lamb model. Materials and methods: A Cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia on 18 time-dated pregnant Dohne Merino ewes at 129–130 days gestation. The premature lambs were delivered and ventilated with an expiratory tidal volume of 6–8 mL/kg for the first 30 minutes and thereafter at 8–10 mL/kg. In a randomized controlled trial, the two surfactants tested were Synsurf and Curosurf®, both at a dose of 100 mg/kg phospholipids (1,2-dipalmitoyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine; 90% in Synsurf, 40% in Curosurf®. A control group of animals was treated with normal saline. Measurements of physiological variables, blood gases, and lung mechanics were made before and after surfactant and saline replacement and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180

  10. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent–child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Results: About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65–70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusion: The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed. PMID:26635670

  11. Perceived parental functioning, self-esteem, and psychological distress in adults whose parents are separated/divorced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina eVerrocchio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire, quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments, self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results. About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusions. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.

  12. Validation of the distress thermometer for use among adolescents and young adults with cancer in Australia: a multicenter study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pandora Patterson,1,2 Fiona EJ McDonald,1,2 Antoinette Anazodo,3 Daniel SJ Costa,4 Claire E Wakefield,5,6 Kate White,2 Kate Thompson,7 Michael P Osborn8 1Research, Evaluation and Social Policy, CanTeen Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children's Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 4Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research group, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 6Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 7Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 8Youth Cancer Service SA/NT, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer commonly experience elevated levels of distress. Routinely administered distress screening tools can be effective in identifying individuals in need of referral to psychosocial services. The distress thermometer and problem checklist are widely used screening tools that have been validated among some cancer populations, but which have not to date been validated for use among AYAs with cancer. The primary aim of this study is to validate the distress thermometer and a modified problem checklist for use with AYA cancer patients, aged 15–25 years. Specifically, we aim to 1 determine appropriate cutoffs for clinical referral on the distress thermometer; 2 investigate the content validity of the modified problem checklist; and 3 assess the clinical utility of the tool from the perspectives of both patients and health care professionals. The secondary aims of the study are to 4 establish prevalence and predictors of distress in AYA cancer patients and 5 examine the

  13. Longitudinal relationship between diabetes-specific emotional distress and follow-up HbA1c in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, R B; Graue, M; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Peyrot, M; Thordarson, H B; Rokne, B

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine whether diabetes-specific emotional distress was related to follow-up glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods Adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus completed the Diabetes Distress Scale and reported sociodemographic information when attending a clinical consultation at a university endocrinology unit. Blood samples to determine baseline HbA1c were taken during consultations. All respondents’ HbA1c measurements registered from January 2009 to December 2011 were collected from medical records. The relationship between baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and HbA1c was examined with linear mixed-effects models in 175 patients with complete data. Results After controlling for confounders, baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and glycaemic control were significantly associated (fixed-effect coefficient 0.40, P diabetes-specific distress had a weaker but still significant association with glycaemic control (fixed-effect coefficient 0.31, P diabetes-specific emotional distress are at risk of prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control; therefore, elevated diabetes-specific emotional distress, especially regimen-related distress, might be an important marker for prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control, and might indicate a need for special attention regarding patient self-management. What’s new? In adults with Type 1 diabetes, elevated baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress is associated with worse glycaemic control over a 1–3-year period and regimen-related distress had the strongest association with subsequent glycaemic control. Baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress is associated with the stable component of glycaemic control and does not account for within-individual change in glycaemic control over 1–3 years. Elevated diabetes-specific emotional distress may be an important marker for risk of prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control. PMID:25865313

  14. Genetic research progress of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants%早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征遗传学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕飞飞(综述); 赵武(审校)

    2015-01-01

    呼吸窘迫综合征( respiratory distress syndrome,RDS)是早产儿常见的呼吸系统疾病危重症,肺表面活性物质缺乏是其主要发病机制。近年来研究表明,遗传易患性参与早产儿RDS的发病。该文对近年来国内外关于早产儿RDS的遗传易患性及相关候选基因的研究进展作一综述。%Respiratory distress syndrome( RDS) is a critical respiratory disease and commonly occurs in preterm infants. Preterm RDS is mainly due to the deficiency of lung surfactant. However,recent studies have in-dicated that genetic susceptibility may involve in the pathogenesis of RDS in preterm infants. In this paper,recent research progresses of genetic susceptibility and related candidate genes of RDS in preterm infants at home and abroad are reviewed.

  15. Terapia com células-tronco na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo Stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maron-Gutierrez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo é caracterizada por uma reação inflamatória difusa do parênquima pulmonar, podendo ser induzida por um insulto direto ao epitélio alveolar (síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo pulmonar ou indireto através do endotélio vascular (síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo extrapulmonar. Acredita-se que uma terapia eficaz para o tratamento da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo deva atenuar a resposta inflamatória e promover adequado reparo da lesão pulmonar. O presente artigo apresenta uma breve revisão acerca do potencial terapêutico das células-tronco na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Essa revisão bibliográfica baseou-se em uma pesquisa sistemática de artigos experimentais e clínicos sobre terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo incluídos nas bases de dados MedLine e SciELO nos últimos 10 anos. O transplante de células-tronco promove melhora da lesão inflamatória pulmonar e do conseqüente processo fibrótico, induzindo adequado reparo tecidual. Dentre os mecanismos envolvidos, podemos citar: diferenciação em células do epitélio alveolar e redução na liberação de mediadores inflamatórios e sistêmicos e fatores de crescimento. A terapia com células-tronco derivadas da medula óssea pode vir a ser uma opção eficaz e segura no tratamento da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo por acelerar o processo de reparo e atenuar a resposta inflamatória. Entretanto, os mecanismos relacionados à atividade antiinflamatória e antifibrogênica de tais células necessitam ser mais bem elucidados, limitando, assim, o seu uso clínico imediato.Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by an acute pulmonary inflammatory process induced by the presence of a direct (pulmonary insult that affects lung parenchyma, or an indirect (extrapulmonary insult that results from an acute systemic inflammatory response

  16. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Patrizia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where the last is the Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (RT-CGMS. Methods In the last three years, 72 h continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS (Medtronic, CA was performed in 18 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes in two moments of pregnancy: during treatment with betamethasone to prevent respiratory distress and during delivery. In both cases insulin was administered intravenous and the dose was changed on the basis of glycaemia. Results The results present the use of this new technique during two topics moments of pregnancy of type 1 diabetes patients when is very important intensively to monitor diabetes and to obtain the well being of the fetus. No infant experimented hypoglycaemia or respiratory distress syndrome at the moment and in the first hours after the birth. Conclusion We wish to stress the importance reducing glycaemia during administration of betamethasone and during labor. It is conceivable that the scarce attention paid to monitoring glucose levels in diabetic mothers during labor in gynaecological world may be due to the difficulty in glucose monitoring with the devices until now available. Hopefully, our anecdotal account may prompt improvements with RT-CGMS, and may lead to a better approach to the problem, thereby changing the prognosis of infants born to diabetic mothers.

  17. Factors Associated with Death Due to 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Beijing, 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-qian; Zhang; Li-cheng; Zhang; Na; Ren; Ming; Zhang; Li-min; Guo; Xing-wang; Li; Jun; Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective Patients with H1N1 virus infection were hospitalized and quarantined, and some of them developed into acute respiratory failure, and were transfered to the medical intensive care unit of Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University in Beijing, China. Methods The clinical features and preliminary epidemiologic findings among 30 patients with confirmed H1N1 virus infection who developed into acute respiratory failure for ventilatory support were investigated. Results A total of 30 patients(37.43 ± 18.80 years old) with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) related acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) received treatment with mechanical ventilation, 15 cases of whom were male and 17 cases died of ARDS. Fatal cases were significantly associated with an APACHE Ⅱ score(P = 0.016), but not with PaO 2 /FIO 2(P = 0.912) and chest radiograph(P = 0.333). The most common complication was acute renal failure(n = 9). Five patients received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO), 3 of whom died and the others survived. The major causes of death were multiple organ dysfunction syndrome(MODS)(39%), intractable respiratory failure(27%) and sepsis(20%). Conclusions Most patients with respiratory failure due to influenza A(H1N1) virus infection were young, with a high mortality, particularly associated with APACHE Ⅱ score, secondary infection of lung or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome (RDS) is a problem often seen in premature babies. The condition makes it hard for the ... a slippery substance in the lungs called surfactant. This substance helps the lungs fill with air ...

  19. Romantic Relationships, Relationship Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Distress among Chinese and Australian Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…

  20. Effects of Art Therapy on Distress Levels of Adults with Cancer: A Proxy Pretest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinzak, Leara

    2016-01-01

    This study identified decreased distress after art therapy in a proxy pretest study with a convenience sample of 73 patients being treated for cancer. Art therapy outcomes from 4 settings (oncology unit, infusion clinic, individual sessions, and open studio) were measured via the self-report Distress Thermometer, which was collected as part of an…

  1. Computed tomographic criteria as expected effect to inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is an effective therapy for severe hypoxemia in most patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For unknown reason, a subset of ARDS patients does not respond favorably to iNO therapy. We hypothesized that radiological manifestation of lung injury may be related to iNO response. Materials and methods: we retrospectively analyzed data from n = 25 ARDS patients who received iNO, and underwent chest CT within 72 h prior to inhaled treatment. The morphology of coherently pathologic lung tissue was characterized by the length of the borderline between consolidated, infiltrated and atelectatic lung tissue and radiologically normal lung tissue. This quantity was expressed as relative fraction of the visceral pleural circumference and averaged over all CT slices. Furthermore we semiquantitatively determined the total volume of consolidated lung tissue as part of the whole lung. Results: in n = 6 non-responders to iNO (ΔPaO2 10%), we found significantly less coherently consolidated lung tissue evidenced by an increased relative borderline when compared to iNO non-responders (0.09 ± 0.02 vs. 0.1 ± 0.01; P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a moderate and significant correlation between ΔPaO2 induced by iNO and the relative borderline in all patients studied (R = 0.59; P < 0.05). Total fraction of consolidated lung tissue volume was not different between iNO non-responders and responders (60 ± 3% vs. 54 ± 2% n. s.). Conclusion: our data demonstrate that the gross morphological distribution of pathological lung tissue influences iNO response in ARDS. Inhaled NO was most beneficial in injured lungs characterized by many small consolidated areas surrounded by normal lung tissue. The increased borderline between pathologic and normal lung tissue offers additional possibility for iNO to divert blood flow from shunt areas to ventilated lung regions, which consequently improves arterial oxygenation. (orig.)

  2. Receptor Interacting Protein 3-Mediated Necroptosis Promotes Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available Necrosis amplifies inflammation and plays important roles in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Necroptosis is a newly identified programmed necrosis that is mediated by receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3. However, the potential involvement and impact of necroptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ARDS remains unknown. We therefore explored the role and mechanism of RIP3-mediated necroptosis in LPS-induced ARDS. Mice were instilled with increasing doses of LPS intratracheally to induce different degrees of ARDS. Lung tissues were harvested for histological and TUNEL staining and western blot for RIP3, p-RIP3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, total and cleaved caspases-3/8. Then, wild-type and RIP3 knock-out mice were induced ARDS with 30 mg/kg LPS. Pulmonary cellular necrosis was labeled by the propidium Iodide (PI staining. Levels of TNF-a, Interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-10 and HMGB1, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, neutrophil counts and total protein concentration were measured. Results showed that in high dose LPS (30mg/kg and 40mg/kg -induced severe ARDS, RIP3 protein was increased significantly, accompanied by increases of p-RIP3 and MLKL, while in low dose LPS (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg -induced mild ARDS, apoptosis was remarkably increased. In LPS-induced severe ARDS, RIP3 knock-out alleviated the hypothermia symptom, increased survival rate and ameliorated the lung tissue injury RIP3 depletion also attenuated LPS-induced increase in IL-1α/β, IL-6 and HMGB1 release, decreased tissue MPO activity, and reduced neutrophil influx and total protein concentration in BALF in severe ARDS. Further, RIP3 depletion reduced the necrotic cells in the lung and decreased the expression of MLKL, but had no impact on cleaved caspase-3 in LPS-induced ARDS. It is concluded that RIP3-mediated necroptosis is a major mechanism of enhanced inflammation and lung tissue injury in

  3. Fas and Fas Ligand Are Up-Regulated in Pulmonary Edema Fluid and Lung Tissue of Patients with Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Albertine, Kurt H; Soulier, Matthew F.; Wang, Zhengming; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Matthay, Michael A; Lorraine B. Ware

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis mediated by Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) interaction has been implicated in human disease processes, including pulmonary disorders. However, the role of the Fas/FasL system in acute lung injury (ALI) and in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is poorly defined. Accordingly, we investigated both the soluble and cellular expression of the Fas/FasL system in patients with ALI or ARDS. The major findings are summarized as follows. First, the soluble expression of the Fas/FasL system...

  4. Cerebral gas embolism in a case of Influenza A-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation

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    Christian M Sebat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old obese asthmatic woman with Influenza A (H1N1-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome died from cerebral artery gas emboli with massive cerebral infarction while being treated with High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in the absence of a right to left intracardiac shunt. We review and briefly discuss other causes of systemic gas emboli (SGE. We review proposed mechanisms of SGE, their relation to our case, and how improved understanding of the risk factors may help prevent SGE in positive pressure ventilated patients.

  5. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on respiratory distress syndrome development and prognosis in premature infants: A single blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    OZTURK, MEHMET ADNAN; KARDAS, ZEHRA; KARDAS, FATİH; GUNES, TAMER; KURTOGLU, SELİM

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of L-carnitine therapy on the occurrence and prognosis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A single blind, randomized controlled trial study was conducted on 130 infants with gestational ages of 28–36 weeks. Infants were assigned to experimental groups (groups 1 and 2) and control groups (groups 3 and 4). Groups 1 and 3 consisted of infants with RDS, and groups 2 and 4 groups were composed of infants without RDS. The experimenta...

  6. Changes in dead space/tidal volume ratio and pulmonary mechanics after surfactant replacement therapy in respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, E. H.; Ko, S. Y.; Kim, I Y; Chang, Y. S.; Park, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of improved oxygenation after surfactant replacement therapy in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn infants. In 26 newborns with RDS, end tidal-CO2 tension (PetCO2), arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests were measured at baseline, 30 min, 2 hr and 6 hr after surfactant administration. The changes in dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD/VT ratio=(PaCO2-PetCO2)/PaCO2), oxygenation index and arterial-alveolar part...

  7. Social support during intensive care unit stay might improve mental impairment and consequently health-related quality of life in survivors of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Deja, Maria; Denke, Claudia; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Schröder, Jürgen; Pille, Christian E; Hokema, Frank; Falke, Konrad J; Kaisers, Udo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction We investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in long-term survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We wished to evaluate the influence of PTSD on HRQoL and to investigate the influence of perceived social support during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment on both PTSD symptoms and HRQoL. Methods In ARDS patients we prospectively measured HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form; SF-...

  8. Longitudinal relationship between diabetes-specific emotional distress and follow-up HbA1c in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine whether diabetes-specific emotional distress was related to follow-up glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods Adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus completed the Diabetes Distress Scale and reported sociodemographic information when attending a clinical consultation at a university endocrinology unit. Blood samples to determine baseline HbA1c were taken during consultations. All respondents’ HbA1c measurements registered from January 2009 to December 2...

  9. Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain in dysmenorrheic young adult women: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Mein; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chiu, Min-Huei; Hu, Hsou-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain (LBP) in dysmenorrheic young adult women. In all, 129 female students, who had been experiencing dysmenorrhea with LBP during menstruation and who scored more than 4 points on the visual analog scale for pain, were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (n = 65) received acupressure massage three times a week for 30 minutes on the sanyinjiao (SP6), ciliao (BL32), and taichong (Liver 3) acupoints. The control group (n = 64) received only a manual of menstrual health education without acupressure intervention. Data were collected at five time points: at baseline, 30 minutes, and 4, 8, and 12 months after the intervention. During the 12-month follow-up, the experimental group had significantly lower menstrual distress and LBP scores than the control group. Among 65 participants in the experimental group, 53 (82%) reported a moderate to high levels of menstrual distress, 51 (78%) reported moderate to high levels of LBP relief, and 49 (75%) reported moderate to high levels of satisfaction with acupressure. Our findings may serve as a reference for health care professionals and young women to improve self-care during menstruation and help further understand the therapeutic effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and LBP. PMID:25175554

  10. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p depression (b = .36, 95% CI [.23, .49], p < .01), and perceived stress (b = .37, 95% CI [.22, .51], p < .01). Using MJ for enhancement purposes or for social reasons was not associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults. PMID:25915689

  11. Distress and disability in young adults presenting to clinical services with mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth M Scott; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L.; Adam J. Guastella; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley G.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Scott, Jan; Hickie, Ian B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Distress and/or dysfunction are well established as key reasons for help-seeking. We explore the characteristics of groups defined by high or low distress or disability in young people with unipolar depression (UP) or bipolar disorder (BD). Methods Individuals aged 12 to 25 years presenting to youth mental health services for the first time with a primary diagnosis of UP or BD were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler-10) and the Work and Social Adjustme...

  12. Inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome with and without septic shock requiring norepinephrine administration: a dose–response study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgeon, Eric; Puybasset, Louis; Law-Koune, Jean-Dominique; Lu, Qin; Abdennour, Lamine; Gallart, Lluis; Malassine, Patrick; Rao, GS Umamaheswara; Cluzel, Philippe; Bennani, Abdelhai; Coriat, Pierre; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    1997-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective study was to assess whether the presence of septic shock could influence the dose response to inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in NO-responding patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Results: Eight patients with ARDS and without septic shock (PaO2 = 95 ± 16 mmHg, PEEP = 0, FiO2 = 1.0), and eight patients with ARDS and septic shock (PaO2 = 88 ± 11 mmHg, PEEP = 0, FiO2 = 1.0) receiving exclusively norepinephrine were studied. All responded to 15 ppm inhaled NO with an increase in PaO2 of at least 40 mmHg, at FiO2 1.0 and PEEP 10 cmH2O. Inspiratory intratracheal NO concentrations were recorded continuously using a fast response time chemiluminescence apparatus. Seven inspiratory NO concentrations were randomly administered: 0.15, 0.45, 1.5, 4.5, 15, 45 and 150 ppm. In both groups, NO induced a dose-dependent decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), and venous admixture (QVA/QT), and a dose-dependent increase in PaO2/FiO2 (P ≤ 0.012). Dose-response of MPAP and PVRI were similar in both groups with a plateau effect at 4.5 ppm. Dose-response of PaO2/FiO2 was influenced by the presence of septic shock. No plateau effect was observed in patients with septic shock and PaO2/FiO2 increased by 173 ± 37% at 150 ppm. In patients without septic shock, an 82 ± 26% increase in PaO2/FiO2 was observed with a plateau effect obtained at 15 ppm. In both groups, dose-response curves demonstrated a marked interindividual variability and in five patients pulmonary vascular effect and improvement in arterial oxygenation were dissociated. Conclusion: For similar NOinduced decreases in MPAP and PVRI in both groups, the increase in arterial oxygenation was more marked in patients with septic shock. PMID:11056694

  13. Association between insertion/deletion polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis

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    Matsuda Akihisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous meta-analysis reported a positive association between an insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE and the risk of acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Here, we updated this meta-analysis and additionally assessed the association of this polymorphism with ALI/ARDS mortality. Methods We searched electronic databases through October 2011 for the terms “angiotensin-converting enzyme gene”, “acute lung injury”, and “acute respiratory distress syndrome,” and reviewed all studies that reported the relationship of the I/D polymorphism in ACE with ALI/ARDS in humans. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 532 ALI/ARDS patients, 3032 healthy controls, and 1432 patients without ALI/ARDS. We used three genetic models: the allele, dominant, and recessive models. Results The ACE I/D polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to ALI/ARDS for any genetic model. However, the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asian subjects ( Pallele Pdominant = 0.001, Precessive = 0.002. This finding remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions There is a possible association between the ACE I/D polymorphism genotype and the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asians.

  14. Moderating effect of optimism on emotional distress and seizure control in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kiely M; Schefft, Bruce K; Howe, Steven R; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Yeh, Hwa-shain; Privitera, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    Stress is a commonly reported seizure precipitant among individuals with epilepsy. Yet, the relationship between stress and seizure susceptibility remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between emotional distress and lifetime seizure load in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), as well as the potential moderating effect of explanatory style on this relationship. Data were collected from 148 individuals with TLE. Scales 2 and 7 of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were used as a measure of emotional distress, and explanatory style was measured using the Revised Optimism-Pessimism Scale. Elevated Scale 2 scores were associated with an increase in seizure load only in subjects with Full Scale IQ scores> or =92. An interaction between emotional distress and explanatory style was not observed. Thus, for individuals with higher levels of intelligence, depression may be an important pathway in linking emotional distress to poor seizure control. PMID:20542740

  15. Respiratory viral infections and effects of meteorological parameters and air pollution in adults with respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency room

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Denise R.; Viana, Vinícius P; Müller, Alice M; Livi, Fernando P; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso R

    2013-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are the most common causes of respiratory infections. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults is underestimated. Meteorological variations and air pollution are likely to play a role in these infections. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the number of emergency visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and to evaluate the association between ILI/SARI, RVI prevalence, and ...

  16. Unusual Respiratory Manifestations in Two Young Adults with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

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    Julie Lemay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult respirologists are often involved in the evaluation and treatment of young adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this context, the most frequent respiratory complication is nocturnal and daytime hypoventilation related to respiratory muscle weakness. The present article describes cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy involving two brothers, 17 and 19 years of age, respectively, who presented with less frequently reported respiratory complications of their disease: obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central apnea, which were believed to be partially or completely related to congestive cardiomyopathy.

  17. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Psychological Distress among Urban Adults: The Moderating Role of Neighborhood Social Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Özcan; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Prins, Rick G.; Voorham, Toon A. J. J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (sca...

  18. The association of fetal and early childhood growth with adult mental distress: evidence from the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study birth cohort.

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    Aaron Andrew Alford

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early childhood physical growth may have an impact on the development of adult mental distress. The primary objectives were to (1 assess the association of early growth in weight (adjusted for height with adult mental distress, and (2 determine if specific sub-types, or patterns, of early physical growth are associated with adult mental distress.Methods: Subjects were all Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study cohort subjects with complete birth size information that successfully completed the Pathways to Adulthood follow-up in early adulthood. Variability in the timing of growth in weight adjusted for height from birth to age 7.5 years was taken into account using a nonhierarchical linear model. Two critical periods of growth were considered as tertiles of change in weight adjusted for height from birth to age seven and birth to age 1 year. Mental distress in adulthood (ages 29-32 was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28.Results: Small for gestational age subjects were at increased risk of later mental distress, but not uniformly so. Those born with low weight and length for gestational age were a distinct subgroup of those born small for gestational age, and had unique patterns of risk for adult mental distress when early growth was considered.Conclusions: Acceleration and deceleration in weight for height change is associated with mental distress over multiple periods of early life and acts differentially between those periods. Furthermore, the association of early childhood growth with the likelihood of adult mental distress is dependent on prenatal growth.

  19. Uso de corticosteroide na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo em pacientes pediátricos Corticosteroids therapy in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara de Magalhães Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    mais pesquisas para elucidar a segurança e eficácia da administração de metilprednisolona na lesão pulmonar aguda/síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo em crianças, bem como estabelecer os melhores parâmetros a serem utilizados no diagnóstico e acompanhamento da doença, na monitorização das complicações da corticoterapia, bem como os desfechos primários mais adequados.The use of corticosteroids in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome is one of the most controversial issues in the literature. However, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome studies are restricted to adults, despite the widespread use of corticosteroid for hyper-reactive respiratory airway diseases in children. This review aimed to describe experimental and clinical evidence for corticosteroid therapy in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome and to point out the risks and benefits of its use in pediatrics. For this purpose, an extensive review of the literature was performed from 1980 to 2010 including both experimental and clinical papers, as well as reviews and meta-analysis, using Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, SciELO, Lilacs and Bireme databases. The search terms were: acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, steroids, child, clinical trials, meta-analyses, reviews, and case reports. Most studies showed that the corticosteroids-induced down-regulation of systemic inflammatory response is associated with oxygenation improvement, reduction of multiple organ dysfunctions, mechanical ventilation time, and intensive care units length of stay. Based on the literature, the authors suggest early and prolonged methylprednisolone administration for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, using continuous 1 mg/kg/day infusion to prevent glycemic variability, associated with strict infection surveillance. In addition, they recommend some

  20. Etiology and Clinical Characterization of Respiratory Virus Infections in Adult Patients Attending an Emergency Department in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Roujian; Wang, Zhong; Zhu, Na; Wang, Wen; Julian, Druce; Chris, Birch; Lv, Jianxin; Tan, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) represent a serious global health burden. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of respiratory viruses (RVs) in adults with ARTIs attending an emergency department (ED). Therefore, the potential impact of respiratory virus infections on such patients remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the epidemiological and clinical profiles of common and recently discovered respiratory viruses in adults with ARTIs a...

  1. Ventilação de alta freqüência em crianças e adolescentes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (impacto sobre o uso de ecmo High-frequency ventilation in children and adolescents with acute respiratory distress syndrome (impact on the use of ecmo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília Santana Faria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da ventilação de alta freqüência (VAF em crianças e adolescentes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório (SDRA por meio de estimativas de sobrevida e tempo de ventilação. Verificar se a VAF reduziu a indicação de oxigenação de membrana extracorpórea (ECMO em crianças e adolescentes com SDRA. MÉTODOS: A técnica empregada foi uma revisão sistemática da literatura médica sobre o uso de VAF e ECMO em crianças e adolescentes com SDRA. O levantamento bibliográfico utilizou os bancos de dados Medline, Lilacs e Embase. Os termos utilizados para pesquisa foram: adult respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO, high-frequency ventilation, high-frequency jet ventilation e high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Foram procurados ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados, estudos de coorte e série de casos que comparavam VAF com ventilação mecânica convencional (VMC, ECMO com VMC ou VAF precedendo o uso de ECMO. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 289 publicações relacionadas a VAF, SDRA e ECMO. Destas, apenas nove atendiam aos critérios de seleção pré-estabelecidos referindo-se a utilização de VAF e/ou ECMO em crianças e adolescentes com SDRA. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível confirmar se o uso de VAF melhora a sobrevida de crianças e adolescentes com SDRA. Quanto ao tempo de ventilação, não houve estudo que comprovasse, com significância estatística, a sua redução ou aumento. Não foi possível verificar se VAF diminui ou não a indicação de ECMO em crianças e adolescentes com SDRA.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of high-frequency ventilation (HFV in children and adolescents with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS through estimates of survival rate and time of ventilation. To verify whether HFV can reduce the indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in children

  2. Initial treatment of respiratory distress syndrome with nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure: A randomized controlled trial

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    Amir-Mohammad Armanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in premature infants who survived and its complications are a common problem. Due to high morbidity and mechanical ventilation (MV nowadays researchers in interested minimizing MV. To determine, in very low birth weight (BW preterm neonates with RDS, if initial treatment with nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (early NIMV compared with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (early NCPAP obtains more favorable outcomes in terms of the duration of treatment, and the need for endotracheal tube ventilation. Methods: In this single-center randomized control trial study, infants (BW ≤ 1500 g and/or gestational age ≤ 34 weeks with respiratory distress were considered eligible. Forty-four infants were randomly assigned to receive early-NIMV and 54 comparable infants to early-NCPAP. Surfactants were given, when FIO 2 requirement was of >30%. Primary outcomes were failure of noninvasive respiratory support, that is, the need for MV in the first 48 h of life and for the duration of noninvasive respiratory support in each group. Results: 98 infants were enrolled (44 in the NIMV and 54 in the NCPAP group. The Preventive power of MV of NIMV usage (95.5% was not lower than the NCPAP (98.1% strength (hazard ratio: 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-2.66; P: 0.23. The duration of noninvasive respiratory support in the NIMV group was significantly shorter than NCPAP (the median (range was 24 (18.00-48.00 h versus 48.00 (22.00-120.00 h in NIMV versus NCPAP groups; P < 0.001. Similarly, the duration of dependency on oxygen was less, for NIMV (the median (range was 96.00 (41.00-504.00 h versus144.00 (70.00-1130.00 h in NIMV versus NCPAP groups; P: 0.009. Interestingly, time to full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were more favorable in the NIMV versus the NCPAP group. Conclusions: Initial treatment of RDS with NIMV was safe, and well tolerated. Furthermore, NIMV had excellent

  3. Comparison between two different modes of non-invasive ventilatory support in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome mild to moderate: preliminary data

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    F. Ciuffini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as a better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. HFNC may be effective in the treatment of some neonatal respiratory conditions while being more user-friendly for care-givers than conventional NCPAP. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy and safety of HFNC in newborns and to demonstrate efficacy compared with NCPAP; some studies suggest a potential role for HFNC in respiratory care of the neonate as a distinct non invasive ventilatory support. We present the preliminary data of a randomized clinical trial; the aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of HFNC compared to NCPAP in preterm newborns with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.

  4. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

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    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  5. The Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome: New Insights Into Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    These discussions are selected from the weekly staff conferences in the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Taken from transcriptions, they are prepared by Homer A. Boushey, MD, Professor of Medicine, and John G. Fitz, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, under the direction of Lloyd H. Smith, Jr, MD, Professor of Medicine and Associate Dean in the School of Medicine. Requests for reprints should be sent to the Department of Medicine, University of California, San...

  6. Self-Efficacy Beliefs as Predictors of Loneliness and Psychological Distress in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Prem S.; Debats, Dominique L.

    2002-01-01

    Sociodemographic variables, social support, and physical health have been used previously in a few predictor models of loneliness and psychological distress in late life. The present study, however, was designed to test the hypothesis that self-efficacy beliefs of elderly persons are significantly stronger predictors of loneliness and…

  7. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens.

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    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and asthma, are common diseases with a prevalence of 30-40% worldwide and are thus of great global public health importance. Allergic inflammation may influence the immunity against infections, so atopic individuals could be susceptible to respiratory infections. No previous population-based study has addressed the relation between atopy and respiratory infections in adulthood. We assessed the relation between atopic disease, specific IgE antibodies and the occurrence of upper and lower respiratory infections in the past 12 months among working-aged adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 1008 atopic and non-atopic adults 21-63 years old was conducted. Information on atopic diseases, allergy tests and respiratory infections was collected by a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens were measured in serum. Adults with atopic disease had a significantly increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI; including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted risk ratio (RR 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 3.52 and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted RR 1.55 (1.14, 2.10. The risk of LRTIs increased with increasing level of specific IgE (linear trend P = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that working-aged adults with atopic disease experience significantly more LRTIs and URTIs than non-atopics. The occurrence of respiratory infections increased with increasing levels of specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens, showing a dose-response pattern with LRTIs. From the clinical point of view it is important to recognize that those with atopies are a risk group for respiratory infections, including more severe LRTIs.

  8. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal ...

  9. Intercambio gaseoso en el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda Gas exchange in acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    G. A. Raimondi

    2003-04-01

    efecto beneficioso de todas estas técnicas en la mejoría del IG en el ARDS, no se ha demostrado efecto beneficioso en la sobrevida.The hypoxemia of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS depends chiefly upon shunt and ventilation-perfusion (V A/Q inequality produced by fluid located in the interstitial space, alveolar collapse and flooding. Variables other than inspired oxygen fraction and the underlying physiological abnormality can influence arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2. Changes in cardiac output, hemoglobin concentration, oxygen consumption and alcalosis can cause changes in PaO2 through their influence on mixed venous PO2. Gas exchange (GE in ARDS may be studied using the inert gas elimination technique (MIGET which enables to define the distribution of ventilation and perfusion without necessarily altering the FIO2 differentiating shunt from lung units with low V A/Q ratios and dead space from lung units with high V A/Q ratios. Different ventilatory strategies that increase mean airway pressure (positive end-expiratory pressure, high tidal volumes, inverse inspiratory-expiratory ratio, etc improve PaO2 through increasing lung volume by recruiting new open alveoli and spreading the intra-alveolar fluid over a large surface area. Also prone-position ventilation would result in a marked improvement in GE enhancing dorsal lung ventilation by the effects on the gravitional distribution of pleural pressure and the reduction in the positive pleural pressure that develops in dorsal regions in ARDS. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO has been shown to increase PaO2 in ARDS patients by inducing vasodilation predominantly in ventilated areas redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from nonventilated toward ventilated areas of the lung thus resulting in a shunt reduction. On the same way inhaled prostaglandins (PGI2 or PGE1 causes selective pulmonary vasodilation improving pulmonary GE. Intravenous almitrine, a selective pulmonary vasoconstrictor, has been shown to

  10. Otalgia and eschar in the external auditory canal in scrub typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure

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    Hu Sung-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus, a mite-transmitted zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an endemic disease in Taiwan and may be potentially fatal if diagnosis is delayed. Case presentations We encountered a 23-year-old previously healthy Taiwanese male soldier presenting with the right ear pain after training in the jungle and an eleven-day history of intermittent high fever up to 39°C. Amoxicillin/clavulanate was prescribed for otitis media at a local clinic. Skin rash over whole body and abdominal cramping pain with watery diarrhea appeared on the sixth day of fever. He was referred due to progressive dyspnea and cough for 4 days prior to admission in our institution. On physical examination, there were cardiopulmonary distress, icteric sclera, an eschar in the right external auditory canal and bilateral basal rales. Laboratory evaluation revealed thrombocytopenia, elevation of liver function and acute renal failure. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse infiltration. Doxycycline was prescribed for scrub typhus with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Fever subsided dramatically the next day and he was discharged on day 7 with oral tetracycline for 7 days. Conclusion Scrub typhus should be considered in acutely febrile patients with multiple organ involvement, particularly if there is an eschar or a history of environmental exposure in endemic areas. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, timely administration of antibiotics and intensive supportive care are necessary to decrease mortality of serious complications of scrub typhus.

  11. CESAR: conventional ventilatory support vs extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure

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    Mugford Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 350 adults develop severe, but potentially reversible respiratory failure in the UK annually. Current management uses intermittent positive pressure ventilation, but barotrauma, volutrauma and oxygen toxicity can prevent lung recovery. An alternative treatment, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, uses cardio-pulmonary bypass technology to temporarily provide gas exchange, allowing ventilator settings to be reduced. While extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is proven to result in improved outcome when compared to conventional ventilation in neonates with severe respiratory failure, there is currently no good evidence from randomised controlled trials to compare these managements for important clinical outcomes in adults, although evidence from case series is promising. Methods/Design The aim of the randomised controlled trial of Conventional ventilatory support vs extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR is to assess whether, for patients with severe, but potentially reversible, respiratory failure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation will increase the rate of survival without severe disability ('confined to bed' and 'unable to wash or dress' by six months post-randomisation, and be cost effective from the viewpoints of the NHS and society, compared to conventional ventilatory support. Following assent from a relative, adults (18–65 years with severe, but potentially reversible, respiratory failure (Murray score ≥ 3.0 or hypercapnea with pH Discussion Analysis will be based on intention to treat. A concurrent economic evaluation will also be performed to compare the costs and outcomes of both treatments.

  12. Respiratory Complications from Acute Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa; Bozinovska, Cvetanka; Pereska, Zanina; Smokovski, Ivica; Glasnovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute corrosive poisonings are caused by ingestion of corrosive chemicals which are most commonly used as household agents. Intoxications with these kind of agents produce numerous and severe post-corrosive complications of the upper gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, our experience showed that corrosive agents may also cause injuries of the respiratory system, which makes the treatment very hard and additionally complicates the severe clinical condition of the patient. ...

  13. Chest wall deformity and respiratory distress in a 17-year-old patient with achondroplasia: CT and MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A marked thoracic deformity associated with intrathoracic tracheal narrowing was seen in a 17-year old with achondroplasia and dyspnea. The role of chest deformity and its evaluation by CT and MRI in achondroplastic patients with respiratory symptoms are considered. (orig.)

  14. Chest wall deformity and respiratory distress in a 17-year-old patient with achondroplasia: CT and MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, T.E.; Siegel, M.J.; McAlister, W.H. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology)

    1992-06-01

    A marked thoracic deformity associated with intrathoracic tracheal narrowing was seen in a 17-year old with achondroplasia and dyspnea. The role of chest deformity and its evaluation by CT and MRI in achondroplastic patients with respiratory symptoms are considered. (orig.).

  15. Epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nan-Shan; Wong, Gary W K

    2004-12-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly described respiratory infection with pandemic potential. The causative agent is a new strain of coronavirus most likely originating from wild animals. This disease first emerged in November 2002 in Guangdong Province, China. Early in the outbreak the infection had been transmitted primarily via household contacts and healthcare settings. In late February 2003 the infection was transmitted to Hong Kong when an infected doctor from the mainland visited there. During his stay in Hong Kong at least 17 guests and visitors were infected at the hotel at which he stayed. By modern day air travel, the infection was rapidly spread to other countries including Vietnam, Singapore and Canada by these infected guests. With the implementation of effective control strategies including early isolation of suspected cases, strict infection control measures in the hospital setting, meticulous contact tracing and quarantine, the outbreak was finally brought under control by July 2003. In addition, there were another two events of SARS in China between the end of December 2003 and January 2004 and from March to May 2004; both were readily controlled without significant patient spread. PMID:15531250

  16. Noninvasive respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome%非侵入性呼吸支持治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鸾英; 陈俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察非侵入性呼吸支持对新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床疗效。方法将胎龄≤35周,且符合新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)诊断标准的82例早产儿作为观察对象。尽早给予NCPAP支持,若失败则改用NIPPV支持,必要时使用PS或机械通气。结果82例观察对象全部使用了NCPAP,其中19例因效果不明显改用了NIPPV,66例使用了PS;72 h内无一例使用有创机械通气,但有4例患儿后期因合并院内感染或BPD使用了气管插管机械通气;82例中1例因先天性肠闭锁于生后第二天转外科手术治疗,1例因经济原因于第2天签字出院,其余80例均痊愈出院。结论无创呼吸支持用于治疗早产儿NRDS疗效肯定,部分患儿如果尽早使用NCPAP或NIPPV,可以不使用PS。因无创呼吸支持经济便捷,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of noninvasive respiratory support for preterm in-fants with respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Chart data of inborn infants≤35 weeks with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in the period 1st Aug 2011 to 31st July 2013 were reviewed. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) was given as early as possible when RDS was suspected, while nasal intermittent positive pressure ventila-tion (NIPPV) was given to those failed NCPAP. Mechanical ventilation (MV) or surfactant would be given as neces-sary. Results Eighty-two preterm infants were enrolled, all of which received NCPAP in 72 hours of age, and nine-teen received NIPPV due to failure of CPAP. No infants needed MV in their first 72 hours of life, but 4 infants needed in the later due to nosocomial infection or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Eighty of 82 infants recovered except one transferred to surgery departmemt due to intestinal atresia and another one gave up due to economical reason. Conclusion Noninvasive respiratory support is successful and safe for preterm infants with

  17. Young Adults' Information Seeking Following Celebrity Suicide: Considering Involvement With the Celebrity and Emotional Distress in Health Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R; Parrott, M Scott

    2016-11-01

    Young adults (N = 357) were surveyed following the suicide of celebrity Robin Williams to better understand how involvement with the actor and emotional responses to his death influenced searches for information concerning depression, suicide, and mental health. Emotional distress following the actor's death mediated the relationship between involvement and certain types of information searches. Most respondents sought information about the celebrity's career, suicide, and depression using portable devices such as smartphones and laptop computers to access news websites for information. Those respondents who sought information about the suicide reported changes in their thoughts about suicide, most often dealing with the difficulty in spotting warning signs and the idea that "it can happen to anyone." Findings suggest placement of health messages within existing material about celebrity announcements on online websites and social media to drive more traffic toward general informational outlets. Messages that acknowledge emotional distress might be best placed within content specific to the celebrity's tragedy, rather than specific to the celebrity's career or performances. PMID:26984641

  18. Severe Respiratory Distress in a Child with Pulmonary Idiopathic Hemosiderosis Initially Presenting with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potalivo, A; Finessi, L; Facondini, F; Lupo, A; Andreoni, C; Giuliani, G; Cavicchi, C

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage in children but should be considered in children with anemia of unknown origin who develop respiratory complications. It is commonly characterized by the triad of recurrent hemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates, and iron-deficiency anemia. Pathogenesis is unclear and diagnosis may be difficult along with a variable clinical course. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a severe iron-deficiency anemia, but he later developed severe acute respiratory failure and hemoptysis requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. The suspicion of IPH led to the use of immunosuppressive therapy with high dose of corticosteroids with rapid improvement in clinical condition and discharge from hospital. PMID:26634166

  19. Severe Respiratory Distress in a Child with Pulmonary Idiopathic Hemosiderosis Initially Presenting with Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potalivo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage in children but should be considered in children with anemia of unknown origin who develop respiratory complications. It is commonly characterized by the triad of recurrent hemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates, and iron-deficiency anemia. Pathogenesis is unclear and diagnosis may be difficult along with a variable clinical course. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a severe iron-deficiency anemia, but he later developed severe acute respiratory failure and hemoptysis requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. The suspicion of IPH led to the use of immunosuppressive therapy with high dose of corticosteroids with rapid improvement in clinical condition and discharge from hospital.

  20. Severe Respiratory Distress in a Child with Pulmonary Idiopathic Hemosiderosis Initially Presenting with Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    A. Potalivo; L. Finessi; F. Facondini; A. Lupo; Andreoni, C.; Giuliani, G.; Cavicchi, C

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage in children but should be considered in children with anemia of unknown origin who develop respiratory complications. It is commonly characterized by the triad of recurrent hemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates, and iron-deficiency anemia. Pathogenesis is unclear and diagnosis may be difficult along with a variable clinical course. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a severe iron-deficiency a...

  1. Summer indoor heat exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular distress calls in New York City, NY, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, C K; Tamerius, J D; Vredenburg, J; Asaeda, G; Isaacs, D A; Braun, J; Quinn, A; Freese, J P

    2016-08-01

    Most extreme heat studies relate outdoor weather conditions to human morbidity and mortality. In developed nations, individuals spend ~90% of their time indoors. This pilot study investigated the indoor environments of people receiving emergency medical care in New York City, NY, U.S., from July to August 2013. The first objective was to determine the relative influence of outdoor conditions as well as patient characteristics and neighborhood sociodemographics on indoor temperature and specific humidity (N = 764). The second objective was to determine whether cardiovascular or respiratory cases experience hotter and more humid indoor conditions as compared to controls. Paramedics carried portable sensors into buildings where patients received care to passively monitor indoor temperature and humidity. The case-control study compared 338 respiratory cases, 291 cardiovascular cases, and 471 controls. Intuitively, warmer and sunnier outdoor conditions increased indoor temperatures. Older patients who received emergency care tended to occupy warmer buildings. Indoor-specific humidity levels quickly adjusted to outdoor conditions. Indoor heat and humidity exposure above a 26 °C threshold increased (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.98-2.68, P = 0.056), but not significantly, the proportion of respiratory cases. Indoor heat exposures were similar between cardiovascular cases and controls. PMID:26086869

  2. Adult venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO for severe acute respiratory failure was proposed more than 40 years ago. Despite the publication of the ARDSNet study and adoption of lung protective ventilation, the mortality for acute respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome has continued to remain high. This technology has evolved over the past couple of decades and has been noted to be safe and successful, especially during the worldwide H1N1 influenza pandemic with good survival rates. The primary indications for ECMO in acute respiratory failure include severe refractory hypoxemic and hypercarbic respiratory failure in spite of maximum lung protective ventilatory support. Various triage criteria have been described and published. Contraindications exist when application of ECMO may be futile or technically impossible. Knowledge and appreciation of the circuit, cannulae, and the physiology of gas exchange with ECMO are necessary to ensure lung rest, efficiency of oxygenation, and ventilation as well as troubleshooting problems. Anticoagulation is a major concern with ECMO, and the evidence is evolving with respect to diagnostic testing and use of anticoagulants. Clinical management of the patient includes comprehensive critical care addressing sedation and neurologic issues, ensuring lung recruitment, diuresis, early enteral nutrition, treatment and surveillance of infections, and multisystem organ support. Newer technology that delinks oxygenation and ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal may lead to ultra-lung protective ventilation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation in some situations, and ambulatory therapies as a bridge to lung transplantation. Risks, complications, and long-term outcomes and resources need to be considered and weighed in before widespread application. Ethical challenges are a reality and a multidisciplinary approach that should be adopted for every case in consideration.

  3. Adult venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayan; Callisen, Hannelisa E; Alwardt, Cory M; Larson, Joel S; Lowell, Amelia A; Libricz, Stacy L; Tarwade, Pritee; Patel, Bhavesh M; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory failure was proposed more than 40 years ago. Despite the publication of the ARDSNet study and adoption of lung protective ventilation, the mortality for acute respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome has continued to remain high. This technology has evolved over the past couple of decades and has been noted to be safe and successful, especially during the worldwide H1N1 influenza pandemic with good survival rates. The primary indications for ECMO in acute respiratory failure include severe refractory hypoxemic and hypercarbic respiratory failure in spite of maximum lung protective ventilatory support. Various triage criteria have been described and published. Contraindications exist when application of ECMO may be futile or technically impossible. Knowledge and appreciation of the circuit, cannulae, and the physiology of gas exchange with ECMO are necessary to ensure lung rest, efficiency of oxygenation, and ventilation as well as troubleshooting problems. Anticoagulation is a major concern with ECMO, and the evidence is evolving with respect to diagnostic testing and use of anticoagulants. Clinical management of the patient includes comprehensive critical care addressing sedation and neurologic issues, ensuring lung recruitment, diuresis, early enteral nutrition, treatment and surveillance of infections, and multisystem organ support. Newer technology that delinks oxygenation and ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal may lead to ultra-lung protective ventilation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation in some situations, and ambulatory therapies as a bridge to lung transplantation. Risks, complications, and long-term outcomes and resources need to be considered and weighed in before widespread application. Ethical challenges are a reality and a multidisciplinary approach that should be adopted for every case in consideration. PMID:26750681

  4. Adult venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayan; Callisen, Hannelisa E.; Alwardt, Cory M.; Larson, Joel S.; Lowell, Amelia A.; Libricz, Stacy L.; Tarwade, Pritee; Patel, Bhavesh M.; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory failure was proposed more than 40 years ago. Despite the publication of the ARDSNet study and adoption of lung protective ventilation, the mortality for acute respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome has continued to remain high. This technology has evolved over the past couple of decades and has been noted to be safe and successful, especially during the worldwide H1N1 influenza pandemic with good survival rates. The primary indications for ECMO in acute respiratory failure include severe refractory hypoxemic and hypercarbic respiratory failure in spite of maximum lung protective ventilatory support. Various triage criteria have been described and published. Contraindications exist when application of ECMO may be futile or technically impossible. Knowledge and appreciation of the circuit, cannulae, and the physiology of gas exchange with ECMO are necessary to ensure lung rest, efficiency of oxygenation, and ventilation as well as troubleshooting problems. Anticoagulation is a major concern with ECMO, and the evidence is evolving with respect to diagnostic testing and use of anticoagulants. Clinical management of the patient includes comprehensive critical care addressing sedation and neurologic issues, ensuring lung recruitment, diuresis, early enteral nutrition, treatment and surveillance of infections, and multisystem organ support. Newer technology that delinks oxygenation and ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal may lead to ultra-lung protective ventilation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation in some situations, and ambulatory therapies as a bridge to lung transplantation. Risks, complications, and long-term outcomes and resources need to be considered and weighed in before widespread application. Ethical challenges are a reality and a multidisciplinary approach that should be adopted for every case in consideration. PMID:26750681

  5. Prevalence of Mental Disorders, Psychological Distress, and Mental Health Services Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D; Sullivan, J. Greer; Mays, Vickie M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent estimates of mental health morbidity among adults reporting same-gender sexual partners suggest that lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals may experience excess risk for some mental disorders as compared with heterosexual individuals. However, sexual orientation has not been measured directly. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 2,917 midlife adults, the authors examined possible sexual orientation-related differences in morbidity, distress, and mental health se...

  6. Relationships of diabetes-specific emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and overall well-being with HbA1c in adult persons with type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, Ragnhild Bjarkøy; Graue, Marit; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Peyrot, Mark; Rokne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Emotional problems are common in adults with diabetes, and knowledge about how different indicators of emotional problems are related with glycemic control is required. The aim was to examine the relationships of diabetes-specific emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and overall well-being with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c).Methods: Of the 319 adults with type 1 diabetes attending the endocrinology outpatient clinic at a university hospital in Norway, 235 (74%) compl...

  7. Use of dynamic CT in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with comparison of positive and negative pressure ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, Emma; Babyn, Paul [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Talakoub, Omid; Alirezaie, Javad [Ryerson University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada); Grasso, Francesco; Engelberts, Doreen; Kavanagh, Brian P. [Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Departments of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine and the Program in Pulmonary and Experimental Medicine, Toronto (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Negative pressure ventilation via an external device ('iron lung') has the potential to provide better oxygenation with reduced barotrauma in patients with ARDS. This study was designed to see if oxygenation differences between positive and negative ventilation could be explained by CT. Six anaesthetized rabbits had ARDS induced by repeated saline lavage. Rabbits were ventilated with positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and negative pressure ventilation (NPV) in turn. Dynamic CT images were acquired over the respiratory cycle. A computer-aided method was used to segment the lung and calculate the range of CT densities within each slice. Volumes of ventilated lung and atelectatic lung were measured over the respiratory cycle. NPV was associated with an increased percentage of ventilated lung and decreased percentage of atelectatic lung. The most significant differences in ventilation and atelectasis were seen at mid-inspiration and mid-expiration (ventilated lung NPV=61%, ventilated lung PPV=47%, p<0.001; atelectatic lung NPV=10%, atelectatic lung PPV 19%, p<0.001). Aeration differences were not significant at end-inspiration. Dynamic CT can show differences in lung aeration between positive and negative ventilation in ARDS. These differences would not be appreciated if only static breath-hold CT was used. (orig.)

  8. Respiratory symptoms in adults are related to impaired quality of life, regardless of asthma and COPD: results from the European community respiratory health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakke Per S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory symptoms are common in the general population, and their presence is related to Health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective was to describe the association of respiratory symptoms with HRQoL in subjects with and without asthma or COPD and to investigate the role of atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, and lung function in HRQoL. Methods The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I and II provided data on HRQoL, lung function, respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, and BHR from 6009 subjects. Generic HRQoL was assessed through the physical component summary (PCS score and the mental component summary (MCS score of the SF-36. Factor analyses and linear regressions adjusted for age, gender, smoking, occupation, BMI, comorbidity, and study centre were conducted. Results Having breathlessness at rest in ECRHS II was associated with mean score (95% CI impairment in PCS of -8.05 (-11.18, -4.93. Impairment in MCS score in subjects waking up with chest tightness was -4.02 (-5.51, -2.52. The magnitude of HRQoL impairment associated with respiratory symptoms was similar for subjects with and without asthma/COPD. Adjustments for atopy, BHR, and lung function did not explain the association of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL in subjects without asthma and/or COPD. Conclusion Subjects with respiratory symptoms had poorer HRQoL; including subjects without a diagnosis of asthma or COPD. These findings suggest that respiratory symptoms in the absence of a medical diagnosis of asthma or COPD are by no means trivial, and that clarifying the nature and natural history of respiratory symptoms is a relevant challenge. Several community studies have estimated the prevalence of common respiratory symptoms like cough, dyspnoea, and wheeze in adults 123. Although the prevalence varies to a large degree between studies and geographical areas, respiratory symptoms are quite common. The prevalences of respiratory

  9. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18-93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15), using cannabis (AOR = 2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR = 2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions. PMID:25496189

  10. Anaesthetic management of emergency pacemaker implantation in a case of neonatal lupus erythematosus with complete congenital heart block & severe respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Kiran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week old 3-kilogram male baby was brought to this tertiary care hospital with respiratory distress, marked tracheal tug, poor feeding and a heart rate of 46/minute. The child had been referred from a peripheral hospital as a case of neonatal lupus with complete congenital heart block. The mother was seropositive for systemic lupus erythematosus with a history of two abortions. Evaluation on admission revealed a heart rate between 40-60/ minute, respiratory rate 40-50/ minute, inspiratory stridor, bilateral crepitations, chest retrac-tion and a marked tracheal tug that improved with prone positioning. Electrocardiography and echocardiography confirmed complete congenital heart block with cardiomegaly and mild left ventricular dysfunction. Keeping in view the impending congestive heart failure, possible early cardiomyopathy and the bad obstetric history ur-gent pacemaker implantation was planned to allow early recovery of the child. The anaesthetic risk was high due to the heart block, ventricular dysfunction, laryngomalacia, severe tracheal tug and anticipated difficult weaning from controlled ventilation. General anaesthesia was administered with endotracheal tube and con-trolled ventilation using ketamine, rocuronium and sufentanil. For patient safety invasive monitoring was pro-vided and external pacing was kept standby. Epicardial pacemaker leads were implanted onto the left ventricu-lar wall through a left anterior 6th intercostal space thoracotomy. The child was electively ventilated for two post operative days. The tracheal tug and secretions gradually subsided over 2 weeks with oxygen, antibiotics, steroids, bronchodilators and physiotherapy. At the time of discharge from hospital 2 weeks after the implant the child was feeding well, tracheal tug was minimal and the lungs were clear.

  11. The Effects of Massage with Coconut and Sunflower Oils on Oxygen Saturation of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated With Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays particular emphasis is placed on the developmental aspects of premature infants care. Massage therapy is one of the best-known methods of caring. Due to the minimal touch policy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, massaging is not usually performed on premature infants. However, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that newborn infants with complex medical conditions should not be massaged. This study aimed to determine the effects of massage with coconut and sunflower oils on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 90 newborns who were admitted to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The infants were divided into control and massage therapy groups (massage with coconut and sunflower oils. Data was collected using a hospital documentation form. A 15-minute daily massage was performed for 3 days. Respiratory rate (RR, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and oxygen saturation were measured 5 minutes before the massage, 3 times during the massage, and 5 minutes after the massage. The collected data was analyzed using a mixed model. Results: In comparison to coconut oil and control groups, mean oxygen saturation of sunflower oil group was improved. In addition, the coconut massage group showed lower oxygen saturation than the control group but was all values were within the normal range. Although massage decreased oxygen saturation, there was no need to increase FiO2. Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with NCPAP.

  12. Controvérsias acerca da acidose hipercápnica na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo Controversies involving hypercapnic acidosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Nardelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo é caracterizada por uma reação inflamatória difusa do parênquima pulmonar induzida por um insulto direto ao epitélio alveolar (síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo pulmonar ou indireto por meio do endotélio vascular (síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo extrapulmonar. A principal estratégia terapêutica da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo é o suporte ventilatório. Entretanto, a ventilação mecânica pode agravar a lesão pulmonar. Nesse contexto, uma estratégia ventilatória protetora com baixo volume corrente foi proposta. Tal estratégia reduziu a taxa de mortalidade dos pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, porém acarretou acidose hipercápnica. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão da literatura acerca dos efeitos da acidose hipercápnica na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Para tal, realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura científica conforme critérios já estabelecidos para análise documental incluindo artigos experimentais e clínicos sobre o tema, usando-se como bases de dados MedLine, LILACS, SciElo, PubMed, Cochrane. A acidose hipercápnica é defendida por alguns autores como moduladora do processo inflamatório da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Entretanto, estudos clínicos e experimentais acerca dos efeitos da acidose hipercápnica têm demonstrado resultados controversos. Logo, é fundamental a realização de mais pesquisas para elucidar o papel da acidose hipercápnica na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo.Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by a diffuse inflammatory reaction of lung parenchyma induced by a direct insult to the alveolar epithelium (pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome or an indirect lesion through the vascular endothelium (extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. The main therapeutic strategy for acute respiratory

  13. Diagnostic value of static and dynamic scintigraphy in diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the course of sepsis. Part 1. Lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important complication of sepsis is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Diagnosis of the illness is mainly based on chest radiography and gasometric parameters of the blood. The aim of the study was to estimate the diagnostic usefulness of lung perfusion scintigraphy in early detection of blood flow and gas-exchange abnormalities in patients with ARDS in the course of sepsis. Scintigraphic studies of 12 patients in critical condition were performed, using Hungarian planar gamma camera type MB9200 and human albumin microspheres labelled with 99mTc. Perfusion scans of patients with ARDS demonstrated blurring outlines and abundant diffuse foci of lack of radioactivity in both lungs and quantitative analysis indicated relative increase of Tc99m-MSA accumulation in upper zones of both lungs. Scans of suffering from sepsis were similar to control one. The course of the studies showed that scintigraphic methods could be safely use in patients with sepsis and ARDS and may be helpful in the early diagnosis of ARDS in the septic patients. (author)

  14. ARDS诊断——“柏林标准”的价值与意义%Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Berlin Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅

    2012-01-01

    急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)病死率高,其早期准确的诊断是有效治疗的前提.然而,当前ARDS诊断标准的准确性备受质疑,临床迫切需要便捷可靠严谨的诊断标准.“柏林标准”从起病时间、氧合指数、肺水肿的来源及胸部影像学表现四个方面对ARDS进行诊断,是既往诊断标准的总结与延伸,其有效性及准确性已被证实,对于临床诊疗和科学研究有重大意义.%Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality. It already be commonly conceded that early identification and diagnosis of ARDS be very crucial to following successful treatment. However, contemporary ARDS criteria have met many challenges and thus an integrated and precise definition was urgently needed for clinical practice. The new Berlin ARDS definition includes 4 key components: timing, oxygenation index, origin of edema, chest imagines, and already be considered as summary and extend of previous standard. The validation and reliability of new definition have been verified and therefore would cast significantly influences on future clinical practices and scientific researches.

  15. Salmonella Typhi-Induced Septic Shock and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Teenage Patient Treated With High-Dose Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugas, Melissa Brosset; Carroll, Timothy; Kovar, Lacey; Chavez-Bueno, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid fever is commonly characterized by fever and abdominal pain. Rare complications include intestinal hemorrhage, bowel perforation, delirium, obtundation, and septic shock. Herein we describe the case of a previously healthy 16-year-old male without history of travel, diagnosed with typhoid fever complicated by septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with high-dose dexamethasone. This case details severe complications of typhoid fever that are uncommonly seen in developed countries, and the successful response to high-dose dexamethasone as adjunct therapy. High-dose dexamethasone treatment has reportedly decreased Salmonella Typhi mortality, but controlled studies specifically performed in children are lacking, and most reports of its use are over 30 years old and all have originated in developing countries. Providers should include Salmonella Typhi in the differential diagnosis of the pediatric patient with fever, severe abdominal pain, and enteritis, and be aware of its potentially severe complications and the limited data on safety and efficacy of adjunctive therapies that can be considered in addition to antibiotics. PMID:27294165

  16. Prediction markers for respiratory distress syndrome: evaluation of the stable microbubble test, surfactant protein-A and hepatocyte growth factor levels in amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumazawa K

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant treatment in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS has decreased neonatal mortality. With the advent of this therapy, it has become important to predict accurately the fetal lung maturity of a fetus before delivery. We evaluated the stable microbubble test (SMT, surfactant protein-A (SP-A and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF in amniotic fluid as predicting markers for RDS. Of 55 amniotic fluid samples obtained by amniocentesis from women less than 37 weeks pregnant, the SMT values were as follows: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 84.2%, positive predictive value 68.4%, negative predictive value 88.9% and overall accuracy 81.8%. For SP-A, the values were 88.2%, 65.8%, 53.6%, 92.6% and 72.7%, respectively. If we used both SMT and SP-A, we could diagnose with 100% accuracy that a case with measurements of SMT > or = 2 and SP-A > or = 420 ng/ml would not complicate with RDS (24/24. However, the RDS diagnostic accuracy of HGF does not equal to those of SMT and SP-A levels. We concluded that the rapidity, simplicity and reliability of SMT was very useful during 24-36 weeks of gestation as a bedside procedure to predict fetuses likely to develop RDS. We also noted the additive effect of SP-A in improving the accuracy of lung maturity diagnosis.

  17. Acute Respiratory Distress due to Thymoma in a Patient Treated with TK Inhibitor: A Case Report and Review of the Current Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zarogoulidis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymic malignancies are rare intrathoracic tumors that may be aggressive and difficult to treat in advanced stage. Surgery is the cornerstone of the management of thymomas: it is significant for the definite histopathological diagnosis and staging, and in most cases, it constitutes the first step of the treatment strategy. For patients with primary unresectable thymomas, the multimodal treatment schedule nowadays includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, extensive surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy, and in some cases, adjuvant chemotherapy. A patient with a history of stage III COPD and an undiagnosed thoracic mass was admitted to the intensive care unit with acute respiratory distress. A radiologic evaluation by CT scan revealed a mass of 13 cm in diameter at the mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration was performed and revealed a thymoma. Due to poor performance status, the patient was not able to undergo surgery. He refused to be treated with neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy, but due to EGFR overexpression, treatment with TK inhibitor was suggested. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is commonly used to identify metastasis to the mediastinum. However, it is less often employed as a primary diagnostic tool for tumors, particularly thymic neoplasms. The use of targeted therapies for the treatment of thymic malignancies has been described in the literature. Over the past years, significant efforts have been made to dissect the molecular pathways involved in the carcinogenesis of these tumors. Insights have been obtained following anecdotal clinical responses to targeted therapies, and large-scale genomic analyses have been conducted.

  18. Participation in a randomised controlled feasibility study of a complex intervention for the management of the Respiratory Symptom Distress Cluster in lung cancer: patient, carer and research staff views

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis J, Warden J, Molassiotis A, Mackereth P, Bailey C, Burns K, Yorke J

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a nested qualitative study designed to elicit the views and perceptions of those who participated in a randomised controlled feasibility trial testing a novel non-pharmacological intervention, Respiratory Distress Symptom Intervention (RDSI), for the management of the breathlessness-cough-fatigue symptom cluster in lung cancer. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 lung cancer patients, three caregivers and seven researchers involved in recruitment, consent, RDSI t...

  19. Respiratory distress syndrome in late preterm neonates delivered by elective cesarean section%选择性剖宫产与晚期早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴倩倩

    2013-01-01

    Late preterm neonates have immature respiratory systems and higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome compared with term neonates.With the increase rate of elective cesarean section world-wild,the association between elective cesarean section and late preterm neonates respiratory distress syndrome has attracted a huge attention.Clinical data have showed that the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was significantly increased in late preterm neonates delivered by elective cesarean section.The delay of lung fluid movement dilutes the concentration of pulmonary surfactant and causes the alveolar collapse.Compared with early preterm neonates,the respiratory distress syndrome of late preterm neonates appears later with a worse reaction of pulmonary surfactant and higher incidence of complications.Thus,vaginal delivery of late preterm neonates is the optimal choice and early diagnosis and therapy of respiratory distress syndrome is very important.%晚期早产儿的呼吸系统发育尚未完全成熟,因此和足月儿相比有更高的呼吸窘迫综合征发病率.随着选择性剖宫产率在世界范围内的迅速增加,选择性剖宫产和晚期早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的关系越来越引起重视.临床资料显示,选择性剖宫产会导致晚期早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征发病率显著增加.其主要因为肺液排除延迟,吸收不良,导致肺泡表面活性物质浓度稀释,达不到生物学效应,肺泡萎陷.与早期早产儿相比,晚期早产儿发生呼吸窘迫综合征往往症状出现迟,肺泡表面活性物质效果不理想,如治疗不及时,易发生其他并发症.因此,对于晚期早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的防治应尽可能经阴道分娩,一旦出现呼吸窘迫综合征症状,应早期诊断、及时救治.

  20. Respiratory support in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome%早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的呼吸支持策略及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 桑田

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is most common in premature infants,the smaller the gestational age,the higher the incidence.Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) started in the delivery room has been shown in multicentre randomized controlled trials to reduce the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) and surfactant.The European Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Infants-2013 Update recommended that CPAP should be started from birth in all babies at risk of RDS and a starting pressure of at least 6 cmH2O(1 cmH2O =0.098 kPa)should be applied.CPAP with early rescue surfactant should be considered the optimal management for babies with RDS.Using CPAP immediately after birth with subsequent selective surfactant administration may be considered as an alternative to routine intubation with prophylactic or early surfactant administration in preterm infants.If endotracheal intubation is needed,early administration of surfactant is preferable.Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation may reduce the risk of extubation failure in babies failing on CPAP.Several strategies have been employed specifically to improve the success of noninvasive ventilation and shorten the duration of MV.Caffeine should be used to facilitate weaning from MV and to reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia.A short tapering course of low-or very low-dose dexamethasone should be considered to facilitate extubation in babies who remain on MV after 1 ~ 2 weeks.Very early steroid treatment and treatment with high doses cannot be recommended.%新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(respiratory distress syndrome,RDS)多见于早产儿,胎龄越小,发病率越高.近年的大规模随机对照研究突出了产房内开始的持续气道正压通气(continuous positive airway pressure,CPAP)在RDS防治中的重要作用,对于生后有自主呼吸的早产儿,产房内应用CPAP优于气管插管,而预防性

  1. Massive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma presenting as acute respiratory distress in a 12-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that usually presents in young adults as a painless, slow-growing mass. Evans first described LGFMS in 1987 as a spindle-cell sarcoma with bland histological features and paradoxically aggressive behavior. Although young adults are most frequently affected, recent reports describe pediatric cases being increasingly more common. Males and females are affected approximately equally and common locations include the deep soft tissue of the lower extremity, particularly the thigh and trunk. Primary occurrence within the chest cavity is exceedingly rare. Local recurrence and metastasis are not uncommon and present the clinician and radiologist with challenges regarding follow-up recommendations. Review of the literature reveals many cases of slowly progressive symptoms related to a mass effect. We present a healthy 12-year-old African-American girl who interestingly developed acute symptoms of shortness of breath and chest pain while playing with her brother. (orig.)

  2. Massive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma presenting as acute respiratory distress in a 12-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Michael A.; Giles, Henry W. [University of Mississippi, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jackson, MS (United States); Daley, William P. [University of Mississippi, Department of Pathology, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that usually presents in young adults as a painless, slow-growing mass. Evans first described LGFMS in 1987 as a spindle-cell sarcoma with bland histological features and paradoxically aggressive behavior. Although young adults are most frequently affected, recent reports describe pediatric cases being increasingly more common. Males and females are affected approximately equally and common locations include the deep soft tissue of the lower extremity, particularly the thigh and trunk. Primary occurrence within the chest cavity is exceedingly rare. Local recurrence and metastasis are not uncommon and present the clinician and radiologist with challenges regarding follow-up recommendations. Review of the literature reveals many cases of slowly progressive symptoms related to a mass effect. We present a healthy 12-year-old African-American girl who interestingly developed acute symptoms of shortness of breath and chest pain while playing with her brother. (orig.)

  3. "Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil "Atrapado en el fango": ecoidioma del sufrimiento con enfermedades respiratorias infantiles en un manglar urbano del Nordeste de Brasil "Atolado na lama": ecoidioma de sofrimento com doenças respiratórias infantis em um manguezal urbano do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn Nations; Ana Paula Soares Gondim

    2013-01-01

    Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Hig...

  4. Flow-Synchronized Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation for Infants <32 Weeks' Gestation with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gizzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate whether synchronized-NIPPV (SNIPPV used after the INSURE procedure can reduce mechanical ventilation (MV need in preterm infants with RDS more effectively than NCPAP and to compare the clinical course and the incidence of short-term outcomes of infants managed with SNIPPV or NCPAP. Methods. Chart data of inborn infants 0.4, respiratory acidosis, or intractable apnoea that occurred within 72 hours of surfactant administration. Results. Eleven out of 31 (35.5% infants in the NCPAP group and 2 out of 33 (6.1% infants in the SNIPPV group failed the INSURE approach and underwent MV (. Fewer infants in the INSURE/SNIPPV group needed a second dose of surfactant, a high caffeine maintenance dose, and pharmacological treatment for PDA. Differences in O2 dependency at 28 days and 36 weeks of postmenstrual age were at the limit of significance in favor of SNIPPV treated infants. Conclusions. SNIPPV use after INSURE technique in our NICU reduced MV need and favorably affected short-term morbidities of our premature infants.

  5. Forced oscillations and respiratory system modeling in adults with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Adma N; Faria, Alvaro C D; Agnaldo J. Lopes; Jansen, José M; Melo, Pedro L

    2015-01-01

    Background The Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT) has the potential to increase our knowledge about the biomechanical changes that occur in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate changes in the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory systems of adults with CF. Methods The study was conducted in a group of 27 adults with CF over 18 years old and a control group of 23 healthy individuals, both of which were assessed by the FOT, plethysmography and sp...

  6. A Case of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in an HIV-Positive Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakriti Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is commonly known to cause an influenza-like illness. However, it can also cause more severe disease in young children and older adults comprising of organ transplant patients with immunocompromised status. Till date, only four cases of RSV infections have been reported in HIV-positive adults. We describe here a case of HIV-positive female with relatively preserved immune function who presented with RSV infection requiring ventilation and showed improvement after prompt treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.

  7. Impacts of highway traffic exhaust in alpine valleys on the respiratory health in adults: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Künzli Nino; Ragettli Martina S; Schindler Christian; Hazenkamp-von Arx Marianne E; Braun-Fahrländer Charlotte; Liu Lee-Jane S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Most studies having shown respiratory health effects from traffic exhaust were conducted in urban areas with a complex mixture of air pollution sources. This study has investigated the potential impact of traffic exhaust on respiratory symptoms among adults living along a Swiss alpine highway corridor, where traffic exhaust from the respective trans-Alpine highway is the predominate source of air pollution. Methods In summer 2005, we recruited 1839 adults aged 15 to 70 fro...

  8. The relationship between clinical indicators, coping styles, perceived support and diabetes-related distress among adults with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Bjørg; Oftedal, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This article is a report of a cross-sectional study examining the degree to which clinical indicators, coping styles and perceived support from healthcare professionals and family are related to diabetes-related distress. Background: Many people with type 2 diabetes experience high levels of distress stemming from concerns and worries associated with their disease. Diabetes-related distress has predominantly been studied in relation to diabetes management and metabolic contro...

  9. A phase I study evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of an antibody-based tissue factor antagonist in subjects with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Peter E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue factor (TF-dependent extrinsic pathway has been suggested to be a central mechanism by which the coagulation cascade is locally activated in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS and thus represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. This study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ALT-836, an anti-TF antibody, in patients with ALI/ARDS. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase I clinical trial in adult patients who had suspected or proven infection, were receiving mechanical ventilation and had ALI/ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm. Eighteen patients (6 per cohort were randomized in a 5:1 ratio to receive ALT-836 or placebo, and were treated within 48 hours after meeting screening criteria. Cohorts of patients were administered a single intravenously dose of 0.06, 0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg ALT-836 or placebo. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity measurements. Safety was assessed by adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, laboratory, coagulation and pulmonary function parameters. Results Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a dose dependent exposure to ALT-836 across the infusion range of 0.06 to 0.1 mg/kg. No anti-ALT-836 antibody response was observed in the study population during the trial. No major bleeding episodes were reported in the ALT-836 treated patients. The most frequent adverse events were anemia, observed in both placebo and ALT-836 treated patients, and ALT-836 dose dependent, self-resolved hematuria, which suggested 0.08 mg/kg as an acceptable dose level of ALT-836 in this patient population. Conclusions Overall, this study showed that ALT-836 could be safely administered to patients with sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01438853

  10. The neonate in distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory distress is a very common and yet non-specific symptom in neonates and young infants. It may be manifested clinically in many ways, including tachypnea, apnea, periodic respiratory, grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. In many instances, the chest radiograph is diagnostic or at least suggestive of the diagnosis. This fact is important in determining surgical or medical conditions that require emergency therapy. Even if the chest film is normal, valuable information can be gained. This initial normal radiograph can be used as a baseline film in the face of further developing symptoms which, likewise, may have developing radiographic findings. In any event, the chest radiograph gives the clinician ''direction'' in his or her search for the cause of the patient's respiratory distress

  11. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  12. Immigration, Transition into Adult Life and Social Adversity in Relation to Psychological Distress and Suicide Attempts among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Hellner-Gumpert, Clara; Fredlund, Peeter; Dalman, Christina; Hallqvist, Johan; Isacsson, Goran; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people is a major concern in many Western countries. The causal mechanisms underlying these trends are not well established, but factors influenced by current societal changes ought to be implicated. Such factors include immigration and social adversity as well as the timing of taking on adult social roles (e.g. gainful employment, parenthood and own housing tenure). We therefore examined relationships between these fa...

  13. Clinical efficacy and safety of recruitment maneuver in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome using low tidal volume ventilation: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiu-ming; JIANG Li; ZHU Bo; the RM group

    2010-01-01

    Background The recruitment maneuver (RM) has been shown to improve oxygenation in some patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. But there is a lack of standardization and lack of clinical studies to prove the improvement on clinical outcome. We conducted this study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of the RM in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using Iow tidal volume ventilation.Methods We randomly assigned 110 patients with ARDS from 14 Chinese intensive care units (ICUs) at the tertiary teaching hospitals. Patients with PaO2 ≤200 mmHg at FiO2 1.0 and PEEP ≥10 cmH2O were included in the study.Patients were randomized into two groups: control group and RM group. The tidal volume was set to 6-8 mi per kilogram of predicted body weight (PBW) in both groups. RM was performed by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 40 cmH2O maintained for 40 seconds. RMs was conducted every eight hours for the first five days, or stopped within five days if the patient reached the weaning standard.Results One hundred and ten patients had completed the requirements for the primary study goals, 55 from the RM group and 55 control patients. Baseline characteristics remained similar in the two groups. In the RM group the PaO2/FiO2 was significantly increased compared to baseline at 120 minutes after RM on day one and day two (P=0.007and P=0.001). There were no significant differences between the RM and control group in hospital mortality (41.8% vs.56.4%, P=0.13), 28-day mortality (29.1% vs. 43.6%, P=0.11) and ventilator-free days at day 28 (10.8±10.1 vs. 7.4±10.0,P=0.08). ICU mortality (32.7% vs. 52.7%, P=0.03), the rate of survival with unassisted breathing for at least 48 consecutive hours at day 28 (58.2% vs. 36.2%, P=0.02), and nonpulmonary organ failure-free days at day 28 (17.4±11.1vs. 13.0±12.0, P=0.03) favored the RM group. There was no significant difference in mean blood pressure and heart rate before RM and at 30, 60

  14. Sustained inflation and incremental mean airway pressure trial during conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a large porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunder Christian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effect of a sustained inflation followed by an incremental mean airway pressure trial during conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on oxygenation and hemodynamics in a large porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Severe lung injury (Ali was induced in 18 healthy pigs (55.3 ± 3.9 kg, mean ± SD by repeated saline lung lavage until PaO2 decreased to less than 60 mmHg. After a stabilisation period of 60 minutes, the animals were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (Pressure controlled ventilation; PCV: FIO2 = 1.0, PEEP = 5 cmH2O, VT = 6 ml/kg, respiratory rate = 30/min, I:E = 1:1; group 2 (High-frequency oscillatory ventilation; HFOV: FIO2 = 1.0, Bias flow = 30 l/min, Amplitude = 60 cmH2O, Frequency = 6 Hz, I:E = 1:1. A sustained inflation (SI; 50 cmH2O for 60s followed by an incremental mean airway pressure (mPaw trial (steps of 3 cmH2O every 15 minutes were performed in both groups until PaO2 no longer increased. This was regarded as full lung inflation. The mPaw was decreased by 3 cmH2O and the animals reached the end of the study protocol. Gas exchange and hemodynamic data were collected at each step. Results The SI led to a significant improvement of the PaO2/FiO2-Index (HFOV: 200 ± 100 vs. PCV: 58 ± 15 and TAli: 57 ± 12; p 2-reduction (HFOV: 42 ± 5 vs. PCV: 62 ± 13 and TAli: 55 ± 9; p Ali: 6.1 ± 1 vs. T75: 3.4 ± 0.4; PCV: TAli: 6.7 ± 2.4 vs. T75: 4 ± 0.5; p Conclusion A sustained inflation followed by an incremental mean airway pressure trial in HFOV improved oxygenation at a lower mPaw than during conventional lung protective ventilation. HFOV but not PCV resulted in normocapnia, suggesting that during HFOV there are alternatives to tidal ventilation to achieve CO2-elimination in an "open lung" approach.

  15. Comparative evaluation of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with and without H1N1 infection at a tertiary care referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Samra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus has clinical presentation ranging from mild flu like illness to severe lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The aim of our study was to compare the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and mortality of critically ill patients with (H1N1+ and without H1N1 infection (H1N1-. We retrospectively analyzed medical charts of patients admitted in "Swine Flu ICU" with ARDS from August 2009 to May 2010. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay was used for detection of H1N1 virus in the respiratory specimens. Clinical data from 106 (H1N1 , 45; H1N1+, 61 patients was collected and compared. Mean delay in presentation to our hospital was 5.7 ± 3.1 days and co-morbidities were present in two-fifth of the total admissions. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score of patients with and without H1N1 infection was comparable; 7.8 ± 3.5 and 6.6 ± 3.1 on day 1 and 7.2 ± 4.5 and 6.5 ± 3.1 on day 3, respectively. H1N1+ patients were relatively younger in age (34.2 ± 12.9 years vs. 42.8 ± 18.1, P = 0.005 but presented with significantly lower PaO 2 :FiO 2 ratio (87.3 ± 48.7 vs. 114 ± 51.7 in comparison to those who subsequently tested as H1N1 . The total leucocyte counts were significantly lower in H1N1+ patients during the first four days of illness but incidence of renal failure (P = 0.02 was higher in H1N1+ patients. The mortality in both the groups was high (H1N1+, 77%; H1N1, 68% but comparable. There was a mean delay of 5.7 ± 3.1 days in initiation of antivirals. Patients with H1N1 infection were relatively younger in age and with a significantly higher incidence of refractory hypoxia and acute renal failure. Mortality from ARDS reported in our study in both the groups was high but comparable.

  16. Functional characterization of polymorphisms in the peptidase inhibitor 3 (elafin) gene and validation of their contribution to risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Paula; O'Mahony, D Shane; Owen, Caroline A; Wei, Yongyue; Wang, Zhaoxi; Gupta, Kushagra; Su, Li; Villar, Jesus; Wurfel, Mark; Christiani, David C

    2014-08-01

    Elafin (peptidase inhibitor 3 [PI3]) and its biologically active precursor, pre-elafin, are neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitors with an important role in preventing excessive tissue injury during inflammatory events. Recently, we reported an association between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2664581 in the PI3 gene, increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pre-elafin circulating levels. This study aims to validate the legitimacy of this association by using a cohort of patients who met the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and were at risk of developing ARDS (n = 840). A comprehensive functional study of SNPs in PI3 gene was also performed. Luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were conducted to determine the functional relevance of promoter region variants. The effect of the coding SNP rs2664581 on the neutrophil elastase inhibitory activity and transglutaminase binding properties of pre-elafin was also investigated. The variant allele of rs2664581 (C) was significantly associated with increased ARDS risk, mainly among subjects with sepsis (odds ratio = 1.44; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.99; P = 0.0276, adjusted by age, sex, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III). Pre-elafin recombinant protein carrying the amino acid change associated with rs2664581 (Thr34Pro, mutant protein [MT]) had greater capacity to undergo transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking to immobilized fibronectin than wild-type protein in vitro (P A. Our results confirm the association between SNP rs2664581 and enhanced risk of ARDS, further supporting the role of PI3 in ARDS development. SNPs in the PI3 locus may act synergistically by regulating PI3 gene expression and pre-elafin biological functions. PMID:24617927

  17. Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio Agudo: Utilidad de los Corticoides Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Role of steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célica L. Irrazábal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina, el síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA representa el 7.7% de las admisiones en terapia intensiva y está asociado con una alta morbilidad y mortalidad (58%. Con frecuencia la muerte puede ser atribuida a más de una causa. La hipoxemia refractaria es una causa de muerte poco frecuente (15% y en muchos casos puede coexistir con disfunción multiorgánica, sepsis o shock séptico. La utilidad de los esteroides como parte del tratamiento es aún motivo de debate a pesar de las múltiples series de casos y estudios clínicos publicados. En el artículo se evalúa la utilidad de los esteroides en el SDRA a través de la revisión de la bibliografía disponible. Se concluye que los esteroides estarían indicados en un pequeño subgrupo de pacientes con SDRA no resuelto o tardío, después de descartar o controlar una infección activa.The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS represents 7.7% of the intensive care population, and is associated with great morbidity and mortality (58%. Frequently, the mortality can be attributed to more than one cause. Refractory hypoxemia is uncommon (15% and most of the patients also have multiple organic dysfunction, sepsis or septic shock. Although there are many publications concerning series of cases and clinical trials using steroids as a part of the treatment of ARDS, this issue remains controversial. In this article the role of steroids in the ARDS is evaluated by analysis of the available literature. We conclude that steroids are useful in a subgroup of patients with unresolving ARDS, after ruling out an active infection or after treatment with antibiotics.

  18. Evaluation of respiratory distress syndrome on chest A-P view in premature baby and L. B. W. I. in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early chest roentgenogram before the appearance of symptoms is extremely important. Continuous follow-up check is also necessary. The evaluation of neonatal respiratory distress and its assessment has led to the recognition of many abnormal roentgenographic patterns especially in premature baby including low birth infant. A closer observation of chest roentgenogram is necessary in view of 'delayed resorption of pulmonary alveolar fluids' in the early stage of life in premature baby and L. B. W. I. We have reviewed the chest roentgenogram of 110 premature babies including low birth weight infants in whom a clinical or roentgenographic diagnosis of R. D. S. and 'delayed resorption of pulmonary alveolar fluids' was made during the period January 1979-June 1980. The results are as follows; 1. On the simple chest roentgenogram only, R. D. S. has higher incidence in male infant (28:17). 2. Clinically the incidence of R. D. S. is 46.2% in premature baby, and 13.3% in L. B. W. I. 3. The onset of clinical symptom is in the range of approximately 6 hours to 40 hours after birth. And simple chest A-P taken as early as possible is helpful in detection and prevention of R. D. S. And follow up check after development of symptom is important to diagnose and differentiate type I from type II. 4. The incidence of R. D. S. on simple chest roentgenogram is 9.1% in type I, 16.4% in type II and 1 case in SUS. I group, and 14.5% in SUS. II group. 5. 26.5% of premature baby with normal delivery and 33.3% of those delivered by C-section shows delayed pulmonary alveolar fluids. 6. Premature is the main cause of R. D. S. with incidence of 38.4%, and C-sec. is increased in motality rate due to R. D. S

  19. Self-reported diabetes self-management competence and support from healthcare providers in achieving autonomy are negatively associated with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the associations of self-perceived competence in diabetes management and autonomy support from healthcare providers with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus that is not optimally controlled [HbA1c ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)]. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised blood sampling and three self-report questionnaires, the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale and a measure of autonomy support by healthcare pr...

  20. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging…

  1. Respiratory effects of secondhand smoke exposure among young adults residing in a "clean" indoor air state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David J; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John D; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures and its association with respiratory symptoms in a sample of young adults residing in a state with a partial clean indoor air law. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Florida households and a single state University was conducted in 2005. Enrolled participants between 18 and 24 years of age completed a 15-20 min interview assessing past and current SHS exposure and current respiratory symptoms (n = 1858). Approximately 60% of the sample were female; nearly 70% were non-Hispanic white, 10% were non-Hispanic Black, and 11% were Hispanic. Over two-thirds reported completing at least some college; 23% reported smoking in the past month. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported visiting a bar or nightclub which exposed them to SHS in the previous month; nearly half (46%) reported SHS exposure while riding in automobiles; 15% reported occupational SHS exposure; and nearly 9% reported living with at least one smoker. In multivariable models, personal smoking behavior, parental smoking history, and exposure to SHS in automobiles and in bars or nightclubs were significantly associated with increased reports of respiratory symptoms. Despite residing in a "clean" indoor air state, the majority of surveyed young adults continue to report exposure to SHS, especially in automobiles and in bars, and these exposures adversely impact respiratory health. All municipalities should pursue clean indoor air legislation which does not exempt bars and restaurants. Educational campaigns directed at reducing SHS exposure in motor vehicles also are needed. PMID:18246415

  2. Disparities in smoking and acute respiratory illnesses among sexual minority young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John; Jarrett, Traci; Horn, Kimberly

    2010-10-01

    Morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking remain major public health issues. Particularly, smoking has been associated with increased risk of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Literature indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) persons smoke more than the general population. Additionally, young adulthood is the second-most prevalent period of smoking uptake. Given this constellation of risk correlates, the authors examined whether sexual minority young adults experience increased odds of ARIs (i.e., strep throat, bronchitis, sinus infection, and asthma). Using cross-sectional data from the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment, prevalence estimates of smoking were generated among young adult (age range, 18-24 years) lesbian/gay, bisexual, unsure, and heterosexual college students (n = 75,164). Nested logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether smoking status mediated the risk of ARIs among sexual orientation groups. Compared with heterosexual smokers, gay/lesbian smokers were more likely to have had strep throat, and bisexual smokers were more likely to have had sinus infection, asthma, and bronchitis. Whereas smoking mediated the risk of ARI, sexual minorities still showed higher odds of ARIs after adjustment for smoking. Sexual minority young adults may experience respiratory health disparities that may be linked to their higher smoking rates, and their higher rates of smoking lend urgency to the need for cessation interventions. Future studies are needed to explore whether chronic respiratory disease caused by smoking (i.e., lung cancer, COPD, emphysema) disproportionately affect sexual minority populations. PMID:20496074

  3. Mechanical behaviour of the in vivo paediatric and adult trunk during respiratory physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Bruyère-Garnier, Karine; Mitton, David; Vajda, Emmanuel; Bermond, François

    2014-01-01

    The load-deflection response of the human trunk has been studied using various methods. The different shapes observed may be due to the methodology and the population. The purpose of this study is to quantify and explain the in vivo mechanical response of paediatric and adult trunks during respiratory physiotherapy. Eight children aged 5-15 months and eight healthy adult volunteers aged 30-87 years participated in this study. The force applied by the physiotherapist and the displacement of the targets on his hands were recorded. Parameters were also measured and calculated to compare against other studies. Time lags between force time histories and displacement time histories were observed on both children and adults. Different time lags resulted in different shapes of the force-displacement curves. Factors including respiration, muscle contraction and loading pattern are part of the assumptions used to explain this phenomenon. The maximum displacements of the paediatric and adult trunks were 18 and 44 mm, respectively, with a maximum load of 208 and 250 N, respectively. This study provides a better explanation of the peculiar force-displacement characteristics of both living and active children and adults under a non-injurious, low-rate compression condition. Complementary data (e.g. muscle activity and breathing) should be collected in the future to go towards in vivo human trunk modelling. PMID:24280228

  4. Concealing Concealment: The Mediating Role of Internalized Heterosexism in Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors—internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation—and con...

  5. Effects of different levels of end-expiratory positive pressure on lung recruitment and protection in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Feng-mei; DING Jing-jing; SU Xin; XU Hui-ying; SHI Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background It is still controversial as to the implementation of higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).This study was conducted to compare the lower and higher PEEP in patients with ARDS ventilated with low tidal volume,to investigate the relationship between the recruited lung volume by higher PEEP and relevant independent variables and to provide a bedside estimate of the percentage of potentially recruitable lung by higher PEEP.Methods Twenty-four patients with ARDS were studied.A lung recruiting maneuver was performed,then each patient was ventilated with PEEP of 8 cmH2O for 4 hours and subsequently with PEEP of 16 cmH2O for 4 hours.At the end of each PEEP level period,gas exchange,hemodynamic data,lung mechanics,stress index "b" of the dynamic pressure-time curve,intrinsic PEEP and recruited volume by PEEP were measured.Results Fourteen patients were recruiters whose alveolar recruited volumes induced by PEEP 16 cmH2O were (425±65) ml and 10 patients were non-recruiters.Compared with the PEEP 8 cmH2O period,after the application of the PEEP 16 cmH2O,the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and static lung compliance both remained unchanged in non-recruiters,whereas they increased significantly in recruiters.Changes in PaO2/FiO2 and static lung compliance after PEEP increase were independently associated with the alveolar recruitment.Analyzing the relationship between recruiting maneuver (RM)-induced change in end-expiratory lung volume and the alveolar recruitment induced by PEEP,we found a notable correlation.Conclusions The results of this study indicated that the potential for alveolar recruitment might vary among the ARDS population and the higher PEEP levels should be limited to recruiters.Improving in PaO2/FiO2,static lung compliance after PEEP increase and the shape of the pressure-time curve could be helpful for PEEP application.

  6. 维生素A在治疗新生儿肺疾病中的研究进展%Progress on vitamin A for newborn respiratory distress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙合强; 周浩

    2011-01-01

    早产儿慢性肺疾病( chronic lung disease,CLD)是极低出生体质量儿发生远期损害的主要原因,也是新生儿重症监护病房耗资最多的疾病。维生素A在新生儿肺的发育中具有重要作用,而极低体质量早产儿往往容易缺乏维生素A。随机临床试验显示,补充维生素A能够降低早产儿患CLD的风险。口服维生紊A并不能降低极低体质量早产儿CLD的发病率。肌肉注射维生素A可以使极低体质量新生儿CLD的发病率降低至原来的87% ~93%,但比较痛苦,因而不能得到常规应用。将维生素A同肺表面活性物质通过气管插管途径给予动物模型,可以起到显著效果。%Chronic lung disease (CLD) of prematurity is the major cause of long-term disability of extremely low birth weight ( ELBW ) premature infants, and it is the most cost consumptive disease in neonatal intensive care unit graduates. Vitamin A plays an important role in the development of premature lung. Nevertheless, premature infants are prone to vitamin A deficiency. Oral supplementation of vitamin A does not alter the incidence of CLD in ELBW infants. Intramuscular administration of vitamin A reduced the incidence of CLD. The treatment is considered painful and this way is not routinely practiced. Vitamin A is systemically bioavailable after intratracheal administration with surfactant in an animal model of newborn respiratory distress.

  7. Physiological relevance and performance of a minimal lung model – an experimental study in healthy and acute respiratory distress syndrome model piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew Yeong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical ventilation (MV is the primary form of support for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS patients. However, intra- and inter- patient-variability reduce the efficacy of general protocols. Model-based approaches to guide MV can be patient-specific. A physiological relevant minimal model and its patient-specific performance are tested to see if it meets this objective above. Methods Healthy anesthetized piglets weighing 24.0 kg [IQR: 21.0-29.6] underwent a step-wise PEEP increase manoeuvre from 5cmH2O to 20cmH2O. They were ventilated under volume control using Engström Care Station (Datex, General Electric, Finland, with pressure, flow and volume profiles recorded. ARDS was then induced using oleic acid. The data were analyzed with a Minimal Model that identifies patient-specific mean threshold opening and closing pressure (TOP and TCP, and standard deviation (SD of these TOP and TCP distributions. The trial and use of data were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of the University of Liege, Belgium. Results and discussions 3 of the 9 healthy piglets developed ARDS, and these data sets were included in this study. Model fitting error during inflation and deflation, in healthy or ARDS state is less than 5.0% across all subjects, indicating that the model captures the fundamental lung mechanics during PEEP increase. Mean TOP was 42.4cmH2O [IQR: 38.2-44.6] at PEEP = 5cmH2O and decreased with PEEP to 25.0cmH2O [IQR: 21.5-27.1] at PEEP = 20cmH2O. In contrast, TCP sees a reverse trend, increasing from 10.2cmH2O [IQR: 9.0-10.4] to 19.5cmH2O [IQR: 19.0-19.7]. Mean TOP increased from average 21.2-37.4cmH2O to 30.4-55.2cmH2O between healthy and ARDS subjects, reflecting the higher pressure required to recruit collapsed alveoli. Mean TCP was effectively unchanged. Conclusion The minimal model is capable of capturing physiologically relevant TOP, TCP and SD of both healthy and ARDS lungs. The

  8. The Ratio of Partial Pressure Arterial Oxygen and Fraction of Inspired Oxygen 1 Day After Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Onset Can Predict the Outcomes of Involving Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chao, Chien-Ming; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The initial hypoxemic level of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) defined according to Berlin definition might not be the optimal predictor for prognosis. We aimed to determine the predictive validity of the stabilized ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) following standard ventilator setting in the prognosis of patients with ARDS.This prospective observational study was conducted in a single tertiary medical center in Taiwan and compared the stabilized PaO2/FiO2 ratio (Day 1) following standard ventilator settings and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day patients met ARDS Berlin criteria (Day 0). Patients admitted to intensive care units and in accordance with the Berlin criteria for ARDS were collected between December 1, 2012 and May 31, 2015. Main outcome was 28-day mortality. Arterial blood gas and ventilator setting on Days 0 and 1 were obtained.A total of 238 patients met the Berlin criteria for ARDS were enrolled, and they were classified as mild (n = 50), moderate (n = 125), and severe (n = 63) ARDS, respectively. Twelve (5%) patients who originally were classified as ARDS did not continually meet the Berlin definition, and a total of 134 (56%) patients had the changes regarding the severity of ARDS from Day 0 to Day 1. The 28-day mortality rate was 49.1%, and multivariate analysis identified age, PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1, number of organ failures, and positive fluid balance within 5 days as significant risk factors of death. Moreover, the area under receiver-operating curve for mortality prediction using PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1 was significant higher than that on Day 0 (P = 0.016).PaO2/FiO2 ratio on Day 1 after applying mechanical ventilator is a better predictor of outcomes in patients with ARDS than those on Day 0. PMID:27057912

  9. Prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in a child affected by rituximab-resistant autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretta Chiara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children younger than 2 years of age is usually characterized by a severe course, with a mortality rate of approximately 10%. The prolonged immunosuppression following specific treatment may be associated with a high risk of developing severe infections. Recently, the use of monoclonal antibodies (rituximab has allowed sustained remissions to be obtained in the majority of pediatric patients with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Case presentation We describe the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian girl affected by a severe form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, which required continuous steroid treatment for 16 months. Thereafter, she received 4 weekly doses of rituximab (375 mg/m2/dose associated with steroid therapy, which was then tapered over the subsequent 2 weeks. One month after the last dose of rrituximab, she presented with recurrence of severe hemolysis and received two more doses of rrituximab. The patient remained in clinical remission for 7 months, before presenting with a further relapse. An alternative heavy immunosuppressive therapy was administered combining cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days with methylprednisolone 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days, which was then tapered down over 3 weeks. While still on steroid therapy, the patient developed an interstitial pneumonia with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which required immediate admission to the intensive care unit where extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy was administered continuously for 37 days. At 16-month follow-up, the patient is alive and in good clinical condition, with no organ dysfunction, free from any immunosuppressive treatment and with a normal Hb level. Conclusions This case shows that aggressive combined immunosuppressive therapy may lead to a sustained complete remission in children with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. However, the severe life-threatening complication presented by our

  10. Efficacy and safety of surfactant replacement therapy for preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, M J; Gupta, N; Jain, K; Agarwal, R; Paul, V K

    2016-05-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) has been shown to reduce mortality and air leaks in preterm neonates from high-income countries (HICs). The safety and efficacy of SRT in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) have not been systematically evaluated. The major objectives of this review were to assess the (1) efficacy and safety, and (2) feasibility and cost effectiveness of SRT in LMIC settings. We searched the following databases-MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE and WHOLIS using the search terms 'surfactant' OR 'pulmonary surfactant'. Both experimental and observational studies that enrolled preterm neonates with or at-risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and required surfactant (animal-derived or synthetic) were included. A total of 38 relevant studies were found; almost all were from level-3 neonatal units. Pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 22 observational studies showed a significant reduction in mortality at the last available time point in neonates who received SRT (relative risk (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.79). There was also a significant reduction in the risk of air leaks (five studies; RR 0.51; 0.29 to 0.90). One RCT and twelve observational studies reported the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with contrasting results; while the RCT and most before-after/cohort studies showed a significant reduction or no effect, the majority of the case-control studies demonstrated significantly higher odds of receiving SRT in neonates who developed BPD. Two studies-one RCT and one observational-found no difference in the proportion of neonates developing pulmonary hemorrhage, while another observational study reported a higher incidence in those receiving SRT. The failure rate of the intubate-surfactant-extubate (InSurE) technique requiring mechanical ventilation or referral varied from 34 to 45% in four case-series. No study reported on the cost effectiveness of SRT. Available evidence suggests

  11. Assessment of Cord Blood Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels and Circulating CD34+ Cells in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Tawfeek Moawed, Nihad Ahmed El Nashar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS secondary to surfactant deficiency is a common cause of mobility and mortality in premature infants. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a major angiogenic factor and prime regulator of endothelial cells proliferation. So, VEGF may contribute to surfactant secretion and pulmonary maturation. Additionally, circulating CD34+ stem – progenitor cells are elevated along with its mobilizing cytokines in neonatal RDS. Aim of work: This study aimed to elucidate the role of cord blood VEGF and the circulating CD34+ cells in preterm infants with and without RDS. Patients & method: This study was conducted on 55 preterm neonates divided into 25 preterm (15 males/ 10 females without RDS with mean age of 31.60 ± 1.56 weeks and 30 preterm neonates with RDS (18 males/ 12 females with mean age of 29.95 ± 1.09 weeks . Twenty healthy neonates (14 males/ 6 females served as controls with mean age of 38.20 ± 3.57 weeks. All neonates were subjected to full history taking; thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations including determination of VEGF levels in cord blood samples using ELISA and circulating CD34+ cells in peripheral blood by flowcytometery. Results:The results of this study revealed that cord blood VEGF levels were significantly decreased in preterms with RDS versus preterms without RDS and controls with p values of both < 0.0001. Furthermore, the circulating CD34+ cells were significantly increased in preterm infants with RDS versus preterm infants without RDS and controls (p < 0.05 & < 0.0001 respectively. Premature rupture of the membrane, gender of the newborn, birth weight and antenatal steroid administration had neither significant effect on the cord blood VEGF nor on the number of CD34+ cells. There was inverse significant correlation between GA and the number of CD34+ cells. Conclusion:It was concluded that low cord blood VEGF is associated with RDS and its level negatively

  12. A better recognition of the mechanism of acute respiratory distress syndrome%急性呼吸窘迫综合征发病机制的现代认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔德健

    2002-01-01

    @@ 急性呼吸窘迫综合征(acute respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS)是在多种原发病和诱因作用下发生的严重急性呼吸衰竭,以非心源性肺水肿和顽固性低氧血症为特征;其病理生理基础为全身炎症反应综合征(systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS);其病理基础为急性肺损伤(acute lung injury,ALI).

  13. The career distress scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creed, Peter; Hood, Michelle; Praskova, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Career distress is a common and painful outcome of many negative career experiences, such as career indecision, career compromise, and discovering career barriers. However, there are very few scales devised to assess career distress, and the two existing scales identified have psychometric...... weaknesses. The absence of a practical, validated scale to assess this construct restricts research related to career distress and limits practitioners who need to assess and treat it. Using a sample of 226 young adults (mean age 20.5 years), we employed item response theory to assess 12 existing career......, which we combined into a scale labelled the Career Distress Scale, demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, meaning that both researchers and practitioners can use it with confidence, although continued validation is required, including testing its relationship to other nomological net variables...

  14. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  15. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adult respiratory failure: Scores for mortality prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Chun-Hsien; Wu, Meng-Yu; Huang, Chung-Chi; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Lin, Pyng-Jing

    2016-06-01

    Despite a potentially effective therapy for adult respiratory failure, a general agreement on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has not been reached among institutions due to its invasiveness and high resource usage. To establish consensus on the timing of intervention, large ECMO organizations have published the respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival prediction (RESP) score and the ECMOnet score, which allow users to predict hospital mortality for candidates with their pre-ECMO presentations. This study was aimed to test the predictive powers of these published scores in a medium-sized cohort enrolling adults treated with VV-ECMO for acute respiratory failure, and develop an institutional prediction model under the framework of the 3 scores if a superior predictive power could be achieved. This retrospective study included 107 adults who received VV-ECMO for severe acute respiratory failure (a PaO2/FiO2 ratio failure assessment (SOFA) score before VV-ECMO. The predictive power of hospital mortality of each score was presented as the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The multivariate logistic regression was used to develop an institutional prediction model. The surviving to discharge rate was 55% (n = 59). All of the 3 published scores had a real but poor predictive power of hospital mortality in this study. The AUROCs of RESP score, ECMOnet score, and SOFA score were 0.662 (P = 0.004), 0.616 (P = 0.04), and 0.667 (P = 0.003), respectively. An institutional prediction model was established from these score parameters and presented as follows: hospital mortality (Y) = -3.173 + 0.208 × (pre-ECMO SOFA score) + 0.148 × (pre-ECMO mechanical ventilation day) + 1.021 × (immunocompromised status). Compared with the 3 scores, the institutional model had a significantly higher AUROC (0.779; P failure. PMID:27336901

  16. Smart Care™ versus respiratory physiotherapy–driven manual weaning for critically ill adult patients: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Corinne; Elivane S Victor; Pieri, Talita; Henn, Renata; Santana, Carolina; Giovanetti, Erica; Saghabi, Cilene; Timenetsky, Karina; Caserta Eid, Raquel; Silva, Eliezer; Matos, Gustavo F. J.; Guilherme P. P. Schettino; Barbas, Carmen S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent meta-analysis showed that weaning with SmartCare™ (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany) significantly decreased weaning time in critically ill patients. However, its utility compared with respiratory physiotherapist–protocolized weaning is still a matter of debate. We hypothesized that weaning with SmartCare™ would be as effective as respiratory physiotherapy–driven weaning in critically ill patients. Methods Adult critically ill patients mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hou...

  17. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis as a cause of respiratory distress in newborns: presentation diagnosed by menas of CT; Estenosis congenita de la abertura piriforme nasal como causa de distress respiratorio en el recien nacido: aportacion de cuatro casos diagnosticados mediante TC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichoff, A.; Perez-Candela, V.; Romera, C.; Lopez-Morales, L. [Hospital Universitario Materno-Infantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canarias. (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of newborn airway obstruction. It can be clinically indistinguishable from choanal atresia, which is much more frequent. CT confirms the diagnosis by revealing in detail the anatomical alterations underlying this anomaly. These might or might not occur in association with other alterations. We present 4 cases of CNPAS, all of which presented respiratory distress and clinical symptoms similar to those of choanal atresia in newborn children. The premature diagnosis and a conventional treatment of tube placement in order to keep the airway open, until the pyriform aperture grows large enough to permit normal breathing, resulted in recovery of the patients. (Author) 12 refs.

  18. 呼气末正压设定对急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者病死率影响的Meta分析%A meta-analysis of effects of high PEEP versus low PEEP upon mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 张倩; 陈小东

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价呼气末正压(PEEP)设定对急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)患者病死率的影响.方法 在Medline、Embase、Web of Science、CENTRAL和中国生物医学文献数据库中检索比较高PEEP和低PEEP对ARDS患者病死率影响的随机对照试验,没有限定时间,人选标准为患者数>10例,符合当时的ARDS和急性肺损伤诊断标准,必须使用有创机械通气并且高PEEP与低PEEP之间差异有统计学意义,必须有住院期间的病死率统计.对符合标准的文献进行Meta分析.结果 5篇文献(包含2447例患者)符合入选标准,住院病死率高PEEP组为34.2%(415/1215),低PEEP组为37.7%(464/1232),合并相对危险度(RR)为0.91,95%可信区间(CI)为0.82~1.01,P=0.07.去除没有使用低潮气量通气策略的试验进行敏感性分析,合并RR为0.94,95%CI为0.84~1.05,P=0.25,与剔除前结论基本一致.漏斗图和Begg秩相关法检验表明无明显发表偏倚(X2=8.26,P=0.09).结论 使用高PEEP和低PEEP通气策略治疗,ARDS患者的住院病死率相似.%Objective To evaluate the effects of high PEEP versus low PEEP upon mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS).Methods The databases Medline,Embase,Web of Science,CENTRAL and CBM(Chinese Bio-Medical Literature & Retrieval System) were retrieved by using the key words ARDS,ALI,acute hypoxemic respiratory failure,acute respiratory distress syndrome,adult respiratory distress syndrome,respiratory failure,systemic inflammatory response syndrome,non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema,ventilation,PEEP,and positive end expiratory pressure,so as to search the material about the randomized controlled trials comparing the mortality of ARDS or ALI treated by high PEEP and low PEE P.Study reports were included if they:(1) enrolled over 10 patients;(2) enrolled adult human ARDS or ALI subiects treated with mechanical ventilation;(3) included high PEEP and low PEEP with significant differences;and (4) included hospital

  19. 儿童急性呼吸窘迫综合征肺复张策略的研究进展%Recruitment maneuvers in pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢波

    2014-01-01

    近年来肺复张策略因可打开肺泡,减少肺泡萎陷所致的肺损伤,改善肺顺应性,提高动脉氧分压与氧合指数,减少肺内分流而成为急性呼吸窘迫综合征机械通气治疗手段之一.本文就肺复张在儿童急性呼吸窘迫综合征的应用做一综述.%Recently,alveolar recruitment maneuver is one of effective management of mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.Recruitment maneuvers are widely used in clinical practice to open the lung and prevent lung injury by derecruitment,improving the compliance,increasing PaO2,increasing the PaO2/FiO2 ratio,and reducing the pulmonary shunt fraction,although the evidence is still discussed.This review discussed recruitment maneuvers in pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  20. The importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bøen Hege; Dalgard Odd; Bjertness Espen

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known of the importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations of social support, somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress. We also examined changes in the association of somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with...