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Sample records for adult reproductive diapause

  1. Adult Diapause in Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hodek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies dealing with adult (reproductive diapause in the Coleoptera are reviewed, as a kind of supplement to the classic compendia. In the first two sections, the general characteristics of adult diapause are described and principal terms explained. Original articles dealing with 19 species from nine coleopteran families (Coccinellidae, Chrysomelidae, Bruchidae, Curculionidae, Carabidae, Silphidae, Scolytidae, Scarabaeidae, and Endomychidae are reviewed. Finally attempts are made at generalisations from the papers reviewed, and hypotheses on diapause evolution are inferred. A polyphenic character of diapause is a prominent feature in C. septempunctata and L. decemlineata, but has been found also in other Coleoptera and in insects generally and often generates voltinism heterogeneity within populations.

  2. Juvenile hormone facilitates the antagonism between adult reproduction and diapause through the methoprene-tolerant gene in the female Colaphellus bowringi.

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    Liu, Wen; Li, Yi; Zhu, Li; Zhu, Fen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In insects, the process whereby juvenile hormone (JH) regulates short-day (SD)-induced reproductive diapause has been previously investigated. However, we still do not understand the mechanism by which JH regulates long-day (LD)-induced reproductive diapause. In this study, we use a cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia capable of entering reproductive diapause under LD conditions, as a model to test whether JH regulates female reproductive diapause similar to the mechanism of SD-induced diapause. Our results showed that the JH analog (JHA) methoprene significantly induced ovarian development but inhibited lipid accumulation of diapause-destined adults. Meanwhile, the transcripts of the vitellogenin (Vg) genes were upregulated, whereas the expression of the fat synthesis and stress tolerance genes were downregulated. RNA interference of the JH candidate receptor gene methoprene-tolerant (Met) blocked JH-induced ovarian development and Vg transcription, suggesting a positive regulatory function for JH-Met signaling in reproduction. Furthermore, under reproduction-inducing conditions, Met depletion promoted a diapause-like phenotype, including arrested ovarian development and increased lipid storage, and stimulated the expression of diapause-related genes involved in lipid synthesis and stress tolerance, suggesting JH-Met signaling plays an important role in the inhibition of diapause. Accordingly, our data indicate that JH acts through Met to facilitate development of the reproductive system by upregulating Vg expression while inhibiting diapause by suppressing lipid synthesis and stress tolerance in the cabbage beetle. Combined with previous studies in SD-induced reproductive diapause, we conclude that JH may regulate female reproductive diapause using a conserved Met-dependent pathway, regardless of the length of the photoperiod inducing diapause in insects. PMID:27180724

  3. Adaptive strategies of overwintering adults: Reproductive diapause and mating behavior in a grasshopper,Stenocatantops splendens (Orthoptera: Catantopidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-Hong Zhu; Shuang-Shuang Cui; Yong-Sheng Fan; Zhiwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    To understand the adaptive strategies of the overwintering adults of Stenocatantops splendens,the mechanism of maintenance and termination of the reproductive diapause,the variation in mortality between overwintering females and males,and the mating strategy of the males were investigated.The results indicated that the adult reproductive diapause in natural conditions was mainly regulated by photoperiod in the fall-long photoperiods promoted reproductive development and short photoperiods maintained reproductive diapause,and the sensitivity of the overwintering adults to photoperiod was over before the end of the winter.When transferred from natural conditions to controlled laboratory conditions on dates from September through February,pre-oviposition became increasingly shorter with increasingly deferred transfer dates regardless of photoperiod conditions.The adults treated with low temperature for 30 days in September through November had significantly shorter pre-oviposition,suggesting that low temperatures in winter had an important role in the termination of reproductive diapause.The female had a significantly lower supercooling point than the male,which was related to their lower mortality after winter.In addition,observations of wild populations of the species indicated that mating behavior prior to winter and the duration of pre-mating period were not affected by photoperiod; mating and sperm transfer were mostly completed by November.Compared with females only mating before winter,females mating in the spring had shorter life span,longer pre-oviposition,lower hatching rate and laid fewer egg pods while showing no significant difference with regard to ovipositional interval,per pod number of eggs and nymph dry weight.

  4. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Kubrak, Olga I; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  5. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I Kubrak

    Full Text Available Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3 display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy.

  6. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  7. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Lucie Kučerová; Ulrich Theopold; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with thi...

  8. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive diapause in Ophraella communa (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a potential biocontrol agent against Ambrosia artemisiifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-Hong Zhu; Jing Zhu; Zhao-Pu Peng; Fang-Hao Wan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the seasonal adaptation strategies of Ophraella communa to new habitats,the effects and regulation mechanisms of photoperiod and temperature on the reproductive diapause in a population collected from Changsha,Hunan were examined.Adults showed obvious reproductive diapause,which was regulated by photoperiod and temperature.At 30℃,there was no adult diapause occurring under either long-day or short-day conditions; at 25℃ the pre-oviposition period was short and fecundity was high in adult females under L:D 16:8 h,whereas under L:D 12:12 h,a few females entered reproductive diapause; at 20℃ under short-day conditions,all female adults entered diapause.The pre-oviposition period was significantly prolonged when the pupae and adults were transferred from long-days to short-days,but the day length influence was not obvious when they were transferred only in the adult stage.However,the fecundity dropped greatly no matter whether the photoperiod shifted to short-days only in the adult stage or whether the shift occurred in both the pupal and adult stage.The fecundity was extremely low when photoperiod shifted from long-days to short-days in both pupal and adult stages.This was an indication that the pupal and adult stages were the photoperiod-sensitive stage for adult reproductive diapause.This was especially true for the photoperiod in the pupal stage,which has a distinctly significant regulative effect on reproductive diapause.Additionally,this article also addresses the reason for different photoperiodic response patterns in reproductive diapause induction between the Changsha strain and the Tsukuba strain (Japan) of O.communa.

  9. Climate Warming May Threaten Reproductive Diapause of a Highly Eusocial Bee.

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    Dos Santos, Charles Fernando; Acosta, André Luis; Nunes-Silva, Patrícia; Saraiva, Antonio Mauro; Blochtein, Betina

    2015-08-01

    Climate changes are predicted to affect the diapause of many insect species around the world adversely. In this context, bees are of interest due to their pollination services. In southern Brazil, the highly eusocial bee species Plebeia droryana (Friese) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) exhibits reproductive diapause in response to the region's rigorous winters. That diapause is characterized by a temporary interruption in brood cell construction by nurse bees and egg-laying by the queen, regardless of other internal tasks underway in the nests. In this study, we evaluated whether P. droryana enter diapause under experimental conditions. P. droryana colonies were kept in a germination chamber, and the temperature was progressively reduced from 20°C over a period of a few weeks until diapause was detected. Additionally, we also estimated the environmental conditions in the actual geographic range occupied by P. droryana and modeled it for predicted changes in climate up to the year 2080. Our findings indicate that P. droryana enter diapause between 10 and 8°C. We also found that the current minimum winter temperature (10.1°C, median) in the distributional range of P. droryana will probably rise (13.4°C, median). Thus, if our experimental data are somewhat accurate, ∼36% of the southern Brazilian P. droryana population may be active during the expected milder winter months in 2080. In this scenario, there may be a larger demand for pollen and nectar for that bee species. Greater conservation efforts will be required to preserve P. droryana populations and keep them viable in the coming decades. PMID:26314063

  10. Gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster egg development before and after reproductive diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Dean A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of egg development to the female life cycle in Drosophila, global patterns of gene expression have not been examined in detail, primarily due to the difficulty in isolating synchronised developmental stages in sufficient quantities for gene expression profiling. Entry into vitellogenesis is a key stage of oogenesis and by forcing females into reproductive diapause we are able to arrest oogenesis at the pre-vitellogenic stages. Releasing females from diapause allows collection of relatively synchronous developing egg populations and an investigation of some of the transcriptional dynamics apparent before and after reproductive diapause. Results Focusing on gender-biased transcription, we identified mechanisms of egg development suppressed during reproductive dormancy as well as other molecular changes unique to the diapausing female. A microarray based analysis generated a set of 3565 transcripts with at least 2-fold greater expression in females as compared to control males, 1392 such changes were biased during reproductive dormancy. In addition, we also detect 1922 up-regulated transcriptional changes after entry into vitellogenesis, which were classified into discrete blocks of co-expression. We discuss some of the regulatory aspects apparent after re-initiation of egg development, exploring the underlying functions, maternal contribution and evolutionary conservation of co-expression patterns involved in egg production. Conclusion Although much of the work we present is descriptive, fundamental aspects of egg development and gender-biased transcription can be derived from our time-series experiment. We believe that our dataset will facilitate further exploration of the developmental and evolutionary characteristics of oogenesis as well as the nature of reproductive arrest in Drosophila.

  11. Geographic variation in diapause response of adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Madder, M.; Speybroeck, N.; Brandt, J.; Tirry, L.; Hodek, Ivo; Berkvens, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 277, - (2002), s. 209-221. ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Diapause * Life cycle * Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2002

  12. Characterization of the imaginal reproductive diapause of Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

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    Santos, R S S; Redaelli, L R; Diefenbach, L M G; Romanowski, H P; Prando, H F

    2003-11-01

    The state of development of the internal reproductive organs of male and female Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) as well as the body fat amount in the abdominal cavity during hibernation, of individuals sampled in bamboo litter in Eldorado do Sul (30 masculine 02'S and 51 degrees 23'W), RS, Brazil was investigated. Females and males showed the abdominal cavity filled with body fat in the beginning of the hibernation phase. The decrease in fat reserve level occurred from August on for males and from October on for females. Ovaries and testis doubled in length and tripled in width from immature to the reproductive phase. Male sexual maturation occurred in the hibernation sites while for females it occurred later on outside of the sites. Reproductive organ immaturity and abdominal body fat hypertrophy characterized the diapause of O. poecilus. PMID:15029381

  13. Supercooling points and diapause termination in overwintering adults of orchard bees Osmia cornuta and O. rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

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    Krunić, M D; Stanisavljević, L Z

    2006-06-01

    The orchard bee species Osmia cornuta (Latreille) and O. rufa (Linnaeus) are both European in distribution. Osmia cornuta is distributed in the central and southern half of the continent, while O. rufa is distributed additionally in more northern parts of Europe, including Great Britain. These bees over-winter in cocoons as diapausing adults. The freezing temperatures of overwintering adults of O. cornuta and O. rufa during diapause are similar: -30 degrees C to -24 degrees C and -31 degrees C to -26 degrees C, respectively. However, there are differences in the termination of their diapause. Under natural conditions in the wider area of Belgrade, O. rufa appears in spring about two weeks later than O. cornuta. PMID:16768821

  14. Why is the number of days required for induction of adult diapause in the linden bug Pyrrhocoris apterus fewer in the larval than in the adult stage?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hodková, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, JUN 01 (2015), s. 39-44. ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1612 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diapause * reproduction * diapuase information Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191015000797

  15. Production of workers, queens and males in Plebeia remota colonies (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), a stingless bee with reproductive diapause.

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    Alves, D A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Santos-Filho, P S

    2009-01-01

    Queen, male and worker production was studied during one year in three Plebeia remota colonies from Atlantic Rainforest in Cunha, São Paulo State, and two from a subtropical Araucaria forest in Prudentópolis, Paraná State. All the colonies were kept in São Paulo city during our study. Plebeia remota has reproductive diapause during autumn and winter, which makes its biology of special interest. Brood production begins before spring, renewing the colony cycle. We sampled brood combs monthly in these five colonies. The number of cells in each comb varied significantly with time of the year; the smallest brood combs appear to be a consequence of reduced food availability. However, worker, queen and male frequencies did not differ significantly in time, and this presumably is due to the fact that they all are necessary for the growth, maintenance and reproduction of the colony. Although some molecular, morphological and behavioral differences have been detected in several studies comparing populations from Cunha and from Prudentópolis, we did not find significant differences between the colonies from these two localities in number of brood cells and worker, queen and male production. PMID:19554766

  16. Duration of prepupal summer dormancy regulates synchronization of adult diapause with winter temperatures in bees of the genus Osmia.

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    Sgolastra, Fabio; Kemp, William P; Maini, Stefano; Bosch, Jordi

    2012-07-01

    Osmia (Osmia) bees are strictly univoltine and winter as diapausing adults. In these species, the timing of adult eclosion with the onset of wintering conditions is critical, because adults exposed to long pre-wintering periods show increased lipid loss and winter mortality. Populations from warm areas fly in February-March and are exposed to longer growth seasons than populations from colder areas, which fly in April-May. Given their inability to produce an extra generation, early-flying populations should develop more slowly than late-flying populations and thus avoid the negative consequences of long pre-wintering periods. In this study we compare the development under natural and laboratory conditions of phenologically-distinct populations in two Osmia species. Early-flying populations took ∼2 months longer to develop than late-flying populations. Differences between populations in larval and pupal period duration were very small, whereas the prepupal period was much longer in early-flying populations. In contrast to the larval and pupal stages, the prepupal stage showed a non-linear response to temperature, was strongly affected by thermoperiod, and exhibited minimum respiration rates. Coupled with other lines of evidence, these results suggest that the prepupal period in Osmia corresponds to a summer diapause, and its duration may be under local selection to synchronize adult eclosion with the onset of winter temperatures. We discuss the implications of our results relative to current expectations of global warming. PMID:22546562

  17. Timing of eclosion affects diapause development, fat body consumption and longevity in Osmia lignaria, a univoltine, adult-wintering solitary bee.

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    Bosch, Jordi; Sgolastra, Fabio; Kemp, William P

    2010-12-01

    Most insects from temperate areas enter diapause ahead of winter. Species diapausing in a feeding stage and accumulating metabolic reserves during permissive pre-wintering conditions are expected to enter diapause shortly before the onset of winter. In contrast, species diapausing in a non-feeding stage are expected to lower their metabolism as soon as possible to avoid excessive consumption of metabolic reserves. The solitary bee Osmia lignaria winters as a non-feeding adult within its cocoon, but previous studies show important weight losses and increased winter mortality in populations pre-wintered for extended periods. We measured respiration rates to assess diapause initiation and maintenance during pre-wintering, and tested whether timing of adult eclosion affected fitness by measuring fat body depletion, winter mortality and post-winter longevity. We worked with different cohorts of a population reared under natural conditions, and manipulated pre-wintering duration in a population reared under artificial conditions. In agreement with our expectation, O. lignaria lower their metabolic rates within a few days of adult eclosion, but nonetheless suffer strong weight loss during pre-wintering. Early developing individuals suffer greater weight loss and fat body depletion, and have short post-winter longevity. Although, we found no differences in winter mortality among treatments, our results indicate that increased mortality may occur in years with late winter arrivals. We discuss fundamental ecophysiological differences between adult and prepupal diapause within the Megachilidae, and hypothesize that species wintering as adults will be more negatively affected by a situation of extended summers under a scenario of global warming. PMID:20816851

  18. Influence of methoprene and temperature on diapause termination in adult females of the over-wintering solitary bee, Osmia rufa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2011-12-01

    Females of Osmia rufa, as most species in this genus, enter an obligatory diapause, overwintering as an imago inside a cocoon until the ensuing spring when after emergence - mating, egg development and oviposition occur. Diapause in this species is initiated in November, undergoes 2 months of a pre-wintering period that is terminated at the end of January, after 1 month of maintenance. In this study, factors that affect the termination of adult diapause in the female of this species were investigated. The experimental material consisted of bees that were brought from nests kept in natural conditions 1 month prior to natural termination of diapause. Three different experimental treatments were planned to evaluate the potential effect of methoprene and temperature on diapause termination. During the 5 day experimental period the first group of females was kept at 4°C, the second group at 15°C and the last group of females was kept at 20°C. All groups of females were treated with methoprene topically at a dose of 200 μg. After methoprene application a significant increase (p<0.001) in the size of terminal oocytes was recorded in the three experimental groups. However, no changes in the size of terminal oocytes between acetone treated and untreated control groups were observed. The number of oocytes progressively increased following topical application of methoprene compared to non-treated or acetone treated females. In successive applications of 200 μg methoprene gradual changes in ovary and fat body protein concentration were observed. As compared to controls, protein content in ovaries isolated from methoprene-treated females increased, whereas it decreased in fat body. The least differences in oocyte size and protein concentration in ovary and fat body between control groups and with methoprene application occurred at 4°C. Differences increased and were higher in females kept at 20°C and increased rapidly after methoprene application. Exposure to increasing

  19. Annual Killifish Transcriptomics and Candidate Genes for Metazoan Diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew W; Ortí, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    Dormancy has evolved in all major metazoan lineages. It is critical for survival when environmental stresses are not conducive to growth, maturation, or reproduction. Embryonic diapause is a form of dormancy where development is reversibly delayed and metabolism is depressed. We report the diapause transcriptome of the annual killifish Nematolebias whitei, and compare gene expression between diapause embryos and free-living larvae to identify a candidate set of 945 differentially expressed "diapause" genes for this species. Similarity of transcriptional patterns among N. whitei and other diapausing animals is striking for a small set of genes associated with stress resistance, circadian rhythm, and metabolism, while other genes show discordant patterns. Although convergent evolution of diapause may require shared molecular mechanisms for fundamental processes, similar physiological phenotypes also may arise through modification of alternative pathways. Annual killifishes are a tractable model system for comparative transcriptomic studies on the evolution of diapause. PMID:27297470

  20. INSULIN SIGNALING AND THE REGULATION OF INSECT DIAPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CheolhoSim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs, ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulatory pathway leading to the diapause phenotype. Insects produce many different insulin-like peptides (ILPs, and not all are involved in the diapause response; ILP-1 appears to be the one most closely linked to diapause in C. pipiens. Many steps in the pathway leading from perception of daylength (the primary environmental cue used to program diapause to generation of the diapause phenotype remain unknown, but the role for insulin signaling in mosquito diapause appears to be upstream of JH, as evidenced by the fact that application of exogenous JH can rescue the effects of knocking down expression of ILP-1 or the Insulin Receptor. Fat accumulation, enhancement of stress tolerance, and other features of the diapause phenotype are likely linked to the insulin pathway through the action of a key transcription factor, FOXO. This review highlights many parallels for the role of insulin signaling as a regulator in insect diapause and dauer formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  1. Insulin signaling and the regulation of insect diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Cheolho; Denlinger, David L

    2013-01-01

    A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs), ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulatory pathway leading to the diapause phenotype. Insects produce many different insulin-like peptides (ILPs), and not all are involved in the diapause response; ILP-1 appears to be the one most closely linked to diapause in C. pipiens. Many steps in the pathway leading from perception of daylength (the primary environmental cue used to program diapause) to generation of the diapause phenotype remain unknown, but the role for insulin signaling in mosquito diapause appears to be upstream of JH, as evidenced by the fact that application of exogenous JH can rescue the effects of knocking down expression of ILP-1 or the Insulin Receptor. Fat accumulation, enhancement of stress tolerance, and other features of the diapause phenotype are likely linked to the insulin pathway through the action of a key transcription factor, FOXO. This review highlights many parallels for the role of insulin signaling as a regulator in insect diapause and dauer formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:23885240

  2. Adult neurogenesis and reproductive functions in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaud, Martine; Butruille, Lucile; Duittoz, Anne; Pillon, Delphine; Batailler, Martine

    2016-07-01

    During adulthood, the mammalian brain retains the capacity to generate new cells and new neurons in particular. It is now well established that the birth of these new neurons occurs in well-described sites: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, as well as in other brain regions including the hypothalamus. In this review, we describe the canonical neurogenic niches and illustrate the functional relevance of adult-born neurons of each neurogenic niche in the reproductive physiology. More specifically, we highlight the effect of reproductive social stimuli on the neurogenic processes and conversely, the contributions of adult-born neurons to the reproductive physiology and behavior. We next review the recent discovery of a novel neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamus and the median eminence and the compelling evidence of the link existing between the new-born hypothalamic neurons and the regulation of metabolism. In addition, new perspectives on the possible involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of photoperiodic reproductive physiology in seasonal mammals are discussed. Altogether, the studies highlighted in this review demonstrate the potential role of neurogenesis in reproductive function and emphasize the importance of increasing our knowledge on the regulation processes and the physiological relevance of these adult-born neurons. This constitutes a necessary step toward a potential manipulation of these plasticity mechanisms. PMID:27177964

  3. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.

  4. Insulin signaling and the regulation of insect diapause

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Cheolho; Denlinger, David L.

    2013-01-01

    A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs), ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulat...

  5. INSULIN SIGNALING AND THE REGULATION OF INSECT DIAPAUSE

    OpenAIRE

    CheolhoSim; DavidL.Denlinger

    2013-01-01

    A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs), ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulat...

  6. Diapause induction and termination in a commonly univoltine leaf beetle ( Phratora vulgatissima)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Dalin

    2011-01-01

    TheleafbeetlePhratoravulgatissima(Linnaeus1758)iscommonlyunivoltine in south-central Sweden but may sometimes initiate a partial second generation.The current study was set out to investigate under what abiotic conditions the beetles initiate a second generation.Using climate chamber experiments,the beetles were shown to have a facultative reproductive diapause induced by declining day-length.The critical day-length (CDL) for diapause induction was estimated to be 18 h and 10 min.In the field,firstgeneration beetles developing to adulthood before August in 2009 became reproductively active and produced a second generation,but most individuals emerged later and were in reproductive diapause.P vulgatissima overwinter as adults and diapause was shown to be maintained until mid-winter in 2008/2009.The cumulative temperature requirement for oviposition after diapause termination was estimated to be 222 day-degrees with a 5.5℃C temperature threshold.Three different day-degree models that were developed to predict the phenology of female oviposition in the spring were validated by comparing model results with field data on the timing of oviposition in previous years.The study suggests that P vulgatissima may initiate a second generation in Sweden if development of the first generation is completed before August.Warmer spring and summer temperatures due to ongoing climate change may cause advanced insect phenology and faster completion of insect life-cycles at northern latitudes,which will affect the proportion of insects that initiate a second generation.

  7. The influence of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive diapause and cold tolerance of spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge regarding the reproductive status of spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: Drosophilidae) is of critical importance in predicting potential infestations of this invasive pest, as eggs are laid in ripe or ripening fruit of several commercially important small frui...

  8. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi S; Wang, Yi; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9%) and fully embryonated (74.7%) eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days) compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days). The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations. PMID:26090954

  9. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S Suman

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9% and fully embryonated (74.7% eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days. The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations.

  10. Diapause induction and termination in Hyphantria cunea (Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    Full Text Available The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury, enters facultative diapause as a pupa in response to short-day conditions during autumn. Photoperiodic response curves showed that the critical day length for diapause induction was 14 h 30 min, 14 h 25 min and 13 h 30 min at 22, 25 and 28°C, respectively. The photoperiodic responses under non-24 h light-dark cycles demonstrated that night length played an essential role in the determination of diapause. Experiments using a short day length interrupted by a 1-h light pulse exhibited two troughs of diapause inhibition and the effect of diapause inhibition was greater in the early scotophase than in the late scotophase. The diapause-inducing short day lengths of 8, 10 and 12 h evoked greater intensities of diapause than did 13 and 14 h. Diapause can be terminated without exposure to chilling, but chilling at 5°C for 90 and 120 d significantly accelerated diapause development, reduced mortality, and synchronized adult emergence. Additionally, the potential for H. cunea from the temperate region (Qingdao to emerge and overwinter under field conditions in subtropical regions (Nanchang of China was evaluated. Pupae that were transferred to Nanchang in early July showed a 60% survival rate and extremely dispersed pupal period (from 12 to 82 days, suggesting that some pupae may undergo summer diapause. Diapausing temperate region pupae that were moved out-of-doors in Nanchang during October showed approximately 20% overwintering survival; moreover, those pupae that overwintered successfully emerged the next spring during a period when their host plants would be available. The results indicate that this moth has the potential to expand its range into subtropical regions of China.

  11. Diapause in Calanoid Copepods: within-clutch hatching patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart T. DE STASIO

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Diapause is a major life history feature of many invertebrate organisms. Determining the phenology of diapause is critical for understanding survival and reproductive success of individuals as well as the long-term viability of many populations. The time spent in dormancy by individuals and variability among offspring in the duration of dormancy are two important aspects of invertebrate life histories. Some data are available, especially on duration of diapause, for plants and insects, but little information is available concerning variability among offspring in diapause traits. This is especially true for crustacean zooplankton, where essentially no information has been published on duration of diapause or variability among offspring in diapause timing or dynamics. Here I present data on the duration of diapause, and variability among offspring for diapause characteristics. The freshwater calanoid copepod Onychodiaptomus sanguineus, an obligately sexual species, was collected from Bullhead Pond, Rhode Island, U.S.A., and raised under conditions in the laboratory to induce production of diapausing eggs. One hundred clutches of these diapausing eggs (920 total eggs were incubated for over two years in a full-factorial experiment testing the effects of temperature and photoperiod cycles on the hatching dynamics and duration of diapause. Overall hatching success was highest (approximately 86% for eggs exposed to simultaneous temperature and photoperiod cycles mimicking natural changes, and was lowest (approximately 20% when eggs were incubated at constant temperature (4 °C and in constant dark conditions. The highest fraction of eggs hatched at approximately 550 days of age, but the age of eggs at hatching was highly variable among clutches. There was also large variability within clutches for hatching patterns, with some clutches containing eggs that all hatched synchronously and others in which eggs hatched more continuously throughout the

  12. Geographic variation in photoperiodic diapause induction and diapause intensity in Sericinus montelus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Qiu-Sheng Yang; Peter Dalin; Xing-Miao Zhou; Zhi-Wen Luo; Chao-Liang Lei

    2012-01-01

    Due to the risk of extinction and ornamental value of the swallowtail butterfly,Sericinus montelus Gray (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae) in China,knowledge about local adaptations is important for the conservation and economical utilization of the species.In the present study,photoperiodic diapause induction and diapause intensity of S.montelus populations from Jiamusi (46°37′N),Beijing (40°15′N),Zibo (36°48′N),Fangxian (32°36′N),Wuhan (30°33′N) and Huaihua (27°33′N) were characterized at 25℃.Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant population × hours of light interaction,confirming that photoperiodic responses varied among populations.The critical photoperiod was positively correlated with latitude and increased toward the north at a rate of about 1 h for each 6.67 degrees of latitude.Survival analyses indicated that survival time of diapausing pupae before adult eclosion differed significantly among populations at 25℃ and 16:8L:D h.The mean duration of pupal diapause was also positively correlated with latitude.Our study reveals geographic variation in the critical photoperiod for diapause induction and in diapause intensity of S.montelus.These results provide useful information for our general understanding about seasonal adaptation in insects and may also be used to predict how geographic populations respond to climate warming.

  13. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  14. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  15. Diapause/Dormancy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hodek, Ivo

    Chichester : Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2012 - (Hodek, I.; van Emden, H.; Honěk, A.), s. 275-342 ISBN 978-1-4051-8422-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : diapause Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  16. Metabolic and proteomic profiling of diapause in the aphid parasitoid Praon volucre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Colinet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diapause, a condition of developmental arrest and metabolic depression exhibited by a wide range of animals is accompanied by complex physiological and biochemical changes that generally enhance environmental stress tolerance and synchronize reproduction. Even though some aspects of diapause have been well characterized, very little is known about the full range of molecular and biochemical modifications underlying diapause in non-model organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we focused on the parasitic wasp, Praon volucre that exhibits a pupal diapause in response to environmental signals. System-wide metabolic changes occurring during diapause were investigated using GC-MS metabolic fingerprinting. Moreover, proteomic changes were studied in diapausing versus non-diapausing phenotypes using a combination of two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. We found a reduction of Krebs cycle intermediates which most likely resulted from the metabolic depression. Glycolysis was galvanized, probably to favor polyols biosynthesis. Diapausing parasitoids accumulated high levels of cryoprotective polyols, especially sorbitol. A large set of proteins were modulated during diapause and these were involved in various functions such as remodeling of cytoskeleton and cuticle, stress tolerance, protein turnover, lipid metabolism and various metabolic enzymes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here provide some first clues about the molecular and biochemical events that characterize the diapause syndrome in aphid parasitoids. These data are useful for probing potential commonality of parasitoids diapause with other taxa and they will help creating a general understanding of diapause underpinnings and a background for future interpretations.

  17. Conservation and modification of genetic and physiological toolkits underpinning diapause in bumble bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Etya; Galbraith, David A; Cnaani, Jonathan; Teal, Peter E A; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-11-01

    Diapause is the key adaptation allowing insects to survive unfavourable conditions and inhabit an array of environments. Physiological changes during diapause are largely conserved across species and are hypothesized to be regulated by a conserved suite of genes (a 'toolkit'). Furthermore, it is hypothesized that in social insects, this toolkit was co-opted to mediate caste differentiation between long-lived, reproductive, diapause-capable queens and short-lived, sterile workers. Using Bombus terrestris queens, we examined the physiological and transcriptomic changes associated with diapause and CO2 treatment, which causes queens to bypass diapause. We performed comparative analyses with genes previously identified to be associated with diapause in the Dipteran Sarcophaga crassipalpis and with caste differentiation in bumble bees. As in Diptera, diapause in bumble bees is associated with physiological and transcriptional changes related to nutrient storage, stress resistance and core metabolic pathways. There is a significant overlap, both at the level of transcript and gene ontology, between the genetic mechanisms mediating diapause in B. terrestris and S. crassipalpis, reaffirming the existence of a conserved insect diapause genetic toolkit. However, a substantial proportion (10%) of the differentially regulated transcripts in diapausing queens have no clear orthologs in other species, and key players regulating diapause in Diptera (juvenile hormone and vitellogenin) appear to have distinct functions in bumble bees. We also found a substantial overlap between genes related to caste determination and diapause in bumble bees. Thus, our studies demonstrate an intriguing interplay between pathways underpinning adaptation to environmental extremes and the evolution of sociality in insects. PMID:26453894

  18. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay; Gülbu Tortumluoğlu

    2006-01-01

                   In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD), teenage pregnancy, abo...

  19. Association between circadian clock genes and diapause incidence in Drosophila triauraria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Yamada

    Full Text Available Diapause is an adaptive response triggered by seasonal photoperiodicity to overcome unfavorable seasons. The photoperiodic clock is a system that controls seasonal physiological processes, but our knowledge about its physiological mechanisms and genetic architecture remains incomplete. The circadian clock is another system that controls daily rhythmic physiological phenomena. It has been argued that there is a connection between the two clocks. To examine the genetic connection between them, we analyzed the associations of five circadian clock genes (period, timeless, Clock, cycle and cryptochrome with the occurrence of diapause in Drosophila triauraria, which shows a robust reproductive diapause with clear photoperiodicity. Non-diapause strains found in low latitudes were compared in genetic crosses with the diapause strain, in which the diapause trait is clearly dominant. Single nucleotide polymorphism and deletion analyses of the five circadian clock genes in backcross progeny revealed that allelic differences in timeless and cryptochrome between the strains were additively associated with the differences in the incidence of diapause. This suggests that there is a molecular link between certain circadian clock genes and the occurrence of diapause.

  20. Innate immune system still works at diapause, a physiological state of dormancy in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Two major types of cells are present in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a diapausing pupa. → Phagocytosis and encapsulation by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into a pupa. → Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 oC. → Innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state. -- Abstract: Diapause is most often observed in insects and is a physiologically dormant state different from other types of dormancy, such as hibernation. It allows insects to survive in harsh environments or extend longevity. In general, larval, pupal, or adult non-diapausing insects possess an innate immune system preventing the invasion of microorganisms into their bodies; however, it is unclear whether this system works under the dormant condition of diapause. We here report the occurrence of innate cellular reactions during diapause using pupae of a giant silkmoth, Samia cynthia pryeri. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrated the presence of two major types of cells in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a pupa. Phagocytosis and encapsulation, characteristics of innate cellular reactions, by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into the internal portion of a pupa. Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 oC. Our results indicate that innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state.

  1. Reproductive arrest and stress resistance in winter-acclimated Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Jantina; Jakobs, Ruth; Ferguson, Laura V; Gariepy, Tara D; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-06-01

    Overwintering insects must survive the multiple-stress environment of winter, which includes low temperatures, reduced food and water availability, and cold-active pathogens. Many insects overwinter in diapause, a developmental arrest associated with high stress tolerance. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is an invasive agricultural pest worldwide. Its ability to overwinter and therefore establish in temperate regions could have severe implications for fruit crop industries. We demonstrate here that laboratory populations of Canadian D. suzukii larvae reared under short-day, low temperature, conditions develop into dark 'winter morph' adults similar to those reported globally from field captures, and observed by us in southern Ontario, Canada. These winter-acclimated adults have delayed reproductive maturity, enhanced cold tolerance, and can remain active at low temperatures, although they do not have the increased desiccation tolerance or survival of fungal pathogen challenges that might be expected from a more heavily melanised cuticle. Winter-acclimated female D. suzukii have underdeveloped ovaries and altered transcript levels of several genes associated with reproduction and stress. While superficially indicative of reproductive diapause, the delayed reproductive maturity of winter-acclimated D. suzukii appears to be temperature-dependent, not regulated by photoperiod, and is thus unlikely to be 'true' diapause. The traits of this 'winter morph', however, likely facilitate overwintering in southern Canada, and have probably contributed to the global success of this fly as an invasive species. PMID:27039032

  2. Effects of diurnal temperature range on adult size and emergence times from diapausing pupae in Papilio glaucus and p.canadensis (Papilionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Mark Scriber; Brittany Sonke

    2011-01-01

    With recent climate warming trends,both the increase in thermal variance (i.e.,diurnal temperature range; DTR) as well as increased mean temperature may impact many different organisms,especially poikilothermic invertebrates.Predictions of insect developmental rates using degree-days (thermal unit accumulations above the developmental base threshold of the insect) are based on daily mean temperatures,regardless of DTR.However,non-linearity and variance in the means and extremes are often ignored.The role of thermal variance (e.g.,daily temperature extremes and DTR) was evaluated experimentally for two swallowtail butterfly sister species using a common day/night photoperiod of 18:6 h photo:scoto-phase and corresponding daytime thermophase and nighttime cryophase periods of 22:22℃ (constant 22℃),24:16℃,and 26:10℃ (all three treatments had the same daily mean and the same degree-day accumulations).Although developmental rates ofpost-diapause pupae were largely unaffected for both species,our results show that sizes in P.canadensis females (but not males) were smaller in the treatments with more variance (26℃:10℃) compared to constant 22℃.Such potentially significant impacts of size reduction in P.canadensis females were not observed in P.glaucus males or females under the same series ofthermo-period treatments.

  3. Comparative analysis of hemolymph proteome maps in diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Hedo Meritxell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesamia nonagrioides is a noctuid that feeds on maize, sugar cane and sorghum in North Africa and Southern Europe. Larvae reared under long day conditions pupate after 5 or 6 larval instars, whereas larvae reared under short day conditions enter diapause and undergo up to 12 molts before dying or pupating. To better understand the mechanism of larval development and diapause, we identified proteins with different expressions in the sixth instar of diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Results A total of 52 differentially regulated proteins were detected in the hemolymph of the diapausing or non-diapausing larvae at the beginning or end of the sixth instar. From these proteins, 11 were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS: 5 were upregulated in the hemolymph of non-diapausing larvae and 6 in the hemolymph of the diapausing larvae. Interestingly, some proteins were expressed only in non-diapausing larvae but none was expressed only in the hemolymph of diapausing larvae. The possible functions of some of these proteins related to diapause maintenance or to larval-pupal metamorphosis are discussed. Conclusions The 2-DE proteomic map of S. nonagrioides hemolymph shows differential protein expression in diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Some proteins that showed higher expression in the diapausing larvae at the end of the sixth instar could be involved in JH level maintenance thus in the diapause status maintenance. On the contrary, other proteins that showed the highest expression or that were expressed only in the non-diapausing larvae could be involved in larval-pupal metamorphosis.

  4. Heat shock proteins and diapause: How downstream gene expression can affect diapause success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the physiological and molecular studies of diapause have focused on how diapause is controlled. Clearly, these are fascinating questions, and deciphering the molecular pathways that both initiate and terminate diapause will give us a deeper understanding of how many important processes are ...

  5. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  6. Control of corpus allatum activity in the adult Colorado potato beetle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assay conditions for the short-term, radiochemical, in vitro determination of the spontaneous rate of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by isolated corpora allata from Leptinotarsa decemlineata have been further improved permitting the measurement of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by individual pairs of corpora allata. Using the new assay conditions, the activities of adult corpora allata during maturation were found to be significantly higher in reproductive, long-day animals than in pre-diapause, short-day beetles. During diapause no activity was detectable, whereas corpora allata from post-diapause beetles were reactivated totally after 5 days. Simultaneous determination of the in vitro rates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis and corpus allatum volumes revealed no clear correlation. (Auth.)

  7. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  8. Endocrine control of embryonic diapause in the Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Waltrick

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the Australian sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon taylori, includes a temporary suspension of development at the commencement of embryogenesis termed embryonic diapause. This study investigated levels of 17β-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T and progesterone (P4 in plasma samples of mature wild female R. taylori captured throughout the reproductive cycle and correlated them with internal morphological changes. Levels of T were elevated through most of the embryonic diapause period, suggesting a role of this hormone in the maintenance of this condition. Increasing plasma T concentrations from late diapause to early active development were associated with a possible role of androgens in the termination of embryonic diapause. As in other elasmobranchs, a concomitant increase of E2 with ovarian follicle size indicated a direct role of this hormone in regulating vitellogenesis, while a peak in P4 suggested this hormone is associated with preovulation and ovulation. Additionally, significant correlations between photoperiod or water temperature and maximum follicular diameter and hepatosomatic index suggest that these abiotic factors may also play a role triggering and regulating the synchrony and timing of reproductive events.

  9. Incidence of Winter and Summer Diapause in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Jadhav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of winter and summer diapause was studied by large-scale field samplings of larvae and pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hüb conducted over a period of 13-years during winter and summer seasons in Andhra Pradesh, India. Induction of winter diapause was associated with cooler prevailing temperatures and shorter day lengths of 32°C during March-April resulting in greater adult emergence with the onset of the monsoon season during mid-June to early July. In summer, few alternate hosts are available for larvae to sustain by allowing local populations colonizing newly germinated host crops with the onset of the rainy season. In addition, the incidence of winter and summer diapause was higher in male pupae than females in the ratio of 4:1 and 3:1 (♂:♀, respectively. Diapause populations of H. armigera were most common in the cyclonic weather prevailed for several weeks during 1977-78 (15.11% and 1995-96 (17.64%. Under these conditions, an average of <4% and <6% of pupae entered winter and summer diapause, respectively and was associated with severe outbreaks of H. armigera in subsequent seasons. Higher populations of H. armigera on pigeonpea and chickpea entered winter diapause on pigeonpea and chickpea and summer diapause on irrigated maize, pigeonpea, chickpea and a common weed host, Datura metel.

  10. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  11. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, Alexandre L., E-mail: aljordao@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa (IEPA), Macapa, AP (Brazil); Nakano, Octavio, E-mail: onakano@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Janeiro, Vanderly, E-mail: vjaneiro@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2010-06-15

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  12. Metabolomic Analysis of Diapausing and Noni-diapausing Larvae of the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purać, Jelena; Kojić, Danijela; Popović, Željko D; Vukašinović, Elvira; Tiziani, Stefano; Günther, Ulrich L; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an (1)H-NMR -based metabolomic approach was used to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of diapause and cold hardiness in diapausing larvae of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. Metabolomic patterns in polar hemolymph extracts from non-diapausing and diapausing larvae of O. nubilalis were compared. Analysis indicated 13 metabolites: 7 amino acids, glycerol, acetate, citrate, succinate, lactate and putrescine. Results show that diapausing larvae display different metabolomic patterns compared to active non-diapausing larvae, with predominant metabolites identified as glycerol, proline and alanine. In specific diapausing larvae initially kept at 5 °C then gradually chilled to –3 °C and –16 °C, alanine , glycerol and acetate were predominant metabolites. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy provides new insight into the metabolomic patterns associated with cold resistance and diapause in O. nubilalis larvae, suggesting distinct metabolomes function in actively developing and diapausing larvae. PMID:26680702

  13. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  14. Characterization of the internal reproductive organs and their state as diapause indicator in Phytalus sanctipauli Blanchard, 1850 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae Caracterização dos órgãos internos de reprodução e respectivas mudanças como indicadores da diapausa em Phytalus sanctipauli Blanchard, 1850 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÚCIA M. GUEDES DIEFENBACH

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The internal reproductive organs of females and males of Phytalus sanctipauli are described and illustrated. The amount of fat body in the abdominal cavity was assessed. The remaining in the soil, from March to September, of sexually immature females and males bearing the abdominal cavity totally filled with fat body characterized the state of diapause in this species, in Coxilha (52°20'W and 28°05'S, RS, Brazil.Os órgãos internos de reprodução de fêmeas e machos de Phytalus sanctipauli são descritos e ilustrados e a quantidade de corpos gordurosos presentes na cavidade abdominal é avaliada. A permanência no solo de fêmeas e machos, sexualmente imaturos e com a cavidade abdominal totalmente preenchida com corpos gordurosos, no período de março a setembro, em Coxilha (52°20'O e 28°05'S, RS, Brasil, caracterizaram o estado de diapausa imaginal desta espécie.

  15. Seasonal Adaptations of Insects as Revealed by Latitudinal Diapause Clines

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki, Shinzo

    1999-01-01

    To stimulate further study on seasonal adaptations in insects, two hypotheses are proposed, one accounting for latitudinal variations in diapause intensity and the other pertaining to the phenotypic plasticity of critical photoperiod for diapause induction. (1) In some species with constant voltinism, diapause intensity increases southward to cope with higher risks of untimely termination of diapause before winter. In other species with variable voltinism, it decreases southward presumably be...

  16. The evolution of an annual life cycle in killifish: adaptation to ephemeral aquatic environments through embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I

    2016-08-01

    An annual life cycle is characterized by growth, maturity, and reproduction condensed into a single, short season favourable to development, with production of embryos (seeds, cysts, or eggs) capable of surviving harsh conditions which juveniles or adults cannot tolerate. More typically associated with plants in desert environments, or temperate-zone insects exposed to freezing winters, the evolution of an annual life cycle in vertebrates is fairly novel. Killifish, small sexually dimorphic fishes in the Order Cyprinodontiformes, have adapted to seasonally ephemeral water bodies across much of Africa and South America through the independent evolution of an annual life history. These annual killifish produce hardy desiccation-resistant eggs that undergo diapause (developmental arrest) and remain buried in the soil for long periods when fish have perished due to the drying of their habitat. Killifish are found in aquatic habitats that span a continuum from permanent and stable to seasonal and variable, thus providing a useful system in which to piece together the evolutionary history of this life cycle using natural comparative variation. I first review adaptations for life in ephemeral aquatic environments in killifish, with particular emphasis on the evolution of embryonic diapause. I then bring together available evidence from a variety of approaches and provide a scenario for how this annual life cycle evolved. There are a number of features within Aplocheiloidei killifish including their inhabitation of marginal or edge aquatic habitat, their small size and rapid attainment of maturity, and egg properties that make them particularly well suited to the colonization of ephemeral waters. PMID:25969869

  17. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-te...

  18. Diapause and different seasonal morphs of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Northern Parana State; Diapausa e diferentes formas sazonais em Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) no Norte do Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Ana P. M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia; Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2000-06-15

    The Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabr.), was collected on sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.)], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], star bristle [Acanthospermum hispidum (DC.)], and under fallen leaves of mango tree [Mangifera indica (L.)] and privet (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.), during one year, to evaluate the diapause incidence and the occurrence of different seasonal morphs. The majority of the insects (ca. 90%) with mature reproductive organs was observed during the summer (December-March), when E. heros was found on soybean or on sunflower; in the beginning of autumn, most insects (87%) showed immature reproductive organs, and they were found on star bristle and under fallen leaves. Bugs with mature reproductive organs had more developed shoulders (3.23 and 3.27 mm, for males and females, respectively) than bugs with immature organs (2.91 and 2.89 mm, for males and females, respectively). Two distinct body colors, dark brown and reddish brown, were observed. Nevertheless, the reddish brown was the predominant color of both mature and immature adults during all year. Adults were parasitized by Hexacladia smithii (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tachinidae mainly Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) (80% and 40% of parasitism in male and female, respectively) during summer (December), when the bugs colonized sunflower. In soybean, 12% of males and 10% of females were parasitized, whereas in fallen leaves, the parasitism rate was 5% in both sexes.These results showed that in autumn/winter (shorter photoperiod) the majority of the insects were inactive under fallen leaves, showing immature reproductive organs and less developed shoulders, indicating that, at this time, these bugs were in diapause. (author)

  19. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and

  20. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  1. Resveratrol improves reproductive parameters of adult rats varicocelized in peripuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Talita Biude; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; de Oliveira Neves, Flávia Macedo; Simas, Joana Noguères; da Costa Vaz, André; Cabral, Regina Elisabeth L; Vendramini, Vanessa; Miraglia, Sandra Maria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of resveratrol against the reproductive damage caused by left-sided experimental varicocele. There was a reduction of testicular major axis in the varicocele group when compared with the other groups; the testicular volume was reduced in varicocele group in comparison to the sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of morphologically abnormal sperm was higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups than in sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of sperm with 100% of mitochondrial activity and normal acrosome integrity were lower in varicocele group than in varicocele treated with resveratrol, sham-control and resveratrol groups. Sperm motility was also reduced in varicocele group than in other groups. The sperm DNA fragmentation was higher in varicocele group than in other groups. Testicular levels of malondialdehyde were higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups. The varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups had a significantly higher frequency of TUNEL-positive cells than sham-control and resveratrol groups; however, immunolabeling of the testes from varicocele treated with resveratrol group showed a lower number of apoptotic germ cells in comparison with the left testis of rats of the varicocele group. Reproductive alterations produced by varicocele from peripuberty were reduced by resveratrol in adulthood. Resveratrol should be better investigated as an adjuvant in the treatment of varicocele. Daily administration of resveratrol to rats with varicocele from peripuberty improves sperm quality in the adulthood. PMID:27069006

  2. Reproductive issues for adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta; Perrone, Ronald; Bianchi, Diana W

    2008-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common disorder. However, the consequences of ADPKD on male and female reproductive health are not widely known. Several abnormalities are found in men with ADPKD, including necrospermia, immotile sperm, seminal vesicle cysts, and ejaculatory duct cysts. Female fertility is not affected. Affected women with ADPKD and normal renal function have a high rate of successful uncomplicated pregnancies. Pregnant women with ADPKD with compromised kidney function should be monitored carefully for the development of hypertension and preeclampsia. Their fetuses should be examined sonographically for signs of uteroplacental insufficiency, such as intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios. The diagnosis of ADPKD should always be considered when prenatal sonographic findings of hyperechogenic enlarged kidneys are found. In this setting, a family history and renal sonogram of both parents is indicated. Sequencing of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes is available and can be used for both prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. We review in detail these topics to familiarize physicians taking care of patients with ADPKD with the reproductive issues that confront affected individuals. PMID:18215709

  3. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  4. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Hajizadeh; Mojgan Javadnoori; Nahid Javadifar

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years), selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educatio...

  5. Low-temperature threshold for egg survival of a post-diapause and non-diapause European aedine strain, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stephanie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interplay between global warming and invasive arthropods in temperate zones is of utmost interest in terms of the potential expansions of vector-borne diseases. Up to now, investigations on the recent establishment of mosquito vectors have focused on temperatures during their phases of activity. However, cold temperatures may also act as a strong ecological constraint. Projected changes in winter climate indicate an increase of mean minimum temperatures of the coldest quarter, less frequent days with frost and a shorter frost-season in Europe at the end of the century. Nevertheless, single cold extremes are also expected to persist under warming scenarios, which have a strong impact on reproduction success. Methods Here, the temperature constraints of European Aedes albopictus eggs, which had passed through a diapause, compared to non-diapausing eggs were examined systematically under controlled laboratory conditions. Additionally, one tropical strain of Ae. albopictus and of Ae. aegypti was used in the comparison. Results The lower temperature threshold tolerated by the European eggs of Ae. albopictus which have undergone a diapause, was -10°C for long term exposures (12 and 24h and -12°C for 1h exposure. Non-diapausing eggs of European Ae. albopictus were found to hatch after a -7°C cold treatment (8, 12 and 24h exposure. Both tropical aedine species only tolerated the long term treatment at -2°C. Neither Ae. albopictus nor Ae. aegypti eggs hatched after being exposed to -15°C. Survival was mainly influenced by temperature (F = 329.2, df = 1, p  Conclusions Here, low temperature thresholds for aedine mosquito egg survival were detected. The compilation of risk maps for temperate regions can substantially be improved by considering areas where an establishment of a vector population is unlikely due to winter conditions.

  6. Long-term competitive dynamics of two cryptic rotifer species: diapause and fluctuating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gabaldón

    Full Text Available Life-history traits may have an important role in promoting species coexistence. However, the complexity of certain life cycles makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the conditions for coexistence or exclusion based on the study of short-term competitive dynamics. Brachionus plicatilis and B. manjavacasare two cryptic rotifer species co-occurring in many lakes on the Iberian Peninsula. They have a complex life cycle in which cyclical parthenogenesis occurs with diapausing stages being the result of sexual reproduction. B. plicatilis and B. manjavacasare identical in morphology and size, their biotic niches are broadly overlapping, and they have similar competitive abilities. However, the species differ in life-history traits involving sexual reproduction and diapause, and respond differently to salinity and temperature. As in the case of certain other species that are extremely similar in morphology, a fluctuating environment are considered to be important for their coexistence. We studied the long-term competitive dynamics of B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas under different salinity regimes (constant and fluctuating. Moreover, we focused on the dynamics of the diapausing egg bank to explore how the outcome of the entire life cycle of these rotifers can work to mediate stable coexistence. We demonstrated that these species do not coexist under constant-salinity environment, as the outcome of competition is affected by the level of salinity-at low salinity, B. plicatilis excluded B. manjavacas, and the opposite outcome occurred at high salinity. Competitive dynamics under fluctuating salinity showed that the dominance of one species over the other also tended to fluctuate. The duration of co-occurrence of these species was favoured by salinity fluctuation and perhaps by the existence of a diapausing egg bank. Stable coexistence was not found in our system, which suggests that other factors or other salinity fluctuation patterns might act as

  7. Effects of bisphenol-A on male reproductive success in adult Kadaknath chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram P; Shafeeque, Chathathayil M; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Singh, Renu; Kannan, Maharajan; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Raghunandanan, Sajith; Mohan, Jag; Azeez, Parappurath A

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) adversely affects human and animal reproductive success in many ways, but this information is scant on birds. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of BPA in adult Kadaknath chicken using two BPA dosages orally (1 or 5mg/kg body weight) for seven weeks. In order to assess BPA toxicity, sperm functions, fertilizing ability, serum testosterone concentration and testis histopathology were measured in treated and control chickens. The semen volume was highest in birds exposed to 1mg/kg body weight BPA compared to other groups. 5mg/kg body weight BPA reduced sperm concentration significantly more than other treatment and controls. However, overall fertility and testis histology were unaffected. These results indicate that BPA adversely affects sperm characteristics in adult kadaknath chicken without affecting fertilization potential. PMID:26895245

  8. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Olugbenga-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9+7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents’ knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.

  9. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F1 sterility technique. (author)

  10. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors among Teen and Young Adult Men: A Descriptive Portrait. Research Brief. Publication #2008-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…

  11. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrabsky, Jason E; Hand, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:26085666

  12. Comparison of fatty acid composition in total lipid of diapause and non-diapause larvae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABBAS KHANI; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHSEN BARZEGAR; HOSSEIN NADERI-MANESH

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of the total lipid extracted from the whole body of Cydia pomonella L. larvae were determined by gas chromatography. The six most abundant fatty acids in both non-diapause and diapause larvae of codling moth were oleic (35%-39%), palmitic (23%-33%), linoleic (16%-30%), palmitoleic (5%-10%),stearic (1.5%-3.0%) and linolenic acids (1.0%-2.5%). This represents a typical complement of Lepidopteran fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of total lipid of C. pomonella larvae was related to diapause. In similarity to most other reports, the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increased in diapause initiation state. The total lipid of diapause larvae contained more linoleic acid (25.8% vs. 16.1%) and less palmitic acid (24.7% vs. 33.4%),than that ofnon-diapause larvae. The weight percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2) increased from 16% to 26% from early-August through early-September during transition to diapause,while palmitic acid (C16:0) decreased from 33% to 25% at the same time. These changes resulted in an increase in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) from 1.72 in non-diapause larvae to 2.63 in diapause larvae.

  13. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 2,4,6-tribromophenol affects reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halden, Anna Norman; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Andersson, Patrik L;

    2010-01-01

    not significantly affected, but yolk-sac oedema tended to increase in frequency in exposed groups with time. Our results show that dietary exposure to TBP, at concentrations found in marine organisms that are part of the natural diet of wild fish, can interfere with reproduction in zebrafish. We also......The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health...... after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 mu g/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels...

  14. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested ...

  15. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  16. Diapause Prevention Effect of Bombyx mori by Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Takayuki Yamamoto; Keisuke Mase; Hiroshi Sawada

    2013-01-01

    HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the ...

  17. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin;

    2014-01-01

    children born after spontaneous conception (1.8/1000 children, 18.8/100 000 person-years). Leukaemia was the most common type of cancer (n = 278, 0.62/1000 children) but no significantly increased incidence was found among children born after ART. An increased risk was observed for 2 of 12 cancer groups......STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population...

  18. Activation of hatching in diapaused and quiescent Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Jones, John T; Cock, Peter J; Castillo, Pablo; Blok, Vivian C

    2013-04-01

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are major pests of potatoes. The G. pallida (and G. rostochiensis) life cycle includes both diapause and quiescent stages. Nematodes in dormancy (diapause or quiescent) are adapted for long-term survival and are more resistant to nematicides. This study analysed the mechanisms underlying diapause and quiescence. The effects of several compounds (8Br-cGMP, oxotremorine and atropine) on the activation of hatching were studied. The measurements of some morphometric parameters in diapaused and quiescent eggs after exposure to PRD revealed differences in dorsal gland length, subventral gland length and dorsal gland nucleolus. In addition, the expression of 2 effectors (IVg9 and cellulase) was not induced in diapaused eggs in water or PRD, while expression was slightly induced in quiescent eggs. Finally, we performed a comparative study to identify orthologues of C. elegans diapause related genes in plant-parasitic nematodes (G. pallida, Meloidogyne incognita, M. hapla and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). This analysis suggested that it was not possible to identify G. pallida orthologues of the majority of C. elegans genes involved in the control of dauer formation. All these data suggest that G. pallida may use different mechanisms to C. elegans in regulating the survival stage. PMID:23253858

  19. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  20. Diapause induction, color change, and cold tolerance physiology of the diapausing larvae of the Chouioia cunea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liwei; Xu, Xiaorui; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Yanqun; Sun, Shouhui

    2014-01-01

    The chalcid wasp Chouioia cunea Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is one of the most dominant pupal parasitoids of Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), an invasive pest of many forestry trees and agricultural crops. For mass rearing C. cunea for biological control purposes, the pupae of Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) have been widely used as a substitute host in China. In this article, photoperiodic effect on diapause induction in C. cunea within the pupae of A. pernyi was investigated, and the differences in cold tolerance physiology including supercooling point, water content, and activities of three protective enzymes (Peroxidase [POD], Catalase [CAT], and Superoxide dismuase [SOD]) between diapause and nondiapause mature larvae were comparatively determined. Our results revealed that C. cunea possess a short-day induced larval diapause. The critical photoperiods for diapause induction in C. cunea were estimated to be between a photoperiod of 13:11 and 14:10 (L:D) h at 18°C, or between a photoperiod of 12:12 and 13:11 (L:D) h at 21°C or 24°C. We also found that the color of C. cunea diapausing larvae was taupe, while the normally developed (nondiapausing) individuals were light yellow. This body color change can be used as an indicator of diapause entry of C. cunea larave. The average supercooling point of diapausing mature larvae were lower than those of nondiapausing ones. There were significant differences in the activity of three protective enzymes (POD, CAT, and SOD) between diapausing and nondiapausing mature larvae. PMID:25527599

  1. Reproductive biology of Oligosarcus argenteus (Gunther, 1864 adult males and description of the gonadal maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oligosarcus argenteus belongs to the Acestrorhynchinae subfamily, being restricted to South America, and found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins, in lotic and lentic environments, where they are able to reproduce. With the purpose of studying the reproductive biology of the males from this species, many morphological parameters were analyzed during a 24 month period, as well as characterizing the different testicular maturation stages. A maturity scale, with three stages (I - Initial Maturing, II - Intermediate Maturing, III - Final Maturing was proposed for the adult males of Oligosarcus argenteus. The reproductive period was established by the bimonthly frequency of spermatogenesis and by the gonadal maturation stages.Oligosarcus argenteus é uma espécie pertencente à subfamília Acestrorhynchinae, restrita à América do Sul, sendo comumente encontrada nas várias bacias hidrográficas brasileiras, em ambientes lóticos e lênticos, onde se reproduzem. Com o objetivo de estudar a biologia reprodutiva de machos desta espécie, vários parâmetros morfológicos foram analisados durante um período de 24 meses, assim como foram caracterizados os diferentes estádios de maturação testicular. Estes foram descritos, considerando-se exemplares adultos, em: Estádio I - Maturação Inicial, Estádio II - Maturação Intermediária e Estádio III - Maturação Final. Pela freqüência bimestral das células germinativas e dos estádios de maturação gonadal, a época de reprodução foi determinada.

  2. An Intronic Polymorphism in couch potato Is Not Distributed Clinally in European Drosophila melanogaster Populations nor Does It Affect Diapause Inducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonato, Valeria; Fedele, Giorgio; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2016-01-01

    couch potato (cpo) encodes an RNA binding protein that has been reported to be expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system of embryos, larvae and adults, including the major endocrine organ, the ring gland. A polymorphism in the D. melanogaster cpo gene coding region displays a latitudinal cline in frequency in North American populations, but as cpo lies within the inversion In(3R)Payne, which is at high frequencies and itself shows a strong cline on this continent, interpretation of the cpo cline is not straightforward. A second downstream SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with the first has been claimed to be primarily responsible for the latitudinal cline in diapause incidence in USA populations.Here, we investigate the frequencies of these two cpo SNPs in populations of Drosophila throughout continental Europe. The advantage of studying cpo variation in Europe is the very low frequency of In(3R)Payne, which we reveal here, does not appear to be clinally distributed. We observe a very different geographical scenario for cpo variation from the one in North America, suggesting that the downstream SNP does not play a role in diapause. In an attempt to verify whether the SNPs influence diapause we subsequently generated lines with different combinations of the two cpo SNPs on known timeless (tim) genetic backgrounds, because polymorphism in the clock gene tim plays a significant role in diapause inducibility. Our results reveal that the downstream cpo SNP does not seem to play any role in diapause induction in European populations in contrast to the upstream coding cpo SNP. Consequently, all future diapause studies on strains of D. melanogaster should initially determine their tim and cpo status. PMID:27598401

  3. The Proteolytic Activity of Diapausing and Newly Hatched Red Mason Bees (Osmia Rufa: Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaobidna Ewa A.; Dmochowska Kamila; Frączek Regina; Dymczyk Ewa; Żółtowska Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Osmia rufa is a solitary bee that is used commercially for pollinating crops. The bee enters obligatory diapause as an imago. The activity of proteolytic enzymes during diapause has not been investigated. We studied the proteinase activity on four substrates - casein, haemoglobin, bovine serum albumin (BSA ), and gelatine - during diapause (from October to March) and in newly hatched males and females in April. During diapause, greater fluctuations in enzyme activity levels were noted in male...

  4. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis

  5. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  6. Neuropeptidergic regulation of digestion and food-dependent reproduction in the adult female flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis

    OpenAIRE

    Bil, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Many flesh fly species are anautogenous. Due to their life style, these flies have a negative impact on livestock since they can cause myiasis. Anautogeny is a kind of reproductive strategy, where adult female insects requirea proteinaceous meal in order to initiate vitellogenesis - the large scale synthesis of yolk proteins and their subsequent uptake by the developing oocytes. The expression of yolk protein precursor genes is tightly controlled by the nutritional state of the organism. I...

  7. Effects of Photoperiod and Temperature on Growth and Reproductive Organ Mass in Adult Male Mongolian Gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent GÜNDÜZ

    2002-01-01

    Rates of growth and sexual maturation of Mongolian gerbils vary in response to photoperiod. Previous work has shown that the responses of the testes and body weight of juvenile and adult gerbils are influenced not only by the photoperiods but also by other factors. The present work sought to determine if Mongolian gerbils alter body mass, body composition and/or reproductive organ mass in response to different photoperiods and temperatures. Male Mongolian gerbils were raised under long (14L) ...

  8. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Suckling, Coleen C.; Melody S Clark; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Harper, Elizabeth M.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2015-01-01

    1.This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. 2.Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (−0·3 and −0·5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. 3.Adults took at least 6–8 months to acclimat...

  9. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  10. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nozhat; Sanaz Alaee; Khodabakhsh Behzadi; Najmeh Azadi Chegini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C) and three experimental groups (I, II and III) received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility an...

  11. Drosophila insulin-like peptide 1 (DILP1) is transiently expressed during non-feeding stages and reproductive dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiting; Liao, Sifang; Veenstra, Jan A; Nässel, Dick R

    2016-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in animals, and is part of nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control growth, metabolism, reproduction, stress responses, and lifespan. In Drosophila, eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are known, six of which have been investigated in some detail, whereas expression and functions of DILP1 and DILP4 remain enigmatic. Here we demonstrate that dilp1/DILP1 is transiently expressed in brain insulin producing cells (IPCs) from early pupa until a few days of adult life. However, in adult female flies where diapause is triggered by low temperature and short days, within a time window 0-10h post-eclosion, the dilp1/DILP1 expression remains high for at least 9 weeks. The dilp1 mRNA level is increased in dilp2, 3, 5 and dilp6 mutant flies, indicating feedback regulation. Furthermore, the DILP1 expression in IPCs is regulated by short neuropeptide F, juvenile hormone and presence of larval adipocytes. Male dilp1 mutant flies display increased lifespan and reduced starvation resistance, whereas in female dilp1 mutants oviposition is reduced. Thus, DILP1 is expressed in non-feeding stages and in diapausing flies, is under feedback regulation and appears to play sex-specific functional roles. PMID:27197757

  12. ``Sleeping with the enemy''—predator-induced diapause in a mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Annemarie; Veenendaal, René L.; Bruin, Jan; Egas, Martijn; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2008-12-01

    Diapause in arthropods is a physiological state of dormancy that is generally thought to promote survival during harsh seasons and dispersal, but it may also serve to avoid predation in space and time. Here, we show that predation-related odours induce diapause in female adult spider mites. We argue that this response allows them to move into an area where they are free of enemies, yet forced to survive without food. Spider mites are specialised leaf feeders, but—in late summer—they experience severe predation on leaves. Hence, they face a dilemma: to stay on the leaf and risk being eaten or to move away from the leaf and risk death from starvation and thirst. Female two-spotted spider mites solve this dilemma by dramatically changing their physiology when exposed to predation-associated cues. This allows them to disperse away from leaves and to survive in winter refuges in the bark of trees or in the soil. We conclude that the mere presence of predation-associated cues causes some herbivorous mites to seek refuge, thereby retarding the growth rate of the population as a whole: a trait-mediated indirect effect that may have consequences for the stability of predator prey systems and for ecosystem structure.

  13. The inhibitory effects on adult male reproductive functions of crude garlic (Allium sativum) feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imen Hammami; Afef Nahdi; Claire Mauduit; Mohamed Benahmed; Mohamed Amri; Awatef Ben Amar; Semy Zekri; Ahmed El May; Michele Veronique El May

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of crude garlic on adult male rat reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (untreated) and groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fed for 30 days with 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% crude garlic, respectively. Testes and accessory organs were weighed and some markers were assessed. Light and electron microscopy observations were also performed. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the body weight of groups 4 (14%; P < 0.01) and 5 (20%; P < 0.01); of the prostate weight in group 5 (29.1%; P < 0.05) and of seminal vesicle weight in groups 3 (14.4%; P < 0.01), 4 (18.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (27.3%; P < 0.01). In contrast, testis and epididymis weights were unchanged. In epididymis tissue, the alpha glucosidase activity and the spermatozoa density were unchanged. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone serum levels in groups 3 (77.3%; P < 0.01), 4 (77.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (90.9%; P < 0.01), associated with a significant increase in LH serum levels (P < 0.01). Testicular histology showed a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of empty seminiferous tubules. Moreover, testicular function was affected; a significant decrease in phosphatase acid activity (P < 0.01) and testosterone (P < 0.05) contents were observed. Conclusion: Crude garlic consumption during 1 month reduced testosterone secretion and altered spermatogenesis at 10%, 15% and 30% doses. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 593-601)

  14. Transcriptional evidence for small RNA regulation of pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Julie A; Clark, Jennifer; Diakoff, Stephen J; Denlinger, David L

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of diapause, a phenotypically plastic, alternative developmental pathway, is key to predicting the seasonal distribution of economically and medically important insect species. Small regulatory RNAs, including piwi-related RNAs, small-interfering RNAs, and miRNAs, represent one type of epigenetic process that can alter the phenotype of organisms independent of changes in genome sequence. We hypothesize that small RNAs regulate pupal diapause and a maternal block of diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga bullata. We assessed the relative abundance of eight genes related to small RNA biogenesis and function using qRT-PCR in pre-diapause and diapause stages compared to their non-diapause counterparts. Elevated mRNA expression of piwi and spindle-E, as well as argonaute2 and r2d2, in photosensitive 1st instar larvae reared in diapause-inducing conditions indicate involvement of the piwi-associated RNA and small-interfering RNA pathways, respectively, in programming the switch from direct development to a developmental pathway that includes diapause. Two genes, related to the microRNA pathway, argonaute1 and loquacious, are upregulated during pupal diapause, suggesting a role for this pathway in maintaining diapause. Substantial reduction in transcript abundance of small RNA-related genes in photosensitive 1st instar larvae from mothers with a diapause history compared to those from mothers with no diapause history also suggest a role for small RNA pathways in regulating a diapause maternal effect in S. bullata. Together, the results point to a role for small RNAs in regulating the developmental trajectory in this species. PMID:23933212

  15. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  16. Muscle segment homeobox genes direct embryonic diapause by limiting inflammation in the uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-06-11

    Embryonic diapause (delayed implantation) is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. Under this condition, embryos at the blastocyst stage become dormant simultaneously with uterine quiescence until environmental or physiological conditions are favorable for the survival of the mother and newborn. Under favorable conditions, activation of the blastocyst and uterus ensues with implantation and progression of pregnancy. Although endocrine factors are known to participate in this process, the underlying molecular mechanism coordinating this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We recently found that uterine muscle segment homeobox (Msx) transcription factors are critical for the initiation and maintenance of delayed implantation in mice. To better understand why Msx genes are critical for delayed implantation, we compared uterine proteomics profiles between littermate floxed (Msx1/Msx2f/f) mice and mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1/Msx2d/d) under delayed conditions. In Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri, pathways including protein translation, ubiquitin-proteasome system, inflammation, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were enriched, and computational modeling showed intersection of these pathways on inflammatory responses. Indeed, increases in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and inflammation conformed to proteotoxic and ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri under delayed conditions. Interestingly, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib further exacerbated ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri with aggravated inflammatory response, deteriorating rate of blastocyst recovery and failure to sustain delayed implantation. This study highlights a previously unrecognized role for Msx in preventing proteotoxic stress and inflammatory responses to coordinate embryo dormancy and uterine quiescence during embryonic diapause.

  17. A Rearing Method for Argynnis (Speyeria diana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae That Avoids Larval Diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie N. Wells

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rearing protocol that allowed us to raise the threatened butterfly, Argynnis diana (Nymphalidae, while bypassing the first instar overwintering diapause. We compared the survival of offspring reared under this protocol from field-collected A. diana females from North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. Larvae were reared in the lab on three phylogenetically distinct species of Southern Appalachian violets (Viola sororia, V. pubescens, and V. pedata. We assessed larval survival in A. diana to the last instar, pupation, and adulthood. Males reared in captivity emerged significantly earlier than females. An ANOVA revealed no evidence of host plant preference by A. diana toward three native violet species. We suggest that restoration of A. diana habitat which promotes a wide array of larval and adult host plants, is urgently needed to conserve this imperiled species into the future.

  18. The molecular physiology of increased egg desiccation resistance during diapause in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanski, Jennifer M.; BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; Michaud, M. Robert; Denlinger, David L.; Armbruster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial adaptation to seasonal environmental variation in a wide range of arthropods, but relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis of this important trait. In temperate populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus, exposure to short-day (SD) lengths causes the female to produce diapause eggs. Tropical populations do not undergo a photoperiodic diapause. We identified a fatty acyl coA elongase transcript that is more abundant under SD versus long-day...

  19. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  20. Associations between serum phthalates and biomarkers of reproductive function in 589 adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Toft, Gunnar; Hougaard, Karin S; Lindh, Christian H; Lenters, Virissa; Jönsson, Bo A G; Heederik, Dick; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter E

    Phthalates which are widely used, are ubiquitous in the environment and in some human tissues. It is generally accepted that phthalates exert their toxic action by inhibiting Leydig cell synthesis of testosterone, but in vitro studies have also shown anti-androgenic effects at the receptor level....... Some cross-sectional studies have shown inverse associations between urinary levels of phthalates and reproductive hormones, but results are conflicting and the evidence base is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate if levels of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (Di......NP) metabolites in serum are associated with serum concentrations of male reproductive hormones and semen quality. A secondary aim was to investigate metabolic pathways of DEHP and DiNP on semen quality and reproductive hormones. A cross-sectional sample of 589 spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and...

  1. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  2. Effect of Water on Survival and Development of Diapausing Eggs of Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinli; Chen, Peiyu; Zhang, Yanfang; Tian, Guo; Feng, Hongqiang; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    The green mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is a regional pest of multiple crops in northern China, and the survival and development of diapausing eggs during winter plays an important role in the population dynamics of this species. The effect of water on the survival and development of A. lucorum eggs was investigated using laboratory-induced diapause. Diapausing eggs were exposed to various humidity regimes under three conditions: (1) termination of diapause with exposure to warm long-day (WLD) conditions (i.e., 26 ± 1°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity (RH) under a photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours dark), (2) termination of diapause by chilling at 4°C, or (3) during the post-diapause stage, i.e., from transfer to WLD conditions after chilling, until the hatching of nymphs. The results indicate that water availability is crucial for the post-diapause resumption of development of A. lucorum. However, exposure to excessive moisture was detrimental, as indicated by a decrease in diapause termination rate and a prolonged pre-hatching period of diapausing eggs, compared to limited moisture conditions. This implies that both too dry and too humid environmental conditions would suppress survival and postpone hatching of overwintered A. lucorum eggs, and might explain why this pest has not caused severe damage in either southern or western China where the respective climates are very humid or dry. PMID:27603210

  3. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaperi Kerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.

  4. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  5. Aestivation and diapause syndromes reduce the water balance requirements for pupae of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the water balance of aestivating (summer), diapausing (winter), and non-diapausing pupae of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Maintaining water requirements during pupal dormancy is particularly important because water cannot be replenished actively by drink...

  6. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering. PMID:26868721

  7. Spermatogenesis in the testes of diapause and non-diapause pupae of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Masami; Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Ohta, Kazumasa; Irie, Masaru; Mohri, Hideo

    2007-10-01

    Dichotomous spermatogenesis was examined in relation to diapause in the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli. In non-diapause individuals, eupyrene metaphase began during the fifth larval instar and eupyrene spermatids appeared in wandering larvae. Bundles of mature sperm were found after pupation. Apyrene spermatocytes also appeared during the fifth larval instar, but meiotic divisions occurred irregularly and their nuclei were discarded from the cells during spermiogenesis. Morphometric analyses of flagellar axonemes showed a variable sperm number in apyrene bundles. The variation ranging from 125 to 256 sperm per bundle indicated abnormal divisions or the elimination of apyrene spermatocytes. In diapause-induced hornworms, spermatogenesis progressed similarly during the larval stages. The cessation of spermatogenesis during diapause is characterized by 1) secondary spermatocytes and sperm bundles degenerating gradually as the diapause period lengthens, and 2) spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes appearing throughout diapause. A TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling) assay revealed that DNA fragmentation occurred in the nuclei of secondary spermatocytes and early spermatids. Aggregates of heterochromatin along the nuclear membrane indicated the onset of apoptosis, and condensed chromatin was confirmed by electron microscopy to be the apoptotic body. These results show that the degenerative changes in spermatogenic cells during pupal diapause were controlled by apoptosis. PMID:18088167

  8. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions. PMID:25491898

  9. Disappearance of chorion proteins from Bombyx mori eggs treated with HCl solution to prevent diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Shuichiro; Kawamori, Akihito; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Niimi, Teruyuki; Imai, Kunio; Yamashita, Okitsugu; Yaginuma, Toshinobu

    2010-12-01

    Bombyx mori eggs enter diapause immediately after completion of mesoderm segregation. HCl treatment of approximately 24-hour-old eggs (germband formation stage) is well known to be the most effective procedure to prevent entry into diapause, although the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the protein composition of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs after various HCl treatments known to prevent or break diapause and found that proteins of approximately 11 and 8 kDa disappeared immediately after HCl treatment. Partial amino acid sequences of these proteins indicated that they were members of the chorion class A protein L12 family synthesized in follicle cells. Under the hypothesis that the chorion provides a barrier to oxygen, dechorionation of diapausing eggs induces resumption of embryonic development. Hence, to test this and other hypotheses about the function of these proteins, we used 20% SDS-PAGE with Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining to trace their disappearance from embryos and eggshells after treatment with HCl under different conditions and on polyvoltine, univoltine, and bivoltine silkworm races. Even when 10-day-old diapausing eggs were treated with HCl, which did not break diapause, the 11 and 8 kDa proteins disappeared. Our results suggest that disappearance of these proteins is not directly associated with preventing entry into or breaking a diapause state. Nevertheless, our results cannot completely rule out the possibility that the 11 and 8 kDa proteins function to block permeability of O(2) during the period when HCl treatment is physiologically effective to prevent diapause so that after the diapause system is established within the egg, even removing the 11 and 8 kDa proteins may not affect to prevent diapause. We also discuss the role of these proteins in choriogenesis. PMID:20637776

  10. Predator Exclosures Enhance Reproductive Success but Increase Adult Mortality of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus)

    OpenAIRE

    Colleen Barber; Astrid Nowak; Kirby Tulk; Linda Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) are listed as endangered throughout Canada and the United States Great Lakes region. Most attempts to increase their numbers have focused on enhancing reproductive success. Using 22 years of data collected by Parks Canada in Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada, we examined whether predator exclosures installed around Piping Plover nests increased nest success and hatching and fledging success when compared to nests without exclosures. Nests with ex...

  11. Isolation of Diapause-Regulated Genes from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis by Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH) was used to characterize the diapause transcriptome of the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Through these efforts, we isolated 97 unique clones which were used as probes in northern hybridization to assess their expression during diapause. Of these, 17...

  12. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Adam D; Rigby, Francesca L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-08-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual's first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span. PMID:27457937

  13. From nest to nest--influence of ecology and reproduction on the active period of adult Gombe chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwick, Jessica L; Borries, Carola; Pusey, Anne E; Goodall, Jane; McGrew, William C

    2004-11-01

    The time spent between sleeping periods, which is called the active period, has to accommodate all essential activities, including feeding, resting, social behavior, and reproduction. To minimize costs in terms of, e.g., predation risk, suboptimal foraging, or sleep deficiency, the active period of diurnal animals should be less than or equal to the daylight period. Thus, the active period of an animal should be shaped by local environmental conditions as well as by metabolic and reproductive demands. Chimpanzees, which exhibit reduced predator pressure and a flexible fission-fusion society, were chosen as a model to explore these links. We investigated the influence of sex, female reproductive status, dominance rank, and season on the duration of the active period of adult chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania (1975-1992). Sexually nonreceptive females had shorter active periods compared to males, while receptive females had even longer active periods than males. Dominance rank did not influence the duration of the active period of nonreceptive females, but high- and middle-ranking males had shorter active periods compared to low-ranking males. Nonreceptive females exhibited longer active periods during the dry season than in the wet season. No seasonal effect was discovered for males, perhaps because they already had long active periods in the wet season. Nonreceptive females seem to be able to accommodate all essential activities in the daylight period available, probably because they live less socially than males. Thus, the active period does not reflect differences in female competitive abilities, but does reflect such differences in males. The duration of the active period appears to be a simple, reliable tool for exploring basic responses and constraints in animal societies. PMID:15538768

  14. Diapause is associated with a change in the polarity of secretion of insulin-like peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Yohei; Honda, Yoko; Honda, Shuji; Iwasaki, Takashi; Qadota, Hiroshi; Benian, Guy M; Kawano, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of larval diapause, the long-lived growth arrest state called dauer arrest, in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this nematode, 40 insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified as putative ligands of the IIS pathway; however, it remains unknown how ILPs modulate larval diapause. Here we show that the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, which suppress larval diapause, is changed in the intestinal epithelial cells at larval diapause. These ILPs are secreted from the intestine into the body cavity during larval stages. In contrast, they are secreted into the intestinal lumen and degraded during dauer arrest, only to be secreted into the body cavity again when the worms return to developmental growth. The process that determines the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, thus, has an important role in the modulation of larval diapause. PMID:26838180

  15. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoking prenatally is a risk factor for reduced semen quality, but whether the exposure has adverse effects on reproductive hormones, pubertal development or adult BMI remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between these factors...

  16. Social Reproduction in Non-Formal Adult Education: The Case of Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Using fieldnotes from the non-formal adult education classes run by a non-profit international education with ground operations in rural Mozambique, this article documents how the comments made by class facilitators and class participants in those classes reflect inherent power inequalities between non-profit staff and local participants. These…

  17. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  18. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nozhat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C and three experimental groups (I, II and III received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration were measured, and reproductive tissues were examined histopathologically. To evaluate the effects of spearmint on fertility of male rats and growth of their offspring, male rats of the control and experimental groups mated with untreated female rats. Results: Results showed that spearmint did not affect the rats’ body and reproductive tissue weights. The sperm count, fast and slow progressive motility of sperm and serum testosterone concentration decreased while number of non-progressive sperm and immotile sperm increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group, but none of these changes were statistically significant. Histopathological studies showed no severe changes in reproductive tissues between control and experimental groups. Number and growth of offspring born from mating of male rats with untreated female rats showed no difference. Conclusion: We concluded that spearmint has no significant toxic effect on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats at the above  mentioned dose levels. However high levels of this extract may have adverse effects on male fertility.

  19. Effect of PMSG dosage on the reproductive performance of adult ewes and ewe lambs bred at a progestagen-PMSG synchronized estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, L; Shrestha, J N

    1985-11-01

    The effect of dose of pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on the reproductive performance of adult ewes and ewe lambs and lamb survival at birth after treatment with fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and PMSG (250 IU or 500 IU) to synchronize estrus was evaluated. Ewes were exposed to rams for breeding at the synchronized and subsequent estrous cycles. The flock, comprised of three synthetic strains and two control breeds, was maintained in a controlled environment and exposed to an artificial light regimen which alternated at 4-mo intervals from 16h of light daily to 9h of light daily. Trials were conducted during January, May and September at the end of a 9-h daylength cycle. Adult ewes were bred in May and 8 mo later in January. Ewe lambs were bred in September at 6.5 to 7.5 mo of age. The overall reproductive performance of the adult ewes was similar at the two breedings: fertility approximately 90%, prolificacy approximately 2.7, fecundity approximately 240% and lambs born alive approximately 2.4. Dosage of PMSG had no effect. Reproductive performance of ewe lambs was lower and there was a strain x treatment interaction, suggesting greater variability in response. The results indicate there is no advantage to using a higher dose of PMSG in ewes with a natural relatively high fecundity. Moreover, the use of the artificial photoperiod appears to overcome the natural seasonal variation in reproductive performance. PMID:16726102

  20. Firing activity of "diapause hormone" producing cells in the male silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Suenobu, Akiko

    2003-08-01

    Diapause hormone (DH) originally identified to be a factor originating from neurosecretory cells in the suboesophageal ganglion acts on developing ovaries to produce diapause eggs in a female silkmoth, Bombyx mori. A male silkmoth has homologous neurosecretory cells, but little is known of the physiological nature of the cells and actions of their products. We examined the long-term firing activity of putative DH-producing neurosecretory cells and hormonal activity of their products in male pupae that had been experienced different environmental regimens for diapause induction. Firing activity patterns of male labial cells strongly depended on diapause types of pupae: cells in a diapause-type male were active throughout the pupal period, whereas the same cells in a non-diapause-type male were usually inactive during the early two-thirds of the pupal period. A male pupa with electrically active labial cells could induce diapause eggs in a female pupa connected parabiotically to that male. The firing activity of male neurosecretory cells and hormonal action of their products are qualitatively the same as in the female previously examined. We suggest that there is no evident sexual dimorphism in the physiological and biochemical nature of neurosecretory cells producing DH and the amidated peptide DH has different functions in a male. PMID:12951400

  1. Diapause in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a slowing but not a cessation of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisk Geoffroy C

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many insects undergo a period of arrested development, called diapause, to avoid seasonally recurring adverse conditions. Whilst the phenology and endocrinology of insect diapause have been well studied, there has been comparatively little research into the developmental details of diapause. We investigated developmental aspects of diapause in sexually-produced embryos of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Results We found that early stages of embryogenesis progressed at a temperature-independent rate, characteristic of diapause, whereas later stages of embryogenesis progressed at a temperature-dependent rate. However, embryos maintained at very high temperatures during the temperature-independent stage showed severe developmental abnormalities. Under no temperature regime did embryos display a distinct resting stage. Rather, morphological development progressed slowly but continuously throughout embryogenesis. Conclusion Diapause in the pea aphid, and perhaps in many other insects, is a temperature-independent slowing but not a cessation of morphological development. This suggests that the mechanisms limiting developmental rate during diapause may be the same as those controlling developmental rate at other stages of growth.

  2. Fish as vectors in the dispersal of Bythotrephes cederstroemi: Diapausing eggs survive passage through the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnagin, S.T.; Swan, B.K.; Kerfoot, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    1. Bythotrephes cederstroemi (Crustacea: Onychopoda: Cercopagidae) is an introduced invertebrate predator currently spreading through the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. We examined a previously unsuspected way in which B. cederstroemi may be dispersed by fish by their consumption of diapausing eggs. 2. Ninety-four percentage of the mature B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs consumed by fish were egested apparently intact. This proportion is considerably above previous estimates for the ephippial eggs of Daphnia. The hatching success of diapausing eggs was compared among four categories: (a) eggs released naturally by B. cederstroemi (control, 73% hatched (b) eggs released during 'stressful confinement' (46% hatched) (c) eggs dissected from dead females (13% hatched) and (d) eggs recovered from faecal pellets following consumption by fish (viable gut passage experiment, 41% hatched). 3. Samples of small fish and B. cederstroemi were collected simultaneously. Examination of gut contents revealed that fish contained B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs and that B. cederstroemi bearing resting eggs were consumed selectively over those without eggs. Moreover, fish selected B. cederstroemi bearing mature rather than immature diapausing eggs. 4. The fact that diapausing eggs survive gut passage is important for the dispersal of B. cederstroemi. Fish often move between the pelagic and littoral zones of lakes and may thus disperse diapausing eggs widely. Fish may also move between lakes connected by river systems and can be caught and passively dispersed by anglers or piscivorous birds. Our results demonstrate the potential for fish to act as vectors in the spread of B. cederstroemi.

  3. Uterine morphology during diapause and early pregnancy in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Melanie K; Hearn, Cyrma M; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2016-09-01

    In mammals, embryonic diapause, or suspension of embryonic development, occurs when embryos at the blastocyst stage are arrested in growth and metabolism. In the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), there are two separate uteri, only one of which becomes gravid with the single conceptus at a post-partum oestrus, so changes during pregnancy can be compared between the gravid and non-gravid uterus within the same individual. Maintenance of the viable blastocyst and inhibition of further conceptus growth during diapause in the tammar is completely dependent on the uterine environment. Although the specific endocrine and seasonal signals are well established, much less is known about the cellular changes required to create this environment. Here we present the first detailed study of uterine morphology during diapause and early pregnancy of the tammar wallaby. We combined transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy to describe the histological and ultrastructural changes to luminal and glandular epithelial cells. At entry into diapause after the post-partum oestrus and formation of the new conceptus, there was an increase in abundance of organelles associated with respiration in the endometrial cells of the newly gravid uterus, particularly in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as well as an increase in secretory activity. Organelle changes and active secretion then ceased in these cells as they became quiescent and remained so for the duration of diapause. In contrast, cells of the non-gravid, post-partum, contralateral uterus underwent sloughing and remodelling during this time and some organelle changes in glandular epithelial cells continued throughout diapause, suggesting these cells are not completely quiescent during diapause, although no active secretion occurred. These findings demonstrate that diapause, like pregnancy, is under unilateral endocrine control in the tammar, and that preparation for and maintenance of diapause requires

  4. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  5. Effect of Thymus vulgaris oil on some reproductive characters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Kakel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to show the effect of thymus vulgaris oil administration at (0.3, 0.6 ml/kg orally for 60 days on male fertility and epididymal sperms characters in male rats at age of 100 days. The animals treated with thyme oil at a dose of (0.6 ml revealed a significant decrease in the weight of testes, body of epididymis, percentage of live/dead sperms and epididymyal sperm count, with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. On the other hand the animals treated with thyme oil at a dose (0.3 ml show a significant decrease in the weight of body of epididymis, epididymal sperm count and the percentage of live/dead sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. Its concluded from this study that thymus vulgaris has an inhibitory effect on reproductive system and spermatogenesis in mature male rats.

  6. Intestinal establishment and reproduction of adult Trichinella spp. in single and mixed species infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Pia; Kapel, Christian M O

    2005-06-30

    Intestinal establishment and reproduction of adult Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis were examined as single species or mixed species infections in foxes. This is the first study of intestinal dynamics of Trichinella spp. in a carnivore model and the results suggest that the intestinal phase is relatively short as only very few worms were recovered 10 days post-inoculation (dpi). In mixed species infection with equal doses of T. nativa and T. spiralis, molecular typing demonstrated that 64% of the intestinal worms and 78% of the muscle larvae were T. nativa. Conversely, T. spiralis dominated in the mixed species infections with T. pseudospiralis, constituting 66% of the intestinal worms and 94% of the muscle larvae. Although, the individual recoveries of intestinal worms were only up to 5.6% on day 1, and up to 1.5% on day 4 post-infection, the muscle larvae establishment was comparable to other fox studies. Infectivity, measured as muscle larvae burden did not differ among the four species of Trichinella, which is in contrast to other models with mice, rats, pigs or herbivores. Although statistically significant differences in intestinal worm burdens were found for some days, no distinct species were recovered in consistently higher numbers than the others. PMID:15925724

  7. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale; Osonuga Ifabunmi Oduyemi; Osonuga Ayokunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats.Methods:moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum.Result:Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.Conclusion:Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  8. The molecular physiology of increased egg desiccation resistance during diapause in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Jennifer M.; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michaud, M. Robert; Denlinger, David L.; Armbruster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial adaptation to seasonal environmental variation in a wide range of arthropods, but relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis of this important trait. In temperate populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus, exposure to short-day (SD) lengths causes the female to produce diapause eggs. Tropical populations do not undergo a photoperiodic diapause. We identified a fatty acyl coA elongase transcript that is more abundant under SD versus long-day (LD) photoperiods in mature oocyte tissue of replicate temperate, but not tropical, A. albopictus populations. Fatty acyl CoA elongases are involved in the synthesis of long chain fatty acids (hydrocarbon precursors). Diapause eggs from a temperate population had one-third more surface hydrocarbons and one-half the water loss rates of non-diapause eggs. Eggs from a tropical population reared under SD and LD photoperiods did not differ in surface hydrocarbon abundance or water loss rates. In both a temperate and tropical population, composition of hydrocarbon chain lengths did not differ between eggs from SD versus LD conditions. These results implicate the expression of fatty acyl coA elongase and changes in quantity, but not composition, of egg surface hydrocarbons as important components of increased desiccation resistance during diapause in A. albopictus. PMID:20410035

  9. Identification of gene expression changes associated with the initiation of diapause in the brain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diapause, a state of arrested development accompanied by a marked decrease of metabolic rate, helps insects to overcome unfavorable seasons. Helicoverpa armigera (Har undergoes pupal diapause, but the molecular mechanism of diapause initiation is unclear. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH, we investigated differentially expressed genes in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains at diapause initiation. Results We constructed two SSH libraries (forward, F and reverse, R to isolate genes that are up-regulated or down-regulated at diapause initiation. We obtained 194 unique sequences in the F library and 115 unique sequences in the R library. Further, genes expression at the mRNA and protein level in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains were confirmed by RT-PCR, Northern blot or Western blot analysis. Finally, we classified the genes and predicted their possible roles at diapause initiation. Conclusion Differentially expressed genes at pupal diapause initiation are possibly involved in the regulation of metabolism, energy, stress resistance, signaling pathways, cell cycle, transcription and translation.

  10. Semen quality and reproductive hormones according to birthweight and body mass index in childhood and adult life: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Hansen, Maj; Jensen, Cecilie Rutkjaer;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and adulthood BMI, and adult semen quality and level of reproductive hormones. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: From a pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987. PATIENT(S): 347 out of 5,109 sons were...... BMI were significantly associated with semen quality. Men with the 33% highest childhood BMI had 15% lower sex hormone binding globulin, 8% lower testosterone, and 16% lower FSH than men with the 33% lowest childhood BMI. Men with high adulthood BMI had 14% lower testosterone, 9% lower inhibin B, 31......% lower sex hormone binding globulin, and 20% higher estradiol than men with low adulthood BMI. CONCLUSION(S): The results do not indicate an effect of childhood BMI, birth weight, or adult BMI on semen quality, but the exposure contrast in our study was limited. The hormonal status was affected by adult...

  11. Validation of a refined short-term adult fish reproductive test with improved power for mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) to test complex effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Thijs; Hewitt, L Mark; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2010-10-01

    Short-term adult fish reproductive tests are widely used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and waste streams. However, these tests often have low power to detect differences in egg production among treatments, due to high variance and small sample sizes, limiting their effectiveness for informing regulatory decisions. A protocol for a fish reproductive test using mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) was refined to increase statistical power. Three studies using the original protocol were compared with three studies using the refined protocol. Tank pre-selection and sample size increased the a priori power from 11.2% to 85.7%. After exposure, average power levels were 62.0%, a more than five-fold increase compared to studies that used the original protocol (power of 15.0%). There was a high level of consistency compared to the original protocol; differences >33% in female and male gonad size and egg production could be detected among treatments. This study demonstrates that a refinement process can address shortcomings in short-term adult fish reproductive protocols, creating a solid foundation for further standardization and possible regulatory use. PMID:20708267

  12. Diapause hormone in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea: Optimum temperature for activity, structure-activity relationships, and efficacy in accelerating flesh fly pupariation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapause hormone (DH) effectively terminated pupal diapause in Helicoverpa zea. This effect was temperature-dependent, with an optimum of 21 degrees C. The dose-response curve indicated an ED50 of DH for diapause termination of approximately 100 pmol. The core sequence and essential amino acids w...

  13. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

    2014-06-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

  14. Sex- and melanism-specific variations in the oxidative status of adult tawny owls in response to manipulated reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaresi, Guillaume; Henry, Isabelle; Gonzalez, Esther; Roulin, Alexandre; Bize, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, determined by the balance between the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences, is hypothesized to play an important role in shaping the cost of reproduction and life history trade-offs. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated reproductive effort in 94 breeding pairs of tawny owls (Strix aluco) to investigate the sex- and melanism-specific effects on markers of oxidative stress in red blood cells (RBCs). This colour polymorphic bird species shows sex-specific division of labour and melanism-specific history strategies. Brood sizes at hatching were experimentally enlarged or reduced to increase or decrease reproductive effort, respectively. We obtained an integrative measure of the oxidative balance by measuring ROS production by RBCs, intracellular antioxidant glutathione levels and membrane resistance to ROS. We found that light melanic males (the sex undertaking offspring food provisioning) produced more ROS than darker conspecifics, but only when rearing an enlarged brood. In both sexes, light melanic individuals had also a larger pool of intracellular antioxidant glutathione than darker owls under relaxed reproductive conditions (i.e. reduced brood), but not when investing substantial effort in current reproduction (enlarged brood). Finally, resistance to oxidative stress was differently affected by the brood size manipulation experiment in males and females independently of their plumage coloration. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that reproductive effort can alter the oxidative balance in a sex- and colour-specific way. This further emphasizes the close link between melanin-based coloration and life history strategies. PMID:26567343

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practices of adults of the reproductive years on reproductive health matters, with emphasis on HIV infected people in a Caribbean society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : South and Southeast Asia represent the largest number of new HIV infections, while Sub-Saharan Africa represents the highest rate of new infections, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Yet no study that has emerged in the Caribbean has comprehensively examined young people′s sexual and reproductive health attitudes, knowledge and practices, comparing the result with those who are HIV infected. Aim : The present study examines core issues of sexual and reproductive health among youths, particularly with respect to HIV. Material and Methods : The sample was 1,800 respondents ages 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regressions were fitted using one outcome measure: self-reported confirmed positive HIV test results. Results : Almost 34% of the sample had been tested for HIV, and 16.9% had done this in the past 12 months. Only 0.2% of the sample knew that they were HIV positive and 4% had positive HIV test results when they did the test. Of those with a positive HIV test result, 58.1% were females. Approximately 16% of those with HIV have had an STI infection in the past, and 61% were actively practicing religion. The mean age of first sexual relations for the sample was 15.4 years (SD = 3.2 years, and 15.6 years for those infected with HIV. Four variables emerged as statistically significant factors of Jamaicans′ willingness to do an HIV test in the future. Conclusion : The findings of this research are far-reaching and can be used to guide public health policy formulation.

  16. Diapause in Two Tachinid (Diptera: Tachinidae Parasitoids of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Jadhav

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two larval-pupal tachinid parasitoids; Goniophthalmus halli (Mesnil and Senometopia(Eucarcelia illota (Curran were recorded from the pupae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner on pigeonpea crop in Andhra Pradesh, India, between 1974 and 1996. Both the parasitoids enter in diapause following the signals received from their host and maintain close proximity in their development in nondiapausing and diapausing H. armigera populations. It is suggested that parasitoid diapause is induced by the physiological changes in late larval or pupal stage of the host and was observed in seasons when host diapause occurred and followed synchrony in terms of emergence for both the host and parasitoids. This is the first report of diapause in tachinid parasitoids from the southern region of Indian sub-continent.

  17. Incorporation of diapause into codling moth mass rearing: Production advantages and insect quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a widely distributed species and the key pest of apples and pears in orchards of the Pacific Northwest. CM possesses facultative diapause and the mature 5th instar larva is the overwintering stage (Brown 1991). British Columbia, Canada, is attempting to eradicate CM using the sterile insect technique (SIT). The Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (SIR) Program began releasing sterile CM in 1994 (Dyck et al. 1993, Bloem and Bloem 1996) and results in recent years have been excellent. Despite the fact that standard rearing operations have gone extremely well, and weekly CM production has increased from 8.7 million CM per week in 1994 to 14.2 million per week in 1997, the ability to mass rear diapausing CM holds a number of advantages that are currently not available. The ability to stockpile CM larvae in diapause throughout the fall and winter months when the mass rearing facility is underutilised would: 1) provide additional CM for release during the spring/summer field season, 2) provide back-up material to guard against colony losses due to operational failures and/or pathogen outbreaks, 3) allow for a potentially more cost-effective use of the facility by maintaining production year round, 4) facilitate the development of mass rearing techniques for key parasitoids that attack the overwintering stage, 5) allow for the easy shipment (and sale) of CM to researchers around the world. Here we outline the current standard CM mass rearing procedures and discuss research that has allowed diapausing CM to be mass reared (Bloem et al. 1997). We also discuss research that suggests diapaused CM are more competitive than standard non-diapaused CM (Bloem et al. 1998)

  18. Reproductive Health CHOICES for Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease or Trait: Randomized Controlled Trial Outcomes over Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christiane; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigoberto; Carrasco, Jesus; Angulo, Veronica; Thompson, Alexis A

    2016-04-01

    Interventions to assist reproductive health decision-making in populations affected by sickle cell disease (SCD) or trait (SCT) lack proven efficacy over time. Our aim was to compare effects of CHOICES, a Web-based multimedia education program on implementing informed reproductive plans, and usual care education (e-Book) on reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior over 24 months. We randomized 234 participants with SCD (n = 138) or SCT (n = 96) (age 18-35 years, 35 % male, 94 % African American) to CHOICES and e-Book groups. Participants completed a sickle cell-specific reproductive measure before and four times after the intervention (6, 12, 18 and 24 months). Compared to the e-Book group the CHOICES group had significantly more improvement in knowledge over time (p = .004) but not intention (p = .18) or behavior (p = .69). At baseline, 114 (48.7 %) participants reported having partners who would not put the couple at risk for their children inheriting SCD. Of the 116 (49.6 %) at-risk participants, a higher poroportion of those who were in the CHOICES group chose partners that reduced their risk by the last visit than the e-Book group (p = .04). Study findings provide important insights for designing a national trial of the CHOICES intervention focusing on subjects whose partner status puts them at risk for having a child with SCD. PMID:26310871

  19. A de novo transcriptome of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, to identify candidate transcripts for diapause preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poelchau Monica F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many temperate insects survive the harsh conditions of winter by undergoing photoperiodic diapause, a pre-programmed developmental arrest initiated by short day lengths. Despite the well-established ecological significance of photoperiodic diapause, the molecular basis of this crucial adaptation remains largely unresolved. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, represents an outstanding emerging model to investigate the molecular basis of photoperiodic diapause in a well-defined ecological and evolutionary context. Ae. albopictus is a medically significant vector and is currently considered the most invasive mosquito in the world. Traits related to diapause appear to be important factors contributing to the rapid spread of this mosquito. To generate novel sequence information for this species, as well as to discover transcripts involved in diapause preparation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Ae. albopictus oocytes destined to become diapausing or non-diapausing pharate larvae. Results 454 GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing yielded >1.1 million quality-filtered reads, which we assembled into 69,474 contigs (N50 = 1,009 bp. Our contig filtering approach, where we took advantage of strong sequence similarity to the fully sequenced genome of Aedes aegypti, as well as other reference organisms, resulted in 11,561 high-quality, conservative ESTs. Differential expression estimates based on normalized read counts revealed 57 genes with higher expression, and 257 with lower expression under diapause-inducing conditions. Analysis of expression by qPCR for 47 of these genes indicated a high correlation of expression levels between 454 sequence data and qPCR, but congruence of statistically significant differential expression was low. Seven genes identified as differentially expressed based on qPCR have putative functions that are consistent with the insect diapause syndrome; three genes have unknown function and represent

  20. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Raaperi Kerli; Bougeard Stephanie; Aleksejev Annely; Orro Toomas; Viltrop Arvo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV),...

  1. Evaluation of toxic effects of CdTe quantum dots on the reproductive system in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangrong; Yuwen, Lihui; Yang, Wenjing; Weng, Lixing; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are highly promising nanomaterials for various biological and biomedical applications because of their unique optical properties, such as robust photostability, strong photoluminescence, and size-tunable fluorescence. Several studies have reported the in vivo toxicity of QDs, but their effects on the male reproduction system have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs at a high dose of 2.0 nmol per mouse and a low dose of 0.2 nmol per mouse. Body weight measurements demonstrated there was no overt toxicity for both dose at day 90 after exposure, but the high dose CdTe affected body weight up to 15 days after exposure. CdTe QDs accumulated in the testes and damaged the tissue structure for both doses on day 90. Meanwhile, either of two CdTe QDs treatments did not significantly affect the quantity of sperm, but the high dose CdTe significantly decreased the quality of sperm on day 60. The serum levels of three major sex hormones were also perturbed by CdTe QDs treatment. However, the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those mated with untreated male mice. These results suggest that CdTe QDs can cause testes toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The low dose of CdTe QDs is relatively safe for the reproductive system of male mice. Our preliminary result enables better understanding of the reproductive toxicity induced by cadmium-containing QDs and provides insight into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological and environmental systems. PMID:27135714

  2. The Proteolytic Activity of Diapausing and Newly Hatched Red Mason Bees (Osmia Rufa: Megachilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaobidna Ewa A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Osmia rufa is a solitary bee that is used commercially for pollinating crops. The bee enters obligatory diapause as an imago. The activity of proteolytic enzymes during diapause has not been investigated. We studied the proteinase activity on four substrates - casein, haemoglobin, bovine serum albumin (BSA , and gelatine - during diapause (from October to March and in newly hatched males and females in April. During diapause, greater fluctuations in enzyme activity levels were noted in males than in females, and a significant decrease in male enzyme activity was observed in January and March. Male enzymes were most effective in decomposing gelatine; whereas, female enzymes were equally effective in hydrolysing gelatine and BSA . The differences in substrate preferences between male and female enzymes were particularly pronounced in October and in the newly hatched individuals. The levels of gelatinolytic activity likely indicate that a high proportion of proteinases in O. rufa are elastase-like enzymes. They are involved in the digestion and remodelling of proteins with numerous peptide bonds formed by amino acids with short side-chains.

  3. The Activity of Cholinesterases in Diapausing and Flying Red Mason Bees Osmia bicornis (Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowska-Slezak, Kamila; Zaobidna, Ewa; Domeracka, Joanna; Swiatkowska, Marta; Rusznica, Małgorzata; Zółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The red mason bee (Osmia bicornis) is a highly effective pollinator that is exposed to various xenobiotics. The organism's potential resistance to the toxic effects of xenobiotics can be determined based on cholinesterase activity. The activity of cholinesterases (ChEs) towards acetylcholine (ACh) and butyrylcholine (BCh) was determined in extracts of diapausing (between October and late March) and flying bees (May). In both males and females, enzyme activity was higher towards ACh than towards BCh. The ratio of ACh/BCh activity was determined in the range of 1.43 to 4.15 in diapausing females and 3.00 to 7.18 in diapausing males. No significant changes in ChE activity towards ACh were observed in females before December and in males before February. Enzyme activity towards ACh increased dynamically in the second half of March. Enzyme activity towards BCh remained stable in both sexes until mid-March, after which it increased significantly. Excluding mid-March, enzyme BCh activity was significantly higher in females than in males. The activity of carboxylesterase towards 4-p-nitrophenyl butyrate was determined in females to assess the involvement of non-specific esterases in the hydrolysis of choline esters. Carboxylesterase activity was low in comparison with cholinesterase activity, and it remained practically unchanged throughout diapause, suggesting that choline esters in female O. bicornis extracts were hydrolyzed mainly by acetylcholinesterases. PMID:26975137

  4. Brain norepinephrine identified by mass spectrometry is associated with reproductive status of females of the linden bug Pyrrhocoris apterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvalová, D.; Zdechovanová, Lenka; Vaněčková, Hana; Hodková, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2014), s. 70-75. ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1612 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adult diapause * brain complex * dopamine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1096495913001796

  5. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun-Fang; Li, Ying-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes a variety of adverse effects on aquatic organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying inorganic Hg-induced reproductive impairment in fish remains largely unknown. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 15 and 30μg Hg/l (added as mercuric chloride, HgCl2) for 30days, and the effects on histological structure, antioxidant status and sex hormone levels in the ovary and testis, as well as the mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were analyzed. Exposure to Hg caused pathological lesions in zebrafish gonads, and changed the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) as well as the content of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In females, although ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) content remained relatively stable, significant down-regulation of lhβ, gnrh2, gnrh3, lhr and erα were observed. In males, testosterone (T) levels in the testis significantly decreased after Hg exposure, accompanied by down-regulated expression of gnrh2, gnrh3, fshβ and lhβ in the brain as well as fshr, lhr, ar, cyp17 and cyp11b in the testis. Thus, our study indicated that waterborne inorganic Hg exposure caused histological damage and oxidative stress in the gonads of zebrafish, and altered sex hormone levels by disrupting the transcription of related HPG-axis genes, which could subsequently impair the reproduction of fish. Different response of the antioxidant defense system, sex hormone and HPG-axis genes between females and males exposed to inorganic Hg indicated the gender-specific regulatory effect by Hg. To our knowledge, this is the first time to explore the effects and mechanisms of inorganic Hg exposure on reproduction at the histological, enzymatic and molecular levels, which will greatly extend our understanding on the mechanisms underlying of reproductive

  6. Reproductive system abnormalities in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae: brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni adult worms with genital anomalies isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy under the reflected mode. One male without testicular lobes (testicular agenesia/anorchism and two females, one with an atrophied ovary and another with 17 uterine eggs, were identified. The absence of testicular lobes occurred in a worm presenting otherwise normal male adult characteristics: tegument, tubercles and a gynaecophoric canal with spines. In both female specimens the digestive tube showed a vacuolated appearance, and the specimen with supernumerary uterine eggs exhibited a developing miracidium and an egg with a formed shell. The area of the ventral sucker was similar in both specimens however the tegument thickness, ovary and vitelline glands of the specimen with the atrophied ovary were smaller than those of the one with supernumerary eggs. These reported anomalies in the reproductive system call attention to the need to improve our understanding of genetic regulation and the possible role of environmental influences upon trematode development.

  7. 不同水稻品种对稻纵卷叶螟生长发育、存活、生殖及飞行能力的影响%Effects of different rice varieties on larval development, survival, adult reproduction, and flight capacity of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 徐秀秀; 韩兰芝; 王沫; 侯茂林

    2013-01-01

    The rice leafroller,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée),is an important rice pest in the main rice-growing areas of China.In recent years,it has caused substantial damage and seriously threatened rice production.C.medinalis is a seasonal and long-distance migratory species; its flight behavior is probably affected by many environmental factors,such as food quality during the larval stage,population density,photoperiod,and weather.Deterioration or shortage of food during the larval stage not only influences the development of C.medinalis but can also cause reproductive diapause to induce its migration.To determine how larval host quality affected development,survival,reproduction,and flight ability,we investigated larval survival,adult ovarian development,fecundity,and flight capacity of C.medinalis feeding on six different varieties of rice.The varieties were Wuyujing 3 (japonica rice),Ningjing 1 (hybrid japonica),TN1 (indica),Shanyou 63 (hybrid indica),Liangyoupei 9 (super hybrid indica),and Yongyou 9 (super hybrid indica × japonica).These six varieties were the major ones cultivated in different rice-growing areas of China.Development,survival,and fecundity of C.medinalis on the different rice varieties were observed by determining semi-natural population life tables on each variety.Ovary development and the flight abilities of adults feeding on different rice hosts were investigated by dissecting the female ovaries and by tethered flight tests,respectively.The results showed that C.medinalis exhibited significantly lower survival in the immature stage and significantly lower adult fecundity when larvae fed on Wuyujing 3 and Ningjing 1 than when they ate Yongyou 9 or Liangyoupei 9.Similarly,the larval and pupal developmental stages of C.medinalis larvae that used Wuyujing 3 and Ningjing 1 as hosts were significantly longer compared to those that developed on Yongyou 9 and Liangyoupei 9.Furthermore,the average ovary developmental grades of C.medinalis from

  8. Similarities and differences in adult tortoises: a morphological approach and its implication for reproduction and mobility between species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. L. Zuffi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexes in Chelonia display marked differences. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is important in evolutionary biology. Different sexual strategies result in species specific selection. Biometric variation in male and female tortoises of two species is studied. Eighteen biometrics were measured in 75 museum specimens (20 Testudo graeca; 55 T. hermanni. Nine of 18 parameters in T. hermanni and two of 18 in T. graeca were sexually dimorphic. Multivariate analyses (principal component analysis highlighted two components, with bridge length the first and anal divergence the second component. The bridge length can be used to separate sexes and species. Males of both species were most different, whereas females of two species overlapped in body shape measurements. We hypothesise that female similarity could be a by-product of reproductive biology and sexual selection that optimise individual fitness.

  9. Effects of adult feeding on the reproduction and longevity of Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae and Elachistidae species; Efeito da alimentacao da fase adulta na reproducao e longevidade de especies de Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae e Elachistidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, Jose R. P.; Consoli, Fernando L., E-mail: patmilano@gmail.co, E-mail: eberti@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: fconsoli@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Oda, Melissa L., E-mail: melissa.oda@gmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais

    2010-04-15

    This research evaluates the effect of the adult diet on the reproduction of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Heliothis virescens (Fabr.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Noctuidae), Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Crambidae), Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Tortricidae) and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Elachistidae). Adults of all species were fed either water or a 10% honey solution. The egg viability for the 1{sup st} and 2{sup n}d egg masses, adult fecundity, longevity, number of mating and the ovigeny index (OI) (degree of ovarian maturation) were evaluated. Fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens was drastically reduced when females were fed only on water. Egg viability from both 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} egg masses was variable between treatments. Females of A. gemmatalis, H. virescens and S. frugiperda, and males of some species had a reduced longevity when fed only on water. The number of matings was higher for A. gemmatalis and D. saccharalis when fed on water only. The OI was < 1.0 for all species evaluated indicating that all females may develop new oocytes as they age. Based on the OI and the reduced fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens, one observes that adult feeding is important for the reproduction of both species, and the IO is not a good parameter to indicate such condition. Spodoptera frugiperda, G. aurantianum, D. saccharalis and S. catenifer do not require any source of carbohydrates as adults to sustain their reproduction. (author)

  10. Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy S; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S; Levin, Michael L; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-07-01

    Four members of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, have, between them, a worldwide distribution within the northern hemisphere. They are responsible for the transmission of several animal and human pathogens, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Despite the importance of these ticks as vectors, the knowledge and understanding of the role that diapause plays in their complex life cycles are confused and incomplete. In view of the continuing geographic spread of these tick species, as well as the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, it is timely to encourage research on diapause phenomena to improve understanding of their biology and of pathogen transmission dynamics. In our review we seek to clarify thinking on the topic and to address gaps in our knowledge that require the attention of researchers. PMID:27263092

  11. Distribution of bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A in quail eggs, embryos and laying birds and studies on reproduction variables in adults following in ovo exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, uptake and distribution of BPA and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in embryos and laying quail were examined as well as variables related to reproduction in adult quail following administration of the compounds into the yolk of embryonated eggs. The uptake of radiolabelled BPA, TBBPA and the reference compound diethylstilboestrol (DES) was studied in the embryos using ss-spectrometry. Autoradiography was employed to examine distribution in egg and embryo after yolk sac injection of BPA or TBBPA and in laying birds, following intravenous and oral administration. Following embryonic exposure to BPA or TBBPA, sexually mature male birds were examined for reproductive behaviour and testis morphology, and females were examined for egg laying and oviduct morphology. Neither BPA (200 μg/g egg) nor TBBPA (15 μg/g egg) caused any significant oestrogen-like effects on the variables studied, although effects on the female oviducts after BPA exposure were indicated. Embryonic exposure to DES is known to cause profound effects on male sexual behaviour and female oviduct morphology at doses 3-5 orders of magnitude lower than the BPA and TBBPA doses used in the present study. The proportions of BPA and TBBPA taken up by the embryos after yolk sac injection were similar to the proportion of DES taken up. Differences in bioavailability, therefore do not account for any major part of the potency differences between DES and the two bisphenol A compounds. The concentration of radioactivity in the embryo, as revealed by autoradiography, was low compared with that in the yolk at all stages studied (days 6, 10 and 15). Pronounced labelling of the bile and the allantoic fluid was observed, however, indicating that both compounds were readily metabolised and excreted. Radiolabelled BPA and TBBPA administered to laying quail were largely excreted via the bile and 9 days after oral dosing, only small amounts of the labelled compound remained within the body. Maternal transfer

  12. The effect of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs on sexual, reproductive and gonadal health of adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2016-06-01

    Epilepsy is a common chronic medical illness. Hyposexuality is the most frequent abnormality in men and women with epilepsy. In men with epilepsy, hypoandrogenimia, hypogonadism and sperm abnormalities are common. Testicular atrophy was also infrequently reported. In women with epilepsy, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries (PCOs) and PCO syndrome are frequent. Decreased serum free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone levels, free androgen index and free testosterone/leutinizing hormone (LH) ratio and increased sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, prolactin, LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and LH/FSH ratio are common with epilepsy. Disturbance of central and/or peripheral control of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and alteration of central neurotrasmitters (GABA, glutamate and serotonin) by epileptic discharges or antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), direct gonadal toxicity by AEDs and pcyshicatric/psychosocial factors are all incriminated in sexual, reproductive and gonadal abnormalities associated with epilepsy. Patients may benefit from multidisplinary evaluation, tight seizure control, change the AED, androgen therapy, genital vasodilators, L-carnitine supplementation and psychotherapy. PMID:26934627

  13. A gene catalogue for post-diapause development of an anhydrobiotic arthropod Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diapause is a reversible state of developmental suspension and found among diverse taxa, from plants to animals, including marsupials and some other mammals. Although previous work has accumulated ample data, the molecular mechanism underlying diapause and reactivation from it remain elusive. Results Using Artemia franciscana, a model organism to study the development of post-diapause embryos in Arthropod, we sequenced random clones up to a total of 28,039 ESTs from four cDNA libraries made from dehydrated cysts and three time points after rehydration/reactivation, which were assembled into 8,018 unigene clusters. We identified 324 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs, P Conclusion We found that the first 5-hour period after rehydration is most important for embryonic reactivation of Artemia. As the total number of expressed genes increases significantly, the majority of DEGs were also identified in this period, including a group of water-deficient-induced genes. A group of genes with similar functions have been described in plant seeds; for instance, one of the novel LEA members shares ~70% amino-acid identity with an Arabidopsis EM (embryonic abundant protein, the closest animal relative to plant LEA families identified thus far. Our findings also suggested that not only nutrition, but also mRNAs are produced and stored during cyst formation to support rapid development after reactivation.

  14. Stress tolerance during diapause and quiescence of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Oviparously developing embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia, arrest at gastrulation and are released from females as cysts before entering diapause, a state of dormancy and stress tolerance. Diapause is terminated by an external signal, and growth resumes if conditions are permissible. However, if circumstances are unfavorable, cysts enter quiescence, a dormant stage that continues as long as adverse conditions persist. Artemia embryos in diapause and quiescence are remarkably resistant to environmental and physiological stressors, withstanding desiccation, cold, heat, oxidation, ultraviolet radiation, and years of anoxia at ambient temperature when fully hydrated. Cysts have adapted to stress in several ways; they are surrounded by a rigid cell wall impermeable to most chemical compounds and which functions as a shield against ultraviolet radiation. Artemia cysts contain large amounts of trehalose, a non-reducing sugar thought to preserve membranes and proteins during desiccation by replacing water molecules and/or contributing to vitrification. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins similar to those in seeds and other anhydrobiotic organisms are found in cysts, and they safeguard cell organelles and proteins during desiccation. Artemia cysts contain abundant amounts of p26, a small heat shock protein, and artemin, a ferritin homologue, both ATP-independent molecular chaperones important in stress tolerance. The evidence provided in this review supports the conclusion that it is the interplay of these protective elements that make Artemia one of the most stress tolerant of all metazoan organisms. PMID:26334984

  15. Construction of Full-length cDNA Library of Non-diapause Pupae of the Onion Maggot, Delia antiqua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The onion maggot, Delia antiqua has the characteristic of summer- and winter-diapause, and is close to Drosophila Melanogaster in phelogenetics. It is an ideal model species for the studies of the molecular mechanism of insect diapause and the comparison of winter- and summer-diapause-specific genes. The study aims to construct full-length cDNA library of summer-diapause pupae of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua, in order to play a base for further screening, cloning and expression analysis of diapause-specific genes. In this study, total RNA was extracted from non-diapause pupae of onion maggot, D. antiqua using RNAiso. Double-stranded cDNAs were synthesized with SMART technique and digested by SfiⅠ, and then the cDNAs were ligated into the vector pDNR-LIB. The ligation mixture was transformed into E. coli DH10B by eletroporation. According to the evaluation on quality, the titer of primary library was 2.3×107 cfu/mL. The results from random picking 15 clones showed that the inserted fragments ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 kb by PCR amplification, with an average size of 0.9 kb, and the recombination rate was 100 %. These results showed that a full-length cDNA library with high quality on Delia antiqua non-diapause pupae was well constructed. This indicates that the library is of high quality for cloning target genes and expressing target proteins.

  16. Diapause hormone in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea: Optimum temperature for activity, structure–activity relationships, and efficacy in accelerating flesh fly pupariation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, Q.; Žďárek, Jan; Nachman, R. J.; Denlinger, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2008), s. 196-205. ISSN 0196-9781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : diapause hormone * neuropeptide analogs * diapause termination * pupariation * Helicoverpa zea Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2008

  17. Demarcation of diapause development by cold and its relation to time-interval activation of TIME-ATPase in eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Xiaonan; Tuzuki, Nobuhiko; Tani, Naoki; Morigami, Etsuko; Isobe, Minoru; Kai, Hidenori

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the mode of action of winter cold in the termination of diapause by investigating Time-Interval-Measuring Enzyme (TIME). First, we determined the period of cold required for the completion of diapause development. Synchronously developing egg batches of a pure strain (C108 Bombyx mori silkworm) were used to minimize variations in hatching time. Hatching occurred with only 18 days chilling at 5 degrees C when the incubation at 25 degrees C after the chilling was elongated. The 18-day period was much shorter than we expected; diapause in B. mori is known to terminate completely with about 100 days of chilling. Even in such a short period of chilling, no sporadic hatching occurred. Moreover, we determined that a temperature-insensitive stage, which we called "Neboke", followed the short cold-requiring stage. Thus, the stage of diapause development was demarcated from other stages of diapause. While the length of diapause development was elongated when chilling was delayed after oviposition, the Neboke stage length was invariant. Cold evidently exerts its effect only on diapause development. When TIME was purified from eggs and chilled in test tubes, a transitory burst of its ATPase activity occurred at a time equivalent to shortly before the completion of diapause development; this was an interval-timer activation. The mechanism by which cold activates TIME to measure the time interval may help explain in biochemical terms the insect's adaptation to its seasonal environments. PMID:15607508

  18. Insight into the possible mechanism of the summer diapause of Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) through digital gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, You-Jin; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Si, Feng-Ling; Fu, Dan-Ying; He, Zheng-Bo; Chen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    The onion fly, Delia antiqua, is a major underground agricultural pest that can enter pupal diapause in the summer and winter seasons. However, little is known about its molecular regulation due to the lack of genomic resources. To gain insight into the possible mechanism of summer diapause (SD), high-throughput RNA-Seq data were generated from non-diapause (ND) and SD (initial, maintenance and quiescence phase) pupae. Three pair-wise comparisons were performed and identified, 1380, 1471 and 435, and were significantly regulated transcripts. Further analysis revealed that the enrichment of several functional terms related to juvenile hormone regulation, cell cycle, carbon hydrate and lipid metabolism, innate immune and stress responses, various signalling transductions, ubiquitin-dependent proteosome, and variation in cuticular and cytoskeleton components were found between ND and SD and between different phases of SD. Global characterization of transcriptome profiling between SD and ND contributes to the in-depth elucidation of the molecular mechanism of SD. Our results also offer insights into the evolution of insect diapause and support the importance of using the onion fly as a model to compare the molecular regulation events of summer and winter diapauses. PMID:26826557

  19. CHANGES OF GLYCEROL CONTENT IN DIAPAUSE LARVAEOF THE ORANGE WHEAT BLOSSOM MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GEHIN) IN VARIOUS SEASONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-xiangWu; FengYuan

    2004-01-01

    The glycerol contents in diapause larvae of the orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Gehin), collected from various seasons, were measured. The results showed that there was less glycerol content in larvae during living on the wheat head. Content of glycerol began to increase significantly when the larvae left the wheat head and entered the soil. A change trend of upper- lower- upper- lower in larvae glycerol contents during diapause in soil was observed from June to April of next year. More glycerol could be examined in larvae collected in summer and winter than in spring and autumn. There was not more glycerol in cocooned larvae than that in non-cocooned larvae during various seasons from the point of statistics. Comparing the glycerol content of larvae being diapause in the first year with that of larvae in the second year, there was yet no obvious difference when larvae were collected in the same season belonged to different years. Therefore, it is shown that the content of glycerol in larvae of the wheat midge in diapause is affected mainly by the seasons or diapause intensity.

  20. Combination Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV in Rwandan Adults: Clinical Outcomes and Impact on Reproductive Health up to 24 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Asiimwe-Kateera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult women (n=113 and men (n=100 initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and women not yet eligible for cART (n=199 in Kigali, Rwanda, were followed for 6–24 months between 2007 and 2010. In the cART groups, 21% of patients required a drug change due to side effects and 11% of patients had virological failure (defined as >1,000 HIV RNA copies/mL after 12 months of cART. About a third of the pregnancies since HIV diagnosis were unintended. The proportion of women in the pre-cART group using modern contraception other than condoms (50% was similar to women in the general population, but this proportion was only 25% in women initiating cART. Of the women who carried at least one pregnancy to term since having been diagnosed HIV-positive, a third reported to have participated in a prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT, option A intervention. Many patients were coinfected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (79–92%, human papillomavirus (38–53%, and bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs with no differences between groups. We applaud the Rwandan government for having strengthened family planning and PMTCT services and for having introduced HPV vaccination in recent years, but additional work is needed to strengthen STI and HPV-related cancer screening and management in the HIV-positive population.

  1. Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Stoeckli

    Full Text Available Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season and spatial (regional resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074, the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require

  2. Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W; Samietz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of plant

  3. Impact of Climate Change on Voltinism and Prospective Diapause Induction of a Global Pest Insect – Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W.; Samietz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature – the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045–2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70–100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0–2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of

  4. Involvement of cyclin K posttranscriptional regulation in the formation of Artemia diapause cysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemia eggs tend to develop ovoviviparously to yield nauplius larvae in good rearing conditions; while under adverse situations, they tend to develop oviparously and encysted diapause embryos are formed instead. However, the intrinsic mechanisms regulating this process are not well understood. PRINCIPAL FINDING: This study has characterized the function of cyclin K, a regulatory subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb in the two different developmental pathways of Artemia. In the diapause-destined embryo, Western blots showed that the cyclin K protein was down-regulated as the embryo entered dormancy and reverted to relatively high levels of expression once development resumed, consistent with the fluctuations in phosphorylation of position 2 serines (Ser2 in the C-terminal domain (CTD of the largest subunit (Rpb1 of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II. Interestingly, the cyclin K transcript levels remained constant during this process. In vitro translation data indicated that the template activity of cyclin K mRNA stored in the postdiapause cyst was repressed. In addition, in vivo knockdown of cyclin K in developing embryos by RNA interference eliminated phosphorylation of the CTD Ser2 of RNAP II and induced apoptosis by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK survival signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings reveal a role for cyclin K in regulating RNAP II activity during diapause embryo development, which involves the post-transcriptional regulation of cyclin K. In addition, a further role was identified for cyclin K in regulating the control of cell survival during embryogenesis through ERK signaling pathways.

  5. Host diapause status and host diets augmented with cryoprotectants enhance cold hardiness in the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyan; Zhang, Lisheng; Zhang, Qirui; Chen, Hongyin; Denlinger, David L

    2014-11-01

    Boosting cold hardiness in parasitoids is a goal that is particularly attractive for increasing shelf life and shipment of biological control agents. In the experiments reported here we use the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis as a model to evaluate manipulations that may be capable of enhancing the wasp's cold tolerance. We altered the parasitoid's cold tolerance by manipulating the wasp's diapause status, the diapause status of the host fly (Sarcophaga crassipalpis), and the diet of the host. Larval diapause in N. vitripennis dramatically increased cold tolerance and the diapause status of the host also exerted a positive, although less dramatic, effect. Augmenting the host fly's diet with supplements of putative cryoprotectants (alanine, proline and glycerol) enhanced cold tolerance in parasitoids that fed on the flies, thus indicating a tri-trophic effect on parasitoid cold tolerance. The most pronounced improvement in cold tolerance was noted in parasitoids fed on fly hosts that had received a diet augmented with proline. These results suggest mechanisms that could be exploited for enhancement of cold tolerance in parasitoids of commercial interest. PMID:25158026

  6. Enhanced stress responses and metabolic adjustments linked to diapause and onset of migration in the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dean, C. A. E.; Teets, N. M.; Košťál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Denlinger, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 152-161. ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diapause * heat shock proteins * metabolome Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.416, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/phen.12140/abstract

  7. Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Pinhas Shifman

    2014-01-01

    We observe a modern approach that allows for the possibility of a planned separation between sexual relations and procreation. The widespread use of contraceptives created the possibility of sex without reproduction, just as reproductive technologies created the possibility of reproduction without sex. Consequentially, the individual`s ability to control and plan childbirth has expanded, but parallel possibilities have been created for societal intervention in that process. The question wheth...

  8. Divergence of the diapause transcriptome in apple maggot flies: winter regulation and post-winter transcriptional repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Peter J; Powell, Thomas H Q; Walden, Kimberly K O; Schieferecke, Adam J; Feder, Jeffrey L; Hahn, Daniel A; Robertson, Hugh M; Berlocher, Stewart H; Ragland, Gregory J

    2016-09-01

    The duration of dormancy regulates seasonal timing in many organisms and may be modulated by day length and temperature. Though photoperiodic modulation has been well studied, temperature modulation of dormancy has received less attention. Here, we leverage genetic variation in diapause in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, to test whether gene expression during winter or following spring warming regulates diapause duration. We used RNAseq to compare transcript abundance during and after simulated winter between an apple-infesting population and a hawthorn-infesting population where the apple population ends pupal diapause earlier than the hawthorn-infesting population. Marked differences in transcription between the two populations during winter suggests that the 'early' apple population is developmentally advanced compared with the 'late' hawthorn population prior to spring warming, with transcripts participating in growth and developmental processes relatively up-regulated in apple pupae during the winter cold period. Thus, regulatory differences during winter ultimately drive phenological differences that manifest themselves in the following summer. Expression and polymorphism analysis identify candidate genes in the Wnt and insulin signaling pathways that contribute to population differences in seasonality. Both populations remained in diapause and displayed a pattern of up- and then down-regulation (or vice versa) of growth-related transcripts following warming, consistent with transcriptional repression. The ability to repress growth stimulated by permissive temperatures is likely critical to avoid mismatched phenology and excessive metabolic demand. Compared with diapause studies in other insects, our results suggest some overlap in candidate genes/pathways, though the timing and direction of changes in transcription are likely species specific. PMID:27312473

  9. Changes in diapause related gene expression pattern during early embryonic development in HCl-treated eggs of bivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirigineedi Sasibhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of differential expression of diapause related genes (five metabolic, five heat shock protein and one translational regulatory in HCl-treated (non-diapause and untreated (diapause eggs of B. mori during early embryogenesis (up to 48h following oviposition revealed the up-regulation of sorbitol dehydrogenase upon HCl treatment, indicating increased glycogen synthesis for further embryonic development but, down-regulation of phosphofructo kinase gene expression after 18h of oviposition indicating an arrest of glycerol and sorbitol conversion. The expression of poly A binding protein gene expression was higher upon HCl treatment, revealing the initiation of translation. The expression levels of other genes analyzed did not vary significantly, except for Hsp90 and Hsp40, which were up-regulated on acid treatment until 18h. Thus, Sorbitoldehydrogenase and phosphofructo kinasegenes have a crucial role in diapause termination as evidenced by HCl treatment, while the other genes did not have major roles.

  10. 凹唇壁蜂的耐寒性及生殖潜力研究%The resistance and reproductive potential of Osmia excavata Alfken.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永平; 袁锋; 张雅林

    2001-01-01

    在滞育期和滞育结束后(成虫出茧之前),分别测定凹唇壁蜂越冬成虫的耐寒性,结果表明:滞育期成虫的过冷却点和体液冰点分别为-26.48℃和-20.91℃,解除滞育后分别为-18.40℃和-11.78℃。自然条件下,凹唇壁蜂在我国北方大部分地区可安全越冬。在筑巢前期,对雌蜂的生殖系统解剖观察发现,卵巢由6根卵巢管组成,卵母细胞总数平均为55.9±4.46个,卵原区在成虫筑巢期不再产生卵母细胞。%In diapause period and free diapause period, adults resistance to temperature was measured.The results indicated that the freezing point and super-cooling point are -26.48℃ and -20.91℃ respectiviely in the diapause period, and -18.40℃ and -11.78℃ respectiviely in the free diapause period. This species can safely overwinter in the North of China.Dissecting the ovary,it was found that the ovary of the female consists of six ovarioles. In free diapausing adults, the total number of oocytes in an ovary is very stable, and the average oocyte number in an ovary is 55.9±4.46.

  11. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response. PMID:24365596

  12. Diapause-associated protein3 functions as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenle Bi

    Full Text Available To better understand the molecular mechanism underlying of diapause in Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi, we cloned a novel diapause-associated protein 3 (DAP3 gene from A. pernyi by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and studied the biological functions. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene encodes 171 amino acids and has a conserved domain of Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD. Western blot and qRT-PCR results showed that DAP3 was mainly expressed in the pupal stage, and gradually decreased as diapause development. DAP3 was also expressed in 1st and 5th instar larvae of A. pernyi. In tissues of 5th instar larvae of A. pernyi, DAP3 was mainly expressed in the epidermis, followed by the head, hemolymph and fat body. To identify the SOD activity of DAP3, we constructed a prokaryotic expression vector by inserting the coding region sequence into plasmid pET-28a (+ and obtained the purified rHIS-DAP3 fusion protein by Ni-NTA affinitive column. Importantly, we found the SOD activity of DAP3 fusion protein was approximately 0.6674 U/µg. To further confirm the SOD activity of DAP3 in vivo, we induced the oxidative stress model of pupae by UV irradiation. The results showed that both the mRNA and protein level of DAP3 significantly increased by UV irradiation. Furthermore, the SOD activity of the total lysate of pupae increased significantly at 10 min post UV irradiation and transiently returned to normal level afterwards. These results suggested that DAP3 might be a novel protein with SOD activity getting involved in regulation of diapause in A. pernyi.

  13. Salinity tolerance in diapausing embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus is supported by exceptionally low water and ion permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ben E; Podrabsky, Jason E

    2007-10-01

    The annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus inhabits rainwater pools in the Maracaibo basin of Venezuela. This species persists in ephemeral habitats by producing diapausing embryos that are resistant to the stresses imposed by the drying of their aquatic habitat. Embryos of A. limnaeus are likely exposed to a highly variable osmotic environment during development, but their tolerance of osmotic stress has not been characterized. We investigated the capacity of these embryos to survive in hypersaline environments and evaluated the possible mechanisms used to support osmoregulation. Diapausing embryos of A. limnaeus defend their internal osmolality of around 290 mOsmol kg(-1) H(2)O(-1) against salt stress as high as 50 ppt salinity. We find that diapausing embryos of A. limnaeus have a permeability to water that is orders of magnitude lower than other teleost fish embryos. The activity of ion motive ATPases that may be important in the extrusion of ions via mitochondrial rich cells do not appear to be playing a large role in osmoregulation of A. limnaeus embryos. We conclude that for the duration of embryonic development the unique properties of the enveloping cell layer of A. limnaeus embryos acts as a permeability barrier to water and ions and supports osmoregulation in this species in response to a broad range of osmotic environments. PMID:17581754

  14. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  15. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  16. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  17. Advances in Researches of the Mechanism of Diapause in the Silkworm,Bomby x mori%家蚕滞育机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玫静; 童晓玲; 张高军

    2014-01-01

    滞育是昆虫适应环境的重要生理特性,家蚕的滞育还与其经济性状有着密切关系,相关生物学问题一直是研究热点。家蚕滞育发生于胚胎早期,为卵滞育型,受遗传和环境的共同支配。家蚕二化性品系卵的滞育性由亲代卵期即胚胎发育时期所处的环境条件决定。本文就近年对家蚕滞育及解除过程中生理生化机制、分子机制和遗传机制方面的有关研究进展进行了综述,包括滞育过程中涉及的色素、酯酶A4、多巴胺、氧化循环过程的物质变化,二甲亚砜对解除家蚕滞育的影响以及滞育激素作用过程中瞬时受体电位通道亚家族成员对家蚕滞育非遗传多型性的分子调控机制的最新研究成果。%Diapause is an important physiological character for insects to adapt to the unfavorable environment ,and it is closely related to its economic traits as well .Some issues concerning the biology of silkworm diapause were and are a hot research focus .Occurring at the early stages of embryonic development ,diapause of the silkw orm is of the type of egg diapause and is controlled by both inheritance and environment .The progeny diapause of bivoltine stains of silkworm is determined by the ambient temperature during embryonic development of the mother .In this paper ,a brief review is given of the recent advances in the researches of the physiological ,molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in diapause development and ter‐mination ,including the changes in pigments ,EA4 and dopamine and oxidation‐reduction cycle in diapause and the influence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on diapause termination ,as well as the latest research results on the molecular mechanisms of polyphenism about silkworm diapause .

  18. Effect of adult cold storage on the longevity and reproductive capacity of female Nasonia vitripennis%成虫期冷藏对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂寿命和繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任倩; 王瑞松; 沈忱; 于爱莲; 史卫峰; 万文菊; 李晓霞; 张忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of adult cold storage on the longevity and reproductive capacity of female Nasonia vitripennis. Methods The female N. vitripennis emerged on different days were cold stored at 15 ℃ for different period.Their longevity, parasitic capacity and reproductive capacity were then measured. Results The longevity of female N. vitripennis was extended after cold storage at adult stage. However, as the cold storage time prolonged, the parasitic and reproductive capacities were compromised. At a cold storage time for less than 12 d, the impact on these capacities of female N. vitripennis was not remarkable. In contrast, after cold storage of over 12 d, the egg production and parasitic capacities declined linearly. After cold stored for 24 d, the parasitic ratio of Boettcherisca peregrina by N. vitripennis reduced to 35% from 85% before cold storage and the average emerging parasitoid progeny to 6 from 33 per fly pupa. However, the female adult rate and the body length of the progeny were not affected. Conclusion Adult cold storage extends the longevity of female N. vitripennis at the cost of reproductive capability.%目的 观察成虫期冷藏对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂寿命和繁殖能力的影响.方法 考察羽化后不同时间的丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂在15 ℃冷藏不同时间后的寿命、寄生和繁殖能力.结果 成虫期冷藏可延长丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂的成虫寿命,但随冷藏时间的延长,丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂的寄生能力和产卵能力均受到不同程度的负面影响,当冷藏时间不超过12 d时,丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂的寄生和产卵能力均不受显著影响,而超过12 d后,其产卵和寄生能力均呈线性下降趋势;冷藏前至冷藏后24d,雌蜂对棕尾别麻蝇蛹的寄生率由85%下降至35%,蝇蛹的平均出蜂数由33头/蛹下降至6头/蛹,而后代的雌蜂比和体长均不受影响.结论 成虫期冷藏可延长丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂的寿命,但影响其繁殖能力.

  19. Zearalenone low doses effects on the body weight and development of reproductive organs in pre-pubertal and sexually adult females of CD1 mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošková, K.; Makovický, P.; Děd, Lukáš; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pěknicová, Jana; Rajmon, R.

    Praha: Biotechnologický ústav v.v AVČR, 2011 - (Pěknicová, J.). s. 57-58 [XVII. symposium českých reprodukčních imunologů s mezinárodní účastí. 26.05.2011-29.05.2011, Žďár nad Sázavou] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : zearalenone * reproductive organs * body weight * CD1 mice Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  20. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF THE GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE GENE RELATED TO LARVAL DIAPAUSE IN Ostrinia furnacalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianqing; Zhang, Honggang; Edwards, Martin; Wang, Zhenying; Bai, Shuxiong; He, Kanglai

    2016-04-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) acts in the first step in release of glucose from glycogen, a form of energy storage for most organisms. To investigate the characteristics and expression pattern of GP gene (Ofgp) in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), larvae, we cloned and analyzed tissue transcription of Ofgp. The results indicate that the open reading frame (ORF) is 2,526 bp, encoding 841 amino acid. The calculated three-dimensional structure shows 33 α-helices and 24 β-sheets. Ofgp transcription levels varied significantly during the second to fifth instars under long-day (28°C, 16:8 L:D photoperiod, and 70-80% relative humidity (RH)) and short-day (24.5°C, 11:13 L:D photoperiod, and 70-80% RH) conditions, remained low during the prediapause phase, and then increased after about 36 d under short-day photoperiod. In the larvae reared under long-day condition, hemolymph ranked the highest in the transcript level of Ofgp. The highest transcription was recorded in the fat body and was lower in the other tissues in larvae reared under short-day condition. We found that Ofgp transcription increased linearly from October 2012 to January 2013. The transcript level was negatively correlated with environmental temperature. We infer the higher Ofgp transcription may enhance the cold hardiness of the diapause larvae. PMID:26748939

  1. Survival to reproductive cessation drives variation in post-reproductive lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proske, Beate; Burger, Oskar; Levitis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    How many post-reproductive individuals are found in a population depends on how many individuals survive to reproductive cessation and how long they live thereafter. Post-reproductive Representation (PrR), a measure of post-reproductive lifespan intended for interspecific comparisons, allows a...... close examination, via decomposition, of the relative importance of survival to and life-expectancy after cessation. We show that the survival portion of PrR, rather than the life-expectancy portion, is the primary driver of variation in PrR. Variation in survival to reproductive cessation explains the...... majority of variation in PrR among a group of small cohorts of rotifers, and among several historical Swedish cohorts. We emphasize that women are distinct from other primates in the proportion reaching reproductive cessation, but not in the proportion of adult life-expectancy that is post-reproductive...

  2. Characters of Insect Diapause Stage and Photoperiod Sensitive Stage%昆虫滞育虫态及感应光周期的敏感阶段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖亮; 傅淑; 薛芳森

    2013-01-01

    Insects are poikilothermal animal, in order to tide over serious environmental conditions, many insect use diapause characteristics to adapt to environment changes, through out describing diapause and photoperiod sensitive stage, in order to let people understand clearly about biology characteristics of insect diapause stage and photoperiod sensitive stage.%  昆虫属变温动物,为度过不良环境条件,许多昆虫利用滞育特性适应环境的变化,通过对昆虫滞育及感应光周期的敏感阶段进行描述,拟让人们更清楚地了解昆虫滞育期及感应光周期敏感阶段昆虫生物学特性。

  3. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale. PMID:18767708

  4. Expression of a cDNA encoding a member of the hexamerin storage proteins from the moth Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef.) during diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyliotopoulos, Anastasios; Gkouvitsas, Theodoros; Fantinou, Argyro; Kourti, Anna

    2007-09-01

    We isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone corresponding to a storage protein (SnoSP1) from the corn stalk borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef.). The cDNA for SnoSP1 (2403 bp) codes for a 751 residue protein with predicted molecular mass of 88.3 kDa and calculated isoelectric point pI=8.72. A signal peptide of 16 amino acids is present at the N-terminus and the protein contained conserved insect larval storage protein signature sequence patterns. Multiple alignment analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that SnoSP1 is most similar to the basic juvenile hormone-suppressible protein 2 precursor (TniSP2) from Trichoplusia ni (71% identity) and other moderately methionine-rich hexamers. According to both phylogenetic analyses and the criteria of amino acid composition, SnoSP1 belongs to the subfamily of moderately methionine-rich storage proteins (3.7% methionine, 11% aromatic amino acid). Treatment with the juvenile hormone analog, methroprene, after head ligation of larvae, is found to suppress the level of SnoSP1 gene, indicating hormonal effects at the transcriptional level. We also examined developmental profiles of SnoSP1 expression in fat body from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae by semi-quantitative and Real-Time PCR assays. In non diapause conditions the abundance of SnoSP1 was found in high levels during the last larval stage and decreased gradually during the pupal stage. Very low levels of this mRNA were detected in larvae that were preparing to enter diapause, but mRNA dramatically increased in those that were in diapause as well as in those that terminate diapause. PMID:17537657

  5. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  6. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  7. Flight, feeding and reproductive behavior of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae adults Comportamento de vôo, de alimentação e de reprodução de adultos de Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita Jacob Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Phyllophaga cuyabana is a univoltine species and its development occurs completely underground. Its control by conventional methods, such as chemical and biological insecticides, is difficult, so it is important to understand its dispersion, reproduction, and population behavior in order to determine best pest management strategies. The objective of this work was to study the behavior of adults of P. cuyabana. This study was carried out in the laboratory, greenhouse and field sites in Paraná State, Brazil (24º25' S and 52º48' W, during four seasons. The results obtained demonstrate that: a P. cuyabana adults have a synchronized short-flight period when mating and reproduction occurs; b adults tend to aggregate in specific sites for mating; c the majority of adults left the soil on alternate nights; d the choice of mating and oviposition sites was made by females before copulation, since after copulation adults did not fly from or bury themselves at nearby locations; e females that fed on leaves after mating, oviposited more eggs than females that had not fed;f plant species such as sunflower (Helianthus annuus and the Crotalaria juncea are important food sources for adults.Phyllophaga cuyabana é uma espécie univoltina cujo desenvolvimento ocorre no solo. Seu controle por inseticidas químicos e biológicos é difícil, assim é importante entender sua dispersão, reprodução e comportamento populacional a fim de identificar estratégias potenciais de manejo dessa praga. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento de adultos de P. cuyabana. O estudo foi realizado em laboratório, casa de vegetação e campo, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (24º25' S e 52º48' O, durante quatro safras. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que: a os adultos de P. cuyabana têm um vôo sincronizado durante um curto período quando ocorre o acasalamento e reprodução; b os adultos tendem a se agregar em sítios específicos para o acasalamento; c a

  8. The potential role of As-sumo-1 in the embryonic diapause process and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Chu

    Full Text Available During embryonic development of Artemia sinica, environmental stresses induce the embryo diapause phenomenon, required to resist apoptosis and regulate cell cycle activity. The small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO, a reversible post-translational protein modifier, plays an important role in embryo development. SUMO regulates multiple cellular processes, including development and other biological processes. The molecular mechanism of diapause, diapause termination and the role of As-sumo-1 in this processes and in early embryo development of Artemia sinica still remains unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the sumo-1 homolog, sumo ligase homolog, caspase-1 homolog and cyclin B homolog from Artemia sinica were cloned. The mRNA expression patterns of As-sumo-1, sumo ligase, caspase-1, cyclin B and the location of As-sumo-1 were investigated. SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E proteins were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo of A. sinica. Small interfering RNA (siRNA was used to verify the function of sumo-1 in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-sumo-1 was 476 bp, encoding a 92 amino acid protein. The As-caspases-1 cDNA was 966 bp, encoding a 245 amino-acid protein. The As-sumo ligase cDNA was 1556 bp encoding, a 343 amino acid protein, and the cyclin B cDNA was 739 bp, encoding a 133 amino acid protein. The expressions of As-sumo-1, As-caspase-1 and As-cyclin B were highest at the 10 h stage of embryonic development, and As-sumo ligase showed its highest expression at 0 h. The expression of As-SUMO-1 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Western blotting showed high expression of As-SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E at the 10 h stage. The siRNA caused abnormal development of the embryo, with increased malformation and mortality. As-SUMO-1 is a crucial regulation and modification protein resumption of embryonic diapause and early embryo development of A. sinica.

  9. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  10. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  11. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  12. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  13. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  14. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  15. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrong With the Male Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... cutting off its blood supply, is also a medical emergency that, thankfully, is not common. Surgery is ...

  16. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vinicius

    Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.

  17. Chromatin dynamics during plant sexual reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    She, Wenjing; Baroux, Célia

    2014-01-01

    Plants have the remarkable ability to establish new cell fates throughout their life cycle, in contrast to most animals that define all cell lineages during embryogenesis. This ability is exemplified during sexual reproduction in flowering plants where novel cell types are generated in floral tissues of the adult plant during sporogenesis, gametogenesis, and embryogenesis. While the molecular and genetic basis of cell specification during sexual reproduction is being studied for a long time, ...

  18. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we revi...

  19. Neotenic reproduction in various animal groups

    OpenAIRE

    Nevěčný, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to collect information about neoteny (i. e. reproduction of animals in the larval stage to adult without metamorphosis) that describe the reproduction and assess the representation, if found more groups of animals in which it occurs. The basic method was searching various sources, sorting and analyzing. It is a compilation of work to prepare review. The sources of information were professional articles and books of Czech and foreign, including some Internet resource...

  20. Group 1 LEA proteins contribute to the desiccation and freeze tolerance of Artemia franciscana embryos during diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Jantina; Warner, Alden H; MacRae, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    Water loss either by desiccation or freezing causes multiple forms of cellular damage. The encysted embryos (cysts) of the crustacean Artemia franciscana have several molecular mechanisms to enable anhydrobiosis-life without water-during diapause. To better understand how cysts survive reduced hydration, group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, hydrophilic unstructured proteins that accumulate in the stress-tolerant cysts of A. franciscana, were knocked down using RNA interference (RNAi). Embryos lacking group 1 LEA proteins showed significantly lower survival than control embryos after desiccation and freezing, or freezing alone, demonstrating a role for group 1 LEA proteins in A. franciscana tolerance of low water conditions. In contrast, regardless of group 1 LEA protein presence, cysts responded similarly to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, indicating little to no function for these proteins in diapause termination. This is the first in vivo study of group 1 LEA proteins in an animal and it contributes to the fundamental understanding of these proteins. Knowing how LEA proteins protect A. franciscana cysts from desiccation and freezing may have applied significance in aquaculture, where Artemia is an important feed source, and in the cryopreservation of cells for therapeutic applications. PMID:24846336

  1. Influencing Factors and Regulation of Embryonic Diapause in Mink%水貂胚胎滞育的影响因素及调节机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新燕; 刘晗璐; 赵靖波; 荆祎; 岳志刚; 李光玉

    2013-01-01

    Embryo diapause was an importance factors which affecting mink farming, researchers had made a great deal of studies. In this presentation we addressed the characteristics of the embryo in diapause, analyzed the factors of embryo diapause and focused on the mechaminsms of regulation of this phenomenon, including the environmental stimuli that induced and terminated this condition, the hormonal regulatory pathways, and the phenomenon of cell cycle arrest and reactivation, overcome the embryonic diapause and shorten pregnancy period. On these bases, the existing problems and further research directions were pointed out and provided scientific ideas for further research on the mink embryo implantation in the future.%水貂胚胎滞育是影响水貂养殖经济效益的一个重要因素,国内外学者对此进行了大量研究.作者对水貂胚胎着床的影响因素、调控机制及克服胚胎滞育、缩短妊娠期的方法进行了综述,并提出了水貂胚胎滞育研究存在的问题及进一步研究方向,为今后研究水貂胚胎着床机理及克服胚胎滞育方法提供科研思路.

  2. 密林熊蜂雄性成蜂生殖系统发育动态%Development of the reproductive system in the male adult of bumblebee Bombus patagiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭媛; 刘耀明; 邵有全

    2012-01-01

    To study the developmental process of the reproductive system in the male adult of bumblebee Bombus patagiatus Nylander following emergence, semen volume, sperm count, gonad and spermatheca size of the reproductive system in virgin male adults at different day-old (1-15 day-old) were measured. The results showed that the volume of seminal fluid of drones at 1 day-old (5. 95±0. 39 (μL) was maximal, while the sperm count of drones at 2 day-old reaches the peak under microscope. The number of motile sperms in the semen presented repeated wave trends. The motile sperm count (25. 93±1. 06) and the total number of sperm in the semen (160. 67±17. 11 ten thousand) reached the maximum at 9 day-old. The highest percentages of motile sperms were 86. 38%±2. 02% and 86. 45%±2. 50% , respectively, at 8 and 9 day-old. The length of gonad (1 522.01±37.93 μm) was minimum at 1 day-old. The middle width of spermatheca (86. 38±2.96μm) reached the maximum at 7 day-old, but had no significant difference with that at 9 day-old. The results indicate that the indexes of the reproductive system are relatively stable in drones at 8 - 9 day-old, and drones reach sexual maturity and could mate during this stage. The study provides a theoretical basis for artificial breeding of B. patagiatus.%为了研究密林熊蜂Bombus patagiatus Nylander雄蜂出房后生殖系统发育变化过程,本研究首次对密林熊蜂雄性成蜂(1-15日龄)生殖系统的精液量、精子数、性腺大小、储精囊大小等进行了测定.结果显示:雄性成蜂在1日龄时精液量最大,达到5.95±0.39 μL;镜检精子数在2日龄最多;而精液中活动精子数出现波浪式的循环趋势,9日龄达到最大值,为25.93 ± 1.06个;精液中精子总数在9日龄达到最大值,为160.67±17.11万个;活动精子百分比以8、9日龄最高,分别达到86.38%±2.02%及86.45%±2.50%;性腺长度在1日龄时最小,为1 522.01 ±37.93 μm;储精囊的中部宽度在7

  3. The Environmental Factors on Induction of Diapause in Insects%论诱导昆虫滞育的环境因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶娟; 谢立群

    2012-01-01

    昆虫滞育是在长期进化过程中昆虫对不利生活环境条件的不断适应以及环境对昆虫的选择造成的。文章论述了温度、光周期、湿度以及食料等主要环境因素对昆虫滞育诱导的影响,认为光周期和温度是诱导昆虫滞育最主要的因素;湿度主要通过改变昆虫对光周期和温度的刺激反应而影响滞育的诱导;食料作为昆虫的调节因子与光周期以及温度一起诱导昆虫的滞育,在温度和光周期都很少发生年变化的赤道地区,食料能够直接影响到昆虫的生长发育。%Diapause in insects is the adaption of insects to adverse living conditions in long-term evolving and environment selection to insects. This paper has discussed the influence of environmental factors which are photoperiod, temperature, moisture and food on induction of diapause in insects. Among all environmental factors, photoperiod and temperature are the most important in induction of diapause. Moisture effects induction of diapause mainly by changing photoperiod and temperature of the response, Food as an adjustment factor of insect together with photoperiod and the temperature induce diapause. Food also can be a direct impact on the growing of insect in the equatorial region when photoperiod and the temperature are rarely happened and changes.

  4. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M; Heindel, Jerrold; Ho, Shuk-mei; Hunt, Patricia; Iguchi, Taisen; Juul, Anders; McLachlan, John A; Schwartz, Jackie; Skakkebaek, Niels; Soto, Ana M; Swan, Shanna; Walker, Cheryl; Woodruff, Teresa K; Woodruff, Tracey J; Giudice, Linda C; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  5. Reproduction of Przewalski's Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaříková, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    This work is about reproduction of Przewalski’s horses (Equus Przewalskii, Poliakov, 1881), which is similar to reproduction of domestic horses (Equus caballus, Linaeus, 1758). Przewalski’s horses are considered to only living ancestor of domestic horses, logically they have similar biology and reproduction. Despite different numbers of chromosome they could have fertile offspring. Reproductive differences are mainly in length of reproduction indicators. For example Przewalsky’s horses ar...

  6. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

  7. Efeitos dos esteroides anabólicos androgênicos sobre o útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da administração de dois esteroides sintéticos sobre a morfologia do útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas. MÉTODOS: quarenta ratas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos grupos experimentais: controle (C; solução fisiológica; tratados com decanoato de nandrolona (DN; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; composto de ésteres de testosterona (T; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; e, simultaneamente, com DN e T (7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo de cada esteroide, em uma única dose/semana, intraperitoneal, durante oito semanas. Cinco fêmeas de cada grupo foram sacrificadas e os cornos uterinos foram coletados, pesados e preparados para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. As ratas restantes foram acasaladas com machos normais para avaliação dos parâmetros reprodutivos, constituindo os grupos tratados durante o período pré-gestacional. Outro grupo de 20 ratas recebeu os tratamentos durante o período gestacional (7º-14º dias. Foi aplicada a análise de variância não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, complementada com o teste de Dunn ou de Student-Newman-Kleus para análise dos dados (5% de significância. RESULTADOS: houve aumento significativo no peso corpóreo das fêmeas androgenizadas (DN: 305±50; T: 280±35; DN+T: 275±30 versus C: 255±22 g (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of the administration of two synthetic steroids in the uterus morphology and in the reproductive parameters of adult female rats. METHODS: divided into four experimental groups: control (C; physiological solution; treated with nandrolone decanoate (DN; 7.5 mg/kg of body weight; with a testosterone esters compound (T; 7.5 mg/kg; and simultaneously with DN and T (7.5 mg/kg of each steroid, in a single intraperitoneal weekly dose, for eight weeks. Five females of each group were sacrificed and the uterine horns were collected, weighted and prepared for histological and morphometrical evaluation. The remaining rats were mated with

  8. Transitions in the heartbeat pattern during pupal diapause and adult development in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel; Denlinger, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 8 (2013), s. 767-780. ISSN 0022-1910 Grant ostatní: National Science Foundation(US) IOS-0840772 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : overwintering * heartbeat reversal * discontinuous cycles Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191013001169#

  9. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  10. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26597628

  11. Utilisation de criteres metaboliques et morphogenetiques pour l'analyse de la diapause de populations naturelles d'Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. (Lep., Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gadenne, C.; Peypelut, L.; Lavenseau, L.; GOT, Brigitte

    1987-01-01

    Des populations de pyrale du maïs de plein champ, issues d’infestations artificielles réalisées tout au long du mois de juillet, ont été étudiées en 1984 dans les stations I.N.R.A. de Colmar et Versailles et en 1985 et 1986 à Versailles uniquement. L’utilisation de critères physiologiques tels que la tréhalosémie et l’observation des disques imaginaux alaires permet de mieux comprendre les différentes étapes caractérisant leur diapause. L’entrée apparente et la sortie de diapause s’effe...

  12. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  13. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  14. Multiple γ-glutamylation: A novel type of post-translational modification in a diapausing Artemia cyst protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly hydrophilic, glutamate-rich protein was identified in the aqueous phenol extract from the cytosolic fraction of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) diapausing cysts and termed Artemia phenol soluble protein (PSP). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many protein peaks around m/z 11,000, separated by 129 atomic mass units; this value corresponds to that of glutamate, which is strongly suggestive of heterogeneous polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation has long been known as the functionally important post-translational modification of tubulins, which carry poly(L-glutamic acid) chains of heterogeneous length branching off from the main chain at the γ-carboxy groups of a few specific glutamate residues. In Artemia PSP, however, Edman degradation of enzymatic peptides revealed that at least 13, and presumably 16, glutamate residues were modified by the attachment of a single L-glutamate, representing a hitherto undescribed type of post-translational modification: namely, multiple γ-glutamylation or the addition of a large number of glutamate residues along the polypeptide chain. Although biological significance of PSP and its modification is yet to be established, suppression of in vitro thermal aggregation of lactate dehydrogenase by glutamylated PSP was observed.

  15. Response to cold acclimation in diapause pupae of Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): candidate biomarker identification using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckas, H; Mende, M B; Hundsdoerfer, A K

    2014-08-01

    The distribution range of Hyles euphorbiae covers distinct climates across the Palaearctic. Previous investigations showed a correlation between mitochondrial DNA identity of populations and climatic conditions related to winter; however, the lack of biomarkers hampers investigations to test whether geographically distinct populations do show specific molecular responses to low temperatures or whether they possess specific genetic identity at loci functionally related to cold response. The present study was designed to identify candidate protein biomarkers and biological processes that are associated with cold acclimation of overwintering H. euphorbiae diapause pupae. Specimens taken from a single central European population were gradually cooled from 20 °C to -2 °C over 36 days and 12 differentially abundant proteins were identified. In addition, DeepSuperSAGE sequencing technology was applied to study differentially regulated genes. There was incongruence between differentially abundant proteins and differentially expressed genes, but functional characteristics of regulated proteins and analyses of gene ontology term enrichment among differentially regulated genes pointed to activation of the same biological processes, e.g. oxidative stress response. As proteins represent biologically active molecules, candidate biomarkers derived from proteomics are considered well suited to explore intraspecific patterns of local adaptation to different climates. PMID:24628883

  16. Localization, expression, and secretion pathway of diapause hormone in embryo and larva of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jiusong; CHEN Fusheng; XU Weihua

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the distribution and expression of diapause hormone (DH) at mRNA and protein levels in the central nervous system of Bombyx mori embryo and larva were studied using whole-mount in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Whole-mount immunocytochemistry revealed that the distribution of the DH-like immunoreactivity was throughout the central nervous system including the brain, suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and thoracic ganglia (TG); and that the corpus cardiacum and terminal abdominal ganglion may be the site for DH release due to the presence of strong immunoreactivity. In situ hybridization with the probe labeled by digoxigenin shows that the Bom-DH mRNA was also localized in the mandibular, maxillary, labial cell clusters. In addition, a pair of lateral neurons in the SG and a pair of ventral midline neurons in each TG expressing the Bom-DH transcript were also identified. These results were consistent with the localization of Bom-DH mRNA in larva by in situ hybridization and the distribution of the gene by RT-PCR, which is some different from the results reported previously.

  17. Multiple {gamma}-glutamylation: A novel type of post-translational modification in a diapausing Artemia cyst protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Mai [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ikeda, Yuka [Institute of High Polymer Research, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1, Tokida, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan); Kanzawa, Hideaki [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Sakamoto, Mika [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Goto, Mina [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tsunasawa, Susumu [Analytical and Measuring Instruments Division, Shimadzu Corporation, Nishinokyo Kuwabaracho 1, Nakagyo-Ku, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan); Uchiumi, Toshio, E-mail: uchiumi@bio.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Odani, Shoji [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2010-03-26

    A highly hydrophilic, glutamate-rich protein was identified in the aqueous phenol extract from the cytosolic fraction of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) diapausing cysts and termed Artemia phenol soluble protein (PSP). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many protein peaks around m/z 11,000, separated by 129 atomic mass units; this value corresponds to that of glutamate, which is strongly suggestive of heterogeneous polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation has long been known as the functionally important post-translational modification of tubulins, which carry poly(L-glutamic acid) chains of heterogeneous length branching off from the main chain at the {gamma}-carboxy groups of a few specific glutamate residues. In Artemia PSP, however, Edman degradation of enzymatic peptides revealed that at least 13, and presumably 16, glutamate residues were modified by the attachment of a single L-glutamate, representing a hitherto undescribed type of post-translational modification: namely, multiple {gamma}-glutamylation or the addition of a large number of glutamate residues along the polypeptide chain. Although biological significance of PSP and its modification is yet to be established, suppression of in vitro thermal aggregation of lactate dehydrogenase by glutamylated PSP was observed.

  18. Technical Notes on Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Glassman; Ingvild Belle; Isabel Nieves

    2000-01-01

    These publication is a series of 12 Technical Notes on Reproductive Health. The connections between poverty and reproductive ill health are multidimensional. This publication covers reproductive health, human capital development, reproductive health interventions, public health policies and health sector reform as well as a myriad of other topics concerning reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  19. CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction is important for seed stock production, selective breeding, growth rate, feed efficiency, meat quality, and biosecurity. These needs to control reproduction differ among cultivars and even segments of the same industry. No matter the impetus for aquaculturists to want to alte...

  20. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  1. Reproduction and Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Michael

    1989-01-01

    This latest in a series of articles on the manager's role in an instructional design project highlights techniques for managing the reproduction and distribution of materials. Guidelines for orienting staff are suggested, a sample reproduction and distribution schedule is given, and a storage and distribution system is discussed. (LRW)

  2. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  3. Advances in human reproductive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, P T

    1994-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology pertains to reproduction biology and changes due to environmental influences. The research literature relies on clinical, epidemiological, and demographic analysis. The emphasis is on normal, nonpathological states and a broad range of ecological conditions. This review focused on the importance of age and energetic stress from ecological conditions rather than dieting or self-directed exercise in changing female fecundity. The literature on male reproductive ecology is still small but growing. J.W. Wood provided a comprehensive overview of the field. Natural fertility, as defined by Henry, is the lack of parity-specific fertility limitation. There is evidence that fertility can vary widely in natural fertility populations. There are consistent age patterns among different natural fertility populations. Doring found that there was higher frequency of anovulatory and luteal insufficiency in cycles during perimenarche and perimenopausal periods. Infertility studies have shown declines in pregnancy rates in women over the age of 30 years. Ovum donation evaluations have found both uterine age and ovarian and oocyte age to be related to the probability of a successful pregnancy. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and the endometrial thickness are important predictors of ovarian capacity and related to age and declining fecundity. Much of the literature on fecundity is derived from women with impaired reproductive physiology. In Lipson and Ellison's study of healthy women, average follicular and average luteal estradiol values declined with increasing subject age. Low follicular levels were correlated with smaller follicular size, low oocyte fertilizability, reduced endometrial thickness, and low pregnancy rates. Comparisons across populations have shown that populations experience declines in luteal function with age, but levels of luteal functions varied widely. Chronic conditions which slow growth and delay reproductive maturation may impact

  4. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A ... Read Article View All News ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/ ...

  5. Cloning and expression of retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 gene in embryo diapause termination and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolu; Yao, Feng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Ren; Jia, Baolin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-10-15

    Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a nuclear protein with four WD-repeat sequences and thus belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of proteins with such domains. This retinoblastoma-binding protein plays an important role in nucleosome assembly and histone modification, which influences gene transcription and regulates cell cycle and proliferation. Artemia sinica (brine shrimp) undergoes an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity and low temperature. However, the role of RBBP4 in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. Here, the full-length cDNA of the As-rbbp4 gene was obtained from A. sinica and found to contain 1411 nucleotides, including a 1281 bp open reading frame (ORF), 63 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 67-bp 3'-UTR, which encodes a 427 amino acid (48 kDa) protein. Bioinformatic analysis indicated As-RBBP4 to be mainly located in the nucleus, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Protein sequence domain analysis showed that As-RBBP4 is a conserved protein, especially in the WD40 domain. No specificity in expression of this gene was observed in tissues or organs by in situ hybridization. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of As-RBBP4 gene and protein expression, respectively, showed notably high levels at 10 h and a subsequent downward trend. Obvious trends in upregulation of As-RBBP4 were observed under conditions of low temperature and high salinity stress. As-E2F1 and As-CyclinE also presented similar trends as that of As-RBBP4 in Western blots. Analysis of the RBBP4 expression in early embryonic development of A. sinica indicated that this protein plays an important role in diapause termination and cell cycle regulation. PMID:27267406

  6. Intergenerational Justice for Children: Restructuring Adoption, Reproduction & Child Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article takes seriously the idea of intergenerational justice for children, and takes as starting premises that child interests count as equivalent to adult, and that we owe justice not just to existing children but also to the next generation. It argues that intergenerational justice demands a major restructuring of policies throughout the world governing adoption, reproduction, and child welfare. We now encourage the reproduction of more children than we can care for, provide limited...

  7. Male and Female Reproductive Tactics in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Denk, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    This study examines male and female influence on reproductive success in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Chapter One investigates three notable features of the breeding system in wild mallard populations (Lake Starnberg and Lake Ammer, Southern Germany) based on microsatellite analysis of 41 clutches. First, adult populations are male biased, although mallards form social monogamous pairs and unpaired males may suffer reduced reproductive success. We show that this male surpl...

  8. Cell Theory, Specificity, and Reproduction, 1837–1870

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental, but also the reproductive unit of life. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention by historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful ...

  9. Empirical evidence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and expectation of future reproduction in female three-spined sticklebacks

    OpenAIRE

    POIZAT G.; Rosecchi, E.; CRIVELLI A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Optimal life-history models generally predict that the reproductive effort of iteroparous organisms may increase with age, as their expectation of future reproduction decreases. The population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in the Camargue (Rhone River Delta, France) is annual, all adults dying after their first breeding season. As the three-spined stickleback is a multiple spawner, we tested the hypothesis that reproductive effort may increase during the breeding seaso...

  10. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  11. Reproductive 'surrogacy' and parental licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Christine

    2015-06-01

    A serious moral weakness of reproductive 'surrogacy' is that it can be harmful to the children who are created. This article presents a proposal for mitigating this weakness. Currently, the practice of commercial 'surrogacy' operates only in the interests of the adults involved (the gestator and the commissioning individuals who employ her), not in the interests of the child who is created. Whether 'surrogacy' is seen as the purchase of a baby, the purchase of parental rights, or the purchase of reproductive labor, all three views share the same significant flaws. They endorse the transfer, for a fee, of the infant from the woman who gestated it to those who commissioned it, but without justifying such a transfer; they fail to demonstrate that the commissioners have any entitlement to the infant, or, for that matter, suitability to be the infant's parents; and they fail to take any notice of the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing. A mere genetic connection is not enough to establish that the commissioners are entitled to receive the baby or that they are competent to raise it. Their good intentions, however caring, are not enough. Therefore, just as in the practice of adoption, there should be a formal institutionalized system for screening and licensing the prospective social parents, which would make the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing paramount. I reply to several potential objections to this proposal, including the objection that genetic parents who raise their own child are not screened and licensed. PMID:25082172

  12. Genomics of reproduction in nematodes: prospects for parasite intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; Cottee, Pauline A; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-02-01

    Understanding reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes has the potential to lead to the informed design of new anthelmintics and control strategies. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination, gametogenesis and reproductive physiology for most parasitic nematodes. Together with comparative analyses of data for the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, molecular investigations are beginning to provide insights into the processes involved in reproduction and development in parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent developments, focusing on technological aspects and on molecules associated with sex-specific differences in adult nematodes. PMID:18182326

  13. Reproduction of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    Necropsies and observations of captive and radio-equipped individuals provided reproductive data from a raccoon population in the northern prairies. The mean parturition date of adult females was 8 May and the mean litter size was 4.8. Only two of the 14 yearling females examined prior to 1 July were pregnant; they had estimated parturition dates of 20 May and 22 June. Penes of most yearling males became extrusible in July or August. Testes weights and sperm smears suggest that yearling males in North Dakota are not reproductively active. Reproductive patterns of raccoons near the northern periphery of their range and those at lower latitudes are compared and discussed.

  14. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis...

  15. 青春期前不同时长脱氢表雄酮暴露对成年雌鼠生殖力的影响%Prepubal hyperandrogen exposure induces reproductive changes in adult female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婕; 谈勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective Androgen is an important precursor for the synthesis of estrogen in vivo and is involved in the regulation of female reproductive function.In this study, we explored the influence of different lengths of prepubertal exposure to hyperandrogen on the reproductive function of adult female rats. Methods Twenty-five 23-day-old female rats were equally randomized into five groups:oil control, 2-wk dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 4-wk DHEA, 6-wk DHEA, and 8-wk DHEA, injected with oil or DHEA daily for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks respectively, and mated at 80 days old.We detected serum concentrations of total testosterone (tT), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH) and luteinizing hormone ( LH) by ELISA, observed the time of vaginal opening and changes of the estrous cycle, and recorded the rates of mating and pregnancy, the number of the offspring and their survival rate. Results The tT lev-el was elevated after 2 weeks of DHEA injection, fell to normal after drug withdrawal in the 2-wk and 4-wk DHEA groups, and remained at a high level in the 6-wk group.The E2 level was markedly increased in at 2 and 4 weeks but showed a falling trend at 6 and 8 weeks. DHEA injection did not change the level of FSH significantly but re-markably lifted that of LH with the increased concentration of tT.The vaginal opening time was significantly advanced in the 2-wk DHEA group as compared with the controls ([26.60 ±0.89] d vs [35.20 ± 2.49] d, P0.05). Conclusion Prepubertal expo-sure to hyperandrogen may advance adrenarche and gonadarche and affect the initiation of the sexual gland function in female rats.Impro-ving the hyperandrogen status in the early pubertal stage can reverse the disorder of the estrous cycle, while long-term exposure to DHEA may significantly reduce the fecundity at the childbearing age.%目的:雄激素是体内合成雌激素的重要前体,参与女性生殖功能的调控。文中探讨了青春期前接受不同时长的高雄激素刺激

  16. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6 mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale. PMID:26313991

  17. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  18. Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used to treat infertility. It includes fertility treatments that handle both a woman's egg ... back in the woman's body. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common and effective type of ...

  19. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gammeltoft, Tine; WAHLBERG, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryo...

  20. Eating disorders and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J F

    1999-05-01

    Eating disorders are common and characteristically affect young women at what would otherwise be their peak of reproductive functioning. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa impinge on reproduction both behaviourally and physiologically, with effects on menstruation, ovarian function, fertility, sexuality and pregnancy. This review presents a summary of current knowledge and makes suggestions for future research, along with some clinical recommendations for the management of eating disorders in pregnancy. PMID:10755771

  1. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carol A. Kates

    2004-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...

  2. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  3. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  4. Effects of diapause and cold acclimation on egg ultrastructure: new insights into the cold hardiness mechanisms of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreß, Aljoscha; Kuch, Ulrich; Oehlmann, Jörg; Müller, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae, SKUSE), is an important threat to public health due to its rapid spread and its potential as a vector. The eggs of Ae. albopictus are the most cold resistant life stage and thus, the cold hardiness of eggs is used to predict the future occurrence of the species in distribution models. However, the mechanism of cold hardiness has yet to be revealed. To address this question, we analyzed the layers of diapausing and cold acclimatized eggs of a temperate population of Ae. albopictus in a full factorial test design using transmission electron microscopy. We reviewed the hypotheses that a thickened wax layer or chorion is the cause of cold hardiness but found no evidence. As a result of the induced diapause, the thickness of the dark endochorion as a layer of high electron density and thus an assumed location for waxes was decreasing. We therefore hypothesized a qualitative alteration of the wax layer due to compaction. Cold acclimation was causing an increase in the thickness of the middle serosa cuticle indicating a detachment of serosa membrane from the endochorion as a potential adaptation strategy to isolate inoculating ice formations in the inter-membranous space. PMID:27232137

  5. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yu. Dolmatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.

  6. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, W. S.; Tatar, M.

    2001-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive d...

  7. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  8. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  9. Reproductive rights under attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, funding groups, and donor countries must all be lobbied with the message that sexual and reproductive health issues are inextricably linked to women in development, education, and future economic strength of nations worldwide. In the Beijing Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum the draft Plan of Action had 35% of its language bracketed and subject to negotiation in Beijing. The previous International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo had only 15% of its language bracketed. Much of the language bracketed for Beijing had already been fully agreed upon before the Cairo conference. The bracketed language was in the health and human rights sections, and most of the language pertained to sexual and reproductive health. The increase in controversy is due to an opposition better organized in Beijing than it had been in Cairo, due to the opposition's failure to recognize the implications of the Cairo declarations on women, men, and children, and due to the opposition's general intolerance of sexual and reproductive issues. The major factor, however, was the linking of women's rights with sexual and reproductive health issues. Family planners joined with women's rights groups, which had always promoted women's control over their bodies as the cornerstone of equality. This connection was interpreted as a threat to the social order by conservative societies. NGO participants included 1400 people representing 170 countries. The NGO anti-abortion contingent was well-funded, well-organized, and large. Lobbying was conducted in an effort to convince people to oppose any language pertaining to gender, sexual and reproductive health, and adolescent rights. Anti-abortion lobbyists also rifled through documents of pro-choice participants. In Canada and the United States anti-abortion groups are lobbying hard to overturn the Cairo Plan of Action and to expand their efforts internationally among

  10. Ethics and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-06-01

    In vitro fertilization and assisted reproductive technology have made great progress during the last 20 years. Genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and surrogacy are currently practiced in many countries. On the other hand, embryo research is practiced only in a small number of nations, whereas human cloning has thus far been universally condemned. The rapid evolution and progress of all these techniques of assisted reproduction has revealed certain ethical issues that have to be addressed. PMID:10825637

  11. Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ásgeirsson, Hrafn; Nordal, Salvör

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, reproductive technology and surrogacy have emerged in a number of European countries as issues of debate. There has been a steady increase in the use of reproductive technology in the Nordic countries, as well as an increase in the use of cross-border medical treatment in order to achieve pregnancy. At the same time, a number of ethical issues have been raised concerning the rights of the participants, including the children. In the fall of 2013, the Nordic Committe...

  12. Reproductive Market Values Explain Post-reproductive Lifespans in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-03-01

    Post-reproductive lifespans (PRLSs) of men vary across traditional societies. We argue that if sexual selection operates on male age-dependent resource availability (or 'reproductive market values') the result is variation in male late-life reproduction across subsistence systems. This perspective highlights the uniqueness of PRLS in both women and men. PMID:26774275

  13. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  14. Increased CO2 stimulates reproduction in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle M; Watson, Sue-Ann; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to negatively impact the reproduction of many marine species, either by reducing fertilization success or diverting energy from reproductive effort. While recent studies have demonstrated how ocean acidification will affect larval and juvenile fishes, little is known about how increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) and decreasing pH might affect reproduction in adult fishes. We investigated the effects of near-future levels of pCO(2) on the reproductive performance of the cinnamon anemonefish, Amphiprion melanopus, from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Breeding pairs were held under three CO(2) treatments [Current-day Control (430 μatm), Moderate (584 μatm) and High (1032 μatm)] for a 9-month period that included the summer breeding season. Unexpectedly, increased CO(2) dramatically stimulated breeding activity in this species of fish. Over twice as many pairs bred in the Moderate (67% of pairs) and High (55%) compared to the Control (27%) CO(2) treatment. Pairs in the High CO(2) group produced double the number of clutches per pair and 67% more eggs per clutch compared to the Moderate and Control groups. As a result, reproductive output in the High group was 82% higher than that in the Control group and 50% higher than that in the Moderate group. Despite the increase in reproductive activity, there was no difference in adult body condition among the three treatment groups. There was no significant difference in hatchling length between the treatment groups, but larvae from the High CO(2) group had smaller yolks than Controls. This study provides the first evidence of the potential effects of ocean acidification on key reproductive attributes of marine fishes and, contrary to expectations, demonstrates an initially stimulatory (hormetic) effect in response to increased pCO(2). However, any long-term consequences of increased reproductive effort on individuals or populations remain to be determined. PMID:23686937

  15. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  16. Modes of worker reproduction, reproductive dominance and brood cell construction in queenless honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Peter; Randall Hepburn, H.; Radloff, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Modes de reproduction des ouvrières, dominance de reproduction et construction des cellules de couvain dans des colonies orphelines d'Apis mellifera L. Le long d'un transect à travers la zone d'hybridation naturelle entre A. mellifera capensis, à reproduction thélytoque, et A. mellifera scutellata, à reproduction arrhénotoque, 70 colonies indigènes ont été récoltées (voir tableau pour les lieux). Toutes les reines et tous les rayons ont été ôtés et les abeilles adultes ont été transférées dan...

  17. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook and Juvenile-to-Adult PIT-tag Retention; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis M. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-11-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the first in an anticipated series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. In addition to within-year comparisons, between-year comparisons will be made to determine if traits of the wild Naches basin control population, the naturally spawning population in the upper Yakima River and the hatchery control population are diverging over time. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2001 and March 31, 2002. In the future, these data will be compared to previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons.

  18. Female Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  19. Male Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  20. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades...

  1. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment of apples infested with diapausing eggs of the European red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viable eggs of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), on apples have been the concern of several importing countries and exports require preshipment, phytosanitary treatment to reduce or eliminate live eggs. Because fumigation is often detrimental to the commodity appearance and shelf-life, resulting in a loss of commercial value, there is a need for alternatives for chemical pest control as a quarantine treatment, and irradiation could be a new strategy method. The data obtained indicate that a dose of gamma radiation equal to or higher than 0.15 kGy seems to be adequate to prevent post-diapause hatching of wintering eggs of the European red mite. Thus, this dose is suggested for quarantine treatment of apples infested with wintering eggs of the European red mite. (author)

  2. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M;

    2016-01-01

    . Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor...... evidence suggests that it most often is related to environmental exposures of the fetal testis. However, environmental factors can also affect the adult endocrine system. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, we conclude that environmental exposures arising from modern lifestyle, rather...

  3. Field use of ultrasonography to characterize the reproductive tract and early pregnancy in a phocid, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shero, Michelle R; Adams, Gregg P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    The utility of transrectal ultrasonography was tested in a field setting to characterize the reproductive tract and detect early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles guitar-pick shaped nonechogenic (black) vesicle with a clearly visible echogenic border within the lumen of the uterus. The stage of embryonic development (ostensibly the gestational age) varied markedly among individuals, ranging from a vesicle with no embryo proper to a large fetus with an ocular orbit, nose/mouth, limb buds, spinal column, umbilical cord, and prominent vasculature. Two of the pregnant seals were re-examined 3-6 days after the initial examination to obtain longitudinal growth rates. Images of one or both ovaries were obtained in nine and seven of the 19 examinations, respectively. Numerous ovarian follicles (3 to 12 mm diameter) were detected and animals typically had a single well-perfused corpus luteum (determined by Doppler color-flow) ipsilateral to the uterine horn containing the pregnancy. We conclude that real-time transrectal ultrasonography is an effective tool for characterizing reproductive events in phocids including ovarian dynamics, and for elucidating the nature of embryonic diapause. PMID:26340607

  4. Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander). Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, Hardin; Hefner, Jeromi

    2012-01-01

    The Spotted Salamander is a wide-ranging salamander of the eastern United States that typically breeds in winter or early spring in ephemeral pools in lowland forests. Ambystoma maculatum is known to deposit 2-4 egg masses per year, each containing 1-250 eggs. As part of ongoing research into the ecology and reproductive biology of Spotted Salamanders in the Kisatchie District of Kisatchie National Forest in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, USA, we have been counting the number of embryos per egg mass. We captured seven female A. maculatum in a small pool, six of which were still gravid. We took standard measurements, including SVL, and then implanted a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag) into each adult female as was the protocol. About an hour after processing these animals we marked new A. maculatum egg masses found in the same small pool using PVC pin flags pushed carefully through the outer jelly. We did not have enough time to process them that evening, and it was not until a few days later that we photographed those masses. We discovered that one of the masses contained a PIT tag in the outer jelly that corresponded to one of the six gravid females that were marked that same evening. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PIT tags being the means, albeit coincidentally, by which a particular egg mass of Ambystoma maculatum has been assigned to a particular female. For our purposes, losing the PIT tag from the adult female is counter to the goals of our study of this population, and we will no longer be implanting PIT tags into gravid females.

  5. Population structure of Argas arboreus (Acari : Argasidae ticks associated with seasonally abandoned mixed heronries, dominated by cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Belozerov

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available During winter populations of Argas arboreus from heronries of the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa are composed of adults, with some predominance of males, and II-IV instar nymphs, in a state of diapause. The period of tick activity, including reproduction and development of eggs, larvae and N1 nymphs, is synchronized with the nesting and breeding season of their avian hosts. It begins during spring with the return of birds to the heronry, and ceases in autumn through induction of reproductive diapause in engorged females, and behavioural diapause in unfed nymphs and adult ticks. Many ticks showed morphological anomalies and malformations, the study of which could possibly be used for monitoring of environmental pollution.

  6. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M; Petersen, J H; Simell, T; Simell, O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unknown. Recently, the peptide hormone inhibin B was shown to be a marker of Sertoli cell function in...... the adult male. In the adult woman, inhibin B is secreted by the granulosa cells. Longitudinal serum levels of inhibin B were measured in healthy boys (n = 15) and girls (n = 15), in cord blood, and every third month during the first 2 yr of life. In addition, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone...... high interindividual variation in levels of inhibin B, FSH, and LH within each age. In conclusion, the sustained elevation of inhibin B to supraadult levels in infant boys indicates that the neonatal period may be a developmental window important for Sertoli cell proliferation and maturation. Thus, the...

  7. Personality and reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, L J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Hewitt, J K; Neale, M C

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between reproductive success (number of biological children) and personality was explored in 1101 postmenopausal females from the Australian twin registry. The quadratic response surface relating fitness to extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N) showed a saddle point at intermediate levels of E and N. Selection was shown to be stabilizing, i.e., having an intermediate optimum, along the axis low E, low N-high E, high N and more mildly disruptive, having greater fitness in the extremes, along the axis low N, high E-high N, low E. Neither dimension of personality considered by itself showed a significant linear or quadratic relationship to reproductive success. Sections through the fitness surface, however, show selection tends to favor high neuroticism levels in introverts and low neuroticism levels in extroverts. PMID:2288546

  8. "Feeling the force" in reproduction: Mechanotransduction in reproductive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janice P; Leppert, Phyllis C

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive biologists are well-versed in many types of biochemical signaling, and indeed, there are almost innumerable examples in reproduction, including steroid and peptide hormone signaling, receptor-ligand and secondary messenger-mediated signaling, signaling regulated by membrane channels, and many others. Among reproductive scientists, a perhaps lesser-known but comparably important mode of signaling is mechanotransduction: the concept that cells can sense and respond to externally applied or internally generated mechanical forces. Given the cell shape changes and tissue morphogenesis events that are components of many phenomena in reproductive function, it should be no surprise that mechanotransduction has major impacts in reproductive health and pathophysiology. The conference on "Mechanotransduction in the Reproductive Tract" was a valuable launch pad to bring this hot issue in development, cell biology, biophysics, and tissue regeneration to the realm of reproductive biology. The goal of the meeting was to stimulate interest and increased mechanotransduction research in the reproductive field by presenting a broad spectrum of responses impacted by this process. The meeting highlighted the importance of convening expert investigators, students, fellows, and young investigators from a number of research areas resulting in cross-fertilization of ideas and suggested new avenues for study. The conference included talks on tissue engineering, stem cells, and several areas of reproductive biology, from uterus and cervix to the gametes. Specific reproductive health-relevant areas, including uterine fibroids, gestation and parturition, and breast tissue morphogenesis, received particular attention. PMID:27070825

  9. Introduction: Imaging in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Tamar; Laufer, Neri

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this Views and Reviews outline in detail the indispensable role of imaging tools-ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging-in the diagnosis and treatment of female and male factor infertility. Equipment producing diagnostic images, coupled with ever-increasing computing power, will pave the way for novel functional dynamic studies that will expand the understanding of reproductive processes and their management. PMID:27117374

  10. Mitochondria and mammalian reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho-Santos, J; Amaral, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are cellular organelles with crucial roles in ATP synthesis, metabolic integration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and management, the regulation of apoptosis (namely via the intrinsic pathway), among many others. Additionally, mitochondria in different organs or cell types may have distinct properties that can decisively influence functional analysis. In terms of the importance of mitochondria in mammalian reproduction, and although there are species-specifi...

  11. Interventions in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, D S; Sheriff, S Omer

    2006-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology has helped many childless couples. It has also raised questions about how appropriate the technology might be in different situations. How we understand parenthood is crucial in taking a stand on such scientific intervention. It is suggested that physicians should decide on offering artificial insemination, surrogacy and in-vitro fertilisation only after considering if the child will have good parents and if there will be legal complications from the use of the technology. PMID:17223683

  12. A theory of Fisher's reproductive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-07-01

    The formal Darwinism project aims to provide a mathematically rigorous basis for optimisation thinking in relation to natural selection. This paper deals with the situation in which individuals in a population belong to classes, such as sexes, or size and/or age classes. Fisher introduced the concept of reproductive value into biology to help analyse evolutionary processes of populations divided into classes. Here a rigorously defined and very general structure justifies, and shows the unity of concept behind, Fisher's uses of reproductive value as measuring the significance for evolutionary processes of (i) an individual and (ii) a class; (iii) recursively, as calculable for a parent as a sum of its shares in the reproductive values of its offspring; and (iv) as an evolutionary maximand under natural selection. The maximand is the same for all parental classes, and is a weighted sum of offspring numbers, which implies that a tradeoff in one aspect of the phenotype can legitimately be studied separately from other aspects. The Price equation, measure theory, Markov theory and positive operators contribute to the framework, which is then applied to a number of examples, including a new and fully rigorous version of Fisher's sex ratio argument. Classes may be discrete (e.g. sex), continuous (e.g. weight at fledging) or multidimensional with discrete and continuous components (e.g. sex and weight at fledging and adult tarsus length). PMID:16791649

  13. [Reproductive or domestic work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, I; Arregui, B; Arpal, J

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the evolution of reproductive work and to analyse those factors related to its distribution. The analysis has been based on data from various Time-use Surveys (Women Institute 1993, 1996, 2001) as well as on data from different regional surveys: Andalusia, the Basque Country, Madrid and the metropolitan area of Barcelona. In the period 1993-2001, the amount of time devoted by men to housekeeping in Spain increased by 35% while women's time declined by 5%. Yet, in 2001 women's dedication to housekeeping was twice that of men's (7.2 vs 3.1 h daily). However, the imbalance in sharing of housework declined among younger people. Union formation and growing family size increase women's housework intensifying the uneven distribution of household chores. When women are employed and have higher educational and income levels, dedication to household tasks decreases and gender inequalities are reduced. In spite of growing male participation in housework, reproductive work is still mainly women's responsibility. The recent legal, social and cultural changes have not been able to eradicate the traditional model of assigning reproductive work in the home. PMID:15171855

  14. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on reproduction in reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Megan J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2016-06-01

    Differences in the sensitivity of marine species to ocean acidification will influence the structure of marine communities in the future. Reproduction is critical for individual and population success, yet is energetically expensive and could be adversely affected by rising CO2 levels in the ocean. We investigated the effects of projected future CO2 levels on reproductive output of two species of coral reef damselfish, Amphiprion percula and Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Adult breeding pairs were maintained at current-day control (446 μatm), moderate (652 μatm) or high CO2 (912 μatm) for a 9-month period that included the summer breeding season. The elevated CO2 treatments were consistent with CO2 levels projected by 2100 under moderate (RCP6) and high (RCP8) emission scenarios. Reproductive output increased in A. percula, with 45-75 % more egg clutches produced and a 47-56 % increase in the number of eggs per clutch in the two elevated CO2 treatments. In contrast, reproductive output decreased at high CO2 in Ac. polyacanthus, with approximately one-third as many clutches produced compared with controls. Egg survival was not affected by CO2 for A. percula, but was greater in elevated CO2 for Ac. polyacanthus. Hatching success was also greater for Ac. polyacanthus at elevated CO2, but there was no effect of CO2 treatments on offspring size. Despite the variation in reproductive output, body condition of adults did not differ between control and CO2 treatments in either species. Our results demonstrate different effects of high CO2 on fish reproduction, even among species within the same family. A greater understanding of the variation in effects of ocean acidification on reproductive performance is required to predict the consequences for future populations of marine organisms.

  15. Developmental stress increases reproductive success in male zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Ondi L; Prather, Colin T; Driscoll, Stephanie C; Good, Jeffrey M; Breuner, Creagh W

    2014-11-22

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals exposed to developmental stress may compensate for poor quality sexually selected traits by pursuing alternative reproductive tactics. Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress on adult male reproductive investment and success in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We tested the hypothesis that males exposed to developmental stress sire fewer offspring through extra-pair copulations (EPCs), but invest more in parental care. To test this hypothesis, we fed nestlings corticosterone (CORT; the dominant avian stress hormone) during the nestling period and measured their adult reproductive success using common garden breeding experiments. We found that nestlings reared by CORT-fed fathers received more parental care compared with nestlings reared by control fathers. Consequently, males fed CORT during development reared nestlings in better condition compared with control males. Contrary to the prediction that developmental stress decreases male reproductive success, we found that CORT-fed males also sired more offspring and were less likely to rear non-genetic offspring compared with control males, and thus had greater overall reproductive success. These data are the first to demonstrate that developmental stress can have a positive effect on fitness via changes in reproductive success and provide support for an adaptive role of developmental stress in shaping animal phenotype. PMID:25297860

  16. Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Li, Run-Xi Xia, Huan Wang, Xi-Sheng Li, Yan-Qun Liu, Zhao-Jun Wei, Cheng Lu, Zhong-Huai Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 × 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4% were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2% were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4% were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151 was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination.

  17. Age-specific reproductive success and cost in female Alpine ibex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughetti, Marco; Dematteis, Andrea; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    In female mammals, reproduction requires high energy expenditure because of gestation and lactation, possibly leading to a fitness cost. Several studies, however, failed to find the expected negative correlation between current and future reproductive success, likely because of individual heterogeneity in reproductive potential. We compared reproductive performance and costs of reproduction for 40 female Alpine ibex in one established population with 29 females translocated from the same population to a new colony. We investigate factors affecting pregnancy, fecundity and overwinter survival of juveniles, after accounting for individual heterogeneity. In both populations, prime-aged females experienced a strong reproductive cost. Senescent females, however, showed no evidence of reproductive costs. The colonizing population showed lower reproductive cost and better age-specific reproductive performance than the established population. We found a general pattern of low age-specific fecundity and reproductive success that was affected by environmental constraints. Age-specific reproductive success was unrelated to longevity. Although about 84% of adult females appeared to conceive, independently of environmental constraints, energy was allocated to reproduction in a highly conservative manner, leading to low age-specific fecundity (only 36 and 21% of prime-aged and senescent females were seen with a kid) but high kid survival (100% to weaning and 92% to 1 year). Our results suggest that females embarked on lactation only if they had a very high probability of raising their offspring. Our study highlights how reproductive performance and costs in this species vary with age and environment, and are the result of a highly conservative reproductive tactic. PMID:25543851

  18. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  19. Emblica officinalis Garten fruits extract ameliorates reproductive injury and oxidative testicular toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Abir Lal; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides have destroying properties on male reproduction and chlorpyrifos adversely affects the male reproductive system. Emblica offcinalis Garten plays a vital role to challenge many diseases in human body. We investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the male reproductive system of adult rats (Wistar Strain) exposed to widely used organophosphate pesticide, Chlorpyrifos, and tried to establish the ameliorative properties of Emblica officinalis Garten with respect ...

  20. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    Aygul Akyuz; Gonul Sahiner

    2010-01-01

    AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are r...

  1. Male reproductive health and yoga

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice cel...

  2. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    OpenAIRE

    G. William Skinner

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869) to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir), coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reprodu...

  3. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  4. Reproductive Exponential Families

    OpenAIRE

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O.; Blaesild, P.

    1983-01-01

    Consider a full and steep exponential model $\\mathscr{M}$ with model function $a(\\theta)b(x)\\exp\\{\\theta \\cdot t(x)\\}$ and a sample $x_1, \\cdots, x_n$ from $\\mathscr{M}$. Let $\\bar{t} = \\{t(x_1) + \\cdots + t(x_n)\\}/n$ and let $\\bar{t} = (\\bar{t}_1, \\bar{t}_2)$ be a partition of the canonical statistic $\\bar{t}$. We say that $\\mathscr{M}$ is reproductive in $t_2$ if there exists a function $H$ independent of $n$ such that for every $n$ the marginal model for $\\bar{t}_2$ is exponential with $n\\...

  5. 繁殖前期中国大鲵雄性成体的冲凉行为及其意义%The Washing Behavior and Its Significance for Male Adult Andrias davidianus in the Pre-reproductive Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文刚; 王中乾; 梁刚

    2013-01-01

    为揭示和探讨中国大鲵(Andrias davidianus)繁殖前期的冲凉行为及其意义,在仿生态养殖环境条件下,采用定时定点观察法和全事件记录法,对雄性成鲵的冲凉行为过程及姿势进行了观察记录,并分析了冲凉行为与年龄、求偶行为、繁殖成功率之间的关系.繁殖前期雄性成鲵表现出冲凉行为,冲凉行为与求偶行为之间存在极显著的正相关,表现出求偶行为的6尾雄性成鲵有4尾成功参与了繁殖.冲凉行为可能促进了雄性成鲵精巢的发育,引发求偶行为,最终达到成功繁殖.%We observed washing behavior and courtship behavior of male adults of Chinese Giant Salamander Andrias davidianus in the imitated natural eco-breeding environment using all occurrence recording method at fixed time and fixed location and examined the significance of washing behavior for them by analyzing the relationship between the age,courtship behavior and breeding success.The washing behavior could be divided into four stages:washing exploration,gesture adjustment,washing and walk away with seven washing posture,head washing,tail washing,trunk washing,movement washing,surround washing,adherence washing and rising-head washing.Only males over 8 years showed washing behavior and courtship behavior after washing,and an extreme positive correlation between washing and courtship behaviors were detected.Two out of three male adults exhibited courtship behavior to participate in the breeding successfully.The washing behaviors maybe enhance gonadal development and maintain breeding successfully via courtship behavior.

  6. Recruitment of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin in a tropical estuary: implications of environmental perturbation, reproduction and larval ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.

    variations in recruitment, larval abundance, development and reproduction. Adult conditioning and inter-brood variations were important factors in the larval ecology of this organism. The results indicate that the impulsive release of larvae during breaks...

  7. Cystic fibrosis Delta F508 heterozygotes, smoking, and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Wittrup, H H;

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested this...... hypothesis. An adult Danish general population sample of 9141 individuals was screened for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes; 250 carriers of this mutation were identified (2.7%). In the total sample DeltaF508 heterozygotes did not have more children than noncarriers; however, smoking interacted with.......001). In conclusion, overall these results do not support a reproductive advantage for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes. However, the data cannot totally exclude the possibility that nonsmoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience a reproductive advantage while smoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes...

  8. Signaling for food and sex? Begging by reproductive female white-throated magpie-jays

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Langen, Tom A.; Berg, Elena C.

    2009-01-01

    Food begging is common in nutritionally dependent young of many animals, but structurally homologous calls recur in adult signal repertoires of many species. We propose eight functional hypotheses for begging in adults; these stem from observations in birds but apply broadly to other taxa in which begging occurs. Adult cooperatively-breeding white-throated magpie-jays (Calocitta formosa) use loud begging vocalizations, particularly near the nest site during reproduction. We analysed the socia...

  9. The Gonadotropins FSH and LH and their use in Adult Women – an Overviewbr(Joint Statement by the German Society for Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine [DGGEF] and the German Professional Association of Gynecologists [BVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein hormones LH and FSH are essential for reproduction. They consist of two polypeptide units. The alpha unit has 92 amino acids and is virtually identical for FSH, LH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. The secretion in the anterior pituitary gland underlies neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Depending on the level of maturity of the follicle and on the phase of the menstrual cycle LH and FSH regulate the steroidogenesis in theka- and granulosacells of the ovary. The pregnancy hormone hCG is produced by Langerhans cells in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta. It is very similar to LH in structure and binds to the LH receptor, but with a half-life of 36 h has a longer effect in duration. hCG administration can replace the LH peak in the middle of the ovarian cycle and helps to improve luteal function. However, it cannot prevent regression of the corpus luteum. For more than 30 years gonadotropins have been crucial elements of pharmacological ovarian stimulation in assisted reproductive techniques (ART in primary and secondary infertility and the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. First menotropins have been extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in the development of recombinant FSH. Further aims have been to avoid daily injections by modifying the FSH molecule.br Compounds available at present:br – Highly purified human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone: Bravelle® (Ferringbr – Recombinant-DNA products:br -- Follitropin alpha: Gonal-F® (Merck-Seronobr -- rec. FSH: Follitropin beta: Puregon® (MSDbr -- long acting rec. FSH: Corifollitropin alpha: Elonva® (MSDbr -- rec. hLH: Lutropin alpha: Luveris® (Merck Seronobr – Compounds with more than one active agent:br -- human urinary-derived preparations: hMG HP: FSH,LH,hCG = 75 IU LH: Menogon HP® (Ferringbr -- recombinant fixed

  10. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  11. Work, environment and reproductive health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Snijder (Claudia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing labour force participation among women in Western countries, many women will work during their reproductive years. This will increase the likelihood that women during their reproductive years will be exposed to a variety of risk factors at work that may effect their r

  12. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  13. Quantitative Genomics of Male Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the review was to establish the current status of quantitative genomics for male reproduction. Genetic variation exists for male reproduction traits. These traits are expensive and time consuming traits to evaluate through conventional breeding schemes. Genomics is an alternative to...

  14. Quantitative genomics of female reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits in domestic livestock have been described in the literature. In this chapter, the components needed for detection of reproductive trait QTL are described, including collection of phenotypes, genotypes, and the appropriate statistical ana...

  15. Pulsatile control of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-18

    An aspect of the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction to emerge in the past decade is the pulsatile nature of hormone secretion. The pulse generator is in the central nervous system -- in the medial basal region of the hypothalamus. It works by a synchronous firing of entire populations of endocrine neurons, which discharge a quantum of the decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into the portal blood capillaries which then carry it to the anterior pituitary gland. In man, episodic secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, especially luteinizing hormone (LH) is considered to imply a preceding pulsatile GnRH stimulus also, though this cannot be observed directly. This LH pattern is characterized by discrete bursts (pulses) separated by periods of little or no secretion. It is observalbe at all stages and states of reproductive life, being most evident at high secretion rates (e.g., at midcycle and after menopause). The pulse frequency is important and leads to the possibility of physiological and pharmacological control of pituitary-gonadal function by frequency modulation. Physiologically, pulses of LH secretion occur every 1-2 hours. The need for pulsatility in therapeutic GnRH stimulation of the pituitary also has been established following the early days of GnRH therapy when both constant and infrequent administration were found to be ineffective. Pulsatile GnRH therapy through portable pumps delivering small doses subcutaneously or intravenously every 1-2 hours has now been successfully applied to the treatment of anovulatory infertility, male hypogonadism, and the initiation of puberty. Supraphysiological GnRH stimulation, whether through increased frequency or amplitude or use of the "superactive" agonist analogues, produces a seemingly paradoxical inhibition of gonadotropin secretion. Although a postreceptor effect has been proposed, the mechanism appears to be a "down-regulation" of the GnRH receptors. Normally, the gaps between the physiological

  16. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  17. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    is to investigate the variation in lipid content, EFA and antioxidants of female Baltic cod gonads and livers during the reproductive cycle (Paper II) and to examine whether there is a deficiency in lipid energy and dietary EFA that could explain the delayed spawning time observed in the Baltic cod (Paper III...... may impact lipid content and FAC in cod. High proportions of ARA, EPA and the antioxidant, astaxanthin, in S. Entomon, compared to 9 clupeids, render it a valuable constituent in the diet of Baltic cod. However, the abundance of S. Entomon has declined in recent decades in the Baltic. FAC of ovary...... time. However the spawning period is not influenced by different ARA levels and EPA/ARA ratios in farmed cod (Paper IV). Uptake of DHA, EPA and ARA into cod eggs from broodstock diet is highly efficient (Paper IV). Diet with low EPA/ARA ratio has significantly higher realized fecundity and eggs from...

  18. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, D M

    1995-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impair...

  19. [Reproductive toxicity of lindane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Nicole; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Bouvet, Suzanne; Goudey-Perrière, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    The present paper bears on the main effects of lindane (gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) on endocrine and reproductive functions in mammals. This pesticide, once widely used to kill lice and a variety of pests that attack agricultural products, livestock and trees, has been progressively eliminated from many applications since the mid-1970s in Europe or USA, but is still used in the rest of the world. Lindane is absorbed through respiratory, digestive or cutaneous routes and accumulates in fat tissues. It damages human liver, kidney, neural and immune systems and induces birth defects, cancer and death. Chronic administration results in endocrine disruption in birds as well as in mammals. Treatment with 1-40 mg of lindane/kg b.w. disrupts testicular morphology, decreases spermatogenesis, inhibits testicular steroidogenesis, reduces plasma androgen concentrations and may adversely affect reproductive performances in males. In females, lindane disrupts the estrous cycle, reduces serum estrogen and progesterone levels, decreases sexual receptivity whereas in pregnant dams it decreases whelping rate and litter size. These effects were also observed in some rats exposed to residual environmental doses. In addition, there is concern that irreversible effects may be induced when animals are exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critically susceptible phases of sexual differentiation or development. These effects would results from (i) alterations of gonade or gamete cell membranes (ii) cell metabolism changes including alterations of ionic exchanges (mainly calcium or potassium), direct or free radical-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis (iii) or neuroendocrine changes leading to a decrease in sexual performance of either parents or their offsprings exposed in utero or through lactation. PMID:12645304

  20. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. PMID:26204578

  1. [Celiac disease. Risk factors for women in reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A

    2000-05-01

    In the past coeliac disease, or intolerance to gluten, has been considered a rare disease in infancy, whose most important signs were chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and reduced growth. However, besides this classical form, there are a number of other clinical and subclinical forms which may appear even in the adult life and without any overt intestinal sign. The alterations may affect, e.g., the liver, thyroid, skin and the female and male reproductive system. The overall prevalence of the different forms of coeliac disease in Western Europe is at least 1:300. The aim of the present paper is to describe and evaluate the effects of coeliac disease on female reproduction. Such effects include delayed menarche, amenorrhea, infertility and early menopause. Epidemiological studies show that besides reduced fertility, affected women are at higher risk of reproductive problems such as pregnancy loss, low birthweight of offspring and reduced duration of breastfeeding. There are no adequate studies to evidentiate a possible increase of birth defects; nevertheless, coeliac disease induces malabsorption, with deficiencies of nutritional factors essential to prenatal development such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K. The mechanisms underlying the reproductive alterations are still awaiting clarification; however, an interaction among specific nutritional deficiencies, endocrine imbalances and immune disturbances is suspected. As for the other effects associated to the coeliac disease, the possible prevention or treatment of the reproductive effects is only the lifelong maintenance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:11048475

  2. Vitamin C partially attenuates male reproductive deficits in hyperglycemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno Débora C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia can impair the male reproductive system in experimental animals and in men during reproductive age. Studies have shown that vitamin C has some good effects on male reproductive system, and therefore vitamin C treatment could attenuate the dysfunctions in this system caused by hyperglycemia. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate whether vitamin C treatment could attenuate reproductive dysfunctions in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods Adult male rats were divided into 3 groups: a normoglycemic (n = 10 and two hyperglycemic (that received a single dose of streptozotocin - 40 mg/kg BW. The two last groups (n = 10 per group were divided into: hyperglycemic control (Hy and hyperglycemic + 150 mg of vitamin C (HyC, by gavage during 30 consecutive days. The normoglycemic and hyperglycemic control groups received the vehicle (water. The first day after the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and killed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, SOD, GSHt and GSH-Px in the erythrocytes, body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma hormone levels (FSH, LH and testosterone, testicular and epididymal histo-morphometry and histopathology. Results Compared with the normoglycemic animals, hyperglycemic control rats showed reduced weight of the body and reproductive organ but testis weight was maintained. It was also observed reduction of testosterone and LH levels, seminiferous tubular diameter, sperm motility and sperm counts in the epididymis. In addition, there was an increase in morphological abnormalities on spermatozoa as well as in oxidative stress level. Vitamin C reduced the oxidative stress level, diminished the number of abnormal sperm, and increased testosterone and LH levels and seminiferous tubular diameter but did not show improvement of sperm motility in relation to the hyperglycemic control group. Hyperglycemia caused a rearrangement in the epididymal tissue components (stroma

  3. Reproductive and developmental toxicity testing: Examination of the extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Shakil A; Dorato, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    An important aspect of safety assessment of chemicals (industrial and agricultural chemicals and pharmaceuticals) is determining their potential reproductive and developmental toxicity. A number of guidelines have outlined a series of separate reproductive and developmental toxicity studies from fertilization through adulthood and in some cases to second generation. The Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study (EOGRTS) is the most recent and comprehensive guideline in this series. EOGRTS design makes toxicity testing progressive, comprehensive, and efficient by assessing key endpoints across multiple life-stages at relevant doses using a minimum number of animals, combining studies/evaluations and proposing tiered-testing approaches based on outcomes. EOGRTS determines toxicity during preconception, development of embryo/fetus and newborn, adolescence, and adults, with specific emphasis on the nervous, immunological, and endocrine systems, EOGRTS also assesses maternal and paternal toxicity. However, EOGRTS guideline is complex, criteria for selecting doses is unclear, and monitoring systemic dose during the course of the study for better interpretation and human relevance is not clear. This paper discusses potential simplification of EOGRTS, suggests procedures for relevant dose selection and monitors systemic dose at multiple life-stages for better interpretation of data and human relevance. PMID:27074386

  4. New reproductive technologies: Equity and access to reproductive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henifin, M S

    1993-01-01

    While attention has focused on the promise of new reproductive technologies to provide cures for infertility, efforts aimed at preventing infertility have languished, and the major cause of infant morbidity and morality--lack of prenatal care--has worsened. This article explores the social and ethical issues arising out of the uses of three new reproductive technologies: surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, and prenatal screening. In addition, coerced medical interventions during pregnancy are described. Examination of the social circumstances surrounding the use of these medical technologies supports the conclusion that new reproductive technologies have increased, rather than decreased, inequities in access to and allocation of health care resources. PMID:17165238

  5. Profiling of relaxin and its receptor proteins in boar reproductive tissues and spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Feugang, Jean M; Greene, Jonathan M; Sanchez-Rodríguez, Hector L; Stokes, John V; Crenshaw, Mark A; Willard, Scott T.; Ryan, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Relaxin levels in seminal plasma have been associated with positive effects on sperm motility and quality, and thus having potential roles in male fertility. However, the origin of seminal relaxin, within the male reproductive tract, and the moment of its release in the vicinity of spermatozoa remain unclear. Here, we assessed the longitudinal distribution of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in the reproductive tract, sex accessory glands, and spermatozoa of adult boars. M...

  6. Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Cryopreserved Larvae from a Marine Invertebrate, the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Suquet, Marc; Labbé, Catherine; Puyo, Sophie; Mingant, Christian; Quittet, Benjamin; Boulais, Myrina; Queau, Isabelle; Ratiskol, Dominique; Diss, Blandine; Haffray, Pierrick

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first demonstration of successful post-thawing development to reproduction stage of diploid cryopreserved larvae in an aquatic invertebrate. Survival, growth and reproductive performances were studied in juvenile and adult Pacific oysters grown from cryopreserved embryos. Cryopreservation was performed at three early stages: trochophore (13 +/- 2 hours post fertilization: hpf), early D-larvae (24 +/- 2 hpf) and late D-larvae (43 +/- 2 hpf). From the beginning (88 days) at th...

  7. Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Ezi; Mehran Hosseini; Mahsa Hassanzadeh-Taheri; Farnaz Jahani; Mohammad Afshar; Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF) enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were random...

  8. Parents’ Attitudes towards Adolescent Boy's Reproductive Health Needs and Practice in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh K Abadi Farahani; Siamak Alikhani; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Alireza Bahonar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Parents are believed to be among the most influential adults who have a deterministic role in the success of interventional programs on adolescents' reproductive health. The aim of this study is to describe parents' perceptions and attitudes towards adolescent reproductive needs, experiences and associated factors. Method: A population-based study of 539 parents of adolescent boys, aged 15-18 in Tehran was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. bivariate and m...

  9. Reproductive biology of albacore Thunnus alalunga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K-S; Crone, P R; Hsu, C-C

    2010-07-01

    Reproductive variables in albacore Thunnus alalunga were evaluated by gonad histology in samples of 132 males (58-118 cm fork length, L(F)) and 112 females (59-101 cm L(F)) that were collected from the western North Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2006. In the sex ratio examination, males greatly outnumbered females in large adult fish (L(F) > 100 cm). Thunnus alalunga exhibited a protracted spawning period from March to September in the waters off eastern Taiwan and the Philippines, and the peak spawning activity occurred in March and April. Minimum sizes associated with the classification of mature fish were 78 and 83 cm L(F) for males and females, respectively. In addition, the largest L(F) of immature fish were 93 cm for males and 94 cm for females. The spawning frequency estimate in April was 1.7 days. Batch-fecundity estimates of 21 females (89-99 cm L(F)) ranged between 0.17 and 1.66 million eggs (mean +/-s.d. = 0.94 +/- 0.43). The relative fecundity estimates of the 21 females ranged between 9.2 and 92.4 oocytes g(-1) body mass (mean +/-s.d. = 50.5 +/- 22.8). The results presented in this study provide increased information regarding this species' reproductive-related characteristics than are currently available in stock status determinations. PMID:20646142

  10. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty.

  11. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary "forensic endocrine" analysis of events relevant to our specialty. PMID:27186562

  12. Atividades de vôo de Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg) (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) durante o período de postura da rainha e em diapausa Flight activities of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg) (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) during the oviposition period and the diapause

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel A. Pick; Betina Blochtein

    2002-01-01

    The activities of four colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg, 1903), of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied from October, 1998 to September. 1999, comparatively during the oviposition period and the diapause. The construction of the cells was monitored by direct observation of the nests. The duration of the diapause period varied from 76 to 168 days. Monthly, the bees that left and entered were counted for 10 minutes, at each hour, during the complete period of flig...

  13. Adolescent male reproductive responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L S

    1983-01-01

    A sample of 100 adolescent males enrolled in 2 high schools in suburban New Jersey completed a 30 item questionnaire in 1980 to explore further the attitudes and intended behavior of white, middle-class adolescent males regarding their reproductive responsibility. Data were sought on attitudes toward sex, contraception, pregnancy, and fatherhood. Also questioned were preferences about contraceptive use as well as anticipated behavior in the event of a partner's pregnancy. The study also was designed to obtain information on responses the subjects anticipated from their paretns on preferred pregnancy outcome. All respondents were white. 94%, based on data on the subjects' fathers, were ranked middle class and higher according to Hollingshead's Two Factor Index of Social Position. Ages ranged from 15-19 with a mean age of 16. 88% were living in households with both parents. Only 4% agreed that there was nothing wrong with telling a girl that you love her (even if you do not) so that she will agree to have sexual relations. This contrasts markedly with 61% of Vadies and Hale's lower-class sample of adolescent males who felt that deception was acceptable to obtain sex. 59% of the study group agreed that contraceptive use "shows concern for the girl," but the percentage dropped slightly to 53% regarding attitude toward using "protection whenever possible." The subjects demonstrated a contrast between attitude and intended behavior with 67% indicating an intention to use contraception when participating in sex regularly. 62% thought that for most of their peers would have sex and count on luck. 54% assumed that the "girl will protect herself." Respondents were more often willing either to help the close girlfriend range an abortion (28%), to marry her (21%), or to help her seek an adoption (20%). They were less likely to do the same for a casual girlfriend except in the case of abortion. A double standard was significantly evident on the basis of several preferred types

  14. Reproductive Life Planning: A Cross-Sectional Study of What College Students Know and Believe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kransdorf, Lisa N; Raghu, T S; Kling, Juliana M; David, Paru S; Vegunta, Suneela; Knatz, Jo; Markus, Allan; Frey, Keith A; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Mayer, Anita P; Files, Julia A

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a reproductive life plan (RLP) to promote individual responsibility for preconception health. The objectives of this study were to determine existing awareness of RLPs in a cohort of reproductive-age adults and to evaluate their knowledge level and beliefs about reproductive life planning. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey study of adults ages 18-40 years old seeking care at the student health center of a large public university. Participation was voluntary. Survey responses were analyzed by age and gender. Results A total of 559 surveys were collected and analyzed. Only 24 % of participants had heard of an RLP although a majority (62.9 %) agreed that it is important to develop an RLP. Most respondents (85.4 %) preferred to receive information about reproductive life planning from a primary care provider or obstetrician-gynecologist, while only 4.2 % of patients surveyed reported ever being actually asked about an RLP by their healthcare provider. Among those who agreed that an RLP was important, knowledge of specific aspects of an RLP was lacking. Conclusions In our cohort of reproductive-age adults, general health literacy regarding RLPs was poor. Most of the young adults who responded to our survey did not know what an RLP was and even fewer had ever discussed one with their health provider. PMID:26679707

  15. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  16. Reproductive ecology of predaceous Heteroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive ecology entails relating the physiology and behavior of an organism to its environment and the community in which it lives. Terrestrial predatory Heteroptera (including Anthocoridae, Geocoridae, Miridae, Nabidae, Pentatomidae, Phymatidae, and Reduviidae) display a wide range of reproduc...

  17. 夫妇体内重金属含量及环境因素与胎停育的相关性研究%The correlation study of heavy metal content in couples and environmental factors with embryonic diapause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩向玲; 姜晓静; 丁玉爱; 梁琳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship of heavy metal content in couples and production and living environmen -tal factors exposure with embryonic diapause in early pregnancy. Methods: Case-control study was used to analyze the difference of heavy metal contents and the production and living environmental factors between the embryonic diapause cou ples (observation group) and the corresponding normal pregnancy couples (control group). The difference of the blood heavy metal contents between the two groups was statistical by rank sum test. Environmental factors analysis were statistical by the two classification of non-conditional logistic regression, the risk factors correlation with embryonic diapause were screened out. Results: The blood heavy metal element contents of two groups were in normal range, two groups was statis -tical by rank sum test, the difference had no statistically significant (P>0.05). In the condition of the age of two groups had no statistical difference, home decoration or furniture purchase within one year, sickness and taking medicine in early preg -nancy, father smoking and passive smoking in half a year before pregnancy were the risk factors of embryonic diapause (OR>1), couples who had medical examination and medical consultation in half a year before pregnancy was protected factor (OR0.05).在两组夫妇在年龄无明显差别的情况下,1年内居室装修或购买家具、孕早期患病服药、父孕前半年吸烟或被动吸烟是发生胎停育的危险因素(均OR值>1),而夫妇孕前半年内接受医学检查和医学咨询是胎停育发生的保护性因素(OR值<1).结论:黄岛区内环境没有受到重金属污染而导致胎停育,从环境因素调查分析,应加强孕前宣传教育,控制和减少夫妇双方生产、生活环境中的危险因素暴露,对减少胎停育的发生风险尤为重要.

  18. Laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, WS; Ng, EH

    2000-01-01

    A number of advances have been made concerning the laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the treatment of male infertility. With the development of better embryo culture media, blastocyst transfer is now possible and is likely to reduce high-order multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction treatment. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has become an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. The recent use of molecular biology techniques to d...

  19. Heparin for assisted reproduction (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad A. Akhtar; Sur, Shyamaly D.; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes. It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to ...

  20. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bos-Mikich; Fabiana F. Bressan; Ruggeri, Rafael R.; Yeda Watanabe; Flávio V. Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with var...

  1. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  2. Lifetime reproductive effort in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Oskar; Walker, Robert; Hamilton, Marcus J.

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime reproductive effort (LRE) measures the total amount of metabolized energy diverted to reproduction during the lifespan. LRE captures key components of the life history and is particularly useful for describing and comparing the life histories of different organisms. Given a simple energetic production constraint, LRE is predicted to be similar in value for very different life histories. However, humans have some unique ecological characteristics that may alter LRE, such as the long p...

  3. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  4. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly emerged bollworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) require carbohydrate source from plant exudates and nectars for reproduction. Adults actively seek such feeding sites upon eclosion in their natural habitat. We wanted to evaluate this nocturnal behavior of the bollworm for potential use as a p...

  5. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  6. Energetics, Reproductive Ecology, and Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology is a relatively new subfield of human evolutionary biology focusing on the responsiveness of the human reproductive system to ecological variables. Many of the advances in human, and more recently primate, reproductive ecology concern the influence of energetics on the allocation of reproductive effort. This paper reviews eleven working hypotheses that have emerged from recent work in reproductive ecology that have potential bearing on the role of energetics in huma...

  7. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  8. Body Size and Reproductive Tactics in Varanid lizards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu DU; Longhui LIN; Yuntao YAO; Chixian LIN; Xiang JI

    2014-01-01

    Body size and female reproduction in the water monitor lizard(Varanus salvator) were studied. Forty-two adult females larger than 500 mm SVL and 32 adult males larger than 400 mm SVL were donated by local people in Ledong, Hainan under permit to our laboratory in Hainan in 2013 and 2014. The largest male and female measured 745 and 755 mm SVL, respectively. The mean SVL was greater in adult females than in adult males. Males had larger heads (head width) than females of the same SVL. The smallest reproductive female in our sample was 565 mm SVL. Females produced a single clutch of 17.1 (10−23) pliable-shelled eggs per breeding season stretching from mid-June and mid-September. Clutch size and clutch mass were all positively related to female SVL. However, there was no signiifcant linear relationship between egg mass and female SVL. Larger females generally produced more eggs, and thus heavier clutches than did smaller ones. There was no signiifcant linear relationship between relative clutch mass and female SVL. Phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) analysis, accounting for phylogenetic relationships, showed that clutch size was positively correlated with mean maternal SVL in varanid lizards. PGLS analysis showed that phylogenetic relationships did not affect clutch (or/and egg) mass and the SVL although there were significant linear relationship between clutch (or/and egg) mass and mean maternal SVL. Therefore, we could draw some general conclusions about the body size and reproductive tactics in varanid lizards that larger females generally produced more eggs, larger eggs and thus heavier clutches than did smaller ones.

  9. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  10. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: foetal origin of adult reproductive problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    that maternal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of TDS. Animal experiments have shown that all TDS symptoms, except testicular cancer, can be induced by foetal exposure to anti-androgenic chemicals. However, the cause of TDS in humans remains to be determined....

  11. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year

  12. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  13. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  14. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  15. BIOCHEMICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL/LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PCB'S WITH RESPECT TO ENDOGENOUS SEX STEROIDS AND THE PROESTROGEN, METHOXYCHLOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) bioaccumulate in the food chain of humans and many wildlife species, can be readily transferred transplacentally and lactationally to offspring, and have caused reproductive toxicity. PCB's are potent inducers in juveniles and adults of ...

  16. Trade-off between age of first reproduction and survival in a female primate

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Gregory E.

    2009-01-01

    Trade-offs are central to life-history theory but difficult to document. Patterns of phenotypic and genetic correlations in rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta—a long-lived, slow-reproducing primate—are used to test for a trade-off between female age of first reproduction and adult survival. A strong positive genetic correlation indicates that female macaques suffer reduced adult survival when they mature relatively early and implies primate senescence can be explained, in part, by antagonistic p...

  17. Adult Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) May Have Light Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Changlu; Wang, Jiao; Yang, Yanjian; Li, Zhuang; Guo, Ting; Li, Yongchuan; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    Light-sensitivity is an important aspect of mollusk survival as it plays a vital role in reproduction and predator avoidance. In the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas light sensitivity has been demonstrated in the larval stage but has not yet been conclusively demonstrated in adult oysters. In this paper we describe an experiment which was undertaken to determine if adult Pacific oysters were sensitive to light. One LED flashlight was used to shine light onto adult oysters while they were filt...

  18. Comprehensive Review on Kisspeptin and Its Role in Reproductive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Holly; Dhillo, Waljit S; Jayasena, Channa N

    2015-06-01

    Kisspeptin has recently emerged as a key regulator of the mammalian reproductive axis. It is known that kisspeptin, acting centrally via the kisspeptin receptor, stimulates secretion of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Loss of kisspeptin signaling causes hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in humans and other mammals. Kisspeptin interacts with other neuropeptides such as neurokinin B and dynorphin, to regulate GnRH pulse generation. In addition, a growing body of evidence suggests that kisspeptin signaling be regulated by nutritional status and stress. Kisspeptin may also represent a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of fertility disorders. Early human studies suggest that peripheral exogenous kisspeptin administration stimulates gonadotrophin release in healthy adults and in patients with certain forms of infertility. This review aims to concisely summarize what is known about kisspeptin as a regulator of reproductive function, and provide an update on recent advances within this field. PMID:26194072

  19. Maternal shift work during pregnancy and biomarkers of reproductive function among the male offspring--a pilot follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Christensen, Maria;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between maternal shift work during pregnancy and measures of semen quantity and quality and level of reproductive hormones among young, adult men.......The aim of this study was to examine the associations between maternal shift work during pregnancy and measures of semen quantity and quality and level of reproductive hormones among young, adult men....

  20. Ethical issues in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B M

    1992-07-01

    Since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, no other area in clinical practice and medical research has held the public interest to the same extent as the assisted reproductive technologies. This has led to the formation of committees of enquiry, guidelines from professional bodies, the passage of legislation, and the formation of legislative bodies. The ethical issues which arise in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction, the donation of gametes and embryos, and their cryopreservation, surrogacy, and human embryo research are reviewed. PMID:1309130

  1. Daphnia as a model organism in limnology and aquatic biology: some aspects of its reproduction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Petrusek

    2011-08-01

    and five poster presentations. The presenting authors mostly originated from Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Poland, Germany, and Austria but the conference also attracted a visitor from overseas (Mexico. Although the section was small, some of the presentations evoked considerable interest among conference participants working on marine crustaceans. Information exchange between marine and freshwater biologists was promoted, and will hopefully persist at future ISIRD meetings. The contributions presented in the session covered a very wide range of topics, such as the interplay of sexual and asexual reproduction and its impact on seasonal population development and its clonal structure, the impact of major environmental disturbances (floods on the status of Daphnia diapausing egg banks, factors promoting male production, the importance of Daphnia ageing, the effect of cyanobacteria on Daphnia growth, and the formation of antipredator morphological structures under different conditions. In this special insert, we present five papers from authors that attended the ISIRD meeting, from one German, two Czech, and two Polish teams.

  2. Reproductive Technology in the Context of Reproductive Teleology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Neil J.; Hampton, Simon Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that in the ordinary course of events, most parents routinely practice "reproductive teleology" in that they attempt to manipulate the physical and psychological characteristics of children, and they do so as part of the process of good parenting. Furthermore, such attempts are socially approved of and encouraged. With these…

  3. Age structure in neutral theory resolves inconsistencies related to reproductive size threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosindell, J.; Jansen, P.A.; Etienne, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Neutral theory consists of a suite of models that assume ecological equivalence among individual organisms. They have been most commonly applied to tropical forest tree communities either as null models or as approximations. Neutral models typically only include reproductive adults; therefore, fitti

  4. Adolescent and Unmarried Youth Reproductive Health:Status, Perspectives and Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Intruduction The United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in 1994, recognized that adolescents and young people have unique reproductive health needs that are distinct from those of adults, and that this population sub-group has been poorly served, and it highlighted the need to address their information and service needs in appropriate and acceptable ways.

  5. Age structure in neutral theory resolves inconsistencies related to reproductive-size threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosindell, James; Jansen, Patrick A.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    Neutral theory consists of a suite of models that assume ecological equivalence among individual organisms. They have been most commonly applied to tropical forest tree communities either as null models or as approximations. Neutral models typically only include reproductive adults; therefore, fitti

  6. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE PERMANENTLY ALTERS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE IN THE CD-1 MOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the adult mouse Leydig cell (LC) has been considered refractory to cytotoxic destruction by ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS), the potential consequences of exposure during reproductive development in this species are unknown. Herein pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with 160 m...

  7. Acute Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Adulthood Causes Adverse Reproductive Outcomes Later in Life and Accelerates Reproductive Aging in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R; Niermann, Sarah; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-03-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant incorporated in consumer products. Studies have shown that DEHP targets the ovary to disrupt essential processes required for reproductive and nonreproductive health. Specifically, 10-day exposure to DEHP accelerates primordial follicle recruitment and disrupts estrous cyclicity in adult mice. However, it is unknown if these effects on folliculogenesis and cyclicity following acute DEHP exposure can have permanent effects on reproductive outcomes. Further, the premature depletion of primordial follicles can cause early reproductive senescence, and it is unknown if acute DEHP exposure accelerates reproductive aging. This study tested the hypothesis that acute DEHP exposure causes infertility, disrupts estrous cyclicity, alters hormone levels, and depletes follicle numbers by inducing atresia later in life, leading to accelerated reproductive aging. Adult CD-1 mice were orally dosed with vehicle or DEHP (20 μg/kg/day-500 mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days, and reproductive outcomes were assessed at 6 and 9 months postdosing. Acute DEHP exposure significantly altered estrous cyclicity compared to controls at 6 and 9 months postdosing by increasing the percentage of days the mice were in estrus and metestrus/diestrus, respectively. DEHP also significantly decreased inhibin B levels compared to controls at 9 months postdosing. Further, DEHP significantly increased the BAX/BCL2 ratio in primordial follicles leading to a significant decrease in primordial and total follicle numbers compared to controls at 9 months postdosing. Collectively, the adverse effects present following acute DEHP exposure persist later in life and are consistent with accelerated reproductive aging. PMID:26678702

  8. Demographic responses to warming: reproductive maturity and sex influence vulnerability in an octocoral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi-Mejía, Rosana; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Civit, Sergi; Antunes, Agostinho; Thanopoulou, Zoi; Garrabou, Joaquim; Linares, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Ocean warming, caused by climate change, is critically impacting marine coastal ecosystems. Benthic organisms, such as anthozoans, are increasingly submitted to high temperatures that cause massive mortalities in tropical and temperate seas. To broaden our understanding of their response to thermal stress, we tested the putative role of reproductive maturity and sex in the susceptibility of the Mediterranean red gorgonian, Paramuricea clavata, to high temperatures. We experimentally compared the response to thermal stress of sexually immature (i.e., juveniles) versus mature individuals (i.e., adults), and of males versus females. Colonies' response was firstly assessed by measuring the percentage of tissue area exhibiting necrosis. Then, the reproductive output (i.e., fertility, size, and number of gonads) of both sexes was characterized. When compared to juveniles, adults showed a significantly higher percentage of necrosis, suggesting that during the reproductive period they are more vulnerable to high temperatures. Males and females showed a similar percentage of tissue damage and a significant decrease in their reproductive output. However, females' reproduction was more impacted, suggesting that females are more susceptible to thermal stress than males. A differential energy investment in reproduction may be the underlying cause of the observed responses. Adults invest a large proportion of their energy budget in reproduction; hence, they have fewer resources available to cope with stress, compared to juveniles. A similar situation seems to apply to females, with respect to males. Considering the current ocean-warming trend, our results imply that the long-term viability of shallow populations of long-lived anthozoans may be jeopardized in the future. This study reveals potential demographic consequences of warming that go beyond its associated increment of mortality rates. Given the important ecological role of many anthozoan species, these results can help

  9. Reproductive failure of the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) after exposure to an exogenous estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGree, M.M.; Winkelman, D.L.; Vieira, N.K.M.; Vajda, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been detected in surface waters worldwide and can lead to developmental and reproductive disruption in exposed fishes. In the US Great Plains, EDCs are impacting streams and rivers and may be causing adverse reproductive effects. To examine how estrogenic EDCs might affect reproductive success of plains fishes, we experimentally exposed male red shiners (Cyprinella lutrensis) to exogenous 17b-estradiol. We characterized the effects of estradiol on male gonadal histology and secondary sexual characteristics, determined whether exposure reduced reproductive success, and examined the effects of depuration. Adults were exposed to a mean concentration of 70 ng L-1 estradiol, a solvent control, or a water control for at least 83 days. Male exposure to estradiol resulted in elevated plasma vitellogenin concentrations, changes in spermatogenesis, reduced mating coloration and tubercles, altered mating behaviors, and reduced reproductive success with no viable progeny produced. Reproductive endpoints improved upon depuration (28 days). Exposure to estradiol had significant adverse effects on red shiners, indicating that wild populations may face developmental and reproductive difficulties if they are chronically exposed to estradiol.

  10. Oral administration of Kaempferia parviflora did not disturb male reproduction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisomboon, Hataitip; Tohei, Atsushi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the androgenic effect of Kaempferia parviflora (KP), a Thai herbal plant, adult male rats were randomized into control and KP-treatment groups. Rats were treated orally with water in the control group and with 1,000 mg/kg/day of KP in the treatment group for 45 days. Blood samples were collected on days 10, 20, 30 and 45 for measurement of the serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone levels. The reproductive and non-reproductive organs were dissected on day 45 and weighed. Mating behavior was also observed on days 20 and 30. Body weight was measured throughout the study period. The results showed that KP induced an increase in body weight compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in the weights of either reproductive (testis, seminal vesicle plus coagulating gland, levator ani muscle plus bulbocarvernosus muscle and glans penis, except the prostate gland) or non-reproductive organs (kidney, adrenal gland and gastracnemius muscle). There were no significant differences in serum levels of either FSH or LH between the two groups. The serum testosterone and progesterone levels were insignificantly lower in the KP group during the first 30 days. The serum corticosterone levels in the KP group were lower than those in the controls throughout the study period and were significantly low on days 20 and 30. There were no significant changes in mating behavior in the rats treated with KP. Although KP affected the body weight and serum corticosterone level, it did not affect mating behavior, reproductive and non-reproductive organ weights or hormones related to the reproductive system in the adult male rats. Therefore, we conclude that the testosterone-like effect of KP did not disturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis or male reproduction. PMID:18594126

  11. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  12. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, and erectile ... during a process that some people call andropause. Aging changes in the male reproductive system occur primarily ...

  13. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly ...

  14. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  15. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike. PMID:24602147

  16. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  17. Origins of Eukaryotic Sexual Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Goodenough, Ursula; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is a nearly universal feature of eukaryotic organisms. Given its ubiquity and shared core features, sex is thought to have arisen once in the last common ancestor to all eukaryotes. Using the perspectives of molecular genetics and cell biology, we consider documented and hypothetical scenarios for the instantiation and evolution of meiosis, fertilization, sex determination, uniparental inheritance of organelle genomes, and speciation.

  18. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  19. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  20. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are responsible for the provision of services to individuals equally and should maintain equality rights. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of gender on the reproductive health of women and utilization of reproductive health services. METHODS: The study population consisted of 250 married women at their reproductive ages of 15 to 49, who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology service of a university hospital and a gynecology clinic of a training hospital dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology between 1 February 2007 and 30 April 2007. The data collection form was developed by researchers after evaluation of the relevant literature which relevance of gender discrimination could show where the questions. RESULTS: 52% of Women’ have graduated from primary school. Education levels of women with men (her husband between level of education is statistically significant difference, and women were receive less education than men (her husband (²=34.231, p<0.001. The study was determined that women who received training secondary school and above, worked and decision maker to domestic that they get prenatal care of a high percentage and deliver their babies in the hospital with the aid of a health care professional, and they go to medical center from gynecological problems and they need to obtain permission from their husbands in order to seek aid at a medical center of a low percentage (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Women's reproductive health, gender discrimination status

  1. Unisexual Reproduction Reverses Muller’s Ratchet

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Kevin C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus that engages in outcrossing, inbreeding, and selfing forms of unisexual reproduction as well as canonical sexual reproduction between opposite mating types. Long thought to be clonal, >99% of sampled environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans are MATα, limiting the frequency of opposite mating-type sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction allows eukaryotic organisms to exchange genetic information and shuffle their genom...

  2. Rhox in mammalian reproduction and development

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Kyung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes play essential roles in embryonic development and reproduction. Recently, a large cluster of homeobox genes, reproductive homeobox genes on the X chromosome (Rhox) genes, was discovered as three gene clusters, α, β, and γ in mice. It was found that Rhox genes were selectively expressed in reproduction-associated tissues, such as those of the testes, epididymis, ovaries, and placenta. Hence, it was proposed that Rhox genes are important for regulating various reproductive featur...

  3. Reproductive history and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Allan; Pedersen, Bo V; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Frisch, Morten

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting.......It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting....

  4. 76 FR 43960 - NARA Records Reproduction Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1258 RIN 3095-AB71 NARA Records Reproduction Fees AGENCY: National... its regulations to add the methodology for creating and changing records reproduction fees, to remove records reproduction fees found in its regulations, and to provide a notification process for the...

  5. 32 CFR 2103.41 - Reproduction controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2103.41 Section 2103.41... Safeguarding § 2103.41 Reproduction controls. The Staff Secretary shall maintain records to show the number and... dissemination or reproduction limitations....

  6. 42 CFR 9.7 - Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction...

  7. 32 CFR 2700.43 - Reproduction controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2700.43 Section 2700.43... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.43 Reproduction controls. OMSN and SLNO shall maintain records to show the number and distribution of all OMSN originated classified documents. Reproduction...

  8. 36 CFR 705.4 - Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction. 705.4 Section 705.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS REPRODUCTION, COMPILATION, AND....4 Reproduction. (a) Library of Congress staff acting under the general authority of the Librarian...

  9. Reproductive biology study of dynamics of female sexual hormones: a 12-month exposure to lead acetate rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Romeo Teodor CRISTINA; MUSELIN, FLORIN

    2014-01-01

    In human and animal organisms, lead can cause reproductive problems beginning with pregnant females. The reproductive axis is particularly sensitive to lead, its influence resulting in a delayed sexual maturity due to biosynthesis suppression of the sexual steroids. An animal model study was carried out on 28 white Wistar adult female rats, divided into 3 experimental (E) groups that were exposed for 12 months to lead acetate in drinking water as follows: 50 ppb Pb (E1), 100 ppb Pb (E2), and ...

  10. Reproduction of Varroa destructor in sealed worker bee brood cells of Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera syriaca in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Alattal, Yehya; Rosenkranz, Peter; Zebitz, Claus Paul Walter

    2008-01-01

    The reproduction of the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor in sealed worker bee brood cells represents an important factor for the population development of this parasite in honey bee colonies. In this study, the relative infestation levels of worker brood cells, mite fertility (mites that lay at least one egg) and reproductive rate (number of viable adult daughters per mother mite) of Varroa mite in worker brood cells of Apis m. carnica and Apis m. syriaca were compared in fall 2003 and summe...

  11. Upstream migration and reproductive patterns of a population of allis shad in a small river (L'Aulne, Brittany, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Acolas, M; Veron, V; Jourdan, H.; Begout, Marie-Laure; Sabatie, M; BAGLINIERE J. L.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics and activity of adult allis shad [Alosa alosa (L.)] were analysed during the last part of their upstream migration in the L'Aulne, a small river in Brittany, and during reproduction on a unique spawning ground downstream of an insurmountable dam. The age of the spawners ranged front three to seven years, females being larger and older than males. Population-level migration and reproduction were studied by counting the number of migrating fish, by estimating the sex ratio, ...

  12. Tumor and reproductive traits are linked by RNA metabolism genes in the mouse ovary: a transcriptome-phenotype association analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp John J; Cherry James M; Zhang Gen-Mu; Owens Garrison A; Urzúa Ulises; Munroe David J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The link between reproductive life history and incidence of ovarian tumors is well known. Periods of reduced ovulations may confer protection against ovarian cancer. Using phenotypic data available for mouse, a possible association between the ovarian transcriptome, reproductive records and spontaneous ovarian tumor rates was investigated in four mouse inbred strains. NIA15k-DNA microarrays were employed to obtain expression profiles of BalbC, C57BL6, FVB and SWR adult ova...

  13. The opportunistic feeding and reproduction strategies of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) inhabiting ephemeral habitats on southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina da Silva Gonçalves; Ursulla Pereira Souza; Matheus Vieira Volcan

    2011-01-01

    Most Rivulidae fishes are popularly known as annual fishes which live in ephemeral environments such as pools, that obligatorily dry out seasonally causing the death of adult individuals. They have unique biological characteristics such as small body size, early sexual maturation, continuous reproduction, an elaborated courtship behavior, and a great reproductive capacity among fishes. The rivulids are widely distributed in North, Central and South America. In this study, the diet and reprodu...

  14. Effects of Neuroendocrine CB1 Activity on Adult Leydig Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobellis, Gilda; Meccariello, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Endocannabinoids control male reproduction acting at central and local level via cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 has been characterized in the testis, in somatic and germ cells of mammalian and non-mammalian animal models, and its activity related to Leydig cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, spermiogenesis, sperm quality, and maturation. In this short review, we provide a summary of the insights concerning neuroendocrine CB1 activity in male reproduction focusing on adult Leydig cell ontogenesis and steroid biosynthesis. PMID:27375550

  15. Effects of Neuroendocrine CB1 Activity on Adult Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobellis, Gilda; Meccariello, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Endocannabinoids control male reproduction acting at central and local level via cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 has been characterized in the testis, in somatic and germ cells of mammalian and non-mammalian animal models, and its activity related to Leydig cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, spermiogenesis, sperm quality, and maturation. In this short review, we provide a summary of the insights concerning neuroendocrine CB1 activity in male reproduction focusing on adult Leydig cell ontogenesis and steroid biosynthesis. PMID:27375550

  16. Cost of reproduction and offspring quality in the evolution of reproductive effort

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Tuula

    2002-01-01

    Any organism has a limited amount of resources, which have to be partitioned among several activities such as maintenance, growth and reproduction. Reproductive effort is defined as the proportion of parental resources devoted to fecundity and offspring survival. The extent of reproductive effort is restricted by trade-offs that cancel out the advantages of increasing investment in reproduction. This thesis presents an investigation into the determinants of reproductive effort in the bank vol...

  17. Adult medulloblastoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pobereskin, L; Treip, C

    1986-01-01

    Twelve cases of adult onset medulloblastoma are presented. Clinical features, treatment and outcome are discussed. It was found that the survival rates for adults are no better than for children. There were no clinical or histological features that distinguished these tumours from those occurring in childhood, except for a higher incidence of hemisphere lesions.

  18. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (<3 ng/mL) in adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (<0.48 ng/mL) and VTG (<0.001 mg/mL) were low in males throughout the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points

  19. Women Reproductive Rights in India: Prospective Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kosgi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of government and judicial agencies in protecting the reproductive rights with special focus on the protecting the reproductive rights of people with disability (mental illness and mental retardation.

  20. Should Reproductive Medicine Be Harmonized within Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher-Thöni, Magdalena; Voithofer, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The medical as well as societal developments in reproductive medicine and respectively artificial reproductive technologies have challenged lawmakers, courts, politicians, medical experts and society itself over the last decades. Challenges can be seen in cross-border reproductive care, equal access to reproductive care, social freezing, disposal of embryos, multiple implantation, homosexual parenthood or surrogacy. Since different regulatory regimes have been enacted throughout Europe (e.g. liberal system in Spain, restrictive system in Austria) to accommodate, limit and regulate reproductive issues, we are analysing the question, if reproductive medicine should be harmonized within Europe. Therefore we are not only discussing already existing approaches e.g. self-regulation, or minimal standards of safety and quality, but we are also scrutinizing the role of high courts, such as the European Court of Human Rights (EC HR) and international declarations and conventions. Concluding we are briefly sketching aspects of a proposal for a potential harmonisation of reproductive medicine in Europe. PMID:26387260

  1. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...... examined. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The participation rate for our populations was 20-30%. We found no consistent association between any semen variable and alcohol consumption, which was low/moderate in this group (median weekly intake 8 units), either for total consumption or consumption...

  2. [A reproductive function in metallurgists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A M

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the results of a complex investigation of a reproductive function including examination of semen and blood hormones in 100 metallurgists and 80 workers not engaged in metallurgy of ferrous metals (a control group) has shown that 44% metallurgists and 18.5% controls have pathology (p semen viscosity, oligospermia, teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, male sterility than the control group (p < 0.001). Metallurgists have a moderate and high relative risk of reproduction function pathology (RR = 1.6-2.9). Urological pathology in metallurgists can be reduced after prophylactic programs. This proves the necessity of including urological examination and ultrasonic scanning in programs of regular check-up of metallurgists. PMID:19526877

  3. Microbes central to human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions. PMID:25250861

  4. Bodies of Knowledge in Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Professionals compete and cooperate over how states should govern their population. Declining fertility rates in advanced economies have led to debates about how to enable those of reproductive age to have more children and to have them earlier. This springs from political and socio...... knowledge to the political economy of fertility. Professional bodies of knowledge directly inform how women and men are treated on fertility issues and the policy options available....

  5. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  6. Endometrial Stem Cells and Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Sara S.; Pauline Yi; Goldsmith., Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal endometrial function remains a significant cause of implantation failure, recurrent pregnancy loss, and other pathologies responsible for female infertility. The development of novel therapies to treat infertility due to endometrial dysfunction requires an understanding of the latest advancements in endometrial cell biology, such as the role of endometrial stem cells. The remarkable regenerative capacity of the human endometrium is absolutely essential for successful reproduction and...

  7. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L.; Jo, Kyoung H.

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. Howe...

  8. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R.; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficien...

  9. The evolution of eusociality: Reproductive head starts of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queller, D C

    1989-05-01

    In eusocial species, many individuals forego their personal reproduction to aid the reproduction of their mother or other relatives. Kin selection can favor such behavior for any positive degree of relatedness to the individuals being helped, provided the helper gives them a sufficiently large fitness gain compared to the fitness cost of giving up its own reproduction. Yet, little attention has been given to the question of how helpers can aid relatives more than they can aid themselves, particularly in species lacking morphologically specialized castes. One answer to this question is explored here. When a potential helper is born into a colony that has immature young, its help may quickly bring those young to the age of independence. If it left to reproduce alone, it would have to bring its own offspring all the way to independence. The consequences of early mortality therefore differ: solitary reproducers that die early will fail to bring any young to independence, while helpers that die at the same age may have made substantial contributions. Published data from four polistine wasps show that high adult mortality rates and long periods of offspring dependence combine to provide a large selective advantage for worker behavior. PMID:16594034

  10. [Reproductive aspects of celiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2005-01-01

    In the past, celiac disease (CD), or intolerance to gluten, was considered a rare disease of infancy characterized by chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and delayed growth. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are other clinic and subclinical forms which appear later in life. Target organs are not limited to the gut, but include liver, thyroid, skin and female and male reproductive systems. CD interference on reproduction is related to the multifactorial nature of the disease, whose pathological manifestations can be modulated, besides gluten, by different concurrent genetic and environmental factors. CD induces malabsorption with consequent deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K, which are essential for organogenesis, and fat-soluble vitamins important for spermatogenesis. Regarding endocrine disorders, the deficiencies of specific trace elements on ovarian function could explain its involvement in the increased risk of female osteoporosis in CD patients. Affected males show a picture of tissue resistance to androgens; the increases of follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin, not associated with infertility, may indicate an imbalance at hypothalamus-pituitary level, with general effects on health. Since reproductive alterations are reversible, adoption of a gluten-free diet supported by early diagnosis is important. Therefore, the detection of early biomarkers, such as deficiencies of vitamins and/or iron and andrological or endocrinological dysfunctions, should trigger timely strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:16250182

  11. Unisexual reproduction of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal S Phadke

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous human fungal pathogen that typically causes infection in tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak in immunocompetent individuals on Vancouver Island and in the Pacific Northwest of the US. Pathogenesis of this species may be linked to its sexual cycle that generates infectious propagules called basidiospores. A marked predominance of only one mating type (α in clinical and environmental isolates suggests that a-α opposite-sex reproduction may be infrequent or geographically restricted, raising the possibility of an alternative unisexual cycle involving cells of only α mating type, as discovered previously in the related pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we report observation of hallmark features of unisexual reproduction in a clinical isolate of C. gattii (isolate 97/433 and describe genetic and environmental factors conducive to this sexual cycle. Our results are consistent with population genetic evidence of recombination in the largely unisexual populations of C. gattii and provide a useful genetic model for understanding how novel modes of sexual reproduction may contribute to evolution and virulence in this species.

  12. Acoustic experience shapes alternative mating tactics and reproductive investment in male field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W; Gray, Brian; Zuk, Marlene

    2010-05-11

    Developmental plasticity allows juvenile animals to assess environmental cues and adaptively shape behavioral and morphological traits to maximize fitness in their adult environment. Sexual signals are particularly conspicuous cues, making them likely candidates for mediating such responses. Plasticity in male reproductive traits is a common phenomenon, but empirical evidence for signal-mediated plasticity in males is lacking. We tested whether experience of acoustic sexual signals during juvenile stages influences the development of three adult traits in the continuously breeding field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: male mating tactics, reproductive investment, and condition. All three traits were affected by juvenile acoustic experience. Males of this species produce a long-range calling song to attract receptive females, but they can also behave as satellites by parasitizing other males' calls. Males reared in an environment mimicking a population with many calling males were less likely to exhibit satellite behavior, invested more in reproductive tissues, and attained higher condition than males reared in a silent environment. These results contrast with other studies and demonstrate how the effects of juvenile social experience on adult male morphology, reproductive investment, and behavior may subsequently influence sexual selection and phenotypic evolution. PMID:20417103

  13. The Catalytic Mechanism of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase and Its Role in the Process of Diapause of Different Species%山梨醇脱氢酶作用机制及其与滞育的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艇

    2012-01-01

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in the polyol pathway,which oxidizes D-sorbitol,L-iditol,D-glucitol,D-xylitol,D-galactitol into fructose.The catalytic process needs the combination of Zinc and NADH.The Sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor binds to the SDH-NADH complex and competitive with fructose.SDH plays a key role in the process of termination of diapause,and of redevelopment of embryo of many different species.This review summarizes the structure and catalytic mechanism of SDH,and its role in the process of diapause of different species.%山梨醇脱氢酶(sorbitol dehydrogenase或SDH)是多元醇代谢通路中的关键酶,可将底物D-山梨醇、L-艾杜淳、D-木糖醇、D-半乳糖醇等氧化成果糖。催化需要金属离子Zinc和辅酶NAD+。SDH特异性抑制剂直接作用于SDH-NADH复合体,通过阻止产物的释放而抑制酶反应。在近些年对于不同生物打破滞育的研究中发现SDH是滞育胚胎再度开始发育的关键酶。对SDH结构,催化机制以及其与不同物种滞育之间关系的研究进展进行综述。

  14. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher as...... a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming...

  15. A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2014-10-01

    Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

  16. Reproductive effects assessment of fish in streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has three large facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation Site, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Several Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs (BMAP) monitor and assess the effects of these facilities on the aquatic and terrestrial resources of the reservation. One BMAP task concerns the potential role of contaminant-related reproductive dysfunction in shaping the composition of fish communities in creeks draining the facilities. This task addresses specific questions concerning (1) the reproductive competence of adult fish in the streams, and (2) the capacity of fish embryos and fry to survive and develop sequent reproductive cohorts. Evidence for current or potential reproductive impacts in several of the streams include abnormal fecundity at some sites, increased incidences of oocyte atresia, and a marked toxicity of surface water samples from several stream reaches to fish embryos in periodic embryo-larval tests. Recovery of certain of the monitored streams in response to ongoing remedial actions is documented by positive changes over time in many these indicators of reproductive dysfunction. These results suggest that the monitoring of reproductive indicators can be a sensitive tool for assessing the effects of both industrial discharges and remedial activities on the fish resources of receiving streams

  17. Vitellogenin levels in hemolymph, ovary and hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda: Parastacidae) during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Lilian E; Medesani, Daniel A; García, C Fernando; Grodzielski, Matías; Rodríguez, Enrique M

    2012-03-01

    The freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus is a tropical species of great interest for aquaculture. Vitellogenin (Vg), a lipoprotein precursor of the vitellum accumulated in spawned eggs, can be synthesized in the ovary and/or hepatopancreas of most crustaceans, being the hemolymph the way for transporting Vg throughout the reproductive cycle. Concentration of Vg in hemolymph, ovary and hepatopancreas of Cherax quadricarinatus adult females was measured by means of ELISA, specifically developed after purifying the native Vg. Measurements were made at four periods of the reproductive cycle: pre-reproductive, mid-reproductive, late reproductive and post-reproductive. Besides, both hepatosomatic (HSI) and gonadosomatic (GSI) indexes were determined in each period. Significant variations in Vg levels were detected in both hemolymph and hepatopancreas, being the highest values observed during the mid-reproductive period. Besides, such variations were positively correlated to the HSI. A positive correlation between Vg levels in hepatopancreas and ovary was also seen. These results support previous evidences about the central role of the hepatopancreas as a site of Vg synthesis in the studied species, together with the relevancy of hemolymph for transporting Vg from the hepatopancreas to the ovary. For aquaculture purposes, Vg monitoring in hemolymph could be used as a non-injurious method, to check the reproductive activity of C. quadricarinatus females. PMID:22458222

  18. Paternal fenvalerate exposure influences reproductive functions in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

  19. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. PMID:27347888

  20. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  1. ROLE OF SEROTONIN IN FISH REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy ePrasad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviours, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction.

  2. Atividades de vôo de Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini durante o período de postura da rainha e em diapausa Flight activities of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini during the oviposition period and the diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Pick

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The activities of four colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg, 1903, of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied from October, 1998 to September. 1999, comparatively during the oviposition period and the diapause. The construction of the cells was monitored by direct observation of the nests. The duration of the diapause period varied from 76 to 168 days. Monthly, the bees that left and entered were counted for 10 minutes, at each hour, during the complete period of flight activity. Influence of meteorological factors on the activities of bees flight was analyzed through simple and multiple regressions. During the oviposition period was found that solar irradiation, temperature and relative humidity had a significant influence on bees flight activity. However, during the diapausa only solar irradiation and temperature played significant influence on bees flight activity. The wind never influenced in a significant way on the flight of the bees.

  3. Androgen Receptors Expression in Pituitary of Male Viscacha in relation to Growth and Reproductive Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Palmira Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the androgen receptors (AR expression in pituitary pars distalis (PD of male viscachas in relation to growth and reproductive cycle. AR were detected by immunocytochemistry and quantified by image analysis. Pituitary glands from fetus, immature, prepubertal, and adult viscachas during their reproductive cycle were used. In the fetal PD, the immunoreactivity (ir was mainly cytoplasmic. In immature and prepubertal animals, AR-ir was cytoplasmic (ARc-ir and nuclear (ARn-ir in medial region. In adult animals, ARn-ir cells were numerous at caudal end. AR regionalization varied between the PD zones in relation to growth. In immature animals, the ARn-ir increased whereas the cytoplasmic expression decreased in relation to the fetal glands. The percentage of ARc-ir cells increased in prepubertal animals whereas the nuclear AR expression was predominant in adult viscachas. The AR expression changed in adults, showing minimum percentage in the gonadal regression period. The variation of nuclear AR expression was directly related with testosterone concentration. These results demonstrated variations in the immunostaining pattern, regionalization, and number of AR-ir cells throughout development, growth, and reproductive cycle, suggesting the involvement of AR in the regulation of the pituitary activity of male viscacha.

  4. Reproductive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008270 Conjugated effects of fluorine and aluminum on the sex hormones of male rats. XIA Shuhua(夏曙华), et al. Dept Clin Lab Sci, Guiyang Med Coo, Guiyang 550004. Chin J Endemiol 2008;27(2):134-136.Objective To observe the combined poisonous effects of fluoride and aluminum on sex hormone of male rats.Methods Sixteen weaned SD healthy male rats aged two week were selected and divided into control group,aluminum group,fluoride group,fluorine-aluminum group,four rats in each group.All rats in the experimental

  5. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  6. Reproductive physiology of the alpaca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpaca and llama are considered to be seasonally reproductive (from December to March) and given good feeding conditions are reproductively active throughout the year. The males reach puberty at the age of about 2 years when they are free from peno-preputial adhesions. Puberty in the females is affected by body weight and may be reached at the age of 12 months. The females do not have sexual cycles but follicular waves, therefore oestrus varies from 2 to 36 days. Copulation takes place in a seated position and lasts from 5 to 50 minutes; ovulation is induced by coitus, hCG, GnRH and the semen of the alpaca and the bull. 'Spontaneous' ovulation has been observed at the height of the reproductive season and is caused by mechanisms which are not well defined. Multiple ovulation occurs in 10% of females but the number of multiple births is very low. The corpus luteum (CL) forms after mating, attaining maximum size and having the greatest secretory activity on day 9(14.0 nmol/L); it lasts for the 11 months of gestation. If there is no pregnancy, shrinkage of the corpus luteum begins between days 10 and 13 and the progesterone levels fall rapidly. The incidence of embryonic mortality during the first two months of gestation is high. Gestation lasts approximately 342 days, and 93.5% of births occur during the daytime when the environmental conditions are favourable for the newborn animal. The placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial. Uterine involution is completed within 20 days after birth. Intra- and inter-specific artificial insemination tests have been carried out with intra-uterinal implantation of semen. Embryonic transplant tests have also been conducted. (author)

  7. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus...

  8. Reproduction, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic cell

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing questions about reproduction, individuality, and the units of selection in symbiotic associations, with special attention to the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Three kinds of reproduction are distinguished, and a possible evolutionary sequence giving rise to a mitochondrion-containing eukaryotic cell from an endosymbiotic partnership is analyzed as a series of transitions between each of the three forms of reproduction. The sequence of...

  9. Women Reproductive Rights in India: Prospective Future.

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Kosgi; Vaishali Hegde N; Satheesh Rao; Shrinivasa Bhat Undaru; Nagesh Pai

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of gover...

  10. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; Macedo, Paula A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; Savage, Harry M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar un...

  11. Preparing for Winter: The Transcriptomic Response Associated with Different Day Lengths in Drosophila montana

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Darren J.; Ritchie, Michael G; Maaria Kankare

    2016-01-01

    At northern latitudes, the most robust cue for assessing the onset of winter is the shortening of day lengths. Many species use day length as a cue to increase their cold tolerance and/or enter into diapause, but little is known about changes in gene expression that occur under different day lengths. We investigate the gene expression changes associated with differences in light/dark cycles in Drosophila montana, a northerly distributed species with a strong adult photoperiodic reproductive d...

  12. Population structure of Argas arboreus (Acari : Argasidae) ticks associated with seasonally abandoned mixed heronries, dominated by cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis), in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    V.N. Belozerov; D.J. van Niekerk; H. J.B. Butler

    2003-01-01

    During winter populations of Argas arboreus from heronries of the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa are composed of adults, with some predominance of males, and II-IV instar nymphs, in a state of diapause. The period of tick activity, including reproduction and development of eggs, larvae and N1 nymphs, is synchronized with the nesting and breeding season of their avian hosts. It begins during spring with the return of birds to the heronry, and ceases in autumn through inducti...

  13. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eLebreton; Peter eWitzgall; Marie eOlsson; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies ...

  14. Physical Activity is Related to Timing Performance in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Amanda N.; Bangert, Ashley S.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity has been linked to better cognitive function in older adults, especially for executive control processes. Researchers have suggested that temporal processing of durations less than 1 second is automatic and engages motor processes, while timing of longer durations engages executive processes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a higher level of physical activity is associated with better reproduction performance in older adults, especially for durations in th...

  15. Social aspects in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-01-01

    In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive techniques have become common practice in many countries today, regulated by established legislation, regulations or by committee-set ethical standards. The rapid evolution and progress of these techniques have revealed certain social issues that have to be addressed. The traditional heterosexual couple, nowadays, is not considered by many as the only 'IVF appropriate patient' since deviations from this pattern (single mother, lesbians) have also gained access to these treatments. Genetic material donation, age limitation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, surrogacy and cloning are interpreted differently in the various countries, as their definition and application are influenced by social factors, religion and law. Financial and emotional stresses are also often described in infertile couples. Information as deduced from the world literature regarding IVF regulation, as well as about the existing religious, cultural and social behaviours towards these new technologies, is presented in this article in relation to the social aspects of assisted reproduction. PMID:10333367

  16. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina; Aittomäki, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development, coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birthweight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders, epigenetic modification and ART. PMID:26458360

  17. Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R. J.; Adams, S.; Choat, J. H.

    2008-03-01

    An investigation of the reproductive biology of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) from three areas in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands revealed that B. muricatum exhibits several features that differ from the pattern of reproductive development observed in most parrotfishes. Unlike most parrotfishes, histological evidence suggests that the sexual pattern of B. muricatum is essentially gonochoristic with high incidences of anatomical but non-functional hermaphroditism. B. muricatum also differs from other parrotfishes in that all males pass through an immature female (or bisexual) phase as demonstrated by all adult testis retaining the ex-ovarian lumen and peripheral sperm sinuses in the gonad wall. However, a protogynous diandric reproductive strategy cannot be excluded given that sampling may have missed transitional individuals. Marked variation in the demography of male B. muricatum between the three locations examined is considered to reflect variation in historical fishing effort.

  18. Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Postpartum Reproductive Indices in Tigaia Sheep Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Padeanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.

  19. Changes in movements of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) during the reproductive season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecasis, David; Afonso, Pedro; Erzini, Karim

    2015-12-01

    It has been hypothesized, based on anecdotal information and reports, that adult white seabream migrate and aggregate during spawning. Because most of the past telemetric studies on this ecologically and commercially important species were short in duration and did not cover the reproductive season, we set out to use longer-term passive acoustic telemetry to test this hypothesis. We found that white seabream expands its home range and increases the frequency of forays during the reproductive season, but found no obvious signs of spawning aggregations. Our results thus provide evidence for short-range behavioral shifts in fish space use related to reproductive activity, and support the notion that small MPAs may be effective in managing reef fish populations by effectively protecting their spawning biomass.

  20. Reproductive and population parameters of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J H; Cortés, F; Belleggia, M; Massa, A M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate reproductive and population parameters of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. In total, 2714 specimens (1616 males and 1098 females) were collected from surveys carried out using research vessels. Males ranged from 225 to 861 mm total length (LT ) and females from 235 to 925 mm LT . The size at maturity of females (651 mm) was significantly greater than that of males (565 mm). The maximum proportion of mature individuals (Pmax ) of the gestation ogive was 156 mm). The temporal and spatial co-occurrence of non-gravid adult females at different stages of ovarian development, as well as gravid females at all embryonic development stages would indicate that the female reproductive cycle in the south-western Atlantic Ocean is asynchronous. The results indicate that S. acanthias is susceptible to fishing pressure on account of its length at maturity, extended reproductive cycles and low fecundity. PMID:27020803

  1. Immunohistochemical evidence for an endocrine/paracrine role for ghrelin in the reproductive tissues of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Yvonne A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut hormone, ghrelin, is involved in the neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to hunger. In monogastric species, circulating ghrelin levels show clear meal-related and body weight-related changes. The pattern of secretion and its role in ruminant species is less clear. Ghrelin acts via growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSR-1a to alter food intake, fat utilization, and cellular proliferation. There is also evidence that ghrelin is involved in reproductive function. In the present study we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the presence of ghrelin and GHSR-1a in sheep reproductive tissues. In addition, we examined whether ghrelin and GHSR-1a protein expression is developmentally regulated in the adult and fetal ovine testis, and whether there is an association with markers of cellular proliferation, i.e. stem cell factor (SCF and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Methods Antibodies raised against ghrelin and its functional receptor, GHSR-type 1a, were used in standard immunohistochemical protocols on various reproductive tissues collected from adult and fetal sheep. GHSR-1a mRNA presence was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. SCF and PCNA immunoexpression was investigated in fetal testicular samples. Adult and fetal testicular immunostaining for ghrelin, GHSR-1a, SCF and PCNA was analysed using computer-aided image analysis. Image analysis data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, with differences in immunostaining between time-points determined by Fisher's least significant difference. Results In adult sheep tissue, ghrelin and GHSR-1a immunostaining was detected in the stomach (abomasum, anterior pituitary gland, testis, ovary, and hypothalamic and hindbrain regions of the brain. In the adult testis, there was a significant effect of season (photoperiod on the level of immunostaining for ghrelin (p Conclusion Evidence is presented for the presence of ghrelin and its receptor in various reproductive

  2. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that

  3. Endosulfan affects health variables in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and induces alterations in larvae development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.; Handy, R. D.; Sloman, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.16 or 0.48 mu g/L of the insecticide, endosulfan, for 28 days. Haematology, whole body ions, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, organ histology and reproduction were assessed in adults. The resulting offs...

  4. Reproductive health characteristics of marijuana and cocaine users: results from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Reefhuis, J.; Herron, A.M.; Williams, M.L.; Roeleveld, N.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Illicit drug use is associated with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have examined these associations among drug users of all reproductive ages, using a control group of nonusers. METHODS: Associations between marijuana and cocaine use, and outcom

  5. Genital manifestations and reproductive health in female residents of a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic area in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhard, P; Makunde, R W; Magnussen, P;

    2000-01-01

    primarily on reproductive history and genital health. In a population of 2165 residents, prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was 28%, and geometric mean intensity of microfilariae (mf) was 722 mf/mL. Leg lymphoedema (elephantiasis) was present in 4.2% of adults aged > or = 15 years...

  6. Reproductive performance of the generalist predator Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari: Gamasida) when foraging on different invertebrate prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Ruf, A.; Nienstedt, K. M.;

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of prey quality and prey biomass during a standardized 3- week test on adult survival and reproductive output of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer when fed one of six different diets: springtails (Folsomia candida and F. fimetaria), a storage mite (Ca...

  7. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; de Mouzon, J; Bhattacharya, S; Castilla, J A; Korsak, V; Kupka, M; Nygren, K G; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2012-01-01

    This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008.......This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008....

  8. Reproductive medicine and the concept of 'quality'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    suggested that the apparently conflicting hypes, hopes and fears that surround reproductive medicine can co-circulate because of the different forms of normative assessment that these concepts allow. To ensure clarity in bioethical deliberations about selection, it is necessary to highlight how these...... differing forms of assessment are mobilized and invoked in practices of and debates about reproductive medicine. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  9. Stress and reproduction in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress reduces reproductive efficiency in farm animals. Regulators of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity such as CRV, AVP, ACTH and cortisol have deleterious effects on both GnRH and LH secretion. Chronic stressors, such as under-nutrition, can enhance HPA activity which probably results in a greater influence on the mechanisms controlling reproductive function. (author). 30 refs

  10. Measuring reproductive performance in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy herd profitability is closely related to reproductive performance, which is, in turn, strongly influenced by management. A regular monitoring of reproductive efficiency is essential to assess management and to avoid financial losses due poor performance. The measures for this efficiency commonly used are either not based on all animals in the herd, only reflect part of the reproductive process or influence each other. Thus, obtaining an overall picture of the herd's reproductive performance requires combination of various individual components into an integrated index. The minimum measures that should be included in an integrated index for herd fertility are: average calving to pregnancy interval, culling rate, services per conception, age at first calving and percentage of stillborn calves. Ideally, the resulting calculation should emphasize the estimated financial losses or gains due to deviations from the targets set for these measures. Any herd fertility summary of projection might indicated reproductive performance but not their causes. For the identification of these causes, the length of the voluntary waiting period, the efficiency of heat detection, the services per conception, the culling rate, the age at first calving and the percentage abortions and stillbirths need to be evaluated. An additional problem with the measures of herd reproductive performance is that they indicate past reproductive performance, rather than reflect current changes of future expectations. The ''Projected Minimum Average Calving-to-Pregnancy Interval'' is the best prediction for future reproductive performance of a herd, but must be combined with the ''Integrated Fertility Index'' to provide a complete picture. (author). 17 refs

  11. Oxidative shielding and the cost of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Jonathan D; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Stott, Iain; Cant, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Life-history theory assumes that reproduction and lifespan are constrained by trade-offs which prevent their simultaneous increase. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the possibility that this cost of reproduction is mediated by oxidative stress. However, empirical tests of this theory have yielded equivocal support. We carried out a meta-analysis to examine associations between reproduction and oxidative damage across markers and tissues. We show that oxidative damage is positively associated with reproductive effort across females of various species. Yet paradoxically, categorical comparisons of breeders versus non-breeders reveal that transition to the reproductive state is associated with a step-change reduction in oxidative damage in certain tissues and markers. Developing offspring may be particularly sensitive to harm caused by oxidative damage in mothers. Therefore, such reductions could potentially function to shield reproducing mothers, gametes and developing offspring from oxidative insults that inevitably increase as a consequence of reproductive effort. According to this perspective, we hypothesise that the cost of reproduction is mediated by dual impacts of maternally-derived oxidative damage on mothers and offspring, and that mothers may be selected to diminish such damage. Such oxidative shielding may explain why many existing studies have concluded that reproduction has little or no oxidative cost. Future advance in life-history theory therefore needs to take account of potential transgenerational impacts of the mechanisms underlying life-history trade-offs. PMID:25765468

  12. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception.......To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  13. Adverse Reproductive Outcomes Associated With Teenage Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Choudhary, Dilip; Narayan, K.C.; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Achyut; Chauhan, Siddharth Singh; Agrawal, Pawan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction It is debated whether teenage pregnancy is associated with an adverse reproductive outcome. This study assessed the reproductive outcomes in teenage pregnancy in Nepal, a developing setting. Methods A hospital based retrospective cohort study of 4,101 deliveries to compare the outcomes between teenage and non-teenage pregnancies. Results Pregnancy in teenagers was associated with significantly increased risk (P

  14. Neuropeptidomics applied to studies of mammalian reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thao T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptidomics, a mass spectrometry-based technique which aims to uncover the complete suite of neuropeptides present in a tissue, organ or cell from the brain or nervous system, has found application in studies examining physiological responses (e.g. food intake, appetite and reproduction. Neuropeptides (and peptide hormones have long been known as regulators of mammalian physiological processes, particularly reproduction. These peptides are derived from precursor proteins and become active via proteolytic processes and post-translational modifications. A relatively large number of neuropeptides, mainly formed in the hypothalamus or the anterior pituitary of mammals, have been specifically associated with reproduction, including GnRH, NPY, PYY and kisspeptin. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides, their roles in reproduction and the application of neuropeptidomics in this field. We address the advantages of neuropeptidomics in reproductive studies including the high throughput identification, profiling and quantification of neuropeptides present in reproductive tissues and also discuss some of the challenges. The application of neuropeptidomics to the field of reproduction will provide the foundation for a greater understanding of how neuropeptides act to regulate reproductive function.

  15. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy. PMID:25713505

  16. 10 CFR 1017.25 - Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reproduction. 1017.25 Section 1017.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.25 Reproduction. A document marked as containing UCNI may...

  17. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S; Castilla, J A; Ferraretti, A P; Korsak, V; Kupka, M; Nygren, K G; Andersen, A Nyboe

    2012-01-01

    This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007.......This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007....

  18. 32 CFR 310.20 - Reproduction fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... portions of the fee schedule in 32 CFR part 286. ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction fees. 310.20 Section 310.20... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Access by Individuals § 310.20 Reproduction fees. (a) Assessing fees....

  19. 76 FR 62632 - NARA Records Reproduction Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 43960) for a 60-day public comment period. This... reproduction is to furnish the donor of a document or other gift with a copy of the original; (d) When the... reproductions made from the holdings of Presidential libraries may differ because of regional cost...

  20. Marx, Irigaray, and the politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbaum, A E

    1994-01-01

    Both the concept and practice of reproduction have been newly configured, with reproductive labor assuming an abstract value as social labor and women around the globe work to produce baby commodities which enter the market along with other domestic and imported products. This situation dictates that surrogacy not be treated as an aberration. One must instead reconceptualize the maternal body as a reproductive resource and rethink the relationship between mother and fetus. This paper attempts to develop a materialist analysis of reproductive labor by offering a strategy for renarrativizing the mother. It briefly explains what feminists involved in the pro-abortion movement could gain by incorporating a Marxist understanding of reproductive labor as productive in the strictest sense, and then suggests, through an analysis of the work of Luce Irigaray, the simultaneous need for a self-reflexive renarrativization of the maternal body which may account for women's role as reproductive laborers. Sections are on reproduction, maternal as mimetic matrix, and reproductive ethics and sexual rights. PMID:12290609

  1. Visual monitoring of reproduction in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to produce visual information from reproduction records are described and exemplified. The Event Display shows all reproductive events, over a year, for all cows in a herd, by symbols placed in an array with columns representing calendar weeks and rows representing...

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Reproductive Tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangLifang

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.

  3. Imprinting disorders after assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2006-01-01

    To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies.......To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies....

  4. Editorial note on reproductive biology of fishes

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS; K. I. STERGIOU; Froese, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Fish reproductive biology (onset and duration of spawning, sex ratio, maturity stages, length and age at maturity, and fecundity) is important in fisheries research, stock assessment, and management. In this editorial note, we provide some criteria and recommendations on issues of fish reproductive biology, which may be useful in research planning, data analysis and presentation, as well as in manuscript preparation.

  5. Neurodevelopmental origin and adult neurogenesis of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Maggi; Luciano Conti

    2015-01-01

    The adult hypothalamus regulates many physiological functions and homeostatic loops, including growth, feeding and reproduction. In mammals, the hypothalamus derives from the ventral diencephalon where two distinct ventricular proliferative zones have been described. Although a set of transcription factors regulating the hypothalamic development has been identified, the exact molecular mechanisms that drive the differentiation of hypothalamic neural precursor cells (NPCs) toward specific neur...

  6. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  7. Sublethal effects of hexaflumuron on development and reproduction of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Mahmoudvand; Habib Abbasipour; Aziz Sheikhi Garian; Ali Reza Bandani

    2011-01-01

    Effects of hexaflumuron at 10% lethal concentration (LC10) and LC25 on development and reproduction parameters of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus,1753) (Lep.:Yponomeutidae) were investigated.Estimated LC50,LC10 and LC25 values of leaf dip bioassay of hexaflumuron on the third instar larvae of the P.xylostella were 1.48,0.59 and 0.91 mg/L,respectively.Hexaflumuron decreased pupal weight in the parent generation at sublethal concentrations but in the offspring generation,this effect was not observed.Sublethal concentrations increased egg,first and second larval instar and pupa developmental time and shortened life span of adults,but did not change the third and fourth larval instars and pre-pupa developmental period.Also fecundity of females reduced significantly but hatchability of treatments and control were similar.Survival rate of pre-adult stages declined significantly at LC25 concentration.Reproduction parameters such as reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase in sublethal concentrations were significantly lower compared with control,but gross reproduction rate (GRR) at the LC10 concentration was increased and it could be hormoligosis.Also hexaflumuron significantly increased doubling time (Dt).We conclude that the sublethal effects of hexaflumuron might exhibit significant effects on the population dynamics of P.xylostella.

  8. 21 CFR 884.6150 - Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6150 Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors. (a)...

  9. Posthumous Assisted Reproduction from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in assisted reproductive techniques along with relieving the pain of childlessnesshas brought new ethical and policy dilemmas. Posthumous assisted reproduction is the mostchallenging, difficult and sensitive issue to be discussed ethically and religiously. In this paper theacceptability of the posthumous reproduction in Islamic contexts is evaluated and major concernslike Consent and ownership of the gametes after death, Family and Marriage vision and Welfareof the child are discussed together with some international legislation. We can conclude that uponIslamic vision to assisted reproductive techniques as treatment of families and relieving the seriousproblem of childlessness, posthumous assisted reproduction is unacceptable even with previouslyfrozen gametes or embryos. Also, Islamic vision to marriage, consent and welfare of the childconfirms the unacceptability. There must be some law or legislation to ban this procedure in Islamiccontexts.

  10. Possible generational effects of habitat degradation on alligator reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, K.G.; Woodward, A.R.; Percival, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Population decline of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was observed in Lake Apopka in central Florida, USA, in the early 1980s. This decline was thought to result from adult mortality and nest failure caused by anthropogenic increases in sediment loads, nutrients, and contaminants. Reproductive impairment also was reported. Extensive restoration of marshes associated with Lake Apopka has been conducted, as well as some limited restoration measures on the lake. Monitoring by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC) has indicated that the adult alligator population began increasing in the early 1990s. We expected that the previously reported high proportion of complete nest failure (??0) during the 1980s may have decreased. We collected clutches from alligator nests in Lake Apopka from 1983 to 2003 and from 5 reference areas from 1988 to 1991, and we artificially incubated them. We used a Bayesian framework with Gibbs sampler of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to analyze ??0. Estimated ??0was consistently higher in Lake Apopka compared with reference areas, and the difference in ??0 ranged from 0.19 to 0.56. We conducted change point analysis to identify and test the significance of the change point in ??0in Lake Apopka between 1983 and 2003, indicating the point of reproductive recovery. The estimated Bayes factor strongly supported the single change point hypothesis against the no change point hypothesis. The major downward shift in ??0 probably occurred in the mid-1990s, approximately a generation after the major population decline in the 1980s. Furthermore, estimated ??0 values after the change point (0.21) were comparable with those of reference areas (0.07-0.31). These results combined with the monitoring by FFWCC seem to suggest that anthropogenic habitat degradation caused reproductive impairment of adult females and decreases in ??0 occurred with the sexual maturity of a new generation of breeding females. Long

  11. Crane reproductive physiology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some unique features of crane reproduction, management, and conservation are described. Because cranes are sexually monomorphic, sexing is difficult and must be accomplished using behavior, laparoscopy, cloacal examination, genetic techniques, or fecal steroid analysis. Although husbandry techniques for cranes are similar to those used with other nondomestic birds, a number of basic characteristics, such as extreme aggressiveness, imprinting by the crane chick on man, a delayed molt in the immature crane, delayed sexual maturity, and infertility, pose special problems for the propagator. Artificial insemination is a practical solution to crane infertility. Vigorous captive management and propagation efforts must become increasingly important if several endangered crane species are to survive the continuing decline in wild populations. The ultimate goal is the restoration of suitable habitat and sustainable native populations.

  12. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...... adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders...

  13. Management, Resources and Reproductive Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wallner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a relationship between environmental conditions and reproductive performance in modern humans. Birth rates and sex ratio (SRB at birth were analyzed from large data scales. The results include data from people working or living under different job respectively socio-economic conditions, such as employees working in the academic field, employees under supervisory or hire and fire conditions, and people who have better access to resources. The results show that employees who have better jobs and earn more money do have more children and females under better socio-economic conditions do give birth to more sons. In conclusion, it is suggested that different socio-economic environmental conditions may have an impact on female and male birth rates and SRBs, which may be related to stress perception rates.

  14. Inherited thrombophilia and reproductive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatsikos, Spyros A.; Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Manav, Bachar; Csorba, Roland; von Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich; Galazios, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Apart from its established role in the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), inherited thrombophilia has been proposed as a possible cause of pregnancy loss and vascular gestational complications. There is a lot of controversy in the literature on the relationship between inherited prothrombotic defects and these obstetric complications. This is a review of the literature on inherited thrombophilia and reproductive disorders. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation, and protein S deficiency seem to be associated with late and recurrent early pregnancy loss, while their impact on other pregnancy complications is conflicting. No definite association has been established between protein C and antithrombin deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcome, primarily due to their low prevalence. Screening is suggested only for women with early recurrent loss or late pregnancy loss. Anticoagulant treatment during pregnancy should be considered for women with complications who were tested positive for thrombophilia. PMID:27026779

  15. A Proteomic Analysis of the Body Wall, Digestive Tract, and Reproductive Tract of Brugia malayi

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, C. Paul; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Kropp, Laura E.; Zweben, Jesse A.; Meng, Zhaojing; Taylor, Rebekah T.; Chan, King; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Nutman, Thomas B; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filarial worms are parasitic nematodes that cause devastating diseases such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. Filariae are nematodes with complex anatomy including fully developed digestive tracts and reproductive organs. To better understand the basic biology of filarial parasites and to provide insights into drug targets and vaccine design, we conducted a proteomic analysis of different anatomic fractions of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of LF. Approximately 500 adult fema...

  16. Reproduction period of Mimagoniates microlepis, from an Atlantic Forest Stream in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Rennó Braga; José Marcelo Rocha Aranha; Jean Ricardo Vitule

    2008-01-01

    Mimagoniates microlepis was collected between January and December/2002. Three sample points were chosen at higher, medium and lower portions of Ribeirão river, located at the east of Paraná state. The reproduction period was observed by the frequency of gonad developmental stages, variation of the gonosomatic relation (RGS) and gonad condition (K). The average length at the first sexual maturity (L50) and the average length when 100% of individuals were adults (L100) were calculated. The int...

  17. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    OpenAIRE

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 sil...

  18. Sexual and Reproductive Health Care for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Primary Care Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Nechama W.; Joanne Wilkinson

    2013-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) face multiple health disparities and challenges to accessing health care. Little is known about sexual health care of this population and about how to optimize women's reproductive health care for women with intellectual disabilities. Women with ID face important barriers to care, including lack of provider training and experience, hesitancy to broach the topic of sexual health, a lack of sexual knowledge and limited opportunities for sex education, ...

  19. Regulation of reproduction in a queenless ant: aggression, pheromones and reduction in conflict.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Peeters, Christian; Cobb, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    In the monogynous queenless ant Diacamma ceylonense, the future reproductive (future gamergate) is very aggressive towards infertile workers during the first days of her adult life. Overt aggression disappears at about three weeks, when the future gamergate begins to lay male-destined eggs and is ready to mate. Over the same period, her cuticular hydrocarbon profile alters, changing from a chemical signature similar to that of a sterile worker towards that of a gamergate. In nature, these beh...

  20. Does variation of sex ratio enhance reproductive success of offspring in tawny owls (Strix aluco)

    OpenAIRE

    Appleby, B. M.; Petty, S J; Blakey, J K; Rainey, P; Macdonald, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Tawny owls, Strix aluco, laid female-biased clutches on territories with more abundant prey (field voles) in June, the month that chicks fledge. This appeared to enhance the subsequent reproductive success of fledglings, as in 1995 there was a significant correlation between the number of chicks fledged by adult females and the June vole abundance in the territory on which they were reared as chicks. This relationship did not hold for males. Since tawny owls lay eggs in March, these results i...

  1. Japanese Quail as a Model System for Studying the Neuroendocrine Control of Reproductive and Social Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    BALL, GREGORY F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; referred to simply as quail in this article) readily exhibit sexual behavior and related social behaviors in captive conditions and have therefore proven valuable for studies of how early social experience can shape adult mate preference and sexual behavior. Quail have also been used in sexual conditioning studies illustrating how natural stimuli predict successful reproduction via Pavlovian processes. In addition, they have proven to be a good model to stud...

  2. Influence of Age, Reproductive Cycling Status, and Menstruation on the Vaginal Microbiome in Baboons (Papio anubis)

    OpenAIRE

    UCHIHASHI, M.; BERGIN, I. L.; BASSIS, C. M.; HASHWAY, S. A.; Chai, D.; Bell, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal mi...

  3. Developmental reprogramming of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in sheep: native steroids vs. environmental steroid receptor modulators

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sarma, Hiren N.; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Steckler, Teresa L.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2010-01-01

    The inappropriate programming of developing organ systems by exposure to excess native or environmental steroids, particularly the contamination of our environment and our food sources with synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals that can interact with steroid receptors, is a major concern. Studies with native steroids have found that in utero exposure of sheep to excess testosterone, an estrogen precursor, results in low birth weight offspring and leads to an array of adult reproductive / m...

  4. Effects of Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infection on the reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata: Planorbidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

    1998-10-01

    Infection with the digenean parasite Plagiorchis elegans dramatically reduced the reproductive output of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to the parasite as juveniles or adults. The total number of eggs produced by infected snails was reduced to approximately 7 and 13% of control values, respectively. Parasitic castration was attributed to the presence of mother sporocysts that readily established in the tissues of this incompatible host. Infection did not result in the production of cercariae but significantly shortened the life span of juvenile and adult B. glabrata by approximately 23 and 10%, respectively. Plagiorchis elegans also castrated its compatible host, Stagnicola elodes. PMID:9794632

  5. Three-dimensional imaging of the developing mouse female reproductive organs with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jason C.; Wang, Shang; Behringer, Richard R.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Infertility is a known major health concern and is estimated to impact ~15% of couples in the U.S. The majority of failed pregnancies occur before or during implantation of the fertilized embryo into the uterus. Understanding the mechanisms regulating development by studying mouse reproductive organs could significantly contribute to an improved understanding of normal development of reproductive organs and developmental causes of infertility in humans. Towards this goal, we report a three-dimensional (3D) imaging study of the developing mouse reproductive organs (ovary, oviduct, and uterus) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In our study, OCT was used for 3D imaging of reproductive organs without exogenous contrast agents and provides micro-scale spatial resolution. Experiments were conducted in vitro on mouse reproductive organs ranging from the embryonic day 14.5 to adult stages. Structural features of the ovary, oviduct, and uterus are presented. Additionally, a comparison with traditional histological analysis is illustrated. These results provide a basis for a wide range of infertility studies in mouse models. Through integration with traditional genetic and molecular biology approaches, this imaging method can improve understanding of ovary, oviduct, and uterus development and function, serving to further contribute to our understanding of fertility and infertility.

  6. Redefining reproductive success in songbirds: Moving beyond the nest success paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Refsnider, Jeanine M.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most commonly estimated parameters in studies of songbird ecology is reproductive success, as a measure of either individual fitness or population productivity. Traditionally, the “success” in reproductive success refers to whether, or how many, nestlings leave nests. Here, we advocate that “reproductive success” in songbirds be redefined as full-season productivity, orthe number of young raised to independence from adult care in a breeding season. A growing body of evidence demonstrates interdependence between nest success and fledgling survival, and emphasizes that data from either life stage alone can produce misleading measures of individual fitness and population productivity. Nest success, therefore, is an insufficient measure of reproductive success, and songbird ecology needs to progress beyond this long-standing paradigm. Full-season productivity, an evolutionarily rational measure of reproductive success, provides the framework for appropriately addressing unresolved questions about the adaptive significance of many breeding behaviors and within which effective breeding-grounds conservation and management can be designed.

  7. Reproductive demography of a temperate protogynous and herbivorous fish, Odax pullus (Labridae, Odacini)

    KAUST Repository

    Laman Trip, Elizabeth

    2011-03-07

    A common view is that, in marine fishes, herbivory and sex change are subject to physiological constraints at high latitudes, which are likely to affect growth rates and reproductive outputs. The present study examines the reproductive demography of Odax pullus, an herbivorous and protogynous species of temperate New Zealand. We establish an otolith-based methodology for age estimation and investigate sex-specific growth, longevity and age-based reproductive events. Individuals achieved a maximum age of 11 years, reached 85% of adult body size (455mm FL) within the first 3.5 years of life, were sexually mature by the age of 1.11.5 years and changed sex at 2.83.5 years, indicating fast simultaneous somatic and reproductive growth. There was no significant difference in growth or body size between the sexes. Ovary weight of spawning females increased significantly with size and age, suggesting the presence of size- and age-fecundity skews underlying the absence of sex change in larger and older females. Testes of reproductively active males comprised less than 1% of bodyweight, suggesting pair-spawning and little sperm competition. The present study provides metrics to support comparisons of the demography of this temperate protogynous and herbivorous labrid across spatial or temporal strata. © CSIRO 2011.

  8. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Briers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly established. Whilst benthic communities have been well studied, very little research has considered the impacts of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects, yet the essentially terrestrial adult (reproductive phase may be important in determining the abundance and distribution of larval stages. Riparian vegetation has a potentially strong impact on survival and success of adult stages through alteration of microclimate, habitat structure and potential food sources, in addition to effects carried over from larval stages. Here, current riparian management strategies are analysed in the light of available information on the ecology of adult stream insects. On the whole, management practices appear to favour adult stream insects, although an increase in tree cover in riparian areas could be beneficial, by providing more favourable microclimatic conditions for adults. This conclusion is drawn based on rather limited information, and the need for further research into the effects of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects is highlighted. Keywords: microclimate, plantation, life history, riparian vegetation

  9. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the reproductive anddevelopmental toxicity of hydroxyurea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebelt, E.L.; Balk, S.J.; Faber, W.; Fisher, J.W.; Hughes, C.L.; Lanzkron, S.M.; Lewis, K.M.; Marchetti, F.; Mehendale, H.M.; Rogers,J.M.; Shad, A.T.; Skalko, R.G.; Stanek, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) established the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) in June 1998. The purpose of CERHR is to provide timely, unbiased, scientifically sound evaluations of human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development caused by agents to which humans may be exposed. Hydroxyurea was selected for evaluation by a CERHR expert panel because of (1) its increasing use in the treatment of sickle cell disease in children and adults, (2) knowledge that it inhibits DNA synthesis and is cytotoxic, and (3) published evidence of its reproductive and developmental toxicity in rodents. Hydroxyurea is FDA-approved for reducing the frequency of painful crises and the need for blood transfusions in adults with sickle cell anemia who experience recurrent moderate-to-severe crises. Hydroxyurea is used in the treatment of cancer, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia. It is the only treatment for sickle cell disease aside from blood transfusion used in children. Hydroxyurea may be used in the treatment of children and adults with sickle cell disease for an extended period of time or for repeated cycles of therapy. Treatment with hydroxyurea may be associated with cytotoxic and myelosuppressive effects, and hydroxyurea is mutagenic.

  10. The reproductive tracts of two malaria vectors are populated by a core microbiome and by gender- and swarm-enriched microbial biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Segata; Francesco Baldini; Julien Pompon; Wendy S. Garrett; Duy Tin Truong; Dabiré, Roch K; Abdoulaye Diabaté; Levashina, Elena A.; Flaminia Catteruccia

    2016-01-01

    Microbes play key roles in shaping the physiology of insects and can influence behavior, reproduction and susceptibility to pathogens. In Sub-Saharan Africa, two major malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii, breed in distinct larval habitats characterized by different microorganisms that might affect their adult physiology and possibly Plasmodium transmission. We analyzed the reproductive microbiomes of male and female An. gambiae and An. coluzzii couples collected from natural m...

  11. Comparison of the reproductive ecology of two sympatric blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus and Carcharhinus tilstoni) off north-eastern Australia with species identification inferred from vertebral counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, A V; Morgan, J A T; Ovenden, J R; Tobin, A J; Welch, D J; Simpfendorfer, C A

    2012-09-01

    Precaudal vertebral counts were used to distinguish between 237 morphologically similar Carcharhinus limbatus and Carcharhinus tilstoni and were congruent with differences in reproductive ecology between the species. In addition to differing lengths at maturity and adult body size, the two species had asynchronous parturition, were born at different sizes and the relative frequencies of neonates differed in two coastal nursery areas. Despite evidence that hybridization can occur, these differences suggest the species are largely reproductively isolated. PMID:22957866

  12. [Adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  13. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  14. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  15. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  17. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN RICKSHAW DRIVERS: Occupational Exposure to Environmental Stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam. Nabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In urban environment, exposure to the emission of motor vehicles is common. In urban peoples it is a very difficult task to distinguish among peoples with different grades of momentous period exposure to such pollutants. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat on the reproductive health of rickshaw drivers. Methods: Adult married male individuals were recruited randomly in the study from Btkhella, Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two groups were made, control (n=45 and rickshaw drivers (n=50. A special questionnaire was designed about occupational activities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. From both groups 5 mL of the blood was collected and was analyze for serum total testosterone and cortisol using Biocheck (USA and Antibodies-online GmbH (Germany kits. Results: In control group the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 657.6±16.84 ng/dl and cortisol was 443.8±14.67 mU/L. In rickshaw drivers the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 577.1±11.42 ng/dl and cortisol was 595.1±8.879mU/L. In rickshaw drivers there was a significant reduction in total serum testosterone (P0.0002 but a significant increase in serum cortisol level (P < 0.0001 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: Reproductive health problems like decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, absent morning and nocturnal erection, ejaculatory problems, primary infertility and secondary infertility were prevalent in rickshaw drivers but, no such problems were found in control group. Chronic exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat negatively regulate Hypothalmo-Pituitary Gonadal axis (HPG leading  to reproductive problems.

  18. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  19. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  20. Adult Leukemias

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Lyall K.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past several years, advances have been made in the classification, diagnosis and therapy of the adult leukemias. The overall prognosis and quality of life have improved greatly, especially for patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemias. Some of the advances are described in this article. The importance of the clinical, laboratory and diagnostic tests for acute, chronic granulocytic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are stressed. The therapy and prognosis for patients with the vari...

  1. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. PMID:21958915

  2. Effects of different gamma exposure regimes on reproduction in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel-Aas, Turid, E-mail: turid.hertel-aas@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Brunborg, Gunnar, E-mail: Gunnar.Brunborg@fhi.no [Department of Chemical Toxicology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo (Norway); Jaworska, Alicja, E-mail: Alicja.Jaworska@nrpa.no [Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, 1332, Osteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit, E-mail: brit.salbu@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, Deborah Helen, E-mail: deborah.oughton@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    Ecological risk assessment of ionising radiation requires knowledge about the responses of individuals and populations to chronic exposures, including situations when exposure levels change over time. The present study investigated processes such as recovery and the adaptive response with respect to reproduction endpoints in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Furthermore, a crossed experiment was performed to investigate the influence of F0 parental and F1 embryonic irradiation history on the response of irradiated or non-irradiated F1 offspring. Recovery: The sterility induced by sub-chronic exposure at 17 mGy/h (accumulated dose: 25 Gy) was temporary, and 8 weeks after irradiation the worms had regained their reproductive capacity (number of viable offspring produced per adult per week). Adaptive response: Adult worms were continuously exposed at a low priming dose rate of 0.14 mGy/h for 12 weeks (accumulated dose: 0.24 Gy), followed by 14 weeks exposure at a challenge dose rate of 11 mGy/h. The results suggest a lack of adaptive response, since there were no significant differences in the effects on reproduction capacity between the primed and the unprimed groups after challenge doses ranging from 7.6 to 27 Gy. Crossed experiment: The effects of exposure at 11 mGy/h for 21 weeks on growth, sexual maturation and reproduction of offspring, derived either from parent worms and cocoons both exposed at 11 mGy/h, or from non-irradiated parents and cocoons (total accumulated dose 44 and 38 Gy, respectively) were compared. There were no significant differences between the two exposed offspring groups for any of the endpoints. The reproduction capacity was very low for both groups compared to the controls, but the reproduction seemed to be maintained at the reduced level, which could indicate acclimatisation or stabilisation. Finally, parental and embryonic exposures at 11 mGy/h did not affect reproduction in the F1 offspring as adults.

  3. Effects of different gamma exposure regimes on reproduction in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological risk assessment of ionising radiation requires knowledge about the responses of individuals and populations to chronic exposures, including situations when exposure levels change over time. The present study investigated processes such as recovery and the adaptive response with respect to reproduction endpoints in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to 60Co γ-radiation. Furthermore, a crossed experiment was performed to investigate the influence of F0 parental and F1 embryonic irradiation history on the response of irradiated or non-irradiated F1 offspring. Recovery: The sterility induced by sub-chronic exposure at 17 mGy/h (accumulated dose: 25 Gy) was temporary, and 8 weeks after irradiation the worms had regained their reproductive capacity (number of viable offspring produced per adult per week). Adaptive response: Adult worms were continuously exposed at a low priming dose rate of 0.14 mGy/h for 12 weeks (accumulated dose: 0.24 Gy), followed by 14 weeks exposure at a challenge dose rate of 11 mGy/h. The results suggest a lack of adaptive response, since there were no significant differences in the effects on reproduction capacity between the primed and the unprimed groups after challenge doses ranging from 7.6 to 27 Gy. Crossed experiment: The effects of exposure at 11 mGy/h for 21 weeks on growth, sexual maturation and reproduction of offspring, derived either from parent worms and cocoons both exposed at 11 mGy/h, or from non-irradiated parents and cocoons (total accumulated dose 44 and 38 Gy, respectively) were compared. There were no significant differences between the two exposed offspring groups for any of the endpoints. The reproduction capacity was very low for both groups compared to the controls, but the reproduction seemed to be maintained at the reduced level, which could indicate acclimatisation or stabilisation. Finally, parental and embryonic exposures at 11 mGy/h did not affect reproduction in the F1 offspring as adults.

  4. Reproductive performance of the Saanen goat in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproductive endocrinology of Saanen dairy goats in China was studied during puberty, pregnancy, parturition and different breeding seasons. The effect of controlled release melatonin (CRM) on ovarian function in the non-breeding season was also evaluated. The average pubertal live weight, age and length of the pubertal oestrous cycle were 10.2 kg, 54.7 days and 8.3 days, respectively. The average length of pregnancy was 150.6 days. Diurnal changes of plasma concentrations of 17β-oestradiol, cortisol and progesterone during pregnancy and parturition are described. The breeding season began in the middle of August for adult Saanen goats. No significant differences were observed in 17β-oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in the milk of goats treated with CRM during June in the non-breeding season. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Vitamin D and Reproduction: From Gametes to Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista D. Sowell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is well recognized for its essentiality in maintaining skeletal health. Recent research has suggested that vitamin D may exert a broad range of roles throughout the human life cycle starting from reproduction to adult chronic disease risk. Rates of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy remain high worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of fertility problems, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and allergic disease in the offspring. Vitamin D is found naturally in only a few foods thus supplementation can provide an accessible and effective way to raise vitamin D status when dietary intakes and sunlight exposure are low. However, the possibility of overconsumption and possible adverse effects is under debate. The effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and early life on maternal and infant outcomes will be of particular focus in this review.

  6. Adolescent girls' life aspirations and reproductive health in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S; Malhotra, A; Mehta, M

    2001-05-01

    The study described in this paper takes a participatory and positive approach to improving adolescent reproductive health in a rural and urban community in Nepal. It shows that adolescent girls in these communities have dreams and aspirations for a better future and that adults acknowledge and support these ideals. However, social norms and institutions are restrictive, especially for girls, who are often unable to realise their hopes for continuing education, finding better-paid work or delaying marriage and childbearing, and this directly impacts reproductive outcomes. Insight into the broader context of adolescent girls' lives provides a valuable framework for designing positive programmatic actions which take as their entry point the disjuncture between girls' aspirations and realities. Interventions begun in these communities include youth clubs for safe social interaction and literacy classes; training of peer educators to teach life-skills, including for married adolescents; forums for parents, teachers and health service providers to discuss their own concerns and those of adolescents; and work with the community to design programmes that will contribute to greater financial independence and employment opportunities for adolescents. PMID:11468851

  7. Atrazine reduces reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Papoulias, D.M.; Whyte, J.J.; Richter, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, the widely used herbicide, has shown to affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in certain vertebrate species, but few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical on fish. Our study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (e.g., gonad development) and biochemical (e.g., hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in fathead minnows. Adult virgin breeding groups of 1 male and 2 females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 ??g/L of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 30 days. Total egg production was lower (19-39%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine treated fish were significant by 17-20 days of exposure. Reductions in egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to reduced numbers of spawning events with increased atrazine exposure concentrations. Gonad abnormalities were observed in both male and female fish of atrazine-exposed fish. Our results also indicate that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reproductive effects observed in this study warrant further investigation and evaluation of the potential risks posed by atrazine, particularly feral populations of fish from streams in agricultural areas with high use of this herbicide. ?? 2010.

  8. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age. PMID:26568488

  9. Reproduction, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-08-18

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing questions about reproduction, individuality, and the units of selection in symbiotic associations, with special attention to the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Three kinds of reproduction are distinguished, and a possible evolutionary sequence giving rise to a mitochondrion-containing eukaryotic cell from an endosymbiotic partnership is analyzed as a series of transitions between each of the three forms of reproduction. The sequence of changes seen in this "egalitarian" evolutionary transition is compared with those that apply in "fraternal" transitions, such as the evolution of multicellularity in animals. PMID:26286983

  10. La reproduction du chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera)

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Frédérique

    2002-01-01

    Ce travail s'attache aux diverses particularités de la reproduction du chin- chilla (Chinchilla lanigera). La reproduction est définie comme tout ce qui a trait à la production du nouveau-né. Sont ainsi abordés: la physiologie de la reproduction mâle-femelle (anatomie, fonctionnement hormonal), la saillie, la fécondation, la gestation (développement de l'embryon puis du foetus, développement des annexes embryonnaires comme le placenta), la parturition, ainsi que le développement du jeune jusq...

  11. Reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory: effect of multiple couples and the size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Barros, N M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of keeping three couples in the same cage, and the size of adults emerged from small, medium-sized and large pupae (278.67 mg; 333.20 mg and 381.58 mg, respectively), on the reproductive potential of S. eridania (Stoll, 1782) adults, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70% RH and 14 hour photophase). We evaluated the survival, number of copulations, fecundity and fertility of the adult females. The survival of females from these different pupal sizes did not differ statistically, but the survival of males from large pupae was statistically shorter than from small pupae. Fecundity differed significantly and correlated positively with size. The number of effective copulations (espematophores) and fertility did not vary significantly with pupal size. Our results emphasize the importance of indicating the number of copulations and the size of the insects when reproductive parameters are compared. PMID:26959952

  12. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  13. Progesterone induces adult mammary stem cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Purna A; Jackson, Hartland W; Beristain, Alexander G; Di Grappa, Marco A; Mote, Patricia A; Clarke, Christine L; Stingl, John; Waterhouse, Paul D; Khokha, Rama

    2010-06-10

    Reproductive history is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer after age, genetics and breast density. Increased breast cancer risk is entwined with a greater number of ovarian hormone-dependent reproductive cycles, yet the basis for this predisposition is unknown. Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are located within a specialized niche in the basal epithelial compartment that is under local and systemic regulation. The emerging role of MaSCs in cancer initiation warrants the study of ovarian hormones in MaSC homeostasis. Here we show that the MaSC pool increases 14-fold during maximal progesterone levels at the luteal dioestrus phase of the mouse. Stem-cell-enriched CD49fhi cells amplify at dioestrus, or with exogenous progesterone, demonstrating a key role for progesterone in propelling this expansion. In aged mice, CD49fhi cells display stasis upon cessation of the reproductive cycle. Progesterone drives a series of events where luminal cells probably provide Wnt4 and RANKL signals to basal cells which in turn respond by upregulating their cognate receptors, transcriptional targets and cell cycle markers. Our findings uncover a dynamic role for progesterone in activating adult MaSCs within the mammary stem cell niche during the reproductive cycle, where MaSCs are putative targets for cell transformation events leading to breast cancer. PMID:20445538

  14. Longevity and reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) fed different natural diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, James D; Neumann, Peter; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti J

    2002-10-01

    The longevity and reproductive success of newly emerged, unfed adult Aethina tumida Murray assigned different diets (control = unfed; honey-pollen; honey; pollen; empty brood comb; bee brood; fresh Kei apples; and rotten Kei apples) were determined. Longevity in honey-fed small hive beetle adults (average maximum: 167 d) was significantly higher than on other diets. Small hive beetles fed empty brood comb lived significantly longer (average maximum: 49.8 d) than unfed beetles (average maximum: 9.6 d). Small hive beetle offspring were produced on honey-pollen, pollen, bee brood, fresh Kei apples, and rotten Kei apples but not on honey alone, empty brood comb, or in control treatments. The highest reproductive success occurred in pollen fed adults (1773.8 +/- 294.4 larvae per three mating pairs of adults). The data also show that A. tumida can reproduce on fruits alone, indicating that they are facultative parasites. The pupation success and sex ratio of small hive beetle offspring were also analyzed. Larvae fed pollen, honey-pollen, or brood had significantly higher pupation success rates of 0.64, 0.73, and 0.65 respectively than on the other diets. Sex ratios of emerging adults fed diets of pollen or brood as larvae were significantly skewed toward females. Because small hive beetle longevity and overall reproductive success was highest on foodstuffs located in honey bee colonies, A. tumida are efficient at causing large-scale damage to colonies of honey bees resulting in economic injury for the beekeeper. Practical considerations for the control of A. tumida are briefly discussed. PMID:12403414

  15. Diminished reproductive fitness associated with the deltamethrin resistance in an Indian strain of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarita; Thomas, Anita; Samuel, Thomas; Sahgal, Arunima; Verma, Anita; Pillai, M K K

    2009-08-01

    The susceptible (SS) and resistant (DLR) strains of Aedes aegypti selected with deltamethrin and combination of deltamethrin and PBO (1:5) at the larval/adult stage were studied in the laboratory for their reproductive fitness in terms of fecundity, hatchability and longevity of gonotrophic cycles. The DLR strains exhibited 73-88% reduction in the duration of gonotrophic cycles as compared to their SS counterparts. There was a considerable decrease in egg production and hatchability rates in the selected strains of Ae. aegypti, as compared to that of the SS strain. Data indicate deltamethrin being an effective insecticide against Ae. aegypti and a possible correlation between the deltamethrin resistance and disadvantages during reproduction. The most drastic and significant effect was observed in DLR1b strains exhibiting 36.7% decrease in fecundity and 32.4% reduction in hatchability. Another important observation was diminished reproductive fitness in DLR2 strains. This suggests the usefulness of synergized deltamethrin selections in reducing the frequency of resistant individuals. A significant finding was to observe the reproductive disadvantage in adult-selected strains having negligible resistance to deltamethrin implicating the efficacy of deltamethrin as an adulticide rather than as a larvicide. Various probable reasons for the reduction in the reproductive potential and the possible resistance-management strategies of Ae. aegypti are discussed. PMID:19901902

  16. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  17. Social Context and Reproductive Potential Affect Worker Reproductive Decisions in a Eusocial Insect

    OpenAIRE

    Yagound, Boris; Blacher, Pierre; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be in...

  18. Corticosterone-mediated reproductive decisions: sex allocation, the cost of reproduction and maternal fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Oliver P.

    2007-01-01

    Managing reproductive investment within the scope of an individual’s energetic condition is required to maximize fitness. To be successful, individuals must make the correct decisions about when to reproduce, when to abandon an attempt, how many resources to invest in current and future attempts and where those resources should be allocated. These reproductive decisions therefore involve complex life-history trade-offs between an individual’s condition and current reproduction, future reprodu...

  19. Adolescent Reproductive Health:Challenges and Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Schwab Zabin

    2004-01-01

    @@ The field of reproductive health has had long experience negotiating challenging environments in ways that other health fields have not -- perhaps because other health fields usually deal with illness which everyone agrees is not a good thing. Or maybe because we have all been born, we all think we know something about reproduction. Whatever the reason,we have over the years seen bitter political and ideological debates over population and family planning, abortion, the treatment of HIV/AIDS, in vitro fertilization, new contraceptive technologies--and now adolescent reproductive health. We shouldn't be surprised.But just as we have had to prevail in those debates in the past, they are crucial today: the numbers of young people entering their reproductive years throughout the world, especially the developing world, make it essential that youth be reached not only with messages and services crafted in the last 40 years but also with new messages, new ideas and new services.

  20. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...