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Sample records for adult rats efeito

  1. Efeito do tratamento com triptofano sobre parâmetros do comportamento alimentar em ratos adultos submetidos à desnutrição neonatal Effects of tryptophan on the eating behavior of adult rats with neonatal malnutrition

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    Judelita Carvalho-Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigou-se os efeitos do tratamento com triptofano sobre o consumo alimentar em ratos adultos, submetidos ou não a desnutrição precoce. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em nutridos (n=32, caseína=17% e desnutridos (n=32, caseína=8%, de acordo com a dieta materna empregada no período de lactação. Após o desmame, todos os ratos receberam dieta com 23% de proteína. Pesos corporais foram avaliados no sétimo, vigésimo primeiro e septuagésimo dias de vida. Aos setenta dias de idade, cada grupo nutricional foi dividido em subgrupos: Nutrido-Salina (n=16 e Nutrido-Triptofano (n=16, Desnutrido-Salina (n=16 e Desnutrido-Triptofano (n=16. Os grupos receberam diariamente 1,0mL/100g de triptofano, na dose de 50mg/kgP ou salina (0,9%NaCl, durante 14 dias. Neste período foram realizados os estudos dos parâmetros do comportamento alimentar. Posteriormente obteve-se a média do consumo alimentar relativo e a média do ganho de peso relativo. As análises estatísticas foram feitas utilizando os testes t Student e ANOVA seguido de Tukey, com pOBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of tryptophan on the eating behavior of adult rats submitted or not to early malnutrition. METHODS: Sixty-four male Wistar rats were divided into nourished (n=32, casein=17% and malnourished (n=32, casein=8% according to the diet given to the dam during lactation. After weaning, all rats were fed a diet with a protein content of 23%. The rats were weighed on day 7, day 21 and day 70 after birth. On day 70 after birth, each nutritional group was divided into 4 subgroups: nourished-saline (n=16, nourished-tryptophan (n=16, malnourished-saline (n=16 and malnourished-tryptophan (n=16. The tryptophan groups were given 1.0mL/100g of tryptophan for 14 days, at a dosage of 50mg/kgw of body weight and the saline groups were given 1.0mL/100g of 0.9% NaCl, also for 14 days. The eating behavior parameters were assessed during this

  2. Morphoquantitative effects of acute diabetes on the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats Efeitos morfoquantitativos do diabetes agudo sobre os neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos

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    Maria Montserrat D.P. Furlan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute diabetes on the density and size of the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats were investigated. The injection of streptozotocin was followed by a period of observation of seven days, during which the diabetic animals showed weight loss, excessive food and water intake, large urinary debt and hyperglicemia. The whole-mounts from the proximal colon were stained with the techniques of Giemsa and of the NADH-diaphorase, and the employment of these techniques made it possible to verify a decrease on the neuronal density and on the cell body size of the myenteric neurons in the colon of the diabetic rats. These observations were discussed in terms of the pathophysiology of the diabetes and the experimental protocol.Foram investigados os efeitos do diabetes agudo sobre a densidade e o tamanho dos neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos. À injeção de estreptozootocina seguiu-se um período de observação de sete dias, durante os quais os animais diabéticos apresentaram perda de peso, ingestão excessiva de alimento e água, grande débito urinário e hiperglicemia. Os preparados de membrana do colo proximal foram corados pelas técnicas de Giemsa e da NADH-diaforase. A aplicação dessas técnicas permitiu constatar uma redução da densidade neuronal e do tamanho do corpo celular dos neurônios mioentéricos no colo dos ratos diabéticos. Essas observações foram discutidas em termos da patofisiologia do diabetes e do protocolo experimental.

  3. Efeitos dos esteroides anabólicos androgênicos sobre o útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats

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    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da administração de dois esteroides sintéticos sobre a morfologia do útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas. MÉTODOS: quarenta ratas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos grupos experimentais: controle (C; solução fisiológica; tratados com decanoato de nandrolona (DN; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; composto de ésteres de testosterona (T; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; e, simultaneamente, com DN e T (7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo de cada esteroide, em uma única dose/semana, intraperitoneal, durante oito semanas. Cinco fêmeas de cada grupo foram sacrificadas e os cornos uterinos foram coletados, pesados e preparados para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. As ratas restantes foram acasaladas com machos normais para avaliação dos parâmetros reprodutivos, constituindo os grupos tratados durante o período pré-gestacional. Outro grupo de 20 ratas recebeu os tratamentos durante o período gestacional (7º-14º dias. Foi aplicada a análise de variância não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, complementada com o teste de Dunn ou de Student-Newman-Kleus para análise dos dados (5% de significância. RESULTADOS: houve aumento significativo no peso corpóreo das fêmeas androgenizadas (DN: 305±50; T: 280±35; DN+T: 275±30 versus C: 255±22 g (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of the administration of two synthetic steroids in the uterus morphology and in the reproductive parameters of adult female rats. METHODS: divided into four experimental groups: control (C; physiological solution; treated with nandrolone decanoate (DN; 7.5 mg/kg of body weight; with a testosterone esters compound (T; 7.5 mg/kg; and simultaneously with DN and T (7.5 mg/kg of each steroid, in a single intraperitoneal weekly dose, for eight weeks. Five females of each group were sacrificed and the uterine horns were collected, weighted and prepared for histological and morphometrical evaluation. The remaining rats were mated with

  4. Effects of pneumoperitoneum in rats Efeitos do pneumoperitônio em ratos

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    Marco Aurélio Valadão Fagundes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different pneumoperitoneal pressures on kidney and liver functions and on arterial gasometry in rats are provided. A sample of twenty male rats weighing from 350 to 400 grams and distributed into two groups of ten animals was used. Each animal served as experimental control from which blood samples were collected before introducing CO2 into the peritoneal cavity. Samples underwent pressures of 4 and 6 mm Hg during one hour. Results show that increase in intra-abdominal pressure by CO2 in rats causes changes in their arterial gasometry, liver and kidney. However, no liver or kidney lesions during the above mentioned time were reported.O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar o efeito de diferentes pressões de pneumoperitônio na gasometria arterial, rins e fígado de ratos. Foram utilizados 20 ratos machos, com peso entre 350 e 400 gramas distribuídos em 2 grupos de 10 animais. O controle do experimento foi o próprio animal. Retiraram-se retirou-se amostras de sangue antes da introdução do CO2 na cavidade peritonial, as quais foram submetidas ao tempo de 1 hora, em pressões de 4 e 6 mm Hg. Os resultados observados permitem concluir que o aumento da pressão intra-abdominal por dióxido de carbono em ratos promove alterações na gasometria arterial, fígado e rins. Porém, no fígado e rins, estas alterações não traduzem lesão hepática e renal neste tempo estudado.

  5. Efeitos da exposição à fumaça lateral do cigarro sobre o barorreflexo em ratos adultos Efectos de la exposición al humo lateral del cigarrillo sobre el barorreflejo en ratones adultos Sidestream cigarette smoke exposure effects on baroreflex in adult rats

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    Vitor E. Valenti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Tem sido demonstrado na literatura que a exposição à fumaça do cigarro causa hipertensão em ratos; entretanto, ainda não foi demonstrado se a função barorreflexa está prejudicada antes do animal se tornar hipertenso. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos os efeitos de curto prazo da exposição à fumaça lateral do cigarro (FLC sobre a função barorreflexa em ratos Wistar normotensos. MÉTODOS: Os ratos foram expostos à FLC durante três semanas, 180 minutos, cinco dias por semana, a uma concentração de monóxido de carbono entre 100-300 ppm. A pressão arterial média (PAM e a freqüência cardíaca (FC foram avaliadas através de canulação da veia e artéria femoral. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos controle e FLC em relação à MAP e FC, componentes simpáticos e parassimpáticos da função barorreflexa. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados sugerem que três semanas de exposição à FLC não são suficientes para causar dano significante aos parâmetros cardiovasculares e sensibilidade barorreflexa em ratos Wistar normotensos.FUNDAMENTO: Ha sido demostrado en la literatura que la exposición al humo del cigarrillo causa hipertensión en ratones; entre tanto, aun no fue demostrado si la función barorreflexa está perjudicada antes que el animal se vuelva hipertenso. OBJETIVO: Evaluamos los efectos de corto plazo de la exposición al humo lateral del cigarrillo (HLC sobre la función barorreflexa en ratones Wistar normotensos. MÉTODOS: Los ratones fueron expuestos al HLC durante tres semanas, 180 minutos, cinco días por semana, a una concentración de monóxido de carbono entre 100-300 ppm. La presión arterial media (PAM y la frecuencia cardíaca (FC fueron evaluadas a través de canulación de la vena y arteria femoral. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos control y HLC en relación a la MAP y FC, componentes simpáticos y parasimpáticos de la función barorreflexa. CONCLUSI

  6. Efeitos das isoflavonas em altas doses sobre o útero da rata Effects of high-dose isoflavones on rat uterus

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    Adriana Aparecida Ferraz Carbonel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de altas doses de isoflavonas no útero de ratas adultas castradas. MÉTODOS: Ratas virgens ovariectomizadas (n = 40 foram tratadas por 30 dias consecutivos com veículo (GCtrl ou genisteína nas concentrações 42 (GES42, 125 (GES125 e 250 (GES250 µg/g de peso corporal ao dia. O extrato de soja e o veículo (propilenoglicol foram administrados por gavagem. Ao final do experimento, foi realizada dosagem sérica de 17 β-estradiol e progesterona, avaliou-se o peso dos animais e dos úteros e foi feito exame colpocitológico. Fragmentos do terço médio dos cornos uterinos foram fixados em formol a 10% e processados para inclusão em parafina para estudo histológico. Cortes de 5 µm de espessura foram corados pelo HE e destinados a estudo em microscopia de luz. Analisou-se a histomorfologia do endométrio, área endometrial, número e área ocupada pelas glândulas, assim como a concentração de eosinófilos presentes na lâmina própria. Os dados numéricos obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância complementada pelo teste de Tukey-Kramer (p GES125 do que nos outros grupos (GES250 > GES125 > GES42 = GCtrl; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of high-dose isoflavones on the uterus of castrated adult rats. METHODS: Adult, ovariectomized virgin rats (n = 40 were treated by gavage during 30 consecutive days with vehicle (propylene glycol, group GCtrl or different doses of genistein: 42 (group GES42, 125 (GES125, or 250 (GES250 µg/g body weight per day. Animals were killed, weighed, vaginal and uterine samples were taken for cytologic evaluation, and serum levels of 17 β-estradiol and progesterone were determined. The middle third of the uterine horns was dissected, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin inclusion; 5-µm thick sections were obtained and stained with HE for further histological study under light microscopy. The endometrial morphology and area, number and area of glands, and number

  7. Effects of simvastatin in abdominal sepsis in rats Efeitos da sinvastatina na sepse abdominal em ratos

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    José Luiz de Souza Neto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Statins are widely recognized as hypolipemic drugs, but some studies have observed anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, known as pleiotropic. The aims of this work was to study possible anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin in abdominal sepsis. Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes count were determined in an experimental model of abdominal sepsis, using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in rats. METHODS: Twenty eigth Wistar rats weighing 285±12g were randomly divided in: CLP/Sinvastatin rats (n=7, treated with 10 mg/Kg of oral simvastatin 18 and 2 hs berofe CLP; CLP/Saline group rats (n=7, treated with oral saline; group Sham/Simvastatin (n=7, treated with simvastatin, and group Sham/Saline (n=7, treated with saline. Serum TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 by ELISA and total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils were determined 24 hs after CLP. ANOVA and Tukey test were used considering significant pOBJETIVO: As estatinas são agentes reconhecidamente hipolipemiantes. Vários estudos têm revelado que eles têm ações pleiotrópicas, como antiinflamatória e imunomoduladora. Tentando-se entender o papel antiinflamatório da sinvastatina na sepse, foram analisados os níveis de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e contagem de leucócitos em modelo de sepse abdominal por ligadura e punção do ceco (LPC em ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 28 ratos Wistar pesando 285±12g, assim divididos: grupo sepse (n=14, submetidos a LPC e grupo sham (n=14, submetidos a laparotomia e manipulação suave do ceco. No grupo LPC/sinvastatina (n=7 os ratos receberam 10mg/kg de sinvastatina via oral 18 e 2 horas antes da LPC e no grupo LPC/salina (n=7 os ratos receberam injeção oral de solução salina 0,9 %. Os animais dos grupos sham/sinvastatina (n=7 e sham/salina (n=7 receberam o mesmo tratamento. Dosagem de TNF-alfa, IL-1beta e IL-6 por ELISA e contagem de leucócitos totais, neutrófilos, linfócitos e eosin

  8. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

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    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Protective effect of simvastatin in the cyclophosphamide-induced hemohrragic cystitis in rats Efeito protetor da sinvastatina na cistite hemorrágica induzida pela ciclofosfamida em ratos

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    Anna Carolina Batista Dantas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cyclophosphamide (CYP is an antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of many neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a frequent side effect of CYP. Several studies show that simvastatin has important pleiotropic (anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of simvastatin on bladder, ureter and kidney injury caused by CYP. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. The CYP/SIM group received simvastatin microemulsion by gavage during 7 days (10 mg/kg body wt before the administration of CYP and the CYP/SAL group rats received saline 0.9%. The control rats were not treated. After that, all rats were treated with a single dose of CYP 200 mg/kg body wt intraperitoneally. The rats were killed 24 h after CYP administration. Plasma cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 were measured by ELISA. Macro and light microscopic study was performed in the bladder, kidney and ureter. RESULTS: In the bladders of CYP/SIMV treated rats edema of lamina propria with epithelial and sub-epithelial hemorrhage were lower than in CYP/SAL treated rats. The scores for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of bladder and ureter were significantly lower in CYP/SIMV rats than in CYP/SAL rats. The kidney was not affected. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was significatly lower in CF/SINV rats (164.8±22, 44.8±8 and 52.4±13 than in CF/SAL rats (378.5±66, 122.9±26 e 123.6±18, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study suggest that simvastatin pretreatment attenuated CYP-induced urotelium inflammation and decreased the activities of cytokines.OBJETIVO: Ciclofosfamida (CF é um agente antineoplásico frequente implicado na etiologia da cistite hemorrágica. Vários estudos mostram que a sinvastatina tem importantes efeitos pleiotrópicos (anti-inflamatórios e imunomoduladores. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da

  10. Hyperprolactinemia affects spermiogenesis in adult male rats.

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    Aleem, M; Choudhari, J; Padwal, V; Balasinor, N; Parte, P; Gill-Sharma, M K

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the antifertility effects of hyperprolactinemia have yet to be established in an appropriate experimental model. Hyperprolactinemia is a known side effect of fluphenazine, a broad spectrum, long-acting phenothiazine known to be dopamine type-D2 receptor antagonist. In our earlier study in adult male rats, we reported that fluphenazine at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day suppressed serum FSH but not testosterone (T) through increasing dopamine (DA) metabolism in the pituitary gland, within 60 days. Fluphenazine treatment affected sperm quality and male rats treated with fluphenazine sired fewer litters. The effects of fluphenazine-induced hyperprolactinemia on sperm quality appeared to be related to reduced FSH. We now report that FSH suppression enhanced the uptake of acridine orange (AO), a DNA intercalating, fluorescent dye by the fluphenazine-treated caput epididymal sperms with concomitant reduction in the uptake of thiol-specific monobromobimane (mBBr) fluorescent dye in vitro, suggesting greater accessibility of DNA intercalating dye to sperm chromatin and reduction in free sperm protein thiols. The concomitant increase in AO and decrease in mBBr fluorescence was suggestive of loose chromatin packaging in caput epididymal sperms after treatment with fluphenazine at 3 mg/kg/day for 60 days. The suppression in levels of protamine (P1) in caput epididymal sperms suggested that chromatin hypocompaction was due to reduced deposition of protamines in sperm chromatin. Reduction in testicular levels of cyclic adenosyl 3', 5' monophosphate response element modulator (CREMtau) and P1 further suggested that reduced deposition was indeed due to reduced synthesis. The concomitant reduction in testicular levels of transition protein 1 (TP1) and transition protein 2 (TP2) also suggested that hypoprotamination was due to reduced synthesis of these proteins crucial for facilitating P1 deposition. The effect appeared to have occurred at the level of translation

  11. Effects of pneumoperitoneum in rats Efeitos do pneumoperitônio em ratos

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    Marco Aurélio Valadão Fagundes; Montero,Edna Frasson S.; Neil Ferreira Novo; Cesar Orlando Peralta Bandeira

    2002-01-01

    The effects of different pneumoperitoneal pressures on kidney and liver functions and on arterial gasometry in rats are provided. A sample of twenty male rats weighing from 350 to 400 grams and distributed into two groups of ten animals was used. Each animal served as experimental control from which blood samples were collected before introducing CO2 into the peritoneal cavity. Samples underwent pressures of 4 and 6 mm Hg during one hour. Results show that increase in intra-abdominal pressure...

  12. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  13. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

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    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  14. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...

  15. Efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre as taxas de fertilidade de ratas Wistar Effects of antiretroviral drugs on fertility of Wistar rats

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    Ernesto Antonio Figueiró Filho

    2002-12-01

    írus da imunodeficiência humana.PURPOSE: to evaluate experimentally the effects of antiretroviral drugs used alone and in association upon the fertility of pregnant Wistar rats and the perinatal effects on the offspring. METHODS: adult female pregnant Wistar rats weighing 200-230 g were used. The antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT, lamivudine (3TC and nelfinavir (NFV were used alone and in association at daily doses of ten times the dose normally used in pregnant women, proportionally to the animal's body weight. Seven groups were studied, including the control one. The experiment started on day 0 and the pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 21. The alive and dead fetuses, the total implantation sites and the total numbers of corporea lutea were used to calculate the fertility values. The statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test and by the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: there were no significant statistical differences regarding preimplantation loss and implantation efficiency values of the rats treated with isolated and associated antiretroviral drugs. There was a significant increase in the postimplantation loss values (control group: 7.6%; drug groups variation: 20.2-26.7%, a decrease in the fetal viability values (control group: 92.4%, drug groups variation: 73.3-79.8%, and a decreasing number of fetuses per animal (control group: 14.7; drug groups variation: 11.1-12.7. There was a significant weight reduction of the female rats and of the offspring of animals treated with 3TC, AZT + 3TC and AZT + 3TC + NFV. CONCLUSION: with the administration of high antiretroviral doses, important fertility effects could be observed, which showed that less histotoxic antiretroviral drugs must be studied in order to warrant the safety of using these medicines in pregnant HIV-1 - infected women.

  16. Efeito da tibolona sobre o endométrio de ratas castradas Effect of tibolone on endometrium of castrated rats

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    José Augusto Soares Pantaleão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso prolongado de alta dose de tibolona na morfologia do endométrio em ratas castradas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 15 ratas Wistar, fêmeas, com idade de oito semanas e peso médio de 250 g. Todas as ratas foram submetidas à ooforectomia bilateral e 30 dias depois foi coletada citologia vaginal, verificando-se o status de menopausa. As ratas foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o tratado (n=9 recebeu via oral 1 mg tibolona/dia; o controle (n=6 recebeu apenas solução do veículo carboximetilcelulose. Após 20 semanas de tratamento, todos os animais foram sedados e sacrificados por deslocamento cervical. Os úteros foram retirados e fixados em formol 10% tamponado. Ambos os cornos uterinos foram clivados em três regiões (proximal, medial, distal e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes histológicos corados com hematoxilina-eosina foram submetidos à análise morfológica e morfométrica. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: espessura do epitélio superficial endometrial, espessura do estroma endometrial, área endometrial, número absoluto de glândulas endometriais e número de glândulas/área endometrial. Os dados obtidos foram comparados mediante o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: no Grupo Tibolona os úteros se apresentaram bem desenvolvidos e houve aumento significativo (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of long-term use of a high dose of tibolone on the morphology of the endometrium of castrated female rats. METHODS: fifteen female Wistar rats, aged eight weeks and weighting about 250 g were used. All the female rats were submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and 30 days afterwards, vaginal cytology was collected, to verify the menopause status. The female rats were randomly divided in two groups. The Treatment Group (n=9 received 1 mg of tibolone/day orally; the Control Group (n=6 received a solution of carboxymethylcellulose vehicle. After 20 weeks of treatment, all the animals were

  17. Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Adult Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    begun. Diazepam , chlordiazepoxide , morphine, or naloxone was administered I.P. prior to placing the rat in the tailshock apparatus. Four different...by chlordiazepoxide and diazepam . Drug Dev. Res., 5, 185-193 (1985). Gardner, C.R., and Budhram, P. Effects of agents which interact with central... diazepam , and chlorpromazine, attenuate these vocalizations. Recent work by Kaltwasser (1990) examined the occurrence of vocalizations in response to

  18. Effects of pregabalin on behavioral alterations induced by ketamine in rats Efeitos da pregabalina sobre alterações comportamentais induzidas pela cetamina em ratos

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    Emerson Arcoverde Nunes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of pregabalin on the behavior of rats under the influence of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist that mimics the symptoms of schizophrenia. METHODS: Rats were injected with saline or 25 mg/kg ketamine intraperitoneally. After that, behavior modifications were investigated by the evaluation of stereotypy and hyperlocomotion, after treating rats with pregabalin (at doses of 30 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg or placebo (saline solution. RESULTS: The administration of pregabalin reduced ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion. However, neither doses of pregabalin had a significant effect on ketamineinduced stereotypy. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to investigate the effects of pregabalin using an animal model of psychosis. Furthermore, our results indicate that behavioral changes induced by ketamine in rats can be reversed with the use of pregabalin, suggesting its potential to treat psychotic symptoms.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar os efeitos da pregabalina sobre as alterações comportamentais em ratos induzidas pela cetamina, um antagonista do receptor glutamatérgico NMDA, utilizado em modelos animais de psicose. MÉTODOS:Ratos receberam injeção com solução salina ou cetamina, na dose de 25 mg/kg, com posterior avaliação das alterações comportamentais induzidas, através da avaliação da estereotipia e hiperlocomoção, depois destes ratos terem sido tratados com pregabalina (30 mg/kg ou 100 mg/kg ou placebo. RESULTADOS:A administração de pregabalina reduziu a hiperlocomoção nos ratos sob o efeito da cetamina. No entanto, nenhuma das doses de pregabalina teve efeito significativo sobre a estereotipia induzida pela cetamina. CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro estudo que investiga os efeitos da pregabalina em um modelo animal de psicose. Nossos resultados indicam que alterações comportamentais induzidas pela cetamina em ratos podem ser revertidas após uso da

  19. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

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    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  20. Contextual fear conditioning differs for infant, adolescent, and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmorís-Arranz, Francisco J; Méndez, Cástor; Spear, Norman E

    2008-07-01

    Contextual fear conditioning was tested in infant, adolescent, and adult rats in terms of Pavlovian-conditioned suppression. When a discrete auditory-conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) within the largely olfactory context, infants and adolescents conditioned to the context with substantial effectiveness, but adult rats did not. When unpaired presentations of the CS and US occurred within the context, contextual fear conditioning was strong for adults, weak for infants, but about as strong for adolescents as when pairings of CS and US occurred in the context. Nonreinforced presentations of either the CS or context markedly reduced contextual fear conditioning in infants, but, in adolescents, CS extinction had no effect on contextual fear conditioning, although context extinction significantly reduced it. Neither CS extinction nor context extinction affected responding to the CS-context compound in infants, suggesting striking discrimination between the compound and its components. Female adolescents showed the same lack of effect of component extinction on response to the compound as infants, but CS extinction reduced responding to the compound in adolescent males, a sex difference seen also in adults. Theoretical implications are discussed for the development of perceptual-cognitive processing and hippocampus role.

  1. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

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    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  2. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

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    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  3. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  4. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... sulfate proteoglycans previously described....

  5. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  6. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  7. Lipoic acid attenuates Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Hassan, Memy H; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanistic aspect of Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity and its protection by lipoic acid. The adult male Albino rats were divided into six groups. Group I served as control. Group II received lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day). Aroclor 1260 was given to rats by oral gavage at doses 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg/day (Groups III, IV, and V, respectively). Group VI was pretreated with lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day) 24 h before Aroclor 1260 (40 mg/kg/day). Treatment in all groups was continued for further 15 consecutive days. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly increased while total protein, total albumin, and high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased. Hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased while superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content was significantly decreased in liver. Caspase-3 & -9 activities were significantly increased in liver. Lipoic acid pretreatment significantly reverted all these abnormalities toward their normal levels. In conclusion, Aroclor 1260 induced liver dysfunction, at least in part, by induction of oxidative stress. Apoptotic effect of hepatic cells is involved in Aroclor 1260-induced liver injury. Lipoic acid could protect rats against Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 913-922, 2016.

  8. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  9. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats

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    Meng-meng LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of peripheraltissueinjury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats. Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28days after birth were selected in thepresent study(4litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter.Each litter of rats was randomly divided intoinjury group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venomand control group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline, with20 in each group, and then raised for 2 months to adulthood. The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTLand paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT, then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat, and the changesinpa in reaction and pain threshold were determined. Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at1,4,7and14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P0.05.Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult ratsinjected with normal saline4-21days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesiain adult rats compared with control group(P<0.01. Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivityin adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity. The 21st day maybe a key time point of nervous system development in rats.

  10. Neonatal caffeine exposure and seizure susceptibility in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, R; Dunham, L

    1995-08-01

    Early developmental exposure to caffeine in rats results in changes in brain excitability that persist to adulthood. The mechanism of these alterations is unknown. To identify potential neurotransmitter systems involved, we exposed neonatal rats to caffeine and determined seizure thresholds for chemoconvulsants active at different CNS receptors in the adult animal. Rats were unhandled (NH) or received by gavage (0.05 ml/10 g) either vehicle (water) or caffeine (15-20 mg/kg/day) for postnatal days 2-6. At age 70-90 days, each rat was infused intravenously (i.v.) with picrotoxin (PIC), bicuculline (BIC) [convulsants acting at the gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine (GABA/BDZ) receptor], pentylenetetrazol [PTZ, possibly acting at both GABA/BDZ and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors], caffeine (acting at adenosine receptors), strychnine (STR, acting at glycine receptors), or kainic acid (KA, acting at the NMDA receptor). Seizure thresholds were analyzed as a function of neonatal treatment and sex. Thresholds for caffeine, PTZ, PIC, and KA were increased as a function of neonatal caffeine exposure (p = 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.005, respectively). The thresholds for BIC and STR were not altered. There were also gender differences in seizure susceptibility. Thresholds for seizures produced by BIC, caffeine, PIC, and STR were higher in females (p = 0.005, 0.005, 0.001, and 0.0001, respectively), but were not different for seizures caused by PTZ. These results suggest that early developmental exposure to caffeine affects later seizure susceptibility. Moreover, some of these effects are gender specific.

  11. Contractile force measured in unskinned isolated adult rat heart fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, A J; Tan, S T; Ricchiuti, N V

    1979-12-13

    A number of investigators have succeeded in preparing isolated cardiac cells by enzymatic digestion which tolerate external [Ca2+] in the millimolar range. However, a persistent problem with these preparations is that, unlike in situ adult ventricular fibres, the isolated fibres usually beat spontaneously. This spontaneity suggests persistent ionic leakage not present in situ. A preferable preparation for mechanical and electrical studies would be one which is quiescent but excitable in response to electrical stimulation and which does not undergo contracture with repeated stimulation. We report here a modified method of cardiac fibre isolation and perfusion which leaves the fibre membrane electrically excitable and moderately resistant to mechanical stress so that the attachment of suction micropipettes to the fibre is possible for force measurement and length control. Force generation in single isolated adult rat heart fibres is consistent with in situ contractile force. The negative staircase effect (treppe) characteristic of adult not heart tissue is present with increased frequency of stimulation. Isometric developed tension increases with fibre length as in in situ ventricular tissue.

  12. Behavioral effects of subchronic inhalation of toluene in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Gilbert, Mary E; Bushnell, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the acute neurobehavioral effects of toluene are robust and well characterized, evidence for persistent effects of repeated exposure to this industrial solvent is less compelling. The present experiment sought to determine whether subchronic inhalation of toluene caused persistent behavioral changes in rats. Adult male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene vapor (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks and were evaluated on a series of behavioral tests beginning 3 days after the end of exposure. Toluene delayed appetitively-motivated acquisition of a lever-press response, but did not affect motor activity, anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze, trace fear conditioning, acquisition of an appetitively-motivated visual discrimination, or performance of a visual signal detection task. Challenges with acute inhalation of toluene vapor (1200-2400 ppm for 1 h) and injections of quinpirole (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) and raclopride (0.03-0.10 mg/kg) revealed no toluene-induced latent impairments in visual signal detection. These results are consistent with a pattern of subtle and inconsistent long-term effects of daily exposure to toluene vapor, in contrast to robust and reliable effects of acute inhalation of the solvent.

  13. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  14. The proteome of neural stem cells from adult rat hippocampus

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    Fütterer Carsten D

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hippocampal neural stem cells (HNSC play an important role in cerebral plasticity in the adult brain and may contribute to tissue repair in neurological disease. To describe their biological potential with regard to plasticity, proliferation, or differentiation, it is important to know the cellular composition of their proteins, subsumed by the term proteome. Results Here, we present for the first time a proteomic database for HNSC isolated from the brains of adult rats and cultured for 10 weeks. Cytosolic proteins were extracted and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification through mass spectrometry, database search, and gel matching. We could map about 1141 ± 209 (N = 5 protein spots for each gel, of which 266 could be identified. We could group the identified proteins into several functional categories including metabolism, protein folding, energy metabolism and cellular respiration, as well as cytoskeleton, Ca2+ signaling pathways, cell cycle regulation, proteasome and protein degradation. We also found proteins belonging to detoxification, neurotransmitter metabolism, intracellular signaling pathways, and regulation of DNA transcription and RNA processing. Conclusions The HNSC proteome database is a useful inventory which will allow to specify changes in the cellular protein expression pattern due to specific activated or suppressed pathways during differentiation or proliferation of neural stem cells. Several proteins could be identified in the HNSC proteome which are related to differentiation and plasticity, indicating activated functional pathways. Moreover, we found a protein for which no expression has been described in brain cells before.

  15. Primary culture of adult rat liver cells. I. Preparation of isolated cells from trypsin-perfused liver of adult rat

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    Miyazaki,Masahiro

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolated hepatic cells from adult rats were prepared by perfusing the livers with trypsin. The highest yield of viable cells was obtained by perfusing the liver with 0.1% trypsin, pH 7.0, at 37 degrees C for 30 min. Following this treatment about 70% of cells excluded trypan blue. The isolated cells contained many binucleate cells. Between 60 and 70% of DNA present originally in the liver was recovered from the isolated hepatic cells, which had higher glucose 6-phosphatase activity than the liver. Thus the resulting cell population seems to be rich in hepatocytes. The isolated hepatic cells, however, lost some of their cellular proteins such as alanine and tyrosine amino-transferases. It was suggested that the membranes of isolated hepatic cells might be damaged by both enzymatic digestion and mechanical destruction.

  16. Effect of sildenafil in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats Efeito do sildenafil na lesão renal por isquemia/reperfusão em ratos

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    Paulo José de Medeiros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of sildenafil, administered prior to renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R, by scintigraphy and histopathological evaluation in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were divided randomly into two groups. They received 0.1 ml of 99mTechnetium-etilenodicisteine intravenous, and a baseline (initial renal scintigraphy was performed. The rats underwent 60 minutes of ischemia by left renal artery clamping. The right kidney was not manipulated. The sildenafil group (n=12 received orally 1 mg/kg of sildenafil suspension 60 minutes before ischemia. Treatment with saline 0.9% in the control group (n=12. Half of the rats was assessed after 24 hours and half after seven days I/R, with new renal scintigraphy to study differential function. After euthanasia, kidneys were removed and subjected to histopathological examination. For statistical evaluation, Student t and Mann-Whitney tests were used. RESULTS: In the control group rats, the left kidneys had significant functional deficit, seven days after I/R, whose scintigraphic pattern was consistent with acute tubular necrosis, compared with the initial scintigraphy (pOBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito do sildenafil, administrado previamente à isquemia/reperfusão (I/R renal, em avaliações cintilográficas e histopatológicas em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em dois grupos. Os animais receberam 0,1 ml IV de 99mTecnécio-Etilenodicisteína, foram submetidos à cintilografia renal inicial e em seguida submetidos a isquemia no rim esquerdo, com oclusão da artéria renal, durante 60 minutos, com posterior reperfusão. O grupo sildenafil (n=12 recebeu previamente 1mg/kg de sildenafil em suspensão 60 minutos antes da isquemia. Solução salina 0,9% foi administrada no grupo controle (n=12. Metade dos animais de cada grupo foi avaliada após 24 horas e a outra metade após sete dias de reperfusão, com nova cintilografia renal. Após eutanásia, os

  17. Habituation of exploratory activity in aged rats: effects of pyritinol Habituação da atividade exploratória em ratos idosos: efeitos do piritinol

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    Roberto DeLucia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (Ach is a neurotransmitter considered to play a critical role in processes underlying behavior, learning, and memory. Pyritinol (pyrithioxine, Encephabolâ, PRT is a nootropic drug that increases cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Behavioral habituation following multiple exposures to an open field is an experimental paradigm frequently used to assess the cognitive actions of drugs. In this paradigm the decrease of exploratory activity as a function of repeated exposure to the same environment is taken as an index memory. In the present study, effects PRT administrated to aged rats in powder form added to the diet (200 mg /kg / day, p.o., for 14 days were evaluated in the habituation to an open field. A total of 18 aged rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups control (vehicle-treated rats, n = 8 and experimental group (PRT-treated rats, n = 10 and were used in the following procedure. In the exploratory task, the post-training treatment with PRT significantly decreased the number of total area crossings and rears when compared to the control group, indicating habituation. PRT treatment enhanced retention in the total number of area crossings and rears when compared with control animals. Taken together, the data of present study suggest that muscarinic cholinergic systems could be involved in the effect of PRT in habituation of exploratory activity to an open field in aged rats.A acetilcolina é um neurotransmissor que desempenha considerável papel crítico nos processos subjacentes ao comportamento, aprendizagem e memória. Piritinol (piritioxina, Encefabolâ, PRT é um fármaco nootrópico que aumenta a transmissão colinérgica no sistema nervoso central. Habituação comportamental seguida de múltipla exposição no campo aberto é um paradigma experimental freqüentemente usado na avaliação das ações cognitivas de fármacos. Neste paradigma, a diminuição da atividade exploratória em fun

  18. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  19. Transformation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyasz, Tamas; Lozinskiy, Ilya; Payne, Charles E; Edelmann, Stephanie; Norton, Byron; Chen, Biyi; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T; Balke, C William

    2008-03-01

    We characterized the morphological, electrical and mechanical alterations of cardiomyocytes in long-term cell culture. Morphometric parameters, sarcomere length, T-tubule density, cell capacitance, L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)), inward rectifier potassium current (I(K1)), cytosolic calcium transients, action potential and contractile parameters of adult rat ventricular myocytes were determined on each day of 5 days in culture. We also analysed the health of the myocytes using an apoptotic/necrotic viability assay. The data show that myocytes undergo profound morphological and functional changes during culture. We observed a progressive reduction in the cell area (from 2502 +/- 70 microm(2) on day 0 to 1432 +/- 50 microm(2) on day 5), T-tubule density, systolic shortening (from 0.11 +/- 0.02 to 0.05 +/- 0.01 microm) and amplitude of calcium transients (from 1.54 +/- 0.19 to 0.67 +/- 0.19) over 5 days of culture. The negative force-frequency relationship, characteristic of rat myocardium, was maintained during the first 2 days but diminished thereafter. Cell capacitance (from 156 +/- 8 to 105 +/- 11 pF) and membrane currents were also reduced (I(Ca,L), from 3.98 +/- 0.39 to 2.12 +/- 0.37 pA pF; and I(K1), from 34.34p +/- 2.31 to 18.00 +/- 5.97 pA pF(-1)). We observed progressive depolarization of the resting membrane potential during culture (from 77.3 +/- 2.5 to 34.2 +/- 5.9 mV) and, consequently, action potential morphology was profoundly altered as well. The results of the viability assays indicate that these alterations could not be attributed to either apoptosis or necrosis but are rather an adaptation to the culture conditions over time.

  20. Efeitos da desnutrição precoce e reabilitação nutricional em ratos Effects of early malnutrition and nutritional rehabilitation in rats

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    Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: verificar os efeitos da desnutrição precoce e da reabilitação nutricional em ratos em desenvolvimento, em relação ao limiar para crises convulsivas, peso corporal e peso cerebral.Métodos: foram utilizadas ratas prenhas do tipo Wistar e suas ninhadas. Parte da ninhada foi submetida ao paradigma da desnutrição, e os animais restantes utilizados como controle. Em P15, animais desnutridos e do grupo controle foram submetidos a estado de mal convulsivo e, após recuperação das crises, iniciavam em período de reabilitação nutricional. Em P30, os ratos foram novamente submetidos a crise convulsiva induzida por flurothyl para determinação do limiar convulsivante. Após as crises, os ratos eram sacrificados, tendo o cérebro removido e pesado. A ninhada era pesada diariamente de P2 a P30. Resultados: observamos, a partir de P5, diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o peso corporal dos animais do grupo desnutrido em comparação ao grupo nutrido. O processo de reabilitação nutricional iniciado em P16 foi associado a ascendente ganho ponderal, entretanto a diferença de peso permaneceu até P30. O peso cerebral foi discretamente superior em animais nutridos (média 1,47 g ± 0,17 e do sexo masculino (média 1,47 g ± 0,16, entretanto a diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa em relação aos desnutridos (média 1,42 g ± 0,17 ou ao sexo feminino (1,38 g ± 0,12. O limiar (tempo em segundos para o início da primeira crise clônica e da primeira crise tônico-clônica avaliado em P15 e P30 não apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem que a desnutrição precoce não aumenta a susceptibilidade a crises convulsivas em ratos, no período de desenvolvimento, submetidos ao modelo do flurothyl. A reabilitação nutricional iniciada precocemente teria efeito protetor na susceptibilidade a crises convulsivas dos animais previamente desnutridos.Objective: to verify

  1. Influences of olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 陈燕涛; 程志安

    2002-01-01

    To observe whether olfactory ensheathing cells could be used to promote axonal regeneration in a spontaneously nonregenerating system. Methods: After laminectomy at the lower thoracic level, the spinal cords of adult rats were exposed and completely transected at T10. A suspension of ensheathing cells was injected into the lesion site in 12 adult rats, and control D/F-12 (1∶1 mixture of DMEM and Hams F-12) was injected in 12 adult rats. Six weeks and ten weeks after cell transplantation, the rats were evaluated by climbing test and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring. The samples were procured and studied with histologicl and immunohistochemical methods. Results: At the 6th week after cell transplantation, all the rats in both the transplanted and control groups were paraplegic and the MEPs could not be recorded. At the 10th week after cell transplantation, of 7 rats in the control group, 2 rats had muscles contraction of the lower extremities, 2 rats had hips and/or knees active movement; and 5 rats MEPs could be recorded in the hind limbs in the transplanted group (n=7). None of the rats in the control group had functional improvement and no MEPs recorded (n=7). Numerous regenerating axons were observed through the transplantation and continued to regenerate into the denervated host tract. Cell labelling using anti-Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (anti-NGFR) indicated that the regenerated axons were derived from the appropriate neuronal source and that donor cells migrated into the denervated host tract. But axonal degeneration existed and regenerating axons were not observed within the spinal cords of the adult rats with only D/F-12 injection. Conclusions: The axonal regeneration in the transected adult rat spinal cord is possible after ensheathing cells transplantation.

  2. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially. Anima

  3. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on esophagojejunal anastomosis healing in rats O efeito da oxigenoterapia hiperbárica na cicatrização da anastomose esofagojejunal em ratos

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    João Domingos Lionço

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO after esophagojejunal anastomosis in a rat experimental model and the effect of HBO on the healing of esophagojejunal anastomosis in gastrectomized rats. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats, weighing 322 g to 506 g, were divided into two random groups. In group A (control group, 20 rats were subjected to total gastrectomy. In group B, 20 rats were similarly gastrectomized, but also received postoperative HBO treatment for 90 minutes/day for seven days. All rats were sacrificed on the eighth postoperative day and evaluated according to the following study variables: a presence of anastomotic fistula; b evaluation of esophagojejunal anastomosis healing by measuring the breaking strength at the suture line as per Hendriks & Mastboom; and c determining the collagen concentration in the anastomosis, as per Kovács criteria. For the comparative statistical analysis between groups, Student's "t" test was used. A value of pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da oxigenoterapia hiperbárica na cicatrização da anastomose esôfagojejunal em ratos gastrectomizados. MÉTODOS: 40 ratos Wistar, adultos machos, pesando entre 322g e 506g, foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos. No grupo A (grupo controle 20 ratos foram submetidos à gastrectomia total. No grupo B, 20 ratos foram gastrectomizados e receberam tratamento pós-operatório com oxigênio hiperbárico, 90 minutos/dia durante sete dias. Todos os ratos foram sacrificados no oitavo dia pós-operatório e avaliados de acordo com as seguintes variáveis: a presença de fístula anastomótica; b avaliação da cicatrização da anastomose esôfagojejunal pela medida da força de ruptura à tração na linha da sutura conforme Hendriks & Mastboom; c determinação da concentração de colágeno na anastomose pelos critérios de Kovács. Para análise estatística comparativa entre os grupos foi utilizado o teste "t" de Student, considerando-se como

  4. Effect of glycemic state in rats submitted to status epilepticus during development Efeito do estado glicêmico em ratos submetidos ao status epilepticus durante o desenvolvimento

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    Joselita F.C. Santiago

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of glycemic state on status epilepticus (SE development was studied in animals of different ages, submitted to pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Groups: I- Rats with 9-day-old (P9: IA. Submitted to 1SE; IB. Saline-treated; IC. Induced- hyperglycemia; ID. Induced- hyperglycemia+SE; II- Rats submitted to three consecutive episodes of SE at P7, P8 and P9; III- Rats submitted to 1SE at P17; IV- Rats submitted to 1SE at P21. Hippocampal cell death and the expression of glucose transporter GLUT3 were analyzed in group I. The results demonstrated normoglycemia in the groups IA, IB and II, hypoglycemia in group III and hyperglycemia in group IV, showing that the glycemia during SE is age dependent. Induced hyperglycemia during SE in P9 protected the hippocampal neurons from death and both groups IC and ID presented increased GLUT3 expression, showing high glucose consumption by the hippocampus.O efeito do estado glicêmico sobre o desenvolvimento do status epilepticus (SE foi estudado em animais de diferentes idades, submetidos ao modelo de epilepsia por pilocarpina. Grupos: I- Ratos com nove dias (P9: IA- Submetidos a 1SE; IB- Tratados com salina; IC- Hiperglicemia induzida; ID- Hiperglicemia induzida+SE; II- Ratos submetidos a 3 episódios consecutivos de SE em P7, P8 e P9; III- Ratos submetidos a 1SE em P17; IV- Ratos submetidos a 1SE em P21. Foram analisados no grupo I a morte celular hipocampal e a expressão do transportador de glicose GLUT3. Os resultados mostraram haver normoglicemia nos grupos IA, IB e II, hipoglicemia no grupo III e hiperglicemia no grupo IV, sendo a glicemia durante o SE, idade dependente. A hiperglicemia induzida durante o SE em P9 protegeu neurônios hipocampais e os grupos IC e ID apresentaram expressão aumentada de GLUT3, mostrando aumento no consumo de glicose pelo hipocampo.

  5. Efeitos de altas doses de genisteína sobre o epitélio mamário de ratas Effects of high doses of genistein on mammary gland of female rat

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    Adriana Aparecida Ferraz Carbonel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos de altas doses de genisteína sobre o epitélio mamário de ratas adultas. MÉTODOS: após 28 dias da ooforectomia, cinquenta ratas adultas foram divididas em cinco grupos, a saber: um controle (Ctrl, três que receberam genisteína (GEN nas doses de 46 mg/kg (GEN46, 125 mg/kg (GEN125 e 250 mg/kg (GEN250, e um que recebeu estrogênios conjugados equinos na dose de 50 µg/kg (ECE. As substâncias foram administradas diariamente durante 30 dias consecutivos por gavagem e na última semana de tratamento foi efetuado exame colpocitológico durante sete dias consecutivos. Após o tratamento, os animais foram anestesiados, amostras de sangue foram retiradas para determinação do estradiol e da progesterona, e o primeiro par de mamas inguinais retirado e processado para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância complementada pelo teste de Tukey-Kramer (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of high doses of genistein on the mammary glands of adult female rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight days after oophorectomy, 50 adult female rats were divided into five groups, as follows: a control group (Ctrl, three rats that received genistein (GEN at the doses of 46 mg/kg (GEN46;, 125 mg/kg (GEN125 and 250 mg/kg (GEN250; one group received conjugated equine estrogen at the dose of 50 µg/g (ECE50. The substances were administered daily for 30 consecutive days by gavage and in the last week of the period of treatment, colpocytological exams were carried out for seven consecutive days. After treatment, the animals were anesthetized, blood samples were collected for estradiol and progesterone determination and the first pair of inguinal mammary glands was removed and processed for histomorphometric analysis. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance supplemented by the Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.05. RESULTS: the ctrl group and the ones treated with different doses of GEN showed atrophic

  6. Modelo de suspensão pela cauda e seu efeito em algumas propriedades mecânicas do osso do rato Model of tail suspension and its effect in some mechanical properties of the rat bone

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    Adriana Valadares da Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção do metabolismo mineral normal dos ossos é um resultado de vários fatores inclusive das solicitações mecânicas que são aplicadas aos ossos pelas contrações musculares e pela força da gravidade. O propósito desta investigação foi estudar um modelo de suspensão de rato pela cauda que simulasse assim as alterações esqueléticas que podem acontecer em um ambiente de microgravidade. O modelo foi analisado em termos de tolerância do animal e dos efeitos sobre a resistência mecânica do complexo tíbia-fíbula. Após a realização do ensaio de flexão em três pontos, foram obtidos os principais parâmetros mecânicos (carga e deflexão no limite máximo, carga e deflexão no limite elástico, rigidez e resiliência. Foram utilizadas cinqüenta e três ratas fêmeas, distribuídas em quatro grupos conforme o período de suspensão (controle, 7, 14 e 21 dias. O modelo de suspensão mostrou-se eficaz com boa adaptação dos animais e promoveu um enfraquecimento significativo nos ossos principalmente no período de 21 dias.The maintenance of the normal metabolism of minerals in the bone is a result of several factors including the mechanical demands that are applied to the bones by muscle contractions and gravity force. The proposal of this investigation was to study a model of tail suspension of rats thus simulating the skeletal alterations that may occur in a microgravity environment. The model was analyzed in terms of animal tolerance and the ensuing effects on the mechanical resistance of the tibiofibular complex. After a three-point bending test in flexion the main mechanical parameters were obtained, (load and deflection at the ultimate limit, load and deflection at the yielding point, stiffness and resilience. 53 adult female rats were used and distributed in four groups according to the length of time in suspension (control, 7, 14 and 21 days. The model of suspension was efficient with good animals adaptation and it

  7. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  8. Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes partial diabetes insipidus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Daniel S; Sato, Aileen K; Uyehara, Catherine F T; Claybaugh, John R

    2004-08-01

    Chronic consumption of ethanol in adult rats and humans leads to reduced AVP-producing neurons, and prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure has been reported to cause changes in the morphology of AVP-producing cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of young rats. The present studies further characterize the effects of PE exposure on AVP in the young adult rat, its hypothalamic synthesis, pituitary storage, and osmotically stimulated release. Pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet with 35% of the calories from ethanol or a control liquid diet for days 7-22 of pregnancy. Water consumption and urine excretion rate were measured in the offspring at 60-68 days of age. Subsequently, the offspring were infused with 5% NaCl at 0.05 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) with plasma samples taken before and at three 40-min intervals during infusion for measurement of AVP and osmolality. Urine output and water intake were approximately 20% greater in PE-exposed rats than in rats with no PE exposure, and female rats had a greater water intake than males. The relationship between plasma osmolality and AVP in PE-exposed rats was parallel to, but shifted to the right of, the control rats, indicating an increase in osmotic threshold for AVP release. Pituitary AVP was reduced by 13% and hypothalamic AVP mRNA content was reduced by 35% in PE-exposed rats. Our data suggest that PE exposure can cause a permanent condition of a mild partial central diabetes insipidus.

  9. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  10. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

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    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  11. Effects of acute adult and early-in-life bladder inflammation on bladder neuropeptides in adult female rats

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    Ness Timothy J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to determine how acute adult and/or prior early-in life (EIL; P14-P16 exposure to bladder inflammation affects bladder content of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP. Estrous cycle influences were also studied in the adult-treatment conditions. Methods In Experiment 1, intravesical zymosan or isoflurane anesthesia alone was administered to adult female rats. Bladders and serum were collected 24 hours later during each phase of the estrous cycle. In Experiment 2, zymosan or anesthesia alone was administered EIL and as adults, with bladder tissue collection 24 h later. Results In general, Experiment 1 showed that bladder content of both CGRP and SP was increased by inflammation. This effect was significant when data were collapsed across all phases of the estrous cycle, but was only significant during proestrus when individual comparisons were made during each phase of estrous. Also, adult bladder inflammation significantly reduced estradiol levels. In Experiment 2, bladder content of CGRP and SP was significantly increased in rats receiving EIL and/or adult inflammation. Bladder weights were also significantly increased by inflammation. Conclusions These data indicate that bladder CGRP and SP are maximally increased during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle in inflamed adult female rats. EIL exposure to bladder inflammation alone can also produce an increase in CGRP and SP lasting into adulthood. Therefore, EIL experience with bladder inflammation may predispose an organism to experience a painful bladder disorder as an adult by increasing primary afferent content of CGRP and/or SP.

  12. Efeito de aderências dirigidas em anastomoses cólicas isquêmicas em ratos Effect of conducted adhesions on ischemic colic anastomoses in rats

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    Miki Mochizuki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito das aderências dirigidas sobre a resistência mecânica de anastomoses realizadas em cólon isquêmico através da aplicação dos testes Resistência à Pressão de Explosão e Resistência à Força de Tração. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos foram distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos. O Grupo 1 era constituído de vinte animais em que as anastomoses cólicas isquêmicas foram recobertas por uma película de polivinilcloreto (P.V.C. para impedir a formação de aderências sobre as linhas de sutura e o Grupo 2 era constituído por 20 animais em que as anastomoses cólicas isquêmicas foram recobertas pela gordura epididimal, de forma a constituir uma aderência dirigida sobre a linha de sutura, sendo ainda recobertas por uma película de P.V.C. para impedir a formação de outras aderências. RESULTADOS: A média da Pressão de Ruptura à Distensão por Líquidos da anastomose foi de 10 mmHg no grupo sem aderência e de 55,2 mmHg no grupo com aderência (p PURPOSE: Evaluate the effect of conducted adhesions on the mechanical resistance of anastomoses performed in ischemic colon through the Bursting Strength Test and Breaking Strength Test. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 was composed of 20 rats in which the anastomoses were covered with P.V.C. (Polyvinyl Chloride to prevent the occurrence of adhesions over the anastomotic line. Group 2 was composed of 20 rats in which anastomotic line was covered with epididimal fat besides P.V.C. to prevent formation of other adhesions. RESULTS: The mean Bursting Strength of the anastomoses in the group without adhesion was 10 mmHg and this value was 55.2 mmHg in the group with adhesion (p < 0.05. The mean Breaking Strength of the anastomoses was 142.5 gf in the group without adhesion and 262 gf in the group with adhesion (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Based on those mechanical tests, adhesions were benefic to ischemic anastomoses, rising their intrinsic resistance

  13. Efeito da trimegestona sobre o tecido mamário de ratas castradas Effect of trimegestone on mammary gland of castrated rats

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    Luciana de Oliveira Marques

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da trimegestona sobre a proliferação celular do tecido mamário de ratas castradas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 45 ratas adultas e virgens, da linhagem Wistar, submetidas à castração. Após o 60º dia da castração, confirmado o hipoestrogenismo, os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos, conforme o tratamento proposto: controle (n=15 recebeu soro fisiológico 0,9%; estrogênio (n=15 recebeu 17 beta-estradiol; e combinado (n=15 recebeu 17 beta-estradiol associado à trimegestona, todos por 60 dias consecutivos. Após o término do tratamento, procedeu-se a exérese das mamas inguinais, destinadas a análise morfométrica pela coloração de hematoxilina e eosina (HE e imuno-histoquímica pela quantificação do anticorpo anti-PCNA no tecido mamário, seguido de eutanásia. Os parâmetros morfométricos avaliados foram: proliferação celular epitelial, atividade secretora e alteração do estroma mamário. Ocorreram nove óbitos durante o experimento. As variáveis foram submetidas à análise estatística adotando-se como significante pPURPOSE: To evaluate the efect of trimegestone on the histological changes of the mammary tissue of castrated rats. METHODS: Forty-five virgin female Wistar rats were used after oophorectomy. Sixty days after surgery, with hypoestrogenisms confirmed, the experimental rats were randomly assigned to three groups of 15 animals each, when then the specific treatment for each group was started. The control group (C and experimental groups 1 and 2 respectively received 0.9% saline solution, 17-beta-estradiol and 17-beta-estradiol in combination with trimegestone for 60 consecutive days. After the end of treatment , the inguinal mammary glands were removed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE for morphometry and examined by immunohistochemistry for the quantification of anti-PCNA antibody in the mammary tissue, followed by euthanasia. The morphometric parameters

  14. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil. Electrophysiological...

  15. The effect of anti-hypertensive drugs on the obstructive pancreatitis in rats Efeitos de fármacos anti-hipertensivos sobre pancreatite obstrutiva em ratos

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    Roberto de Barros Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ACE inhibitor, lisinopril and AT1 blocker, losartan, on the obstructive pancreatitis in rat. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis in rats (n=21 was induced for a common hepatic duct were ligated proximal to its entry into the pancreas and the common bile - pancreatic duct were also ligated near its junction with the duodenum, under ether anesthesia, after which the abdomen were closed. The animals was divided in tree groups, being two treated and control group. The animals was treated with Losartan and Lisinopril at the dose of 10µg/Kg body weight per day, i.p., in a proportional volume, for five days, before and after treatement. RESULTS: The inflammation, collagen deposition in the pancreas of treated animals were smaller, suggesting that the use of antihypertensive agents interfered positively in the depletion of the injury of the pancreas. Scythe showed a correlation between activity of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs lower in treated animals when compared to control. CONCLUSION: The pancreatic stellate cells strength are involved in collagen production during acute pancreatitis and why antihypertensive drugs such as lisinopril and losartan may possibly have beneficial effects in reducing pancreatic fibrosis in models of experimental obstructive pancreatitis.OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito de um inibidor da ECA, lisinopril e bloqueador AT1, losartan, a pancreatite obstrutiva em ratos. MÉTODOS: Pancreatite aguda em ratos (n = 21 foi induzida por um ducto hepático comum foram ligados proximal à sua entrada no pâncreas e da bílis comum - ducto pancreático também foram ligados perto de sua junção com o duodeno, sob anestesia com éter, após o que abdome foram fechadas. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos, sendo dois tratados eo grupo controle. Os animais foram tratados com lisinopril e losartan na dose de 10µg/Kg de peso corporal por dia, IP, em um volume proporcional, por cinco dias, antes e depois

  16. Efeito da cinesioterapia na lesão isquêmica e reperfusão em ratos Effects of kinesiotherapy in ischemic lesion and reperfusion in rats

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    Flavia Moscardini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da cinesioterapia na funcionalidade do membro pélvico de ratos após lesão isquêmica e reperfusão. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 10 ratos, divididos em dois grupos, GI (controle e GII (cinesioterapia. Todos os animais foram submetidos à isquemia por um período de três horas, seguido de reperfusão tecidual. No Grupo GII foi realizado cinesioterapia sistêmica (natação não resistida em três sessões semanais de 50 minutos durante quatro semanas, enquanto que no grupo GI os animais permaneceram em repouso. A análise funcional do comportamento motor foi realizada semanalmente. Posteriormente, os animais foram mortos e retirados os músculos sóleo, gastrocnêmio e nervo ciático para análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: Houve uma recuperação significativa do comportamento motor com o tratamento cinesioterapêutico ao longo das quatro semanas de tratamento. No entanto, na avaliação histológica os tecidos não mostraram alterações morfológicas de lesão e reparação celular. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível afirmar que o exercício mostrou-se eficiente na reparação celular, pois, tanto no grupo controle como no experimental, não apresentou diferença histológica. Por outro lado, a cinesioterapia sistêmica apresentou um efeito benéfico na reabilitação funcional após isquemia e reperfusão. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo Caso-Controle.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of kinesiotherapy on the functionality of the pelvic limb of rats after ischemic and reperfusion injury. METHODS: 10 rats were divided into two groups, GI (control and GII (kinesiotherapy. All the animals underwent ischemia for a period of three hours, followed by tissue reperfusion. In Group GII, non-resistive systemic kinesiotherapy was performed (swimming in three weekly sessions of 50 minutes, over a period of four weeks, while the GI animals remained at rest. Functional analysis of motor behavior was evaluated weekly. The

  17. Influence of rat substrain and growth conditions on the characteristics of primary cultures of adult rat spinal cord astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeluppi, Simone; Gregory, Ebba Norsted; Kjell, Jacob; Wigerblad, Gustaf; Olson, Lars; Svensson, Camilla I

    2011-04-15

    Primary astrocyte cell cultures have become a valuable tool for studies of signaling pathways that regulate astrocyte physiology, reactivity, and function; however, differences in culture preparation affect data reproducibility. The aim of this work was to define optimal conditions for obtaining primary astrocytes from adult rat spinal cord with an expression profile most similar to adult human spinal cord astrocytes. Hence, we examined whether different Sprague-Dawley substrains and culture conditions affect astrocyte culture quality. Medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum from three sources (Sigma, Gibco, Hyclone) or a medium with defined composition (AM medium) was used to culture astrocytes isolated from spinal cords of adult Harlan and Charles River Spraque-Dawley rats. Purity was significantly different between cultures established in media with different sera. No microglia were detected in AM or Hyclone cultures. Gene expression was also affected, with AM cultures expressing the highest level of glutamine synthetase, connexin-43, and glutamate transporter-1. Interestingly, cell response to starvation was substrain dependent. Charles River-derived cultures responded the least, while astrocytes derived from Harlan rats showed a greater decrease in Gfap and glutamine synthetase, suggesting a more quiescent phenotype. Human and Harlan astrocytes cultured in AM media responded similarly to starvation. Taken together, this study shows that rat substrain and growth medium composition affect purity, expression profile and response to starvation of primary astrocytes suggesting that cultures of Harlan rats in AM media have optimal astrocyte characteristics, purity, and similarity to human astrocytes.

  18. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  19. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae. in diabetic rats Efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico das folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. em ratos diabeticos

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    Tatiana Schoenfelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic crude extract (ECE of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg v.o.. Rats were divided into three groups for the evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect: normal rats, rats with alloxan-induced diabetes and hyperglycemic normal rats. Hypolipidemia was evaluated in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. The antihyperglycemic activity was compared to treatment with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. The acute treatment with S. cumini ECE caused a significant decrease in the blood glucose in hyperglycemic normal rats (250 mg/kg, and in glucose (125 and 250 mg/kg, triglyceride (125 and 500 mg/kg and cholesterol (125 mg/kg levels of diabetic rats, but no effect was observed in the normal treated rats. Syzygium cumini leaves are a good candidate for alternative and/or complementary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus, since they showed hypoglycemic activity in addition to a hypolipidemic action in diabetic animals.Na região de Criciúma-SC, as folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, conhecida popularmente como jambolão, são utilizadas para diminuir níveis de glicose plasmática em pessoas diabéticas. Dentro deste contexto o presente trabalho teve o interesse de avaliar o efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH das folhas de S. cumini (125, 250 e 500 mg/kg. Para tal os animais foram divididos em três grupos para o efeito hipoglicêmico: ratos normais, ratos normais submetidos a curva de glicose (hiperglicêmicos e ratos diabéticos induzidos com aloxana. O efeito hipolipidêmico foi avaliado em animais diabéticos induzidos por aloxana. O efeito hipoglicêmico foi comparado com glibenclamida. O tratamento agudo com EBH de S. cumini causou uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa na glicose sanguínea em animais normais que foram submetidos à cura de glicose (250 mg/kg, e sobre

  20. Efeitos da nicotina na cicatrização intestinal em ratos Effects of nicotine in the intestinal healing in rats

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    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available É grande o número de pessoas que inalam nicotina diariamente através do hábito de fumar e eventualmente têm que ser submetidos a intervenção cirúrgica no aparelho digestivo. Sendo a nicotina um agente que tem sido implicado no retardo da cicatrização das feridas, foi realizado estudo experimental em ratos com o objetivo de testar o seu efeito na evolução histológica da cicatrização de anastomoses intestinais. Foram utilizados 17 ratos Wistar com média de peso 275±14g, divididos aleatoriamente em grupo I (n=9 e grupo II (n=8, anestesiados com éter sulfúrico e operados com técnica asséptica. A nicotina foi administrada por via subcutânea na dose de 5mg/kg em dias alternados, durante 17 dias nos ratos do grupo I e foi usado placebo no grupo II. Após sete dias de uso da nicotina e do placebo, foi feita secção transversal do jejuno a 5 cm do duodeno e anastomose com polipropileno 6-0. No décimo dia os ratos foram mortos com superdose de éter sulfúrico e foi feita biópsia da anastomose. Após processamento dos cortes histológicos e coloração pela hematoxilina-eosina, os dados foram quantificados por escores. A análise histológica revelou que o grupo I atingiu o escore 135 (média 15±4,41 e o grupo II, 218 (média 27,25±4,89. De acordo com o teste t, a diferença mostrou-se significativa (pIt is great the number of patients that inhale nicotine daily through the habit of smoking and eventually they have to be submitted to operations in the digestive tract. Being the nicoti11e an agent that has been implied in the retard of wound healing, an experimental study was accomplished in rats in order to test its effect in the histological evolution of the healing of intestinal anastomosis. Seventeen Wistar rats weighting 275 ± 14g were used. They were randomly divided in group I (n=9 and group II (n=8, anesthetized with sulfuric ether and operated with aseptic technique. The nicotine was administered subcutaneously in the

  1. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

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    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR. METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1. Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0. Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1. SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10: Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine treated with L-arginine 2%; Group Alpha-methyldopa treated with Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg; Group L-Arginine+Alpha-methyldopa treated with L-arginine 2%+Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg. L-arginine 2% solution was offered ad libitum in drinking water and Alpha-methyldopa was administered by gavage twice a day during the length of pregnancy (20 days. Blood pressure was measured by tailcuff plethysmography on days 0 and 20. Body weight was measured on days 0, 10 and 20. Results were expressed as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation. One-Way ANOVA/Tukey (or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, as appropriate was used for group comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted as pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensivas (SHR. MÉTODOS: 30 SHR e 10 Wistar-EPM-1 ratas virgens foram utilizadas no estudo. Antes da distribuição, as fêmeas foram acasaladas com machos da mesma linhagem (3:1; a prenhez foi confirmada pela presença de espermatozóides no esfregaço vaginal. As ratas Wistar-EPM-1 foram utilizadas como controles. As ratas SHR foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em 4 grupos (n=10: Grupo Controle-2, não-tratado; Grupo L-Arginina, tratado com L-arginina; Grupo Alfa-metildopa, tratado com alfa-metildopa; Grupo L-Arginina+Alfa-metildopa, tratado com arginina+Alfa-metildopa. L-arginina (2% foi oferecida ad libitum na água de beber e a Alfa-metildopa (33 mg/Kg foi administrada por gavagem, duas vezes ao dia, durante toda a

  2. Effects of neonatal overfeeding on juvenile and adult feeding and energy expenditure in the rat.

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    Aneta Stefanidis

    Full Text Available Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanism(s underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL compared with those from control litters (CL. There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages.

  3. Differentiation of embryonic versus adult rat neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlong Ke; Baili Chen; Shaolei Guo; Chao Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the conversion of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro can be increased through specific cytokine combinations. Such neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons could be used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the differences in dopaminergic differentiation between neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats.OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of rat adult and embryonic-derived neural stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Surgical Laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-scn University (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from June to December 2007. Eight, adult, male,Sprague Dawley rats and eight, pregnant, Sprague Dawley rats (embryonic day 14 or 15) were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University.METHODS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were respectively cultivated in serum-free culture medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. After passaging, neural stem cells were differentiated in medium containing interleukin-1 ct, interleukin-11, human leukemia inhibition factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Six days later, cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alterations in cellular morphology after differentiation of neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats; and percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the differentiated cells.RESULTS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were cultivated in differentiation medium. Six days later, differentiated cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylasc. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons was (5.6 ± 2

  4. Contraceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw in rats with experimental endometriosis Efeito anticoncepcional da Uncaria tomentosa (unha-de-gato em ratas com endometriose experimental

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    João Nogueira Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the histological changes in parenchyma´s epithelial layer of the uterus and ovarian of rats with induced endometriosis, treated with Uncaria tomentosa extract. METHODS: 29 rats with experimental endometriosis, were selected and divided in three groups: The uncaria group received 32mg/ml of Uncaria tomentosa extract, 1ml administered daily and the placebo group received 1ml of saline 0.9% per day, during for 14 days (both groups; the leuprolide group received leuprolide acetate 1mg/kg body weight applied single subcutaneous dose. In the 15th day of treatment the uterine horn and ovaries were removed for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The uncaria group presented nine samples (90% with immature ovarian follicles, whereas the placebo group did not present any case and in the leuprolide group there were eight rats (88% with the same change. The placebo group showed mature corpus luteum in all animals, occurring less frequent in uncaria (10% and leuprolide (22% groups. The uterine epithelium showed weak proliferative in nine (90% samples of the uncaria group, in two (20% animals in the placebo group and seven (77.8% rats in the leuprolide group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that Uncaria tomentosa has contraceptive effect.OBJETIVO: Avaliação histológica do útero e parênquima ovariano de ratas com endometriose induzida tratadas com extrato de Uncaria tomentosa. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 29 ratas com endometriose experimental e formados três grupos: O grupo uncaria recebeu extrato de Uncaria tomentosa com 32mg/ml, administrado 1ml ao dia e o grupo placebo recebeu 1ml de solução salina a 0,9%, ambos por 14 dias; o grupo leuprolida recebeu acetato de leuprolida 1mg/kg de peso corporal aplicado via subcutânea dose única. No 15° dia de tratamento realizou-se retirada de corno uterino e ovários para análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O grupo uncaria apresentou nove amostras (90% com maturação incompleta dos

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of water soluble extract of Coleus barbatus on cholestasis on young rats Efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato aquoso de Coleus barbatus na colestase em ratos jovens

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    Ana Paula Ronquesel Battochio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test the effects of water extract of Coleus barbatus (WEB on liver damage in biliary obstruction in young rats. METHODS: Forty 21 day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten 21 day old (P21 submitted to sham or actual operation (S or L combined with WEB or Water (B or A. At P48 pentobarbital sleeping time (ST was measured. At P49 they were submitted to euthanasia to determine of serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, liver wet weight (PFF and, on hepatic histological slides, the frequency of mitoses (FM, the number of necrotic areas (NN, intensity of fibrosis (IF and intensity of ductal proliferation (IPD. Two Way ANOVA, the S.N.K. test and the Wilcoxon test for paired multiple comparisons were employed to study the effects of cholestasis and those of EAB and their interactions. The Pearson's coefficient of linear correlation of between paired histological variables separately for the groups LA and LD was determined. The test results were considered statistically significant when the p of alpha error OBJETIVO: Testar os efeitos do extrato aquoso de Coleus barbatus (EAB na cirrose biliar secundária por obstrução das vias biliares extra-hepáticas em ratos jovens. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos Wistar machos com 21 dias de vida (P21, foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de 10 animais, submetidos a operação simulada ou dupla ligadura e ressecção do ducto biliar (S ou L combinados EAB e a Água (B ou A. No P48, foi medido o tempo de sono com o pentobarbital (TS. No P49, foram submetidos a eutanásia para a determinação das atividades séricas do aspartato aminotransferase (AST e da alanina aminotransferases (ALT; após a eutanásia foram avaliados o peso fresco do fígado (PFF e, em cortes histológicos do fígado, a freqüência de mitoses (FM, o número de áreas de necrose (NN, a intensidade da fibrose (IF e da proliferação ductal (IPD. Os efeitos da colestase, os

  6. Isoflavones prevent bone loss following ovariectomy in young adult rats

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    Chen Li-Ting

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soy protein, a rich source of phytoestrogens, exhibit estrogen-type bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine if ingestion of isoflavones before ovariectomy can prevent bone loss following ovariectomy. Twenty-four nulliparous Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. In the normal diet groups, a sham operation was performed on Group A, while ovariectomy was performed on Group B. For Groups C and D, all rats were fed with an isoflavone-rich (25 mg/day diet for one month, then bilateral ovariectomy were performed. In the rats in Group C, a normal diet was begun following the ovariectomy. The rats in Groups D continued to receive the isoflavone-rich diet for two additional months postoperatively. All rats were sacrificed 60 days after surgery. The weight of bone ash of the long bones and whole lumbar spine were determined. A histological study of cancellous bone was done and biochemical indices of skeletal metabolism were performed and analyzed. The markers of bone metabolism exhibited no significant changes. When compared with the sham-operated rats fed a normal diet, the bone mass of ovariectomized rats decreased significantly; pre-ovariectomy ingestion of an isoflavone-rich diet did not prevent bone loss. The bone mass of rats treated with an isoflavone-rich diet for three months was higher than controls two months after ovariectomy. Dietary isoflavones did not prevent the development of post-ovariectomy bone loss, but long-term ingestion of an isoflavone-rich diet increased the bone mineral contents after ovariectomy in young rats.

  7. Effects of Buchenavia tomentosa consumption on female rats and their offspring = Efeitos do consumo de Buchenavia tomentosa em ratas e em suas proles

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    Viviane Mayumi Maruo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler is a common plant in Brazilian cerrado. Fruits of this plant are employed in human feeding and folk medicine. Cattle producers affirm that consumption of the fruits cause abortion in cows, and even death. Considering that the plant may be consumed by pregnant women and animals, the present study was undertaken toevaluate the possible toxic effects of the ingestion of B. tomentosa fruit (10% added to the diet, from the first to the twenty-first days of gestation, on reproductive parameters and on physical and neurobehavioral development of rats offspring. An increase in food consumption at pregnancy days 11 and 17, and weight increase at day 17 of pregnancy were observed. Besides that, we verified an increase in weight of male offspring on post natal day 1. Other parameterswere not affected by plant consumption. These results indicate that the consumption of B. tomentosa at 10% during pregnancy cause slight toxicological effects. The changes verified in the present study indicate toxic action of the fruit possibly induced by flavonoids with hormonal action; however, further studies must be accomplished to corroborate this hypothesis. Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler é uma planta típica do cerrado brasileiro. Os frutos desta planta são empregados na alimentação humana e medicina popular. Criadores de bovinos afirmam que oconsumo desta planta produz aborto em vacas bem como a morte destes animais. Uma vez que a planta pode ser consumida pelo homem e animais, em idade fértil e inclusive gestantes, o presente estudo avaliou os possíveis efeitos tóxicos da ingestão de dieta com 10% de frutos de B. tomentosa do primeiro ao vigésimo primeiro dia de gestação sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos e sobre o desenvolvimento físico e neurocomportamental das ninhadas de ratos. Foram observadaselevações no consumo de alimentos nos dias 11 e 17 de gestação e no peso ao dia 17 de gestação. Aumento do peso dos filhotes

  8. Morphine treatment during juvenile isolation increases social activity and opioid peptides release in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, C L; Kitchen, I; Gerrits, M A; Spruijt, B M; Van Ree, J M

    1999-05-29

    The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment on general activity, social activity and endogenous opioid release during a social interaction test were investigated in the adult rat. Rats were either isolated or socially housed during weeks 4 and 5 of age and treated daily during this isolation period subcutaneously with either saline or morphine. Directly after a social interaction test at 10 weeks of age, rats were injected with [3H]-diprenorphine and subsequently prepared for in vivo autoradiography. The autoradiographic technique was used to visualise neuroanatomical changes in opioid receptor occupancy, probably reflecting changes in opioid peptide release, as a result of social activity. Juvenile isolation increased general activity during the social interaction test, an effect which was accompanied by a reduction of opioid receptor occupancy in many brain areas, suggesting an increased opioid peptide release as a consequence of socially-induced general activity. Morphine treatment in isolated rats caused an increase in adult social activity and enhanced opioid peptide release in some cortical regions and the ventral tegmental area as compared to saline treated rats. Both social activity and opioid receptor occupancy were unaffected by morphine treatment in non-isolated rats. The present study underscores the role of opioid systems in adult social behaviors as a consequence of juvenile isolation. The results suggest a relationship between social activity and opioid peptide release during social contact. Increased social activity seems to be accompanied by elevated opioid peptide release in distinct brain areas after morphine treatment during juvenile isolation.

  9. Effect of lindane on antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Chitra; R. Sujatha; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the changes induced by lindane on the antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats, Methods; Adult male rats were orally administered lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed. The epididymis was removed and weighed and sperm were collected for sperm count, motility and biochemical studies. A 1% homogenate of epididymis was prepared and used for biochemical estimations. Results: In lindane-treated rats, there were significant reductions in the epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motility compared with the controls. Significant decreases in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities and significant increases in the H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation were also observed in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane decreases the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats thereby inducing oxidative stress.

  10. Early treatment with metformin induces resistance against tumor growth in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, Amanda B; Franco, Claudinéia Cs; Miranda, Rosiane A; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; Prates, Kelly V; de Souza, Aline A; Pavanello, Audrei; Malta, Ananda; Almeida, Douglas L; Tófolo, Laize P; Rigo, Kesia P; Ribeiro, Tatiane As; Fabricio, Gabriel S; de Sant'Anna, Juliane R; Castro-Prado, Marialba Aa; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Morais, Hely; Mathias, Paulo Cf

    2015-01-01

    It is known that antidiabetic drug metformin, which is used worldwide, has anti-cancer effects and can be used to prevent cancer growth. We tested the hypothesis that tumor cell growth can be inhibited by early treatment with metformin. For this purpose, adult rats chronically treated with metformin in adolescence or in adulthood were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Adult rats that were treated with metformin during adolescence presented inhibition of tumor growth, and animals that were treated during adult life did not demonstrate any changes in tumor growth. Although we do not have data to disclose a molecular mechanism to the preventive metformin effect, we present, for the first time, results showing that cancer growth in adult life is dependent on early life intervention, thus supporting a new therapeutic prevention for cancer.

  11. [Disruption of latent inhibition in adult rats after prepubertal dopamine terminals lesions in the ventral hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutova, L V; Kostiunina, N V; Red'kina, A V

    2010-05-01

    Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine on 32nd day after birth. Latent inhibition was measured in passive or active avoidance tasks when the rats received 20 and 100 pre-exposures of conditioned stimulus. Prepubertal and adult lesioned rats showed a deficit in the latent inhibition but not in the capacity to avoidance learning in presence of the conditioned stimulus novelty. Possible mechanism of the involvement of hippocampal dopaminergic terminals in attention inhibition to irrelevant information is considered.

  12. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats...... to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic...... exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant...

  13. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  14. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  15. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

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    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods: The rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group (A received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  16. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods : The rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group (A received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results : The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion : Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  17. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  18. Neonatal sensory deprivation promotes development of absence seizures in adult rats with genetic predisposition to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Evgenia

    2011-03-04

    Absence epilepsy has age-related onset. In a WAG/Rij rat genetic model, absence seizures appear after puberty and they are increased with age. It is known that (1) epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats is initiated at the perioral area in the somatosensory cortex; (2) sensory deprivation, i.e., whisker trimming during the critical period of development, could enhance excitatory activity in the somatosensory cortex. It is hypothesized that the cortex may become more excitable after neonatal vibrissae removal, and this may precipitate absence seizures in adult rats. We found that whisker trimming during the first postnatal weeks caused more rapid development of EEG seizure activity in adult WAG/Rij rats. Epileptic discharges in the trimmed rats were more numerous (vs control), showed longer duration and often appeared in desynchronized and drowsy EEG. The number of absence-like spindle-shaped EEG events (spike-wave spindles) in the whisker-trimmed rats was higher than in control, especially during the intermediate sleep state. An age-dependent increase of intermediate sleep state was found in the trimmed rats, but not in the intact animals. We discuss epigenetic factors that can modulate absence epilepsy in genetically prone subjects.

  19. Effect of antihypertensive agents on stellate cells during liver regeneration in rats Efeito de agentes anti-hipertensivos sobre as células estreladas durante a regeneração hepática em ratos

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    Leandra N. Z. Ramalho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although most studies have focused on the hepatocytes, all the hepatic cells participate in the regenerative process, among them the stellate cells. The stellate cells are mesenchymal cells involved in local neurotransmission and paracrine regulation of several liver functions. Acute hepatic tissue loss promotes the proliferation and activation of stellate cells from a quiescent state to myofibroblast-like cells. AIM: Investigate the effects of antihypertensive agents on the stellate cell population during the liver regenerative phenomenon in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats received lisinopril, losartan, bradykinin, or saline solution in a proportional volume, intraperitoneally, before and after 70% partial hepatectomy. Animals from the experimental and saline groups were sacrificed at 36 hours after partial hepatectomy. The alpha-smooth muscle actin labelled stellate cells population was counted in the periportal and pericentral zones of the liver specimen. RESULTS: The labelled stellate cells were more numerous in the control group both in the periportal and pericentral zones at 36 hours after partial hepatectomy than at the other times. The population of stellate cells was significantly lower in the losartan group and higher in the bradykinin and lisinopril groups than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that losartan can inhibit and bradykinin and lisinopril can stimulate the stellate cell population during liver regeneration in rats. These cells synthesize several substances to stimulate liver regeneration.RACIONAL: Embora a maioria dos estudos focalize os hepatócitos, todas as células hepáticas participam do processo regenerativo, entre elas as células estreladas, que são células mesenquimais envolvidas na regulação de uma série de funções hepáticas. A perda aguda de parênquima hepático induz proliferação e ativação destas células, a partir de estado de quiescência para fen

  20. Efeitos metabólicos da glutamina em ratos submetidos à queimadura por água fervente (escaldadura Metabolic effects of glutamine in rats subjected to scald burn

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    Rômulo Cesar Costa Barbosa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos metabólicos da L-glutamina (Gln em ratos anestesiados submetidos à queimadura por água fervente. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos, anestesiados, submetidos a queimaduras da pele dorsal após exposição à água quente (100ºC durante 10 segundos (30% de superfície corporal. Os ratos foram randomizados para receber, por gavagem, 2ml de água (G-1 ou igual volume de solução de Gln (0,5g/peso/dia (G-2. Amostras de tecido (pele sadia e queimada, músculo e fígado e sangue foram coletadas 24h (D1 e 48h (D2 pós-trauma para análise enzimática. RESULTADOS: A oferta de Gln induziu aumento significante nas concentrações de glicose na pele saudável em animais do G-2 no D2, e na pele queimada em G-2/D1. As concentrações de lactato também aumentaram significantemente em G-2/D1 no músculo (11,29 ± 1,25 mmol/g contra 7,43 ± 0,93 mmol/g - pPURPOSE: Investigate the metabolic effects of L- glutamine (Gln in rats subjected to scald burn. METHODS: Twenty-four anesthetized male Wistar rats were submitted to scald burn of dorsal skin secondary to exposure to hot water (100ºC for 10 sec (30% of body surface. Eighteen and 42h later rats were randomized to receive (by gavage 2ml of water (G-1 or equal volume (0,5g/Kg weight/day of Gln solution (G-2. Tissue and blood samples were collected at the end of 24h (D1 and 48h (D2 post burn for enzymatic analysis. RESULTS: Glucose concentrations were significantly increased in healthy skin in G-2/D2 and in burned skin in G-2/D1. Lactate concentrations were significantly increased in G-2/D1 in muscle (11,29 ± 1,25 mmol/g versus 7,43 ± 0,93 mmol/g - p<0.05 and in G-2/D2 subgroups in liver (7,68 ± 1,49 mmol/g versus 3,27 ±0,67 mmol/g - p<0.01 and healthy skin (5,30 ± 0,42 mmol/g versus 3,57 ± 0,38 mmol/g - p<0.05. Pyruvate concentrations were significantly decreased in G-2/D1 subgroups in muscle and liver and increased in healthy skin in G-2/D2

  1. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

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    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1 e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2. Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas, as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar.

  2. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  3. Efeito da prednisona em lesão medular aguda experimental em ratos Effect of prednisone on acute experimental spinal cord injury in rats

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    C.M.O. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 25 ratos (Rattus novergicus submetidos a trauma experimental da medula espinhal, empregando-se aparelho estereotáxico com um peso de 50,5g comprimindo a duramáter durante cinco minutos. Após o trauma, os animais foram divididos em cinco grupos de cinco. O grupo A (controle recebeu placebo oito horas após o trauma; os grupos B, C, D e E receberam prednisona oito, 24, 48 e 120 horas após o trauma, respectivamente. A prednisona foi administrada na dose inicial de 2mg/kg, durante cinco dias, com diminuição progressiva até o 26º dia. Os animais foram avaliados conforme a capacidade motora, posicionamento proprioceptivo, reflexo de localização, plano inclinado e sensibilidade dolorosa. Após 33 dias da cirurgia, foram sacrificados para avaliação histológica das medulas espinhais. Observaram-se degeneração das raízes nervosas, necrose medular, inflamação local e reação glial, sem diferenças entre os grupos. Não houve correlação entre os testes neurológicos. A utilização da prednisona na lesão medular aguda não teve efeito diferenciado com o tempo e não foi prejudicial na recuperação neurológica, mesmo quando utilizada tardiamente.Twent-five rats (Rattus novergicus were submitted to an experimental spinal cord injury by using a 50.5g stereotaxic equipament to apply pressure on the duramater during five minutes. After the spinal cord injury, the animals were randomly distributed into five groups of five animals each: one group received placebo 8 hours after injury and the remaining four groups received prednisone at 8, 24, 48, and 120 hours after injury. Prednisone was applied at 2mg/kg dosage during five days and progressively reduced until the 26th day. Animals were evaluated by motor capacity, proprioceptive positioning, locating reflex, inclined plan, and sensibility to pain. The animals were sacrificed 33 days after surgery for histological study of the spinal cords that revealed degeneration of the

  4. Uterine phenotype of young adult rats exposed to dietary soy or genistein during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Renea R; Till, S Reneé; Velarde, Michael C; Geng, Yan; Chatman, Leon; Gu, Liwei; Badger, Thomas M; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2005-10-01

    Dietary soy intake is associated with protection from breast cancer, but questions persist on the potential risks of the major soy isoflavone genistein (GEN) on female reproductive health. Here, we evaluated intermediate markers of cancer risk in uteri of cycling, young adult Sprague-Dawley rats lifetime exposed to one of three AIN-93G semipurified diets: casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI+ with 276 mg GEN aglycone equivalents/kg) and CAS+GEN (GEN at 250 mg/kg). Postnatal day 50 (PND50) rats lifetime exposed to GEN or SPI+ had similar uterine luminal epithelium height, myometrial thickness, endometrial gland numbers, endometrial immunoreactive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and serum estrogen and progesterone, as CAS-fed rats. GEN-fed rats showed modestly increased apoptosis in uterine glandular epithelium, compared to those of CAS- or SPI+-fed groups. Diet had no effect on the uterine expression of genes for the tumor suppressors PTEN, p53 and p21, and the apoptotic-associated proteins Bcl2, Bax and progesterone receptor. Uterine tissue and serum concentrations of total GEN were higher in rats fed GEN than in those fed SPI+. Human Ishikawa endocarcinoma cells treated with GEN-fed rat serum tended to exhibit increased apoptotic status than those treated with CAS-fed rat serum. Exogenously added GEN (0.2 and 2 microM) increased, while estradiol-17beta (0.1 microM) decreased Ishikawa cell apoptosis, relative to untreated cells. Results suggest that lifetime dietary exposure to soy foods does not alter uterine cell phenotype in young adult rats, while GEN, by enhancing uterine endometrial glandular apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, may confer protection against uterine carcinoma. Given its limited influence on uterine phenotype of young adult females, GEN, when taken as part of soy foods or as supplement, should be favorably considered for other potential health benefits.

  5. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

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    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  6. Efeitos agudos dos extratos hidroalcoólicos do alho (Allium sativum L. e do capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf sobre a pressão arterial média de ratos anestesiados Acute effects of Allium sativum L. and Cympobongon citratus (DC Stapf hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Singi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar os efeitos da aplicação aguda endovenosa dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Allium sativum e de Cymbopogon citratus sobre a pressão arterial de ratos. Foram usados Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, anestesiados, traqueostomizados e canulados através da veia jugular e da artéria carótida. Foram injetadas doses de 1 mg dos extratos separadamente e em associação (1mg + 1mg, em volumes de 0,2mL. A pressão arterial média (PAM foi registrada com um sistema Biopac, modelo MP100. O Allium sativum diminuiu a PAM de 124±2 mmHg, no controle, para 108±2 mmHg aos 15s. Da mesma forma, o Cymbopogon citratus diminuiu a PAM de 122±2 mmHg, no controle, para 106± 2 mmHg aos 15s. A associação de ambos também diminuiu a PAM de 126±3 mmHg, no controle, para 113±3 mmHg aos 15s. Os efeitos das duas plantas foram iguais e não foram incrementados quando associadas.This work aimed to verify the effects of acute intravenous applications of Allium sativum and Cymbopogon citratus hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats. Adult male rats (Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, were used. The rats were anesthetized, tracheotomy and cannulation of both jugular and carotid were carried out. The injected doses were 1 mg separately as well as the association of both extracts, in volumes of 0,2 mL. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was recorded with a Biopac System, model MP100. The Allium sativum decreased the MAP only from 124±2 mmHg (control to 108±2 mmHg at 15s. The Cymbopogon citratus also decreased the MAP from 122±2 mmHg (control to 106±2 mmHg after 15s. The 1mg of Allium sativum + 1mg of Cymbopogon citratus also decreased the MAP from 126±3 mmHg (control to 113±3 mmHg after 15s. The effects of the two plants were the same and were not increased when in association.

  7. EFFECTS OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL CONCIS ON CELL PROLIFERATION OF THE SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE IN ADULT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuelin; Qiu Shudong; Zhang Pengbo; Shi Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the proliferative response and time course of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells after cerebral cortical concis in the adult rats. Methods Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Cumulative BrdU labeling was employed to detect the proliferating cells. At 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d after cerebral cortical concis, the rats were killed for BrdU immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in the injured ipsilateral SVZ. Results Little BrdU immunoreactivity cells was present in SVZ of the control rats from day 7 to day 21 after sham operation. The number of BrdU immunoreactivity cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ increased at day 1 and peaked at day 7 after cerebral cortical concis. Conclusion After cerebral cortical concis of the adult rats, neural stem/progenitor cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ markedly proliferated with a peak at day 7. This finding may be important for manipulating SVZ cells to promote the recovery from cerebral cortical concis.

  8. Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional phase marked by a heightened vulnerability to substances of abuse. It has been hypothesized that both increased sensitivity to reward and decreased sensitivity to aversive events may drive drug-use liability during this phase. To investigate possible age-related differences in sensitivity to the aversive consequences of drug use, adolescent and adult rats were compared on self-administration of cocaine before, during, and after a 10-day period in which an aversive agent, histamine, was added to the cocaine solution. Adult and adolescent female rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) over 10 sessions (2 h/session; 2 sessions/day). Histamine (4 mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution for the next 10 sessions. Finally, the cocaine/histamine solution was replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and rats continued to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) for 20 sessions. Compared with adolescent rats, adult rats showed a greater decrease in cocaine self-administration when it was punished with intravenous histamine compared with their baseline cocaine self-administration rates. These results suggest that differences in the sensitivity to negative consequences of drug use may partially explain developmental differences in drug use vulnerability.

  9. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  10. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  11. Positron emission tomography for serial imaging of the contused adult rat spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandoe, R.D.S.; Yu, J.; Seidel, J.; Rahiem, S.T.; Hurtado, A.; Tsui, B.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Pomper, M.G.; Oudega, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) could be used in combination with computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques for longitudinal monitoring of the injured spinal cord. In adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6), the ninth thoracic (T9) spinal cord segment was e

  12. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  13. The effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on recognition memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Markéta; Šírová, Jana; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Šlamberová, Romana

    2015-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) among pregnant women is an increasing world-wide health problem. Prenatal MA exposure may cause changes in foetus but the exact effects have remained unclear. The aim of this study is to present the effect of prenatal MA exposure on recognition memory in adult rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected daily with D-methamphetamine HCl (MA; 5 mg/kg, s.c.) during the entire gestation period. Control females were treated with saline in the same regime. Adult male offspring was administrated acutely by MA (1 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 30 minutes before beginning of an experiment. For testing recognition memory two tasks were chosen: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and Object Location Test (OLT). Our results demonstrate that prenatally MA-exposed animals were worse in NORT independently on an acute administration of MA in adulthood. Prenatally MA-exposed rats did not deteriorate in OLT, but after acute administration of MA in adulthood, there was significant worsening compared to appropriate control. Prenatally saline-exposed offspring did not deteriorate in any test even after acute administration of MA. Our data suggest that prenatal MA exposure in rats cause impairment in recognition memory in adult offspring, but not in spatial memory. In addition, acute administration of MA to controls did not deteriorate either recognition or spatial memory.

  14. Monitoring of intermittent PTH(1-34) treatment by serum PINP in adult ovariectomized osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halleen, Jussi; Peng, ZhiQi; Fagerlund, Katja

    , allowing measurement of serum PINP in preclinical rodent osteoporosis models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of serum PINP for monitoring intermittent PTH(1-34) treatment in adult ovariectomized (OVX) osteopenic rats. Study groups included a sham-operated control group and an OVX...

  15. Reinnervation of muscles after transection of the sciatic nerve in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijkema-Paassen, J; Meek, MF; Gramsbergen, A

    2002-01-01

    Functional recovery after transection of the sciatic nerve in adult rats is poor, probably because of abnormalities in reinnervation. Denervation and reinnervation patterns were studied morphologically in the lateral gastrocnemius (LGC), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) muscles for 21 weeks

  16. Peripheral effect of NMDA receptor antagonists on adult rats exposed to neonatal colon pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunLin; ElieD.Al-Chaer

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Previous work done by Al-Chaer' s lab has shown that colon irritation (CI) in neonates can lead to chronic visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats, with characteristics of visceral allodynia and hyperalgesia, associated with central neuronal sensitization in the absence of identifiable peripheral pathology (Al-Chaer et al. 2000) . The pathogenesis of

  17. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  18. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species.

  19. Effects of neonatal treatment with the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, on adult rat brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Penny N; van den Buuse, Maarten; Martin, Sally; Lynch-Frame, Ann; Chahl, Loris A

    2014-10-01

    Treatment of neonatal rats with the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonist, capsaicin, produces life-long loss of sensory neurons expressing TRPV1 channels. Previously it was shown that rats treated on day 2 of life with capsaicin had behavioural hyperactivity in a novel environment at 5-7 weeks of age and brain changes reminiscent of those found in subjects with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate brain and behavioural responses of adult rats treated as neonates with capsaicin. It was found that the brain changes found at 5-7 weeks in rats treated as neonates with capsaicin persisted into adulthood (12 weeks) but were less in older rats (16-18 weeks). Increased prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle was found in these rats at 8 and 12 weeks of age rather than the deficit commonly found in animal models of schizophrenia. Subjects with schizophrenia also have reduced flare responses to niacin and methylnicotinate proposed to be mediated by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Flare responses are accompanied by cutaneous plasma extravasation. It was found that the cutaneous plasma extravasation responses to methylnicotinate and PGD2 were reduced in capsaicin-treated rats. In conclusion, several neuroanatomical changes observed in capsaicin-treated rats, as well as the reduced cutaneous plasma extravasation responses, indicate that the role of TRPV1 channels in schizophrenia is worthy of investigation.

  20. The role of apelin in the modulation of gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuschevich, H; Kapica, M; Krawczynska, A; Herman, A; Kato, I; Kuwahara, A; Zabielski, R

    2016-06-01

    Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior. Circulating apelin inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice through vagal- cholecystokinin-dependent mechanism and reduces local blood flow. Our study was aimed to determine the effect of fundectomy and intraperitoneal or intragastric administration of apelin-13 on pancreatic and gastric enzymes activities in adult rats. Fundectomy is a surgical removal of stomach fundus - maine site apelin synthesis. Three independent experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. In the first and second experiment apelin-13 was given by intragastric or intraperitoneal way twice a day for 10 days (100 nmol/kg b.w.). Control groups received the physiological saline respectively. In the third experiment the group of rats after fundectomy were used. Fundectomized rats did not receive apelin and the rats from control group were 'sham operated'. At the end of experiment rats were sacrificed and blood from rats was withdrawn for apelin and CCK (cholecystokinin) radioimmunoassay analysis and pancreas and stomach tissues were collected for enzyme activity analyses. Intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations of apelin-13 increased basal plasma CCK level and stimulated gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in rats. In animals after fundectomy decreased activity of studied enzymes was observed, as well as basal plasma apelin and CCK levels. In conclusion, apelin can effects on CCK release and stimulates some gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats while fudectomy suppresses those processes. Changes in the level of pancreatic lipase activity point out that apelin may occurs as a regulator of lipase secretion.

  1. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. in rats = Efeito ansiolítico e sedativo do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. em ratos

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    Fernanda Jacques Otobone

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV in rats under going elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field test (OFT. No effects were detected after acute or repeated (3 or 7-days treatment with EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, by gavage, on the EPM or the OFT. However, rats treated for 15 day (20 mg/kg with EPV showed increased percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms on the EPM without alter locomotor activity in the OFT compared to control group. Acute or a 15 day administration of diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.,increased the same parameters on the EPM and OFT. Acute treatment with 300 or 600 mg/kg of EPV, decreased the locomotor activity in the OFT. Results suggest anxiolytic and sedative effects for the EPV and reveal a wide dose range for the anxiolytic effect.Este trabalho investigou o efeito do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV em ratos submetidosaos testes do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE e campo aberto (TCA. Nenhum efeito foi detectado após o tratamento agudo ou repetido por 3 ou 7 dias com EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, gavagem no LCE e TCA. Entretanto, ratos tratados por 15 dias com EPV (20 mg/kg mostraram aumento na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertosno LCE, sem alterar a atividade locomotora no TCA, comparado ao controle. Diazepan (droga de referência, i.p., aumentou os mesmos parâmetros analisados no LCE e OFT após o tratamento agudo ou por 15 dias. O tratamento agudo com 300 ou 600 mg/kg do EPV diminuiu significativamente a atividade locomotora no TCA. Estes resultadosmostram que EPV produz efeito ansiolítico e sedativo, com ampla margem de segurança para o efeito ansiolítico.

  2. Body and Testicular Weight Changes in Adult Wistar Rats Following Oral Administration of Artesunate

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    al-hassan m. izunya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects on the body and testicular weights of adult wistar rats that recieved an oral administration of normal and double normal doses of artesunate. The rats were divided into three groups (A, B and C of five rats each. A and B served as the treatment groups, while C served as the control group. Group A rats were given 4mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 2mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next for 4 days. Group B rats were given 8mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 4mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next 4 days, while group C rats were given only distilled water. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo state and were given w ater ad libitum. On day eight of the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed. The testes w ere carefully dissected out, freed from adherent tissues and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. The results showed no changes in body weight of rats in groups A, B and C. There was also no significant change in testicular weight of rats in group A. However a significant increase in testicular weight was observed in group C. Our results suggest that artesunate at normal and double normal doses, has no effect on body weight of rats but may be toxic to the testes at higher doses. It is uncertain however if these changes are reversible. It is recommended therefore, that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  3. Uso da Ciprofloxacina durante a Prenhez de Ratas: efeitos sobre a Mãe e Fetos Use of Ciprofloxacin in Pregnant Rats: effects on Mother and Fetuses

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    Mário Silva Approbato

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos da ciprofloxacina sobre a taxa de abortos, ganho de peso durante a gravidez, morte materna e fetal, malformações fetais grosseiras, número de recém-nascidos, peso dos filhotes e análise dos reflexos neurológicos dos filhotes. Métodos: foram utilizadas 30 ratas da linhagem Wistar, divididas em três grupos. Os grupos tratados receberam ciprofloxacina e o grupo controle soro fisiológico, uma vez ao dia, durante os primeiros 7 dias após o cruzamento. As doses para os grupos D50 e D100 foram, respectivamente, de 50 e 100 mg de ciprofloxacina por kg de peso corporal por dia. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: o ganho de peso durante a prenhez, a prevalência de abortamentos, mortes fetal e materna e malformações fetais grosseiras. Nos 217 filhotes nascidos analisamos o número, o peso e reflexos neurológicos (postural, preensão e orientação no 1º, 3º, 5º e 10º dia de vida por ninhada. Resultados: não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas no número de ratas que ficaram prenhes, na média de ganho de peso materno ou número de filhotes. Os filhotes apresentaram diferenças significativas nos pesos das observações do 3º, 5º e 10º dia (p = 0,006, 0,01 e 0,03, respectivamente, sendo a média menor no grupo D100. Observamos alteração significativa (p = 0,002 na positividade do reflexo de orientação no primeiro dia de vida, alteração que não se manteve nas outras observações. Não se observou caso de abortamento ou malformações grosseiras nos recém-nascidos. Conclusões: a ciprofloxacina alterou o peso ao nascimento e o reflexo dos filhotes nos primeiros dias de vida. Portanto, deve-se estudar a restrição ao seu uso durante a gravidez.Purpose: to study the effects of ciprofloxacin on abortion percentage, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, fetal and maternal death, gross fetal malformation, newborn number, weight and neurological reflexes. Methods: we used 30 Wistar rats

  4. Desvenlafaxine may accelerate neuronal maturation in the dentate gyri of adult male rats.

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    Aditya Asokan

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the effects of anti-depressant drugs on behavior in rodent models of depression. To explore this link further, we tested whether the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI venlafaxine impacted adult hippocampal neurogenesis differently than its primary active SNRI metabolite desvenlafaxine. Adult male Long Evans rats (n = 5-6 per group were fed vehicle, venlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg or desvenlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg twice daily for 16 days. Beginning the third day of drug treatment, the rats were given a daily bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg injection for 5 days to label dividing cells and then perfused 2 weeks after the first BrdU injection to confirm total new hippocampal cell numbers and their phenotypes. The high desvenlafaxine dose increased total new BrdU+ cell number and appeared to accelerate neuronal maturation because fewer BrdU+ cells expressed maturing neuronal phenotypes and more expressed mature neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyri of these versus vehicle-treated rats. While net neurogenesis was not increased in the dentate gyri of rats treated with the high desvenlafaxine dose, significantly more mature neurons were detected. Our data expand the body of literature showing that antidepressants impact adult neurogenesis by stimulating NPC proliferation and perhaps the survival of neuronal progeny and by showing that a high dose of the SNRI antidepressant desvenlafaxine, but neither a high nor low venlafaxine dose, may also accelerate neuronal maturation in the adult rat hippocampus. These data support the hypothesis that hippocampal neurogenesis may indeed serve as a biomarker of depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment, and may be informative for developing novel fast-acting antidepressant strategies.

  5. Dermal penetration of [14C]captan in young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H L; Hall, L L; Sumler, M R; Shah, P V

    1992-07-01

    Age dependence in dermal absorption has been a major concern in risk assessment. Captan, a chloroalkyl thio heterocyclic fungicide, was selected for study of age dependence as representative of this class of pesticides. Dermal penetration of [14C]captan applied at 0.286 mumol/cm2 was determined in young (33-d-old) and adult (82-d-old) female Fischer 344 rats in vivo and by two in vitro methods. Dermal penetration in vivo at 72 h was about 9% of the recovered dose in both young and adult rats. The percentage penetration was found to increase as dosage (0.1, 0.5, 2.7 mumol/cm2) decreased. Two in vitro methods gave variable dermal penetration values compared with in vivo results. A static system yielded twofold higher dermal penetration values compared with in vivo results for both young and adult rats. A flow system yielded higher dermal penetration values in young rats and lower penetration values in adults compared with in vivo results. Concentration in body, kidney, and liver was less in young than in adult rats given the same absorbed dosage. A physiological pharmacokinetic model was developed having a dual compartment for the treated skin and appeared to describe dermal absorption and disposition well. From this model, tissue/blood ratios of captan-derived radioactivity for organs were found to range from 0.35 to 3.4, indicating no large uptake or binding preferences by any organ. This preliminary pharmacokinetic model summarizes the experimental findings and could provide impetus for more complex and realistic models.

  6. Effect of prenatal programming and postnatal rearing on glomerular filtration rate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, German; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Salley, Jordan; Siddique, Khurrum; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined whether a prenatal low-protein diet programs a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in systolic blood pressure (BP). In addition, we examined whether altering the postnatal nutritional environment of nursing neonatal rats affected GFR and BP when rats were studied as adults. Pregnant rats were fed a normal (20%) protein diet or a low-protein diet (6%) during the last half of pregnancy until birth, when rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Mature adult rats from the prenatal low-protein group had systolic hypertension and a GFR of 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.57 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1) in the 20% group (P < 0.01). In cross-fostering experiments, mothers continued on the same prenatal diet until weaning. Prenatal 6% protein rats cross-fostered to a 20% mother on day 1 of life had a GFR of 0.53 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1), which was not different than the 20% group cross-fostered to a different 20% mother (0.45 ± 0.04 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1)). BP in the 6% to 20% group was comparable with the 20% to 20% group. Offspring of rats fed either 20% or 6% protein diets during pregnancy and cross-fostered to a 6% mother had elevated BP but a comparable GFR normalized to body weight as the 20% to 20% control group. Thus, a prenatal low-protein diet causes hypertension and a reduction in GFR in mature adult offspring, which can be modified by postnatal rearing.

  7. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  8. Testicular morphometry and stereology of adult rats treated with cyclophosphamide incorporated to the liposome Morfometria e estereologia testicular de ratos adultos tratados com ciclofosfamida incorporada ao lipossoma

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    Suzana de Fátima Paccola Mesquita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes represent a useful drug carrier system which is utilized in clinical studies to act as a non-toxic vehicle, reducing side effects and increasing the efficacy of antitumor agents. The aim of this study is to investigate, by means of morphometric and stereologic parameters, the effects of the cyclophosphamide, incorporated to liposomes, in testis of adult rats. As a result, the incorporation of the oncolytic agent to the liposomes showed, in the first place, increase of the testicular weight and volume, as well as an extension in diameter and area of the seminiferous tubules. For the group treated with cyclophosphamide incorporated to liposomes the differences in testicular and parechyma volumes showed non-significant with respect to the control group. Results indicate that the incorporation of the drug to the liposome reduces side effects on the male gonad. Lipossomas representam um benéfico sistema de transporte de fármacos que é utilizado em estudos clínicos para atuar como um veículo não tóxico, reduzindo os efeitos colaterais e aumentando a eficácia de agentes antitumorais. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar, por meio de parâmetros morfométricos e estereológicos, os efeitos da ciclofosfamida incorporada aos lipossomas, em testículos de ratos adultos. Como resultado, a incorporação do agente oncolítico aos lipossomas mostrou, em primeiro lugar, aumento no peso e volume testicular, assim como aumento no diâmetro e área dos túbulos seminíferos.Para o grupo tratado com ciclofosfamida incorporada aos lipossomas as diferenças nos volumes testicular e do parênquima mostraram-se não significativas em relação ao grupo controle.Os resultados indicam que a incorporação da droga ao lipossoma reduz os efeitos colaterais sobre a gônada masculina.

  9. Mechanism of Forelimb Motor Function Restoration after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: A Comparison of Juveniles and Adults

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    Atsushi Hasegawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate forelimb motor function after cervical spinal cord injury in juvenile and adult rats. Both rats received a left segmental hemisection of the spinal cord after C3-C4 laminectomy. Behavioral evaluation of motor function was monitored and assessed using the New Rating Scale (NRS and Forelimb Locomotor Scale (FLS and by measuring the range of motion (ROM of both the elbow and wrist. Complete left forelimb motor paralysis was observed in both rats. The NRS showed motor function recovery restored to 50.2±24.7% in juvenile rats and 34.0±19.8% in adult rats. FLS was 60.4±26.8% in juvenile rats and 46.5±26.9% in adult rats. ROM of the elbow and wrist were 88.9±20.6% and 44.4±24.1% in juvenile rats and 70.0±29.2% and 40.0±21.1% in adult rats. Thus, the NRS and ROM of the elbow showed a significant difference between age groups. These results indicate that left hemisection of the cervical spinal cord was not related to right-sided motor functions. Moreover, while motor paralysis of the left forelimb gradually recovered in both groups, the improvement was greater in juvenile rats.

  10. Effects of blood storage on ice in biochemical and arterial blood gas analysis of rats Efeitos da estocagem sanguínea em gelo na bioquímica e gasometria arterial de ratos

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    Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of blood storage in biochemical and arterial blood gas analysis of Wistar rats. METHODS: Ten adult male rats with weights between 300-350 g were used. The catheterization of the internal carotid artery were performed, followed by withdrawal of 3 ml of blood using 3 separate syringes each containing 1 ml. The syringes were fulfilled one after another and numerated according to the order of collection. Then, the following groups were devised: GT1 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 20 minutes and the second exam 65 minutes after the collection; GT2 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 35 minutes and the second exam 80 minutes after the collection; GT3 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 50 minutes and the second exam 95 minutes after the collection. The samples were stored in a container with a temperature between 0 Cº and 4 Cº. Upon analysis the values of pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3-, SatO2, SBE, Na+ and K+ concentrations and glucose were compared. RESULTS: No statistically relevant difference (pOBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito da estocagem sanguínea na bioquímica e na gasometria do sangue arterial de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 10 ratos adultos, machos, com peso compreendido entre 300 a 350 gramas. Cada animal foi submetido à cateterização da artéria carótida seguida de heparinização prévia do animal. Foram colhidos 3 ml de sangue total do rato, separados em três seringas contendo 1 ml cada. As seringas foram preenchidas uma após a outra e enumeradas respectivamente à ordem de coleta. De acordo com esta numeração as amostras foram distribuídas nos seguintes grupos: GT1 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 20 minutos e a segunda análise 65 minutos após a coleta; GT2 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 35 minutos e segunda análise 80 minutos após a coleta; GT3 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 50 minutos e 95 minutos após a coleta. As amostras foram

  11. Effect of topical application of fibronectin in duodenal wound healing in rats Efeito da aplicação tópica da fibronectina em feridas duodenais de ratos

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    Teresa Neuma de Souza Brito

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN, a large family of plasma and extracellular matrix glycoproteins, plays an important role in wound healing. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of fibronectin on the healing of sutured duodenal wounds, correlating with the serum and tissue level of the substance. METHODS: An experimental study was done in 30 adult Wistar rats divided into two group. In the control group (n=15 a duodenal suture was treated with saline solution 0,9% and in the test group the duodenal wounds were treated with 1% FN. The duodenal wound healing process was studied in the 5th, 7tn and 10th postoperative days, by histological sections stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichromic and immunohistochemical reaction for FN. A digital histological grading system was used to obtain a score for each group and to observe the healing process. RESULTS: the FN was present in the several layers of the duodenum and the cellular and plasmatic FN increased with the evolution of healing. In the test group the FN enhanced the wound healing within 5, 7 and 10 days after injury, when compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The topical use of FN in duodenal sutured wounds in rats enhances healing by stimulating the appearence of fibroblasts into the wound site and development of granulation tissue. This acceleration of the repair process may have an important application in the healing of duodenal wounds.A fibronectina (FN, um componente da grande família das glicoproteínas do plasma e da matriz extracelular, desempenha um importante papel na cicatrização das feridas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da fibronectina na cicatrização de lesões duodenais suturadas, e estabelecer correlação dos parâmetros de cicatrização com os níveis tissulares e séricos da substância. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo experimental com 30 ratos Wistar adultos dividos em dois grupos. No grupo de controle (n=15 uma lesão duodenal suturada foi tratada com aplicação tópica de 1ml

  12. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

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    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  13. Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Maryam; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Eidi, Akram; Sepehrara, Leili

    2003-10-08

    The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake in adult male rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all experiments. Water intake was measured 1 h after drug injections. Administration of histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and naloxone (0.5-1 microg/rat) increased, while morphine (2.5 microg/rat), pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, and ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, decreased water intake in isolated rats. Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors attenuated the histamine-induced response. Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased the inhibitory effect induced by morphine. Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors decreased the naloxone-induced effect on water intake. It is concluded that the histaminergic system may have a close interaction with morphine and naloxone on drinking behavior.

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver toxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2009-10-01

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) is a notorious carcinogen, present in many environmental factors. DEN induces oxidative stress and cellular injury due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species; free radical scavengers protect the membranes from DEN-induced damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of bacoside A (the active principle isolated from Bacopa monniera Linn.) on carcinogen-induced damage in rat liver. Adult male albino rats were pretreated with 15 mg/kg body weight/day of bacoside A orally (for 14 days) and then intoxicated with single necrogenic dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (200 mg/kg bodyweight, intraperitonially) and maintained for 7 days. The liver weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and activity of serum marker enzymes (aspartate transaminases, alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were markedly increased in carcinogen-administered rats, whereas the activities of marker enzymes were near normal in bacoside A-pretreated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutatione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione) in liver also decreased in carcinogen-administered rats, which were significantly elevated in bacoside A-pretreated rats. It is concluded that pretreatment of bacoside A prevents the elevation of LPO and activity of serum marker enzymes and maintains the antioxidant system and thus protects the rats from DEN-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  16. Influence of endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor on neural differentiation of adult rat hippocampal progenitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ding; Zhili He; Juan Ruan; Ying Liu; Chengxin Gong; Shenggang Sun; Honghui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor is the only known neurotrophic factor that can promote differentiation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells to glial cells and neurons in adult rats. This process is similar to spontaneous differentiation. Therefore, ciliary neurotrophic factor may be involved in spontaneous differentiation of neural stem cells. To verify this hypothesis, the present study isolated neural progenitor cells from adult male rats and cultured them in vitro. Results showed that when neural progenitor cells were cultured in the absence of mitogen fibroblast growth factor-2 or epidermal growth factor, they underwent spontaneous differentiation into neurons and glial cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical staining showed that exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor strongly induced adult hippocampal progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons and glial cells. Moreover, passage 4 adult hippocampal progenitor cells expressed high levels of endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor, and a neutralizing antibody against ciliary neurotrophic factor prevented the spontaneous neuronal and glial differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells. These results suggest that the spontaneous differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells is mediated partially by endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor.

  17. Potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Hala F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-02-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater aquifers. Current study aimed at evaluating the potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in rats. Sodium nitrate was given orally to rats at doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 60 consecutive days. Sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight were significantly decreased specially at high doses. Testicular activity of lactate dehydrogenase-X, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were inhibited in a dose-related manner. Lipid peroxides and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly increased in all treated animals. This was accompanied by inhibition of testicular activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Fifty mg/kg of sodium nitrate did not significantly alter catalase or glutathione reductase activity. Glutathione was significantly decreased by sodium nitrate in a dose-related manner. The decrease in sperm count and motility and daily sperm production was confirmed by histopathological studies which indicated chromatolysis, pyknosis and necrosis in spermatocytes. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to sodium nitrate results in testicular toxicity as evidenced by decreased sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight, inhibited activity of enzyme markers of spermatogenesis and induction of histopathological changes. These effects are attributed, at least partly, to testicular oxidative stress.

  18. Repair of acutely injured spinal cord through constructing tissue-engineered neural complex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Yu; GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WU Si-yu; XING Shu-xing; ZHANG Zhong-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct tissue-engineered neural complex in vitro and study its effect in repairing acutely injured spinal cord in adult rats. Methods: Neural stem cells were harvested from the spinal cord of embryo rats and propagated in vitro. Then the neural stem cells were seeded into polyglycolic acid scaffolds and co-cultured with extract of embryonic spinal cord in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the microstructure of this complex. Animal model of spine semi-transection was made and tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted by surgical intervention. Six weeks after transplantation, functional evaluation and histochemistry were applied to evaluate the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction. Results: The tissue-engineered neural complex had a distinct structure, which contained neonatal neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted into the injured spinal cord, the cell components such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, could survive and keep on developing. The adult rats suffering from spinal cord injury got an obvious neurological recovery in motor skills. Conclusions: The tissue-engineered neural complex appears to have therapeutic effects on the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction of the adult rats with spinal cord injury.

  19. Effects of Chronic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Adminidtration on Spatial Memory in the Adult Rats

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    Mahmoud Hosseini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU has been a principal marker for mitotic cells in studies of adult neurogenesis. The method consists of a pulse injection of BrdU into the intraperitoneal cavity followed by a variable survival time allowing for tracking the divided cells and their progeny. However, such exogenous markers may produce toxic effects. Aim of this study was determined the effects of Brdu on spatial memory in the adult rat. Materials and Methods: 16 Wistar rats were used in this experimental study. The rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (N=8 in each group, as follows: control and Brdu (50 mg/kg. Brdu was administered intraperitoneally for 6 weeks and then animals were used for behavioral testing in the Morris water maze. The data were analyzed with repeated measure’s ANOVA.Results: Our present findings show that there were no differences in the path length, escape latency and swim speed between control and Brdu-administrated groups.Conclusion: This study show that Brdu (exogenic proliferation marker did not has side effects on spatial memory in the adult rats.

  20. Cross-sensitization between testosterone and cocaine in adolescent and adult rats.

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    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fabio C; Crestani, Carlos C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2015-11-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are substances commonly co-abused. The use of anabolic steroids and cocaine has increased among adolescents. However, few studies investigated the consequences of the interaction between anabolic-androgenic steroids in animals' model of adolescence. We examined the effects of acute and repeated testosterone administration on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received ten once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle. Three days after the last testosterone or vehicle injections rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge injection of either saline or cocaine (10mg/kg). A different subset of rats was treated with a single injection of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle and three days later was challenged with cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Immediately after cocaine or saline injections the locomotor activity was recorded during forty minutes. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescent but not adult rats.

  1. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-hua; SHI Hong-mei; LIU Tong-tong; XUYing-chun; YE Kang-ping; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background As the widespread use of electric devices in modern life,human are exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) much more frequently than ever.Over the past decades,a substantial number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that ELF MF (50 Hz) exposure is associated with increased risk of various health effects.The present study examined the effects of chronic exposure to ELF MF on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats.Methods The 50-Hz ELF MF was used during the whole experimental procedures and the value of magnetic field (MF)was set to 2 mT.Adult rats were divided randomly to control,MF 1 hour and MF 4 hours group.Anxiety-related behaviors were examined in the open field test and the elevated plus maze; changes in spatial learning and memory were determined in Morris water maze after 4 weeks of daily exposure.Results Rats in MF 4 hours group had increased anxiety-like behaviors with unaltered locomotor activity.In the Morris water maze test,rats had reduced latency to find the hidden platform and improved long-term memory of former location of platform without changes in short-term memory and locomotor activity.Conclusion Chronic ELF MF exposure has anxiogenic effect on rats,and the promoting effects on spatial learning and long-term retention of spatial memory.

  2. Enriched experience and recovery from amblyopia in adult rats: impact of motor, social and sensory components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Laura; Bonaccorsi, Joyce; Milanese, Marco; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Giribaldi, Francesco; Manno, Ilaria; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Berardi, Nicoletta; Bonanno, Giambattista; Maffei, Lamberto; Sale, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Amblyopia is one of the most common forms of visual impairment, arising from an early functional imbalance between the two eyes. It is currently accepted that, due to a lack of neural plasticity,amblyopia is an untreatable pathology in adults. Environmental enrichment (EE) emerged as a strategy highly effective in restoring plasticity in adult animals, eliciting recovery from amblyopia through a reduction of intracortical inhibition. It is unknown whether single EE components are able to promote plasticity in the adult brain, crucial information for designing new protocols of environmental stimulation suitable for amblyopic human subjects. Here, we assessed the effects of enhanced physical exercise,increased social interaction, visual enrichment or perceptual learning on visual function recovery in adult amblyopic rats. We report a complete rescue of both visual acuity and ocular dominance in exercised rats, in animals exposed to visual enrichment and in animals engaged in perceptual learning.These effects were accompanied by a reduced inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. In contrast, we did not detect any sign of recovery in socially enriched rats or in animals practicing a purely associative visual task. These findings could have a bearing in orienting clinical research in the field of amblyopia therapy.

  3. Neonatal nociception elevated baseline blood pressure and attenuated cardiovascular responsiveness to noxious stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ya-Chun; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Ho-Tien; Chen, Pin-Tarng; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Kuo, Terry B J

    2012-10-01

    Neonatal nociception has significant long-term effects on sensory perception in adult animals. Although neonatal adverse experience affect future responsiveness to stressors is documented, little is known about the involvement of early nociceptive experiences in the susceptibility to subsequent nociceptive stress exposure during adulthood. The aim of this study is to explore the developmental change in cardiovascular regulating activity in adult rats that had been subjected to neonatal nociceptive insults. To address this question, we treated neonatal rats with an intraplantar injection of saline (control) or carrageenan at postnatal day 1. The carrageenan-treated rats exhibited generalized hypoalgesia at basal state, and localized hyperalgesia after re-nociceptive challenge induced by intraplantar injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) as adults. Then we recorded baseline cardiovascular variables and 24-h responsiveness to an injection of CFA in the free-moving adult rats with telemetric technique. The carrageenan-treated rats showed significantly higher basal blood pressures (110.3±3.16 vs. control 97.0±4.28 mmHg). In control animals, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) decreased, sympathetic vasomotor activity increased, and parasympathetic activity was inhibited after CFA injection. Blood pressure elevation was evident (107.0±2.75 vs. pre-injection 97.0±4.28 mmHg). Comparatively, the carrageenan-treated rats showed a higher BRS (BrrLF 1.03±0.09 vs. control 0.70±0.06 ms/mmHg) and higher parasympathetic activity [0.93±0.17 vs. control 0.32±0.02 ln(ms²)] after CFA injection. The change in blood pressure is negligible (111.9±4.05 vs. pre-injection 110.3±3.16 mmHg). Our research has shown that neonatal nociception alters future pain sensation, raises basal blood pressure level, and attenuates cardiovascular responsiveness to nociceptive stress in adult rats.

  4. Comparison of airway measurements during influenza-induced tachypnea in infant and adult cotton rats

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    Prince Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected infant cotton rats. We hypothesized that age-dependent differences in lung mechanics result in differences in ventilatory characteristics following influenza infection. Methods Lung tidal volume, dynamic elastance, resistance, and pleural pressure were measured in a resistance and compliance system on mechanically-ventilated anesthestized young (14–28 day old and adult (6–12 week old cotton rats. Animals at the same age were infected with influenza virus, and breathing rates and other respiratory measurements were recorded using a whole body flow plethysmograph. Results Adult cotton rats had significantly greater tidal volume (TV, and lower resistance and elastance than young animals. To evaluate the impact of this increased lung capacity and stiffening on respiratory disease, young and adult animals were infected intra-nasally with influenza A/Wuhan/359/95. Both age groups had increased respiratory rate and enhanced pause (Penh during infection, suggesting lower airway obstruction. However, in spite of significant tachypnea, the infant (unlike the adult cotton rats maintained the same tidal volume, resulting in an increased minute volume. In addition, the parameters that contribute to Penh were different: while relaxation time between breaths and time of expiration was decreased in both age groups, a disproportionate increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flow contributed to the increase in Penh in infant animals. Conclusion While respiratory rate is increased in both adult and infant influenza-infected cotton rats, the volume of air exchanged per minute (minute volume is

  5. Induction of abnormal oocyte division under the constant light in the young adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Fangxiong Shi

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of constant light on the ovary, 12 young adult female rats were exposed to constant light for 37 days and their estrous cycles were recorded by daily examination and the ovaries were examined histologically. The results showed that constant light induced in an abnormal and uncontrolled division of oocytes. In these divided-oocyte follicles (DOFs), two or more divided-oocytes shared one zona pellucida and usually floated freely in the follicular antrum. This fantastic phenomenon was discovered for the first time, and it was different from multioocyte follicles (MOFs) and polyovular follicles (POFs) founded in rats, humans, rabbits, mice and dogs.

  6. Efeito do abacate (Persea americana Mill variedade hass na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos Effect of the hass avocado (American Persea Mill on hipercolesterolemic rats

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    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fitonutrientes podem ser encontrados em muitas frutas, sendo o abacate o mais rico em beta-sitosterol (fitoesterol e glutationa. O fitoesterol é uma substância de origem vegetal cuja estrutura é muito similar a do colesterol e seu mecanismo de ação envolve a inibição intestinal de absorção do colesterol e diminuição da síntese de colesterol hepático. O efeito é exercido sobre os valores de colesterol plasmático total e LDL, sem afetar os níveis de HDL e triglicérides sanguíneos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência do consumo de farinha de abacate variedade Hass nos níveis séricos de colesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglicérides, colesterol hepático e excretado. Estes parâmetros foram investigados em ratos Wistar hipercolesterolêmicos durante 30 e 60 dias de experimento. Ao final de 30 dias, a dieta com 15% de abacate mostrou ser mais efetiva para reduzir os níveis de colesterol total e LDL e aumentar o HDL em comparação ao controle. Foi observado que para o teor de colesterol excretado a melhor dieta foi a de 25% de abacate, pois quanto maior a concentração de abacate, maior a excreção de colesterol. A dieta com 15% e 25% de abacate, foram as que mais influenciaram nos níveis de colesterol hepático.Phytonutrients can be found in fruits, and the avocado contains four times more beta-sitosterol (phytosterol and it is one of the best glutathione sources. The phytosterol is a vegetable substance whose structure is very similar to the cholesterol one and its action mechanism involves the intestinal inhibition of cholesterol absorption and the synthesis of hepatic cholesterol. The effect has an influence on the values of total plasmatic cholesterol and LDL without affecting the levels of HDL and triglycerides. The present work had the objective to analyze the influence of the consumption of the Hass avocado on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and hepatic and excreted

  7. Effect of thalidomide on the healing of colonic anastomosis, in rats Efeito da talidomida na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos

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    Samuel Gama Veneziano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Thalidomide, because of its anti-inflammatory properties, as re-emerged as an option for the treatment of Crohn's disease refractory to standard therapy. We studied the effect of thalidomide on the healing of colonic anastomosis. METHODS: Sixty male rats (Rattus norvegicus, were divided into 3 groups of 20 animals each, respectively receiving 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg thalidomide by the oral route for 7 days, or saline solution (control. All animals were submitted to continuous end-to-end anastomosis with 6-0 Prolene sutures. After sacrifice the anastomoses were analyzed macroscopically and submitted to determination of hydroxyproline, to histology and to immunohistochemistry for metalloproteinase 1, metalloproteinase 1 inhibitor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in macroscopic aspect or hydroxyproline determination (p= 0.5403. In the immunohistochemical analysis, the following p values were obtained: p = 0.5817 for VEGF, p = 0.1854 for metalloproteinase 1, and p = 0.0023 for metalloproteinase 1 inhibitor, with this last value being considered statistically significant. CONCLUSION: We conclude that thalidomide influenced collagen maturation. There was a stronger action of metalloproteinases, possibly indicating a negative tendency for the healing process.OBJETIVO: Sabe-se que agentes farmacológicos podem influenciar no processo de cicatrização. A talidomida, devido às suas propriedades antiinflamatórias, tem ressurgido como uma opção no tratamento da doença de Cröhn refratária à terapêutica convencional. Neste trabalho, estudamos o efeito da talidomida na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas no rato. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 animais Rattus norvegius, com peso médio de 300g. Organizou-se 3 grupos de 20 animais, sendo um grupo controle (AC, um grupo (BD, com administração de talidomida 0,5 mg/kg por 7 dias e um grupo (AD com administra

  8. Propolis attenuates cobalt induced-nephrotoxicity in adult rats and their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoui, El Mouldi; Troudi, Afef; Fetoui, Hamadi; Soudani, Nejla; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical changes in cobalt-exposed rats and to investigate the potential role of Tunisian propolis against the cobalt-induced renal damages. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups and were treated as follows: group 1 (control) received distilled water; group 2 received 350 ppm of CoCl(2) in drinking water; group 3 received 350 ppm CoCl(2) in drinking water and a propolis-supplemented diet (1 g/100 g of diet); group 4 received a propolis-supplemented diet (1 g/100 g of diet) without cobalt. In the cobalt group, a significant decrease in body, absolute and relative weights was noted when compared to controls. The administration of cobalt to pregnant rats from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery resulted in an increased level of renal malondialdehyde, a decreased renal content of glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in lactating rats and their pups. A statistically significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine serum levels was seen in treated female rats and their pups. Histopathologically, the cobalt-administration induced degenerative changes in the kidney of lactating rats and their pups. When compared with cobalt-treated rats, those receiving the propolis supplementation (along with cobalt-treatment) had lower malondialdehyde levels, higher antioxidant activities and the cobalt-related histopathological changes in the kidneys were at lower severity. Our results suggested that the propolis might be a potential candidate agent against cobalt-induced nephrotoxicity in adult and juvenile rats when administered to female rats during the late pregnancy and the early postnatal period.

  9. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes.

  10. Efeito da suplementação com pupunha como fonte de vitamina A em dieta: estudo em ratos Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats

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    Lucia K.O. Yuyama

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito da suplementação com pupunha (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., polpa cozida e transformada em farinha, como fonte de vitamina A, em dieta regional de Manaus, AM,Brasil, por meio do ensaio biológico com ratos. A metodologia utilizada foi da depleção dos animais em zinco e vitamina A, seguida da repleção com a dieta regional (DR, DR + pupunha, DR + vitamina A e dieta controle (DC. A dieta foi elaborada para famílias com rendimentos inferiores a dois salários-mínimos. Foram utilizadas ratas albinas adultas pós-parto, cada qual com 6 filhotes machos, que receberam ração à base de caseína lavada com EDTA a 1%, sem adição de Zn e vitamina A, por 25 dias, com a finalidade de obtenção de animais recém-desmamados deficientes nestes dois nutrientes. O período de repleção dos animais, recém-desmamados, foi de 30 dias e o delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos de 8 animais cada. A suplementação efetuada seguiu as recomendações do "Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets". Os parâmetros empregados para a avaliação da utilização de vitamina A foram as concentrações de vitamina A no fígado e plasma e o crescimento dos animais. Ao final do experimento, observou-se que os animais que consumiram a ração à base da dieta regional de Manaus, suplementada com pupunha e vitamina A, apresentaram, respectivamente, concentração significativamente maior de vitamina A no fígado, 43,3 ± 6,5 µg/g e 42,0 ± 4,3 µg/g em relação à dieta regional, 5,5 ± 1,1 µg/g (pThe effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD, RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization

  11. Effect of baclofen on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats Efeito do baclofen no esvaziamento gástrico de líquido e de sólidos em rato

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    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter. There is evidence that GABA B receptors located in the dorsal complex and in afferent fibers of the vagus nerve participate in the control of gastrointestinal motility. OBJECTIVE: To assess the intracerebroventricularly (ICV and intravenously (IV effect of baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n = 6-8 animals were used. Gastric emptying of liquid test meals labeled with phenol red was evaluated by the determination of percent gastric retention (%GR 10 and 15 min after orogastric administration of saline and 10% glucose meals, respectively. Baclofen was injected ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal through a tube implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain and was injected IV (1 and 2 mg/kg into a tail vein. The gastric emptying of liquid was determined 10 or 30 min after ICV and IV baclofen administration, respectively. The gastric emptying of the solid meal was assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention 2 h after the beginning of the ingestion of the habitual ratio by the animal, consumed over a period of 30 min. Baclofen was administered ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal or IV (1 and 2 mg/kg immediately after the end of the ingestion of the solid meal. The control groups received vehicle (sterile saline solution ICV or IV. RESULTS: The group of animals receiving baclofen ICV (2 mg/animal presented a significantly lower (PCONTEXTO: O ácido gama-aminobutírico (GABA é um potente neurotransmissor inibitório. Há evidências que receptores GABA>B localizados no complexo dorsal do vago e em fibras aferentes do nervo vago participam no controle da motricidade gastrointestinal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito intracerebroventricular (ICV e intravenoso (IV do baclofen, um agonista para receptores GABA B, sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de líquidos e de sólidos em ratos. M

  12. Resveratrol improves reproductive parameters of adult rats varicocelized in peripuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Talita Biude; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; de Oliveira Neves, Flávia Macedo; Simas, Joana Noguères; da Costa Vaz, André; Cabral, Regina Elisabeth L; Vendramini, Vanessa; Miraglia, Sandra Maria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of resveratrol against the reproductive damage caused by left-sided experimental varicocele. There was a reduction of testicular major axis in the varicocele group when compared with the other groups; the testicular volume was reduced in varicocele group in comparison to the sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of morphologically abnormal sperm was higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups than in sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of sperm with 100% of mitochondrial activity and normal acrosome integrity were lower in varicocele group than in varicocele treated with resveratrol, sham-control and resveratrol groups. Sperm motility was also reduced in varicocele group than in other groups. The sperm DNA fragmentation was higher in varicocele group than in other groups. Testicular levels of malondialdehyde were higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups. The varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups had a significantly higher frequency of TUNEL-positive cells than sham-control and resveratrol groups; however, immunolabeling of the testes from varicocele treated with resveratrol group showed a lower number of apoptotic germ cells in comparison with the left testis of rats of the varicocele group. Reproductive alterations produced by varicocele from peripuberty were reduced by resveratrol in adulthood. Resveratrol should be better investigated as an adjuvant in the treatment of varicocele. Daily administration of resveratrol to rats with varicocele from peripuberty improves sperm quality in the adulthood.

  13. Electrophysiology of embryonic, adult and aged rat hippocampal neurons in serum-free culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M S; Collings, M A; Brewer, G J

    1998-01-31

    Methods were recently developed for culturing neurons from adult rat hippocampus using the serum-free medium Neurobasal with B27 supplement. To determine whether adult cultured neurons have normal electrical properties, we studied cultures from rats of three age groups: (1) embryonic; (2) 10-11 months old and (3) 35-36 months old. Neurons had a polarized morphology with a large branching apical dendrite and small basal dendrites. Mean resting potentials were similar in the three age groups. All neurons had nonlinear current-voltage relationships, indicating the presence of voltage-sensitive ion channels. Most neurons had a voltage-sensitive inward current followed by a sustained voltage-sensitive outward current. Tetrodotoxin blocked the inward current, which is likely to be a sodium current. The sustained outward current, which is likely to be a potassium current, reversed at -71 mV. Most neurons exhibited anomalous rectification. Calcium currents were present in both embryonic and adult neurons. Embryonic neurons would sometimes fire multiple action potentials but adult neurons fired only single action potentials. Our results indicate that both embryonic and adult cultured neurons retain a clearly neuronal electrophysiological phenotype in Neurobasal/B27 serum-free medium.

  14. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorban' , E.N.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

  15. Temporal Expression of Mutant LRRK2 in Adult Rats Impairs Dopamine Reuptake

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    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Weimin C Hong, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu-Gang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2 gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2G2019S in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time.

  16. Effects of cyclophosphamide on the kaolin consumption (pica behavior) in five strains of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Shu-ichi; Ikeda, Masashi; Hokao, Ryoji; Shinoda, Motoo

    2011-07-01

    It is known that pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin, can be induced by administration of toxins or emetic agents in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cyclophosphamide on pica behavior and on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the following five strains of adult male rats: Sprague Dawley (SD), Wistar, Fischer 344 (F344), Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Long Evans (LE). Cyclophosphamide (25 mg or 50 mg/kg) was injected (i.p.) into the rats and kaolin and food intake were measured at 24 hr after injection. The animals were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) at 3 hr after injection of cyclophosphamide, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna. WI and LE rats clearly showed pica behavior as compared with the other strains. In LE rats, the concentration of 5HIAA in CSF also increased in a dose-dependent manner of cyclophosphamide. The pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist) restored both changes (kaolin consumption and 5HIAA levels) induced by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the LE rat is sensitive to cyclophosphamide, that pica induced by cyclophosphamide mimics many aspects of emesis including the serotonergic response in the central nervous system and that use of the pica model would be a practical method for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs in addition to the mechanism of emesis.

  17. Impairment in Spatial Memory in adult Rats following developmental Low Lead Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Rao Barkur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of environmentally relevant levels of lead exposure during gestational and early postnatal period on hippocampal dependent spatial memory in rats during adulthood. The pregnant rats were allowed to drink either normal water (control group or 0.2% lead acetate solution (Leadtreated group during pregnancy and lactation. Thus rats pups of lead treated group where exposed to lead indirectly through their mothers during this period. At weaning pups of lead treated group were allowed to drink normal water till they attain the adult hood. Blood lead level was estimated on postnatal day 22 and 120. Birth weight and weight gain of the rat pups as they grew were measured at regular intervals. Both the control and lead treated groups of rats were subjected to water maze test on postnatal day 30 and 120. Results showed that lead treatment had no effect on birth weight or weight gain. Blood lead level on postnatal day 22 was significantly high in treated group compared to the control group and it was normalized by end of four months. The rats born to lead treated mothers showed impaired in spatial memory during water maze test both on postnatal day 36 and 126. These data suggests that exposure to environmentally relevant levels of lead during intrauterine and early postnatal period of brain development causes impairment in spatial memory not only during infancy but also lasts till adulthood.

  18. Effects of controlled and pressure support mechanical ventilation on rat diaphragm muscle Efeitos da ventilação mecânica controlada e por pressão de suporte no músculo diafragma de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Sá Braga Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of Pressure Controlled Ventilation mode (PCV-C and PSV mode in diaphragm muscle of rats. METHODS: Wistar rats (n=18 were randomly assigned to the control group or to receive 6 hours of PCV and PSV. After this period, animals were euthanized and their diaphragms were excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored in at -80º C for further histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: Results showed a 15% decrease in cross-sectional area of muscle fibers on the PCV-C group when compared to the control group (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Short-term controlled mechanical ventilation seems to lead to muscular atrophy in diaphragm fibers. The PSV mode may attenuate the effects of VIDD.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do modo ventilatório controlado por pressão controlada (PCV-C e do modo PSV sobre o músculo diafragma de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos (n = 18 da linhagem Wistar foram distribuídos no grupo controle (RE ou para receber AVM por 6 horas no modo PCV-C e no modo PSV. Após esse período, os animais foram eutanasiados, o diafragma retirado e encaminhado para a análise histológica e morfométrica. RESULTADOS: Os resultados revelaram uma redução da área das fibras musculares de 15% no grupo PCV-C em comparação ao controle (p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: O grupo PCV-C apresentou atrofia muscular em um período curto de ventilação mecânica. O modo PSV parece atenuar os efeitos da DDIV.

  19. Antidepressant behavioral effects of duloxetine and amitriptyline in the rat forced swimming test Efeitos antidepressivos da duloxetina e da amitriptilina no teste do nado forçado em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Sampaio Menezes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the antidepressant drugs duloxetine and amitriptyline on depressive behaviors in rats. METHODS: Fifteen male Wistar rats were given systemic injections of duloxetine, amitriptyline or saline prior to a Forced Swimming Test (FST. Immobility and number of stops were measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis. RESULTS: Rats given injections of duloxetine displayed fewer stops than the amitriptyline and control group (pOBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito antidepressivo da droga cloridrato de duloxetina com a amitriptilina. MÉTODOS: O teste do nado forçado, teste comportamental que avalia a atividade antidepressiva em ratos, foi utilizado em 15 ratos Wistar, machos adultos, divididos em três grupos iguais: duloxetina, amitriptilina e controle. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste One-way ANOVA e Kruskall-Wallis. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa entre o número de paradas (p <0,05 entre os grupos duloxetina e amitriptilina e o grupo controle. Grupo amitriptilina e controle não apresentaram diferença (p=0,8. CONCLUSÃO: A duloxetina reduziu o comportamento depressivo sendo mais efetiva do que a amitriptilina.

  20. Adolescent social defeat disturbs adult aggression-related impulsivity in wild-type rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Caroline M; Coolen, Alex; de Boer, Sietse F; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is generally considered as a developmental period during which adverse social experiences may have lasting consequences in terms of an increased vulnerability to affective disorders. This study aimed at determining the individual susceptibility to adolescent social stress using a rat model. We used rats of the Wild-type Groningen strain, which are characterized by a broad variation in adult levels of aggression and impulsivity. We hypothesized that experience of social defeat in adolescence results in heightened aggression and impulsivity levels in adulthood. In contrast to our expectation, adolescent social defeat did not lead to a difference in the average adult level of aggression and impulsivity, but the significant correlation between offensive aggression and impulsivity found in control animals was not present in animals defeated during adolescence.

  1. Retrograde Labeling of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells with the Flurogold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Huang; Yannian Hui; Miaoli Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the densities and distribution of retinal ganglion cells(RGC) in adult rat retinae with flurogold(FG) labeling retogradely.Methods: FG was injected to the superior colliculi(SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei (dLGN) in adult rats and the retinae were examined by fluorescence microscopy at various periods of time.Results: FG-labelled RGC were observed in the retina as early as 3 days after application of FG. The labelled cells gradually increased in density, reached 95% of the maximal number on days 7 and the maximal number on days 30. The density of labelled cells was higher in the posterior pole than in the peripheral area. The fluorescence intensity in labelled cells maintained up to 60 days.Conclusion: The FG retrograde labeling method is reliable and effective for quantity of RGC. Eye Science 2000; 16:29 ~ 33.

  2. Retrograde Labeling of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells with the Flurogold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiHuang; YannianHui; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To study the densities and distribution of retinal ganglion cells(RGC) in adult rat retinae with flurogold(FG) labeling retogradely.Methods:FG was injected to the superior colliculid(SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei(dLGN) in adult rats and the retinae were examined by fluorescence microscopy at various periods of time.Results:FG-labelled RGC were observed in the retina as early as 3 days after application of FG.The labeled cells gradually increased in density,reached 95% of the maximal number on days 7 and the maximal nuber on days 30.The density of labeled cells was higher in the posterior pole than in the peripheral area.The fluorescence intensity in labeled cells maintained up to 60 days.Conclusion:The FG retrograde labeling method is reliable and effective for quantity of RGC.Eye Science 2000;46:29-33.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of glutamate transporter EAAC1 in the brainstem of adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-xing; LIU Tao; ZHAO Jing-wei; LI Jin-lian; DONG Yu-lin; LI Ji-shuo

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the distribution of EAAC1, a subtype of glutamate transporters, in the brainstem of adult rat. Methods: Immunocytochemical staining with avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method was employed. Results:EAAC1 was widely distributed throughout the brainstem. In many regions, the EAAC1-like immunoreactivity was primarily distributed in the neuropil. Cell body staining was observed in the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus, external cortex of the inferior colliculus, red nucleus, substantia nigra, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, ventral tegmental nucleus, superior olivary complex, nucleus of the trapezoid body, cochlear nucleus, sensory trigeminal complex, Barrington's nucleus,trigeminal motor nucleus, parabrachial nuclei, dorsal nucleus of vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, locus coeruleus, lateral and superior vestibular nuclei, lateral paragigantocellular nucleus and dorsal paragigantocellular nucleus. Conclusion: Glutamate transporter EAAC 1 is widely distributed throughout the brainstem of adult rat, which may play an important role in excitatory activities of the neurons induced by glutamate.

  4. Organotypic explant culture of adult rat retina for in vitro investigations of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    This protocol details a method for isolating retinal tissue from adult rats as an organotypic culture to study neurobiological processes in mature tissue. It combines the efficiency and control common to in vitro techniques with close imitation of the in vivo environment. Eyes from adult rats are enucleated and the neural retina is isolated. Tissue is cut into quarters, yielding eight retinal explants per animal, and cultured at a fluid/air interface on organotypic culture membranes. Explanta...

  5. Toxicity Induced after Subchronic Administration of the Synthetic Food Dye Tartrazine in Adult Rats, Role of Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Narges El Golli; Ines Bini-Dhouib; Aicha Jrad; Imene Boudali; Basma Nasri; Nadia Belhadjhmida; Saloua El Fazaa

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxic potential of tartrazine, a food color, in different tissues in adult rat: blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen. Tartrazine was administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight to adult male Wistar rats during a period of 30 days. Tartrazine treatment led to an increase in platelets count, a reduction in peripheral lymphocytes and in spleen T CD8-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tartrazine increased the activities of hepatocellular enzymes a...

  6. Differentiation of endogenous neural precursors following spinal cord injury in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhao; Hua Han; Shuanke Wang; Bingren Gao; Zhengyi Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that cell death can activate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and promote newly generated cells to migrate to a lesion site.OBJECTIVE:To observe regeneration and differentiation of neural cells following spinal cord injury in adult rats and to quantitatively analyze the newly differentiated cells.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A cell biology experiment was performed at the Institute of Orthopedics and Medical Experimental Center,Lanzhou University.between August 2005 and October 2007.MATERIALS:Fifty adult,Wistar rats of both sexes;5-bromodeoxyuridine(BrdU,Sigma,USA);antibodies against neuron-specific enolase,glial fibrillary acidic protein,and myelin basic protein(Chemicon,USA).METHODS:Twenty-five rats were assigned to the spinal cord injury group and received a spinal cord contusion injury.Materials were obtained at day 1,3,7,15,and 29 after injury,with 5 rats for each time point.Twenty-five rats were sham-treated by removing the lamina of the vertebral arch without performing a contusion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The phenotype of BrdU-labeled cells,i.e.,expression and distribution of surface markers for neurons(neuron-specific enolase),astrocytes(glial fibrillary acidic protein),and oligodendrocytes(myelin basic protein),were identified with immunofluorescence double-labeling.Confocal microscopy was used to detect double-labeled cells by immunofluorescence.Quantitative analysis of newly generated cells was performed with stereological counting methods.RESULTS:There was significant cell production and differentiation after adult rat spinal cord injury.The quantity of newly-generated BrdU-labeled cells in the spinal cord lesion was 75-fold greater than in the corresponding area of control animals.Endogenous neural precursor cells differentiated into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes,however spontaneous neuronal difierentiation was not detected.Between 7 and 29 d after spinal cord injury,newly generated cells expressed increasingly more

  7. Neurones in the adult rat anterior medullary velum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M; Menoud, P A; Celio, M R

    2000-03-27

    The presence of neurones in the rat anterior medullary velum (AMV) has been investigated by using antibodies to the calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), and calbindin-D28k (CB). Disparate populations of mainly GABAergic neurones were located in the rostral and caudal regions of the AMV. The rostral region of the AMV was characterised by GABAergic CR-labelled or PV-labelled neurones. CR-labelled neurones were bipolar or multipolar with round to ovoid somata (diameters between 8 and 12 microm), and rostrocaudally running dendrites forming a network. PV-labelled neurones had round somata (diameters between 6 and 10 microm) and were bi-tufted, with beaded dendrites. Both CR-labelled and PV-labelled dendrites formed punctate pericellular associations with unlabelled somatic profiles. In the caudal region of the AMV, PV-labelled neurones were GABAergic, multipolar cells, having round somata (diameters between 9 and 12 microm), with either beaded or nonbeaded dendrites forming a network of interconnecting dendrites. PV-labelled pericellular associations were made around both PV-labelled and unlabelled somatic profiles. CR labelled unipolar brush cells (UBCs) were not GABAergic. UBCs were characterised by a round to oval somata (10-15 microm in diameter) from which a single primary dendrite emerged to form a distal expansion having small terminal dendrites. From the distal expansion, there also appeared to be CR-labelled processes emanating and extending for up to 250 microm. CB occasionally labelled "Purkinje-like cells" (PLCs). The rat AMV is a more complex structure than first envisaged with the presence of predominantly inhibitory neurones expressing different calcium-binding proteins. Functional and anatomic aspects of this circuitry are further discussed.

  8. Effect of Camphor on Pituitary-Gonadal Hormonal Axis and Oogenesis in Adult Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollah Johari; Amir Ashkan Mahjoor; Siyamak Fallahi; Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Maryam Abedini; Mohammad Ali Poor Danesh; Zahra Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: Camphor stimulates the nervous system and the circulatory system, reduces lactation, and prevents conception and embryo embedding. We investigated the effects of camphor on the pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis and concentration of steroidal hormones.   Materials & Methods: The parameters investigated were concentrations of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Forty adult female rats at a mean weight of 180 ± 20 grams were divided into five groups. Camphor ...

  9. Selection of medium for serum-free primary culture of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki,Masahiro

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available To select a suitable medium for serum-free primary culture of adult rat hepatocytes, ten commercially-available synthetic media were compared for their ability to maintain the cells under serum-free and serum-supplemented conditions with special reference to attachment, survival and albumin secretion. It was found that Williams' medium E and DM-160 medium were the best among the ten media for maintaining hepatocytes under serum-free conditions in primary culture.

  10. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  11. Methylmercury chloride damage to the adult rat hippocampus cannot be detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyan Lu; Jinwei Wu; Guangyuan Cheng; Jianying Tian; Zeqing Lu; Yongyi Bi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that methylmercury can damage hippocampal neurons and accord-ingly cause cognitive dysfunction. However, a non-invasive, safe and accurate detection method for detecting hippocampal injury has yet to be developed. This study aimed to detect methylmer-cury-induced damage on hippocampal tissue using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats were given a subcutaneous injection of 4 and 2 mg/kg methylmercury into the neck for 50 consecutive days. Water maze and pathology tests confirmed that cognitive function had been impaired and that the ultrastructure of hippocampal tissue was altered after injection. The results of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-acetyl aspartate/creatine, choline complex/creatine and myoinositol/creatine ratio in rat hippocampal tissue were unchanged. Therefore, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can not be used to determine structural damage in the adult rat hippocampus caused by methylmercury chloride.

  12. Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Leonardo; Paul, Alex; Laufer, Ed; King, Peter

    2011-04-10

    Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development. The organization of the rat adrenal differs from that of the mouse, with the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata separated by an undifferentiated zone in the rat, but not in the mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the mRNA expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog and the hedgehog signaling pathway components Patched-1 and Gli1 in the developing and adult rat adrenal. Sonic hedgehog expression was detected at the periphery of the cortex in cells lacking CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression, while signal-receiving cells were localized in the overlying capsule mesenchyme. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that the cells expressing Sonic hedgehog lie between the CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 layers, and thus Sonic hedgehog expression defines one cell population of the undifferentiated zone.

  13. Efeito de um programa de treinamento da memória de trabalho em adultos idosos Effect of a working memory training program in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou examinar os efeitos de um Treinamento da Memória de Trabalho (TMT em idosos saudáveis. Vinte participantes compuseram a amostra final, onze do grupo experimental (TMT e nove do controle (socialização. Todos foram submetidos a uma avaliação neuropsicológica pré e pós-intervenção. Os encontros foram realizados uma vez por semana, durante três meses. Houve melhora significativa, no grupo experimental, em atenção concentrada, aprendizagem, memória de curto prazo e episódica, e no grupo controle, em um menor número de variáveis, na atenção concentrada e memória episódica. O TMT parece ter promovido efeito de transferência, principalmente na memória episódica, que é relacionada diretamente aos subsistemas da memória de trabalho (MT, sugerindo que o TMT pode ser útil no contexto da neuropsicologia do envelhecimento.The present study examined the effects of a Working Memory Training (WMT in healthy elderly. Twenty participants comprised the final sample, eleven from the experimental group (WMT and nine from the control group (socialization. Every subject underwent a neuropsychological evaluation pre and post-intervention. The meetings were held once a week, for three months. Results indicated that subjects in the experimental group improved cognitive functions related to concentrated attention, learning, short-term and episodic memory. Subjects in the control group also demonstrated, in a smaller number of variables, improvement in concentrated attention and episodic memory. WMT seems to have generated a transfer effect, especially to episodic memory, which is directly related to the subsystem of working memory (WM, suggesting that WMT may be useful in the context of the neuropsychology of aging.

  14. Low-intensity treadmill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis in adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Jin Kwon; Jeongsook Park; So Yun Park; Kwang Seop Song; Sun Tae Jung; So Bong Jung; Ik Ryeul Park; Wan Sung Choi; Sun Ok Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region responsible for learning and memory functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise and bright light exposure on neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in adult rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, exercise, light, or exercise + light groups (n = 9 per group). The rats in the exercise group were subjected to treadmill exercise (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, over a 4-week period), the light group rats were irradiated (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, 10 000 lx, over a 4-week period), the exercise + light group rats were subjected to treadmill exercise in combination with bright light exposure, and the control group rats remained sedentary over a 4-week period. Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats in the exercise, light, and exercise + light groups. Moreover, the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly higher in the exercise group and light group than that in the control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression between the control group and exercise + light group. These results indicate that low-intensity treadmill exercise (first 5 minutes at a speed of 2 m/min, second 5 minutes at a speed of 5 m/min, and the last 20 minutes at a speed of 8 m/min) or bright-light exposure therapy induces positive biochemical changes in the brain. In view of these findings, we propose that moderate exercise or exposure to sunlight during childhood can be beneficial for neural development.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bones in adult rats by repeated intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel (taxol) using radioisotope EDXRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Y. E-mail: yozdemir25@yahoo.com; Iyiguen, Ibrahim; Durak, Ridvan

    2003-05-15

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of right back leg bone samples taken from adult female rats administered paclitaxel (taxol) was carried out using standard addition method. Because qualitative and quantitative data analysis of rat bone samples is not found in the literature, comparison was not made with other experimental results. Our experimental results are presented and discussed in this study.

  16. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats : walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, [No Value; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the scia

  17. A method for unit recording in the lumbar spinal cord during locomotion of the conscious adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rune W; Chen, Ming-Teh; Huang, Hsueh-Chen;

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular recordings from single units in the brain, for example the neocortex, have proven feasible in moving, awake rats, but have not yet been possible in the spinal cord. Single-unit activity during locomotor-like activity in reduced preparations from adult cats and rats have provided...

  18. Behavioral Differences Between Late Preweanling and Adult Female Sprague-Dawley Rat Exploration of Animate and Inanimate Stimuli and Food

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2010-01-01

    The late preweanling rat has potential as a preclinical model for disorders initially manifested in early childhood that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism). No reports, however, of specific-stimulus exploration in the late preweanling rat are found in the literature. We examined the behavioral responses of normal late preweanling (PND 18-19) and adult rats when presented with exemplars of categorically-varied ...

  19. Cardiac and plasma lipid profiles in response to acute hypoxia in neonatal and young adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raff Hershel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological and biochemical responses to acute hypoxia have not been fully characterized in neonates. Fatty acids and lipids play an important role in most aspects of cardiac function. Methods We performed comprehensive lipid profiling analysis to survey the changes that occur in heart tissue and plasma of neonatal and young adult rats exposed to hypoxia for 2 h, and following 2 h of recovery from hypoxia. Results Cardiac and plasma concentrations of short-chain acylcarnitines, and most plasma long-chain fatty acids, were decreased in hypoxic neonates. Following recovery from hypoxia, concentrations of propionylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine were increased in neonatal hearts, while oleylcarnitine and linoleylcarnitine concentrations were increased in neonatal plasma. The concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain acylcarnitines were increased in the hearts and plasma of hypoxic young adult rats; these metabolites returned to baseline values following recovery from hypoxia. Conclusion There are differential effects of acute hypoxia on cardiac and plasma lipid profiles with maturation from the neonate to the young adult rat. Changes to neonatal cardiac and plasma lipid profiles during hypoxia likely allowed for greater metabolic and physiologic flexibility and increased chances for survival. Persistent alterations in the neonatal cardiac lipid profile following recovery from hypoxia may play a role in the development of rhythm disturbances.

  20. Effects of estradiol and methoxychlor on Leydig cell regeneration in the adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingbing; Chen, Dongxin; Jiang, Zheli; Li, Jingyang; Liu, Shiwen; Dong, Yaoyao; Yao, Wenwen; Akingbemi, Benson; Ge, Renshan; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-05-06

    The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC) exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2). Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control), 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7-15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms.

  1. Effects of Estradiol and Methoxychlor on Leydig Cell Regeneration in the Adult Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2. Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control, 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7–15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms.

  2. Imipramine reverses alterations in cytokines and BDNF levels induced by maternal deprivation in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Ribeiro, Karine F; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Vuolo, Francieli; Colpo, Gabriela D; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flávio; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing toward an association between immune molecules, as well brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the depression. The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of the antidepressant imipramine in maternally deprived adult rats. To this aim, maternally deprived and non-deprived (control group) male rats were treated with imipramine (30mg/kg) once a day for 14 days during their adult phase. Their behavior was then assessed using the forced swimming test. In addition to this, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines were assessed in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In addition, BDNF protein levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In deprived rats treated with saline was observed an increase on immobility time, compared with non-deprived rats treated with imipramine (pimipramine treatment reversed the effects of maternal deprivation on BDNF and cytokines levels (pimipramine, it is suggested that classic antidepressants could exert their effects by modulating the immune system.

  3. Repeated-dose liver micronucleus test of 4,4'-methylenedianiline using young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Hisakazu; Koyama, Naomi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-03-01

    Liver micronucleus (MN) tests using partial hepatectomized rats or juvenile rats have been shown to be useful for the detection of hepatic carcinogens. Moreover, Narumi et al. established the repeated-dose liver MN test using young adult rats for integration into general toxicity. In the present study, in order to examine the usefulness of the repeated-dose liver MN test, we investigated MN induction with a 14 or 28 day treatment protocol using young adult rats treated with 4,4′-methylenedianiline (MDA), a known hepatic carcinogen. MDA dose-dependently induced micronuclei in hepatocytes in 14- and 28-day repeated-dose tests. However, although statistically significant increases in micronuclei were observed in bone marrow cells at two dose levels in the 14-day study, there was no dose response and no increases in micronuclei in the 28-day study. These results indicate that the evaluation of genotoxic effects using hepatocytes is effective in cases where chromosomal aberrations are not clearly detectable in bone marrow cells. Moreover, the repeated-dose liver MN test allows evaluation at a dose below the maximum tolerable dose, which is required for the conventional MN test because micronucleated hepatocytes accumulate. The repeated-dose liver MN test employed in the present study can be integrated into the spectrum of general toxicity tests without further procedural modifications.

  4. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  5. Basic fibroblast growth factor protects against excitotoxicity and chemical hypoxia in both neonatal and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, P B; Henshaw, R; Weise, J; Trubetskoy, V; Finklestein, S; Schulz, J B; Beal, M F

    1995-07-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a polypeptide growth factor that promotes neuronal survival. We recently found that systemic administration of bFGF protects against both excitotoxicity and hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal animals. In the present study, we examined whether systemically administered bFGF could prevent neuronal death induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or chemical hypoxia induced by intrastriatal injection of malonate in adult rats and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in neonatal rats. Systemic administration of bFGF (100 micrograms/kg) for three doses both before and after intrastriatal injection of either NMDA or malonate in adult rats produced a significant neuroprotective effect. In neonatal rats, bFGF produced dose-dependent significant neuroprotective effects against MPP+ neurotoxicity, with a maximal protection of approximately 50% seen with either a single dose of bFGF of 300 micrograms/kg or three doses of 100 micrograms/kg. These results show that systemic administration of bFGF is effective in preventing neuronal injury under circumstances in which the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, raising the possibility that this strategy could be effective in stroke.

  6. Wound healing under the effect of iodine cadexomer in rats Cicatrização de feridas sob efeito do cadexômero iodo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Verônica Brustolin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess vthe action of iodine cadexomer in the healing process of surgical wounds in rats and if cytotoxicity occurs with the systemic absorption of iodine. METHODS: Thirty six Wistar rats were used and performed 53 wounds with surgical punch of 6 mm diameter on them. Two lesions were made diametrically opposed on groups with distilled water (GAD and sodium chloride (GCS; on the right lesions were used bandage with distilled water and on the left ones dressing with sodium chloride. In cadexomer iodine (GCI group, a punch injury was made only on the left side and the dressing was carried out with cadexomer iodine. The groups were divided in two sub-groups according to the day of death (7 and 14. Microscopically was used H&E staining, through which the inflammation could be observed and also the neovascularization. Staining with Masson trichrome studied fibrosis. TSH and free T4 were used for absorption recognition of iodine, and its toxic potential was performed before death with the animal anesthetized. RESULTS: Microscopic analysis showed more marked intensity of inflammation in group GAD, subgroup 14 days. Neovascularization showed be discrete in GCS sub-group 14 days. Fibrosis was more pronounced in the group GCI. Comparing the types of treatment, there was statistical significance between groups GCI and GCS (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação do cadexômero iodo na cicatrização de feridas cirúrgicas em ratos e se ocorre citotoxicidade com a absorção sistêmica do iodo. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 36 ratos Wistar nos quais realizaram-se 53 feridas cirúrgicas com punch de 6 mm de diâmetro. Foram confeccionados duas lesões diametralmente opostas nos animais dos grupos água destilada (GAD e cloreto de sódio (GCS. Na lesão do lado direito foi utilizado curativo com água destilada e, na do esquerdo, curativo com cloreto de sódio. No grupo cadexômero iodo (GCI, foi feita apenas uma lesão com o punch no lado esquerdo e o curativo foi

  7. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers′ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  8. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers’ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  9. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12 e normotensos (n=12 com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica diária, durante 14 dias para cada dose, intercaladas por um período de wash-out de 7 dias; os grupos controle receberam apenas o veículo (óleo de coco. Foram ainda submetidos à avaliação ectoscópica para possível detecção de efeitos tóxicos ou interação entre nutrientes, e à análise dos parâmetros biológicos; a pressão sistólica foi aferida por pletismografia duas vezes na semana, em dias alternados. Após o período de suplementação os animais foram sacrificados, e tiveram o peso do fígado determinado pelo método de Scherle. RESULTADOS: A administração de beta-caroteno não levou a alterações dos parâmetros biológicos dos animais, assim como não foi detectado efeito tóxico. Quanto à pressão arterial sistólica, as duas linhagens apresentaram redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate if supplementation with supraphysiological doses of beta-carotene has a positive effect on controlling hypertension and detect possible adverse effects of this supplementation. METHODS: 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=12 and normotensive rats (n=12 were submitted to a basal period of 10 days, then divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and supplemented daily by orogastric gavage with beta-carotene in 3 different doses: 2.5mg, 3.75mg and 5.0mg/animal during 14 days for each dose that was inserted by a seven day wash-out period; control groups received only coconut oil. Animals were submitted to ectoscopic evaluation to

  10. Efeitos dos exercícios físicos sobre o edema inflamatório agudo em ratos Wistar Effects of physical exercise on the acute inflammatory edema in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir da Costa Lana

    2008-02-01

    , as those related to the specific and non-specific immune function, stressing the inflammatory process in the latter. However, depending on their type, intensity, frequency and duration, exercises can also cause certain harm to the organism. Actually, previous research has demonstrated that the hypernociception of inflammatory origin in rats was influenced by the physical exercises protocol performed on treadmill. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the effects of high and low intensity physical exercises on acute inflammatory response. Therefore, male adult Wistar rats were submitted (trained group or not (untrained group to physical exercises on a treadmill. Acute inflammation was induced by a 0.5% carrageenin injection into the plantar tissue of the left hind paw of each rat and the acute inflammatory edema volume was measured by plethysmography before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours of the inflammatory process induction. The statistical analysis of the results showed a significant increase in the edema volume in times H1, H2 and H3 (P0.05 in animals of the high intensity group compared with the non-trained group. Therefore, it was concluded that low-intensity physical exercises on treadmill increased the acute inflammatory edema volume in rats, probably due to the increase in the synthesis and secretion of prostaglandins and/or increase in the plasmatic levels of cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alfa among other factors. This fact has not been observed in animals submitted to high intensity exercises, which demonstrates the influence of intensity, frequency and duration of the exercises on this inflammatory parameter.

  11. Caffeine in the neonatal period induces long-lasting changes in sleep and breathing in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, Gaspard; Horner, Richard L; Kinkead, Richard; Bairam, Aida

    2009-11-15

    Caffeine is commonly used clinically to treat apnoeas and unstable breathing associated with premature birth. Caffeine antagonizes adenosine receptors and acts as an efficient respiratory stimulant in neonates. Owing to its persistent effects on adenosine receptor expression in the brain, neonatal caffeine administration also has significant effects on maturation of the respiratory control system. However, since adenosine receptors are critically involved in sleep regulation, and sleep also modulates breathing, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal caffeine treatment disrupts regulation of sleep and breathing in the adult rat. Neonatal caffeine treatment (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was administered from postnatal days 3-12. At adulthood (8-10 weeks old), sleep and breathing were measured with a telemetry system and whole-body plethysmography respectively. In adult rats treated with caffeine during the neonatal period, sleep time was reduced, sleep onset latency was increased, and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep was fragmented compared to controls. Ventilation at rest was higher in caffeine-treated adult rats compared to controls across sleep/wake states. Hypercapnic ventilatory responses were significantly reduced in caffeine-treated rats compared to control rats across sleep/wake states. Additional experiments in adult anaesthetized rats showed that at similar levels of arterial blood gases, phrenic nerve activity was enhanced in caffeine-treated rats. This study demonstrates that administration of caffeine in the neonatal period alters respiratory control system activity in awake and sleeping rats, as well as in the anaesthetized rats, and also has persistent disrupting effects on sleep that are apparent in adult rats.

  12. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura; Nelson Sass; Sérgio Botelho Guimarães; Paulo Roberto Leitão de Vasconcelos; Rosiane Mattar; Luis Kulay Jr.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1). Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0). Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1). SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10): Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine...

  13. Adolescent TBI-induced hypopituitarism causes sexual dysfunction in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2015-02-01

    Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults.

  14. The time course of denervation-induced changes is similar in soleus muscles of adult and old rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Kosar, S.N.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Haan, A. de

    2008-01-01

    Muscle denervation is accompanied by atrophy and a decline in oxidative capacity. We investigated whether the time course of adaptations following denervation of the soleus muscle differs in adult (5 months old) and older adult (25 months old) rats. We denervated the soleus muscle of the left leg, w

  15. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  16. ZP2307, a novel cyclic PTH(1-17) analog, reversed established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vääräniemi, Jukka; Morko, Jukka; Peng, ZhiQi

    -17) analog, ZP2307, with a high efficacy and potency on the human PTH receptor in vitro. This study characterized the effects of intermittent treatment with ZP2307 on established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized at 6 months of age. After 6 weeks......-34). This study demonstrated that the intermittent treatment with ZP2307, the novel cyclic PTH(1-17) analog, is effective in reversing the established osteopenia in adult OVX rats to normal conditions. Due to its broad dose response relationship, ZP2307 may have a wider therapeutic window and a better safety...

  17. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on peripheral nerve regeneration in adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhe-yu; LI Jian-hong; ZHENG Xing-dong; LU Chang-lin; HE Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic (GDNF) on adult peripheral nerve regeneration. Methods: Transectioned sciatic nerve in adult rats was sutured into silicone channel. GDNF or SAL solution was injected into the silicone channels during operation. Four weeks later, the effect of GDNF on axonal regeneration was evaluated by degenerative neurofiber staining and HRP retrograde tracing. Results: Compared with SAL group, the percentage of degenerative neurofiber areas decreased from 17.3% to 1.9% ( P<0.01 ) and the ratio of labeled spinal somas number was significantly increased from 43.5% to 68.3% ( P<0.01 ) in GDNF group. Conclusion: The results suggest that exogenous GDNF can obviously enhance adult peripheral nerve regeneration.

  18. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  19. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain...... days after irradiation, the animals with blocked neurogenesis performed poorer than controls in a hippocampus-dependent place-recognition task, indicating that the presence of newly generated neurons may be necessary for the normal function of this brain area. The animals were never impaired...... irradiation blocked the formation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. At different time points after the termination of the irradiation procedure, the animals were tested in two tests of short-term memory that differ with respect to their dependence on hippocampal function. Eight and 21...

  20. Effect of maternal obesity on diabetes development in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Pimenta, Walkyria de Paula; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2007-10-27

    This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal obesity leads to the onset of diabetes in adult Wistar rats offspring. MSG solution neonatally administration induced obesity in rats (F(1)MSG group, n=30); and saline solution was also administrated to control rats (F(1)CON group, n=13). In 3rd month of age, both control and MSG groups were mated for offspring (generation F(2)), named as F(2)CON, n=28 and F(2)MSG groups, n=15; and so both generations were studied until 7th month of life. Lee Index was measured for experimental obesity validation from 5th to 7th month. Glycemia was weekly determined during pregnancy and monthly from 3rd to 7th month. In the end of experimental period all rats were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with estimation of total area under the curve (AUC); and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Rats were then anesthetized and killed. Data were statistically analyzed with significance level of pgenerations showed significant maternal interference in control and MSG groups. OGTT analysis showed higher glycemia in obese rats (F(1)MSG) and their offspring (F(2)MSG) as compared to their respective controls; and MSG groups increased AUC from OGTT. As regards ITT, F(2)MSG showed higher glycemia at 30 and 120 min, suggesting a delay of insulin action decreasing. Although glucose intolerance and insulin resistance clinical conditions represent as a factors for type 2 Diabetes mellitus development, this experimental model proposal was not efficient to induce type 2 Diabetes mellitus, but for obesity developing, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in successive generations of rats.

  1. Alterations in cytochrome P-450 levels in adult rats following neonatal exposure to xenobiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangar, R.C. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States) Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)); Springer, D.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)); Buhler, D.R. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to certain xenobiotics has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism in adult rats in a manner that indicates long-term changes in enzyme regulation. Previously, the authors have observed changes in adult testosterone metabolism and in cytochrome P-450 (P-450) mRNA levels in animals neonatally exposed to phenobarbital (PB) or diethylstilbestrol (DES). In order to test for other enzyme alterations, they used Western blot procedures for specific P-450s to analyze hepatic microsomes from adult rats (24 wk old) that had been exposed neonatally to DES, PB, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), or pregnenolone 16[alpha]-carbonitrile (PCN). The most striking effects were observed in the DES-treated males: P-4502C6 and an immunologically similar protein were increased 60 and 90%, respectively, relative to control values, but P-4503A2 was decreased by 44%. No changes were observed in the DES-treated males in levels of P-4502E1, P-4502B, or the male-specific P-4502C13. Adult males neonatally treated with PB had 150% increase in levels of anti-P4502B-reactive protein without significant changes in the other enzymes. The DES- and DMBA-treated females had increased levels of the female-specific P-4502C12 of 38 and 48%, respectively, but no other observed alterations. The results confirm that neonatal exposure to DES or PB can cause alterations in adult hepatic cytochrome P-450 levels but show that these chemicals act on different enzymes. Neonatal DMBA resulted in changes in adult females similar to those produced by the synthetic estrogen DES, but did so at about two-thirds lower dose. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Environmental enrichment potentiates thalamocortical transmission and plasticity in the adult rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Marco; Landi, Silvia; Gianfranceschi, Laura; Baldini, Sara; De Pasquale, Roberto; Berardi, Nicoletta; Maffei, Lamberto; Caleo, Matteo

    2010-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the complex sensorimotor and social stimulation achieved by rearing animals in an enriched environment (EE) can reinstate juvenile-like plasticity in the adult cortex. However, it is not known whether EE can affect thalamocortical transmission. Here, we recorded in vivo field potentials from the visual cortex evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in anesthetized rats. We found that a period of EE during adulthood shifted the input-output curves and increased paired-pulse depression, suggesting an enhanced synaptic strength at thalamocortical terminals. Accordingly, EE animals showed an increased expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT-2) in geniculocortical afferents to layer IV. Rats reared in EE also showed an enhancement of thalamocortical long-term potentiation (LTP) triggered by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) of the dLGN. To monitor the functional consequences of increased LTP in EE rats, we recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) before and after application of TBS to the geniculocortical pathway. We found that responses to visual stimulation were enhanced across a range of contrasts in EE animals. This was accompanied by an up-regulation of the intracortical excitatory synaptic marker vGluT-1 and a decrease in the expression of the vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT), indicating a shift in the excitation/inhibition ratio. Thus, in the adult rat, EE enhances synaptic strength and plasticity of the thalamocortical pathway associated with specific changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. These data provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which EE shapes the adult brain.

  3. Distinct Testicular Steroidogenic Response Mechanisms Between Neonatal and Adult Heat-Acclimated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kurowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In comparison to short-term gonad heat exposure, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate testicular steroidogenesis during long-term whole body heat acclimation. Material and Methods: Testicular slices from neonatal (NHA and adult (AHA heat-acclimated Wistar rats were analysed in vitro to assess the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of steroidogenic enzymes under basal and luteinising hormone (LH or prolactin (PRL stimulated conditions compared with control rats (CR. Furthermore, a de-acclimated group (DA was created by transferring adult NHA rats to control conditions. Results: Heat acclimation significantly increased plasma LH levels in the AHA group and LH and PRL in the NHA group compared with the CR group; however, after heat acclimation, the T and E2 levels did not differ from the control levels. All heat-acclimated groups showed high basal intra-testicular steroid production in vitro. Moreover, basal Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 levels were upregulated in vitro in the NHA and DA groups versus the CR group. LH in vitro stimulation upregulated Cyp11a1 expression in the NHA and AHA groups and PRL stimulation upregulated Cyp17a1 levels in the NHA and DA groups compared with the basal expression levels. In the AHA group, decreased basal Star and CYP11A activities but increased HSD3B1 and CYP17A1 activities were found. Conclusion: Our data revealed that despite the similar steroid levels in plasma and secreted in vitro by neonatal and adult heat-acclimated rat testicular slices, the molecular mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic response to heat acclimation during these different developmental stages were distinct.

  4. Efeito do choque hipovolêmico na anastomose do intestino delgado de ratos Effect of hypovolemic shock in anastomose of small intestine of rats

    OpenAIRE

    BRITO, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Koh, Ivan Hong Jun [UNIFESP; Lamarão,Luciana Garcia; Damous, Sérgio Henrique Bastos

    2001-01-01

    Racional — O choque hipovolêmico está incluído entre os fatores de risco para anastomoses intestinais, entretanto, sua ação sobre anastomoses do intestino delgado tem sido pouco estudada e, quando abordado, é avaliado como parâmetro de comparação com a cicatrização de cólons e não como alvo central das investigações. Objetivo - Estudar o efeito do choque hipovolêmico na anastomose do intestino delgado de ratos. Método - Foram utilizados 90 ratos machos adultos, distribuídos em cinco grup...

  5. Impact of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral content in young and adult rats: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mahmoud M; Selima, Eman A; Salama, Mona A

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral homeostasis in rapidly growing young rats in comparison to effects in adult male rats. Two doses of nicotine (3 and 4.5mg/kg/day, as nicotine hydrogen tartrate) were used and rat treatment was continued for 6 months. In this study, all nicotine-treated rats weighed less than control rats and the effect was dose-dependent. Also, rats treated with nicotine had lower femoral wet weight and showed a significant reduction in femoral mid-shaft cortical width and femoral and lumbar vertebral ash weights. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of ash calcium and phosphorus contents of the femora and lumbar vertebrae. The bone mineral-lowering effects of nicotine were more severe in the lumbar vertebral spongy bone than in the femoral compact bone and these changes were more marked in adult rats than in young rats. An additional interesting observation was that the femora of young rats treated with nicotine were significantly shorter than those of control young rats. Also, the values of the femoral ash weight per unit length were significantly decreased in nicotine-treated adult rats but not in nicotine-treated young rats. Thus, these results show that nicotine-induced changes in bone vary with age. The clinical relevance of this study is that it may provide justification to insist that all people in general and the risky young group in particular should be warned against the hazards of the negative effects of nicotine on bone.

  6. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  7. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

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    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  8. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  9. Cultured human embryonic neocortical cells survive and grow in infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and interconnect with host brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jin-sheng; YU Jian; CUI Chun-mei; ZHAO Zhan; HONG Hua; SHENG Wen-li; TAO Yu-qian; LI Ling; HUANG Ru-xun

    2005-01-01

    Background There are no reports on exnografting cultured human fetal neocortical cells in this infracted cavities of adult rat brains. This study was undertaken to observe whether cultured human cortical neurons and astrocytes can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and whether they interconnect with host brains.Methods The right middle cerebral artery was ligated distal to the striatal branches in 16 adult stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. One week later, cultured cells from human embryonic cerebral cortexes were stereotaxically transferred to the infarcted cavity of 11 rats. The other 5 rats receiving sham transplants served as controls. For immunosuppression, all transplanted rats received intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A daily starting on the day of grafting. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin, neurofilament, and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) was performed on brain sections perfused in situ 8 weeks after transplantation.Results Grafts in the infarcted cavities of 6 of 10 surviving rats consisted of bands of neurons with an immature appearance, bundles of fibers, and GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes, which were unevenly distributed. The grafts were rich in synaptophysin, neurofilament, and MAP2-positive neurons with long processes. The graft/host border was diffuse with dendrites apparently bridging over to the host brain, into which neurofilament immunopositive fibers protruded. Conclusion Cultured human fetal brain cells can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of immunodepressed rats and integrate with the host brain.

  10. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

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    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  11. Antidepressant behavioral effects of duloxetine and fluoxetine in the rat forced swimming test Efeitos antidepressivos da duloxetina e da fluoxetina no teste do nado forçado em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ciulla

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the antidepressant drugs duloxetine and fluoxetine on depressive behaviors in rodents. METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats were given systemic injections of duloxetine, fluoxetine, or saline prior to a Forced Swimming Test (FST. Immobility and number of stops were measured. RESULTS: Rats given injections of fluoxetine displayed significantly less immobility (p = 0.02 and fewer stops than the control group (p = 0.003. Duloxetine significanlty reduced the number of stops (p = 0.003, but did not effect immobility (p = 0.48. CONCLUSION: Duloxetine and fluoxetine reduced depressive behaviors in the Forced FST. However, our findings suggest that fluoxetine is more effective than duloxetine.OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito antidepressivo da droga cloridrato de duloxetina com a fluoxetina. MÉTODOS: O teste do nado forçado, teste comportamental que avalia a atividade antidepressiva em ratos, foi utilizado em 18 ratos Wistar, machos adultos, divididos em três grupos iguais: duloxetina, fluoxetina e controle. RESULTADOS: Os dados do teste do nado forçado foram analisados pelo teste One-way ANOVA, Mann Whitney e Kruskall-Wallis.Houve diferença significativa (p = 0,003 entre o número de paradas dos grupos duloxetina e fluoxetina e o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A duloxetina e a fluoxetina tiveram frequência de paradas similares. A fluoxetina mostrou ser mais efetiva que a duloxetina no teste do nado forçado em ratos.

  12. Application of Luxol Fast Blue staining in locating the corticospinal tract in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Guangyu Shen; Guangming Lü; Xiaosong Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for myelin staining,mordant,or the special reaction of osmic acid with lipoid is used according to different principles.The commonly used methods are classic Well staining ,classic lithium carbonate-haematine staining,fast green staining,silver staining ,etc.Luxol Fast Blue can brightly stain myelin sheath,and has certain specificity .The background can be very clean if there is proper differentiation,whereas Luxol Fast Blue is cheap and convenient to operate,thus it is an ideal staining reagent for routine myelin sheath.OBJECTIVE: To show the coricospinal tract of normal adult rats with Luxol Fast Blue shaining method.DESIGN:A repetitive measurement design.SETTINGS: Institute of Nuerobiology,Nantong University;Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University.MATERIALS: Six healthy adult male SD rats of clean dergree,weighing averagely 300 g.were provided by the experimental animal center of Nantong University.1 g/L Luxol Fast Blue solution was provided by Sigma Company;Leica CM1900 cryostat microtome by Leica Company;Leica DMR microscope by Leica Company.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Staff Room of Human Anatomy,Nantong University in May 2005.The rats were given intraperitoneal injection of combined anesthetic(2 mL/kg),then the chest was open for perfusing saline and phosphate buffer containing formamint via heart. Brain and spinal cord were removed after 1 hour then fixed,then changed to phosphate buffer(pH 7.4)containing 300 g/L saccharu at 4 ℃.and stayed overnight,tissue blocks at pyramid,decussation of pyramid and cervical,thoracic,lumbar and sacral segments of spinal cord were removed to prepare continuous horizontal frozen sections(30 μm) after sedimentation,the sections were dried at room temperature.The corticospinal tract of normal adult rats were shown with Luxol Fast Blue staining method,and observed under Leica DMR microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Positive fibers in

  13. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, Arash, E-mail: arashkheradmand@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dezfoulian, Omid [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alirezaei, Masoud [Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulian, Bahram [Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P < 0.01) in the ghrelin-treated group on day 10, while despite of 30% increment in the Bax level of spermatocytes in the treated rats on day 30, however, it was not statistically significant. During the experimental period, only a few spermatogonia represented Bax expression and the changes of Bax immunolabling cells were negligible upon ghrelin treatment. Likewise, there were immunostaining cells against Bcl-2 in each germ cell neither in the control nor in the treated animals. In fact

  14. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats.

  15. Effect of pinealectomy, adrenalectomy, pinealectomy plus adrenalectomy upon the quantification of spermatogenic cells of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro A.C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of pinealectomy, adrenalectomy and pinealectomy-adrenalectomy upon the quantification of spermatogenic cells of rats. As such, 32 adult Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 331.7± 15.5g were assigned into one of the following treatments: (a a sham-operated control group, consisting of nine animals; (b ten pinealectomized animals; (c seven adrenalectomized animals and (d six pinealectomized plus adrenalectomized animals. No significant differences were observed between groups for the following parameters: body, testes, prostate and seminal vesicle weights, seminiferous tubular diameter, number of cells per seminiferous tubular cross sections (primary spermatocytes at pachytene, round spermatids, Sertoli cells and numbers of germ cells per Sertoli cell (primary spermatocytes at pachytene and round spermatids . Although no increase in testicular weight was observed following pinealectomy, a significant (P<0.05 increase of approximately 11.5% in the number of round spermatids per Sertoli cell (Sertoli cell ratio occurred thus suggesting that short-term pinealectomy abolishes the antigonadal effect of the pineal gland upon adult Wistar rat testes.

  16. Variability in the distribution of callosal projection neurons in the adult rat parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, G O; Gould, H J; Killackey, H P

    1984-07-23

    Previous reports have shown that the barrel field area of the parietal cortex of the adult rat contains relatively few callosal projection neurons, even though callosal projection neurons are abundant in this cortical region in the neonatal rat. Furthermore, it has been shown that many of the callosal neurons which seem to disappear as the animal matures do not die, but project to ipsilateral cortical areas. These findings rely on the ability of retrograde transport techniques which utilize injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or of fluorescent dyes into one hemisphere. We now show that several technical modifications of the HRP technique yield a wider distribution of HRP-containing neurons in the contralateral barrel field area of the adult rat than previously reported. These include implants of HRP pellets into transected axons of the corpus callosum, the addition of DMSO and nonidet P40 to Sigma VI HRP, wheat germ agglutinin HRP and the use of tetramethyl benzidine as the chromogen in the reaction procedure. Our findings have implications for transport studies in general and for the development of the cortical barrel field in particular.

  17. Effects of moderate zinc deficiency on cognitive performance in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, T F; Mohs, M; Fosmire, G

    1982-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to establish a dietary zinc level which approximates a moderate deficiency in the young adult rat and to determine if a concurrent zinc deficiency affects cognitive performance. Male rats were fed varying levels of zinc in diet throughout a 17-day period. The lowest dietary level that depressed serum and bone zinc without influencing food consumption or body weight gains was observed to be 5.8 microgram Zn/g diet. Young adult rats maintained on either a zinc adequate (24.4 microgram Zn/g) or low-zinc (5.3 microgram Zn/g) diet were tested in a modified Skinner Box involving tests of visual, auditory, association, and discrimination learning. No differences were observed in the visual discrimination performance of the zinc deficient animals when compared with control counterparts. Deficits in the ability to transfer a learned association between visual and auditory stimuli were observed, however, in the deficient group during the transfer test phase. The latter performed better during the final auditory discrimination task in transferring a learned food-relevant cue.

  18. The effects of swimming exercise on recognition memory for objects and conditioned fear in rats = Os efeitos do exercício de natação sobre a memória para reconhecimento de objetos e de medo condicionados em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted in animals have repeatedly demonstrated the ability of exercise to enhance cognitive function. This study examines the effects of chronic swimming exercise on non-spatial memory in adult rats after 12 weeks of swimming exercise in object recognition and elevated T-maze tests. In the object recognition test, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a group effect (F1,42 = 26,093; p As experiências realizadas em animais mostram a capacidade do exercício em melhorar as funções cognitivas. Este estudo analisa os efeitos do exercício crônico de natação sobre a memória não-espacial em ratos adultos após 12 semanas de exercício de natação nos testes de reconhecimento de objetos e labirinto em T elevado. O teste de reconhecimento de objetos, pelas repetidas análises de variância revelaram um efeito de grupo (F1,42 = 26.093; p < 0,001, os ratos controles discriminaram uma razão inferior ao do grupo de exercício. Entretanto, o exercício de natação não afetou o desempenho de esquiva inibitória e escape, quando a memória foi testada no labirinto em T elevado. Análise de variância mostrou redução significativa na esquiva inibitória 24h após o primeiro treino (F1,42 = 14.552; p < 0,001. Os resultados indicam que o exercício regular de natação aumenta significativamente a memória não-espacial no comportamento de reconhecimento de objetos, mas não afeta o medo condicionado no teste do labirinto em T elevado em ratos adultos. Estes resultados sugerem que o córtex peririnal desempenha papel nos processos de consolidação e armazenamento de memória além da amígdala, podendo esta ser encarada como um segundo centro de sistema de memória, separada dos regidos pelo córtex peririnal.

  19. Early life stress enhancement of limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats: mechanistic insights.

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    Gaurav Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2-14 to either maternal separation stress (MS or control brief early handling (EH, underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU. Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts and dentate gyrus (DG (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting. As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05, with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p = 0.002. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life

  20. Impaired contextual fear extinction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Wei; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Ding, Ze-Yang; Jing, Liang; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1.2 mA rather than 0.8 mA). Meanwhile, we also found that PM rats exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear, which is associated with enhanced maintenance of fear memory. The impaired extinction lasted for 1 week following extinction training. Furthermore, PM rats exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark box test without differences in locomotor activity. These alterations in PM rats were mirrored by abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus in vivo. PS rats showed blocked long-term potentiation and enabled long-term depression in CA1 synapses following contextual fear conditioning, while prenatal morphine exposure restricted synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses. The smaller long-term potentiation in PM rats was not further blocked by contextual fear conditioning, and the long-term depression enabled by contextual fear conditioning was abolished. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that prenatal morphine exposure may increase vulnerability to fear memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood.

  1. Protective effects of vitamin E and selenium on spermatogenesis in adult male rat insulin-resistant

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    Alireza Zakerabasali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease and is a multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion and insulin factional or both. In this study, the protective role of vitamin E and sodium selenite in preventing the harmful effects of insulin resistance (diabetes type 2 on spermatogenesis was studied.   Materials & Methods: Male adults (180-200 g of Wistar rats were divided into five groups, each containing 7 rats (control, sham, and three experimental groups. The rats were fed daily with water-soluble fructose (10%, mg/kg 200 of vitamin E (gavage, and 5/0 mg/kg of sodium selenite (intraperitoneal injection or both for 110 days. Subsequently, sperm parameters, levels of testosterone, LH, and daily sperm production (DSP were checked. Additionally, testicular histopathology and malondialdehyde (MDA in the testis were examined.   Results: Sperm count, sperm motility and viability, and insulin resistance in the rats decreased DSP. A significant decrease was observed in the number of Leydig cells, spermatogonia, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa in the testis of the insulin-resistant animals, whereas MDA and testosterone rose in the insulin-resistant rats. Vitamin E and sodium selenite intake reduced the levels of MDA and harmful effects of fructose on testicles, as well as sperm parameters and testicular pathology. A simultaneous intake of vitamin E and sodium selenite conferred the highest level of protection.   Conclusion: These findings suggest that vitamin E and sodium selenite can have a protective role in the testes of rats against oxidative stress induced by diabetes type 2.

  2. Moderate and severe perinatal asphyxia induces differential effects on cocaine sensitization in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Suárez, Juan; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Bisagno, Verónica; Santín, Luis Javier; De Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Capani, Francisco; Blanco, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) increases the likelihood of suffering from dopamine-related disorders, such as ADHD and schizophrenia. Since dopaminergic transmission plays a major role in cocaine sensitization, the purpose of this study was to determine whether PA could be associated with altered behavioral sensitization to cocaine. To this end, adult rats born vaginally (CTL), by caesarean section (C+), or by C+ with 15 min (PA15, moderate PA) or 19 min (PA19, severe PA) of global anoxia were repeatedly administered with cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg) and then challenged with cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg) after a 5-day withdrawal period. In addition, c-Fos, FosB/ΔFosB, DAT, and TH expression were assessed in dorsal (CPu) and ventral (NAcc) striatum. Results indicated that PA15 rats exhibited an increased locomotor sensitization to cocaine, while PA19 rats displayed an abnormal acquisition of locomotor sensitization and did not express a sensitized response to cocaine. c-Fos expression in NAcc, but not in CPu, was associated with these alterations in cocaine sensitization. FosB/ΔFosB expression was increased in all groups and regions after repeated cocaine administration, although it reached lower expression levels in PA19 rats. In CTL, C+, and PA15, but not in PA19 rats, the expression of TH in NAcc was reduced in groups repeatedly treated with cocaine, independently of the challenge test. Furthermore, this reduction was more pronounced in PA15 rats. DAT expression remained unaltered in all groups and regions studied. These results suggest that moderate PA may increase the vulnerability to drug abuse and in particular to cocaine addiction.

  3. Ependymal cell proliferation and apoptosis following acute spinal cord injury in the adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wang; Jun Qian; Yanchao Ma; Guoxin Nan; Shuanke Wang; Yayi Xia; Youcheng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that spinal cord injury can induce the reactive proliferation of ependymal cells and secondarily cause the apoptosis of nerve cells. However, there is no generally accepted theory on the apoptotic characteristics of ependymal cells in the injured spinal cord.OBJECTIVE: To observe the reactive proliferation and apoptosis of ependymal cells in adult rats following acute spinal cord injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized control study based on neuropathology was performed in the Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between 2005 and 2007.MATERIALS: Forty healthy, adult, Wistar rats were included in the present study.METHODS: Moderate spinal cord injury was established in twenty rats using Feeney's method, while the remaining 20 rats served as controls and were only treated with laminectomy. All rats were injected intraperitoneally with 1.25 mL of BrdU solution (10 mg BrdU/mL saline) 3 times at 4 hours intervals during the 12 hours prior to sacrifice.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ependymal cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat spinal cord were determined by BrdU and nestin immunofluorescence double-labeling, as well as the TUNEL method, at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after operation.RESULTS: In the moderate spinal cord injury rats, nestin expression was observed in the cytoplasm of ependymal cells. One day immediately following surgery, ependymal cells were BrdU-labeled. The number of BrdU-positive cells increased at 3 days, reached a peak at 7 days, and gradually reduced thereafter. The ependyma developed ti'om a constitutive monolayer cells to a multi-layer cell complex. Some BrdU/Nestin double-positive ependymal cells migrated out from the ependyma. TUNEL-positive cells were also detected in the ependyma in the central region, as well as ischemic regions of the injured spinal cord. In addition, TUNEL-positive cells were visible in the ependyma. No TUNEL-positive ependymal cells were observed in the normal spinal cord

  4. Anti-Nogo-A Immunotherapy Does Not Alter Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Stroke in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel J.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; O'Brien, Timothy E.; Farrer, Robert G.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of adult disability, including cognitive impairment. Our laboratory has previously shown that treatment with function-blocking antibodies against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A promotes functional recovery after stroke in adult and aged rats, including enhancing spatial memory performance, for which the hippocampus is critically important. Since spatial memory has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated whether anti-Nogo-A treatment increases hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke. Adult rats were subject to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion followed 1 week later by 2 weeks of antibody treatment. Cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus was quantified at the end of treatment, and the number of newborn neurons was determined at 8 weeks post-stroke. Treatment with both anti-Nogo-A and control antibodies stimulated the accumulation of new microglia/macrophages in the dentate granule cell layer, but neither treatment increased cellular proliferation or the number of newborn neurons above stroke-only levels. These results suggest that anti-Nogo-A immunotherapy does not increase post-stroke hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:27803646

  5. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

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    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10, 100mg/kg (S100, and 260 mg/kg (S260 while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.

  6. Sugar overconsumption during adolescence selectively alters motivation and reward function in adult rats.

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    Leandro F Vendruscolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been a dramatic escalation in sugar intake in the last few decades, most strikingly observed in the adolescent population. Sugar overconsumption has been associated with several adverse health consequences, including obesity and diabetes. Very little is known, however, about the impact of sugar overconsumption on mental health in general, and on reward-related behavioral disorders in particular. This study examined in rats the effects of unlimited access to sucrose during adolescence on the motivation for natural and pharmacological rewards in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adolescent rats had free access to 5% sucrose or water from postnatal day 30 to 46. The control group had access to water only. In adulthood, rats were tested for self-administration of saccharin (sweet, maltodextrin (non-sweet, and cocaine (a potent drug of abuse using fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules, and a concentration-response curve for each substance. Adult rats, exposed or not exposed to sucrose, were tested for saccharin self-administration later in life to verify the specificity of adolescence for the sugar effects. Sugar overconsumption during adolescence, but not during adulthood, reduced the subsequent motivation for saccharin and maltodextrin, but not cocaine. This selective decrease in motivation is more likely due to changes in brain reward processing than changes in gustatory perception. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sugar overconsumption induces a developmental stage-specific chronic depression in reward processing that may contribute to an increase in the vulnerability to reward-related psychiatric disorders.

  7. Effect of aging on liver regeneration in rats Efeitos do envelhecimento na regeneração hepática em ratos

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    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Regeneration and/or healing of tissues is believed to be more difficult in elderly people. The liver is one of the most complex organs in the human body, and is involved in a variety of functions. Liver regeneration is the body's protection mechanism against loss of functional liver tissue. The aim of this study is to identify the regenerative capacity of the liver in older animals and to compare it with that of young adult animals. METHODS: Thirty-four Wistar rats were used, of which 17 were 90 days old (young animals and 17 were 460 days old (old animals. Approximately 70% of the liver was surgically removed. Examinations were carried out after 24 hours and on day 7, using 3 methods: KWON et al.'s formula to identify increase in volume; mitotic figure count in 5 fields; and the percentage of PCNA-positive nuclei in 5 fields. RESULTS: The increase in volume of the remaining liver was greater in the young animals after both 24 hours (p=0.0006 and on day 7 (p=0.0000. Histological cuts showed a greater mitotic figure count in young animals evaluated after 24 hours (p=0.0000. Upon evaluation on day 7, recovery was observed in the old animals. This recovery was similar to that of the young ones (p=0.2851. The PCNA-positive nucleus count was greater in the young animals' liver cuts after 24 hours (p=0.0310, and, while it had decreased in young animals by day 7, recovery was observed in the older animals (p=0.0298. CONCLUSION: The data confirm that age is related to delay in liver regeneration in rats.OBJETIVO: Acredita-se que idosos tenham maior dificuldade de regenerar e/ou cicatrizar tecidos. O fígado é um dos mais complexos órgãos do corpo humano, e está envolvido em diversas funções. A regeneração hepática representa um mecanismo de proteção orgânica contra a perda de tecido hepático funcionante. O objetivo do presente estudo é reconhecer a capacidade regenerativa do fígado de animais velhos e compará-la com a de animais

  8. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus: a transcriptome study

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    Norman Ruthven Saunders

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analysed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E 15 and adult with additional data obtained at intermediate ages from microarray analysis. The largest represented functional group in the embryo was amino acid transporters (twelve with expression levels 2-98 times greater than in the adult. In contrast, in the adult only six amino acid transporters were up-regulated compared to the embryo and at more modest enrichment levels (<5-fold enrichment above E15. In E15 plexus five glucose transporters, in particular Glut-1, and only one monocarboxylate transporter were enriched compared to the adult, whereas only two glucose transporters but six monocarboxylate transporters in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing brain with higher amino acid transport activity reported previously. Data for divalent metal transporters are also considered. Immunohistochemistry of several transporters (e.g. Slc16a10, a thyroid hormone transporter gene products was carried out to confirm translational activity and to define cellular distribution of the proteins. Overall the results show that there is substantial expression of numerous influx transporters in the embryonic choroid plexus, many at higher levels than in the adult. This, together with immunohistochemical evidence and data from published physiological transport studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.

  9. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults Efeito subletal de extratos de Azadirachta indica Sobre adultos de Ceratitis capitata

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    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito subletal de extratos de Azadirachta indica sobre Ceratitis capitata. Os tratamentos em um tubo plástico com algodão foram expostos para dois casais numa gaiola plástica. Nessa gaiola, também foi fornecida dieta artificial (proteína hidrolisada + açúcar ad libitum. Os extratos afetaram significativamente a longevidade de C. capitata. O período de pré-oviposição não foi significativamente afetado pelos extratos. Em contrapartida, o extrato de ramos em diclorometano (888 ppm afetou a fecundidade e a fertilidade, reduzindo em 80% o número de ovos colocados e a viabilidade dos ovos em 30%, no 8º dia. Portanto, o extrato de ramos em diclorometano afeta a reprodução de C. capitata.

  10. Constituent ratio of motor fibers from the C5-C7 spinal nerves in the radial nerve is greater in pup rats than in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Mingbo; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong

    2012-06-01

    Clinically, injuries of C5-C7 of the brachial plexus cause falling of the wrist and fingers in infants but not in adults unless 4 consecutive spinal nerves are injured. The purpose of this study was to compare the constituent difference of spinal nerves in the radial nerve between pup and adult rats.A group of 16 pup rats and a group of 16 adult rats were each divided into 2 groups of 8 (P1 and A1 groups, C5-C6 were divided; P2 and A2 groups, C5-C7 were divided]). A nerve conduction study and histological examination were performed to evaluate radial nerve innervation to the extensor digitorum communis muscle after dividing the spinal nerves. Retrograde tracing with 5% cholera toxin B for anterior horn motoneurons of the spinal cord innervating the radial nerve was performed in 8 pup rats and 8 adult rats. Results showed that the division of C5-C7 caused more significant damage to radial nerve innervation to the extensor digitorum communis in pups than in adults, although the division of C5-C6 did not. In pups, the percentages (median with interquartile) of anterior horn motoneurons of the spinal cord innervating the radial nerve were 36.4 (28.3-38.5) in C5-C6, 28.1 (24.5-32.5) in C7, and 37.5 (36.5-39.3) in C8-T1. In adults, they were 24.2 (23.6-27.8) in C5-C6, 21.8 (19.5-26.3) in C7, and 50.7 (48.7-55.5) C8-T1.This study implies that C7 innervation in the radial nerve in humans may be more critical to the function of this nerve in infants than in adults.

  11. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs.

  12. Long-term effects of repeated maternal separation and ethanol intake on HPA axis responsiveness in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2017-02-15

    It has been shown that early life manipulations produce behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. The long term consequences of repeated maternal separation (RMS) plus cold stress and ethanol intake were evaluated during adolescence and adult rats on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male adult Wistar rats. RMS+ cold stress was applied from postnatal day (PD) 2 in which the pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4°C) 1h per day for 20days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7days: PD22-29 and PD59-66. Half of the animals were sacrificed, while the others were exposed to acute stress (AS) for 2h and then they were killed. RMS+ cold stress: a) increased voluntary ethanol intake in adolescent and adult rats; b) reduced protein expression (Western measurements) in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in hypothalamus (Hyp) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in hippocampus (Hic) while increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in Hic; c) decreased plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and increased corticosterone (COR) levels in HPA axis, d) adult rats exposure a new AS incremented ACTH and COR levels. However, this modification did not alter the HPA axis capacity to respond to a new type of stressor. These results demonstrate the consequences of early life stress on the vulnerability of ethanol consumption and HPA axis responsiveness to a stressor in adult rats.

  13. Evaluation of the changes on hemostatic parameters induced by valdecoxib in male Wistar rats Avaliação dos efeitos do valdecoxibe sobre os parâmetros hemostáticos de ratos Wistar

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    Marcio Fronza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 selective inhibitor, valdecoxib, on blood coagulation parameters were evaluated, along with aspirin in male Wistar rats. Groups of animals were administered a daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg rat of valdecoxib, 100 mg/kg rat of aspirin and the vehicle alone during 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of administration period and the plasma concentrations of valdecoxib were determined by RP-HPLC giving mean values of 101.1, 113.5, 164.0 and 184.6 ng/mL, respectively. The same plasma samples were used for the analysis of hematological parameters and the results compared to the controls. Valdecoxib induced significant activated partial thromboplastin time reduction (18% after 2 weeks and prothrombin time reduction (12.2% after 3 weeks (PAvaliaram-se os efeitos do valdecoxibe, um inibidor seletivo da cicloxigenase-2 (COX-2, sobre os parâ­metros sangüíneos da coagulação em ratos Wistar utilizando-se paralelamente a aspirina. Os animais foram divididos em grupos e submetidos à administração oral diária de 10 mg/kg animal para o valdecoxib, 100 mg/kg animal para a aspirina e veículo para o grupo controle, durante quatro semanas. A coleta do sangue foi efetuada após uma, duas, três e quatro semanas, e as concentrações plasmáticas do valdecoxibe determinadas por cromatografia líquida, obtendo-se valores médios de 101,1 - 113,5 - 164 e 184,6 ng/ml, respectivamente. As amostras de plasma foram também usadas para as análises hematológicas e os resultados comparados aos dos controles. O valde­coxibe apresentou redução significativa no TTPA (18% após duas semanas, e redução do TP (12,2% após três semanas (P<0.05. Os efeitos observados na contagem de pla­quetas e nos níveis plasmáticos de fibrinogênio não foram significativos. As atividades anti-fator Xa e anti-fator IIa apresentaram redução, porém os resultados foram significativos somente para o anti

  14. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  15. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

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    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  16. Increased astrocytic expression of metallothioneins I + II in brainstem of adult rats treated with 6-aminonicotinamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan; Moos, Torben

    1997-01-01

    The cerebral distribution of metallothioneins I and II (MT-I + II) was studied in adult rats subjected to i.p. injection with the gliotoxin 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN). Grey matter regions of the brainstem heralded numerous OX-42-positive macrophages and microglia, indicating that 6-AN primarily...... caused damage to this part of the brain. In the grey matter regions infiltrated with OX-42-positive cells, astrocytes identified by anti-GFAP and MT-I + II antibodies were almost absent. By contrast, in the peripheral zone of the lesioned regions numerous reactive GFAP- and MT-I + II-positive astrocytes...

  17. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  18. Impairment on sperm quality and fertility of adult rats after antiandrogen exposure during prepuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; Alves, Thaís Regina; de Toledo, Fabíola Choqueta; Fernandez, Carla Dal Bianco; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Klinefelter, Gary R; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of antiandrogen exposure during the prepubertal period on reproductive development and reproductive competence in adults. Male rats were divided into two groups: flutamide, receiving 25 mg/kg/day of flutamide by oral gavage and control, receiving vehicle daily. Dosing continued from PND 21 to 44, and animals were killed on PND 50 or PND 75-80. The epididymis, prostate, vas deferens and seminal vesicle weights were lower in Flutamide group on PND 50, while on PND 80 only seminal vesicle weight was reduced. Fertility assessed by IUI revealed a decrease in the fertility potential in the flutamide-treated adults. Flutamide accelerated sperm transit time through the epididymis, impairing sperm motility and storage. A quantitative analysis of the cauda sperm membrane proteome revealed a few significant changes in protein expression. Thus, exposure to flutamide during the prepubertal period compromises the function of the epididymis along with epididymal sperm quality at adulthood.

  19. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Todd M; Elliott, Kevin S; Garraghty, Preston E

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reductions in cytochrome oxidase staining intensity in the deprived barrels. While there were no differences in the magnitude of this effect between males and females, this effect was substantially more pronounced in the gonadectomized subjects. That is, gonadal hormones appeared to play a significant neuroprotective role in the metabolic response of the barrel cortex to deprivation. Thus, either males and females have a common neuroprotective hormonal pathway, or each has a sex-specific hormone pathway that serves an equivalent neuroprotective function.

  20. Efeitos da radiação laser de dióxido de carbono em tecido ósseo: estudo macroscópico em ratos Effect of carbon dioxide laser radiation on osseous tissue: macroscopic study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter NICCOLI-FILHO

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O laser de dióxido de carbono (CO2, pelas suas propriedades intrínsecas, tem se tornado um instrumento cirúrgico importante; entre estas podemos citar: hemostasia, redução do edema e da dor pós-operatória e esterilização do campo cirúrgico. Seu uso em tecido ósseo para realização de osteotomias ainda é questionável, principalmente devido à possibilidade de iatrogenias causadas pelo aumento da temperatura tecidual, bem como destes efeitos na área paraincisional. O propósito deste estudo foi proporcionar a confecção de um plano piloto visando analisar macroscopicamente os efeitos da radiação laser de CO2 em tíbia de rato a fim de estabelecerem-se parâmetros de segurança quanto a potência. Foram utilizados 12 ratos. Após anestesia, os ossos foram submetidos a radiação com potência de 1, 3 e 5 watts. Os animais foram sacrificados nos tempos imediatamente após, 3, 7 e 14 dias após a irradiação, visando à remoção do osso tratado. Os espécimes obtidos foram observados através de lupa estereoscópica com aumentos de 14, 25 e 40 vezes e fotografados para posterior análise. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a potência de 1 watt proporciona uma melhor qualidade de resposta à reparação e que as potências de 3 e 5 watts provocaram o atraso na cronologia de reparo.The use of CO2 laser in osseous tissue to execute osteotomies is still questionable, mainly due to the increase of temperature in the site of irradiation. The purpose of this research was to carry out a pilot study in order to analyze macroscopically the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on rat tibia and to establish security parameters regarding power. Twelve rats were submitted to irradiation with 1, 3 and 5 watts of power and were examined immediately, 3, 7 and 14 days after irradiation. The results showed better healing when irradiation was carried out with the power of 1 watt; the 3- and 5-watt powers caused delay in the chronology of healing.

  1. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

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    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  2. Avaliação do efeito da glicosamina e condroitina na consolidação de fratura: estudo experimental em ratos Evaluating the effects of glucosamine and chondroitin in bone healing: experimental study in rats

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    Roberto Guarniero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da administração da condroitina e da glicosamina na consolidação de fratura em modelo animal. MÉTODOS: Este estudo experimental envolveu a utilização de 40 ratos machos adultos da raça Lewis. Os animais foram randomicamente divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, assim constituídos: grupo I, com administração de glicosamina; grupo II, com administração de condroitina; grupo III, administração da associação de glicosamina e condroitina; grupo IV, administração de água destilada (grupo controle. Realizou-se uma fratura fechada médio-diafisária da tíbia e fíbula direitas em cada animal, seguida da administração diária das drogas de acordo com o grupo, durante 30 dias. Após esse período, os animais foram sacrificados para estudo dos calos ósseos formados. Os critérios de avaliação foram a avaliação clínica da consolidação óssea, mensuração da densidade mineral do calo ósseo utilizando-se a densitometria óssea e cálculo da área do calo formado por meio de planigrafia. Os dados coletados foram avaliados com a técnica da análise de variância (ANOVA para verificar diferenças entre as médias nos quatro grupos estudados e com o teste de Tukey para comparação das médias duas a duas. Adotou-se nível de significância de 5% (alfa = 0,05. RESULTADOS: A utilização da condroitina e da glicosamina, tanto de maneira isolada quanto associadas, não resultou em aumento da área do calo ósseo ou da sua densidade mineral óssea, e não havendo melhora clínica da consolidação óssea. CONCLUSÃO: A administração de condroitina e glicosamina, neste estudo, não influenciou - quer de maneira positiva ou negativa - a consolidação de fraturas experimentais em ratos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of administering chondroitin and glucosamine for bone healing in an animal model. METHODS: This experimental study involved the use of 50 male adult Lewis rats. The animals were

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

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    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  4. Relaxant effect of the aqueous extract of Erythrina vellutina leaves on rat vas deferens Efeito relaxante do extrato aquoso das folhas de Erythrina vellutina em ducto deferente de rato

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    Márcio R. V. Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Aqueous Extract from the leaves of Erythrina vellutina (AE on rat vas deferens preparation was evaluated in this work. The AE inhibited the muscle contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibition was not affected by atropine (10-5M, propanolol (10-5M, prazosin (10-5M or yohimbine (10-5M, suggesting that there is no direct interaction of the AE with cholinergic nor adrenergic receptors. Incubation of vas deferens with the K+ channel antagonists, tetraethylamonium (10-6M or 4-aminopyridine (10-6M had also no effect on the AE-induced inhibition. On the other hand, glibenclamide (10-6 significantly attenuated the effect of the AE, suggesting a possible involvement of ATP-dependent K+ channels. The AE (0.15 mg/mL did not alter the contractions induced by noradrenaline (10-5M, ATP (10-4M nor KCl (80 mM, against an interaction of the extract with post-synaptic sites. The data presented suggests that the inhibition of the electrically driven muscle twitches by the AE could be due to a pre-synaptic interaction of the extract with ATP-dependent K+ channels from vas deferens sympathetic neurons.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso das folhas de Erythrina vellutina (AE sobre ducto deferente de rato. Nesta preparação, o AE inibiu as contrações induzidas por estímulo elétrico de campo de maneira dependente da concentração. Esta inibição não foi afetada após atropina (10-5M, propanolol (10-5M, prazosin (10-5M ou yohimbina (10-5M, sugerindo uma ação indireta do AE sobre receptores colinérgicos ou adrenérgicos. A incubação da preparação com os antagonistas de canais de K+, tetraetilâmonio (10-6M ou 4-aminopiridina (10-6M não alterou o efeito inibitório induzido pelo AE. Entretanto, a glibenclamida (10-6M atenuou significantemente este efeito, sugerindo um possível envolvimento de canais de K+ dependentes de ATP. Além disso, o AE (0

  5. Os efeitos da metformina sobre a dispersão do intervalo QT e QTc de ratos diabéticos Effects of metformin on QT and QTc interval dispersion of diabetic rats

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    Eunice Cristina da Silva Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Diversos fármacos podem causar aumento do intervalo QT, bem como da sua dispersão (QTd em registros eletrocardiográficos (ECG. O QTd pode ser um marcador potencialmente sensível ao aumento do risco de arritmias cardíacas e morte súbita cardíaca. Metformina é uma substância de eficácia anti-hiperglicêmica utilizada no tratamento do diabete. Entretanto, estudos têm relacionado efeitos dose-dependentes da metformina sobre a glicemia e marcadores de riscos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos dose-resposta da metformina sobre o QT e QTd de ratos diabéticos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos foram distribuídos em cinco grupos: controle não-tratado (C, diabético não-tratado (D, diabéticos tratados com metformina nas doses 3,5, 30 e 74 µg/kg/pc (DM 3,5, DM 30 e DM 74. O diabete foi induzido por uma injeção de aloxana (40 mg/kg, i.v.. O ECG foi registrado (1º, 15º e 30º dias através de quatro eletrodos inseridos na camada subcutânea das patas. Ambos os intervalos, RR e QT, foram medidos, e então os valores do QT corrigido e da dispersão de QT foram calculados. RESULTADOS: Os grupos DM 3,5 e DM 30 mostraram significativa redução da glicemia (pBACKGROUND: Several drugs can cause prolonged QT interval, as well as prolonged QT dispersion (QTd in electrocardiographic (EKG recordings. QTd may be a potentially sensitive marker of increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Metformin is an effective antihyperglycemic agent used in the treatment of diabetes. However, studies have correlated dose-dependent effects of metformin on glycemia and cardiovascular risk markers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-response effects of metformin on QT and QTd of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were distributed in five groups: non-treated control (C, non-treated diabetics (D, diabetics treated with metmorfin at the doses of 3.5, 30 and 74 µg/kg/bw (DM 3.5, DM 30 and DM 74. Diabetes was induced by an

  6. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

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    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  7. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  8. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

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    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  9. Immunohistochemical distribution of Plexin A4 in the adult rat central nervous system

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    Claire-Anne Gutekunst

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available PlexinA4 is the latest member to be identified of the plexin A subfamily, critical transducers of class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilins 1 and 2. Despite functional information regarding the role of PlexinA4 in development and guidance of specific neuronal pathways, little is known about its distribution in the adult central nervous system (CNS. Here we report an in depth immunohistochemical analysis of PlexinA4 expression in the adult rat CNS. PlexinA4 staining was present in neurons and fibers throughout the brain and spinal cord, including neocortex, hippocampus, lateral hypothalamus, red nucleus, facial nucleus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. PlexinA4 antibodies labeled fibers in the lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, several thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, pontine reticular region, as well as in several cranial nerve nuclei. This constitutes the first detailed description of the topographic distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult CNS and will set the basis for future studies on the functional implications of PlexinA4 in adult brain physiology.

  10. Resveratrol increases antioxidant defenses and decreases proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampal astrocyte cultures from newborn, adult and aged Wistar rats.

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    Bellaver, Bruna; Souza, Débora Guerini; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2014-06-01

    Astrocytes are responsible for modulating neurotransmitter systems and synaptic information processing, ionic homeostasis, energy metabolism, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, and antioxidant and inflammatory responses. Our group recently published a culture model of cortical astrocytes obtained from adult Wistar rats. In this study, we established an in vitro model for hippocampal astrocyte cultures from adult (90 days old) and aged (180 days old) Wistar rats. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuroprotective effects that modulate glial functions. Here, we evaluated the effects of resveratrol on GSH content, GS activity, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in hippocampal astrocytes from newborn, adult and aged Wistar rats. We observed a decrease in antioxidant defenses and an increase in the inflammatory response in hippocampal astrocytes from adult and aged rats compared to classical astrocyte cultures from newborn rats. Resveratrol prevented these effects. These findings reinforce the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol, which are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Hepatotrophic activity of benzodiazepine drugs in adult rats of either sex.

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    Gershbein, L L

    1994-07-01

    Adult rats with two-thirds of the liver removed were administered diets supplemented with benzodiazepine drugs over a period of 10 days and the mass of organ regenerated or the liver increment ascertained. For a number of the drugs, liver regeneration was stimulated; the effect was more consistent and reproducible in the adult female. On the basis of the lower sensitivity of the male, such animals provided an approach toward rating the hepatotrophic efficacy of the agents and in relation to structure. According to the current classification, hepatotrophic activity was higher with lorazepam, loprazolam, oxazepam and chlordiazepoxide; intermediate with nitrazepam, temazepam, quazepam, halazepam and triazepam and lower with diazepam, clorazepate dipotassium, clobazam and alprazolam. More reproducible responses in terms of g wet and dry liver per 100 g body weight were obtained with sham-operated or intact males. The antagonist, flumazenil, fed at 0.080% was not effective as such nor modified the responses in admixture with several drugs in partially hepatectomized or intact males. In vivo hepatic microsomal changes in protein, cytochrome P-450 or the enzymes, aminopyrine demethylase and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase with the various series were not remarkable or sporadic. Among other factors, the liver incremental changes noted currently are dependent on the metabolic intermediate benzodiazepines of varying elimination half-lives which may be distinct from that of the parent drug coupled with the alterations induced by partial ablation of the organ in rats of either sex.

  12. Stem cells in the adult rat spinal cord: plasticity after injury and treadmill training exercise.

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    Foret, Ariane; Quertainmont, Renaud; Botman, Olivier; Bouhy, Delphine; Amabili, Philippe; Brook, Gary; Schoenen, Jean; Franzen, Rachelle

    2010-02-01

    Ependymal cells located around the central canal of the adult spinal cord are considered as a source of neural stem cells (NSCs) and represent an interesting pool of endogenous stem cells for repair strategies. Physical exercise is known to increase ependymal cell proliferation, while improving functional recovery. In this work, we further characterized those endogenous NSCs within the normal and injured adult rat spinal cord and investigated the effects of treadmill training using immunohistochemical and behavioral studies. In uninjured untrained rats, Sox-2, a NSC marker, was detected in all ependymal cells of the central canal, and also scattered throughout the parenchyma of the spinal cord. Within the lesion, Sox-2 expression increased transiently, while the number of nestin-positive ependymal cells increased with a concomitant enhancement of proliferation, as indicated by the mitotic markers Ki67 and bromo-deoxyuridine. Exercise, which improved functional recovery and autonomous micturition, maintained nestin expression in both injured and uninjured spinal cords, with a positive correlation between locomotor recovery and the number of nestin-positive cells.

  13. Cortical neurogenesis in adult rats after ischemic brain injury:most new neurons fail to mature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-quan Li; Guan-qun Qiao; Jun Ma; Hong-wei Fan; Ying-bin Li

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that endogenous neural progenitor cells isolated from the neocortex of ischemic brain can differentiate into neurons or glial cells and contribute to neural regeneration. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion to establish a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the cortex 1, 3, 7, 14 or 28 days after injury revealed that neural progenitor cells double-positive for nestin and sox-2 appeared in the injured cortex 1 and 3 days post-injury, and were also positive for glial ifbrillary acidic protein. New neurons were labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and different stages of maturity were identiifed using doublecortin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neuronal nuclei antigen immunohistochemistry. Immature new neurons coexpressing doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the cortex at 3 and 7 days post-injury, and semi-mature and mature new neurons double-positive for microtubule-associated protein 2 and bromode-oxyuridine were found at 14 days post-injury. A few mature new neurons coexpressing neuronal nuclei antigen and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the injured cortex 28 days post-injury. Glial ifbrillary acidic protein/bromodeoxyuridine double-positive astrocytes were also found in the injured cortex. Our ifndings suggest that neural progenitor cells are present in the damaged cortex of adult rats with cerebral ischemic brain injury, and that they differentiate into astrocytes and immature neurons, but most neurons fail to reach the mature stage.

  14. Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats.

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    de Barros, Aline Lima; Cavalheiro, Gabriela Finoto; de Souza, Alexsandra Vila Maior; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide.

  15. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

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    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  16. Impact of neonatal anoxia on adult rat hippocampal volume, neurogenesis and behavior.

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    Takada, Silvia Honda; Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Lee, Vitor Yonamine; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Roberson Saraiva; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Covolan, Luciene; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Neonates that suffer oxygen deprivation during birth can have long lasting cognitive deficits, such as memory and learning impairments. Hippocampus, one of the main structures that participate in memory and learning processes, is a plastic and dynamic structure that conserves during life span the property of generating new cells which can become neurons, the so-called neurogenesis. The present study investigated whether a model of rat neonatal anoxia, that causes only respiratory distress, is able to alter the hippocampal volume, the neurogenesis rate and has functional implications in adult life. MRI analysis revealed significant hippocampal volume decrease in adult rats who had experienced neonatal anoxia compared to control animals for rostral, caudal and total hippocampus. In addition, these animals also had 55.7% decrease of double-labelled cells to BrdU and NeuN, reflecting a decrease in neurogenesis rate. Finally, behavioral analysis indicated that neonatal anoxia resulted in disruption of spatial working memory, similar to human condition, accompanied by an anxiogenic effect. The observed behavioral alterations caused by oxygen deprivation at birth might represent an outcome of the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and volume, evidenced by immunohistochemistry and MRI analysis. Therefore, based on current findings we propose this model as suitable to explore new therapeutic approaches.

  17. Renoprotective effects of moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats

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    Ezejindu D. N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is one of several nutritional supplements giving wide spread popularity in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats. 24 apparently healthy adult wistar rats weighing between190- 230kg were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.3ml of distilled water orally. The experimental groups B, C & D received 0.5ml, 0.6ml &0.7ml of Moringa oleifera extract orally respectively. The administration lasted for twenty one days. The animals were weighed, sacrificed using chloroform vapour. The kidney tissue were removed, weighed and trimmed down for histological studies. Result of this study showed non-distortion of the kidney cells. The findings of this study suggest that chronic Moringa oleifera consumption may not put the kidneys at risk of adverse histopathological conditions.

  18. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  19. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Vascular Permeability of Circumventricular Organs in the Adult Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Bañuelos-Pineda, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Feria-Velasco, A.

    2008-08-01

    The present work deals with the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on blood vessels permeability to non liposoluble substances of the circumventricular organs (CVO) of adult rats. Male Wistar adult rats were exposed to ELF-EMF and vascular permeability to colloidal carbon was investigated with the use of histological techniques. Results were compared to corresponding data from sham-exposed and control groups of animals. Exposure to ELF-EMF increased the CVO vascular permeability to colloidal carbon intravascularly injected, particularly in the subfornical organ, the median eminence, the pineal gland and the area postrema.

  20. Increased adult hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and normal levels of neurogenesis in maternal separation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greisen, Mia H; Altar, C Anthony; Bolwig, Tom G; Whitehead, Richard; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2005-03-15

    Repeated maternal separation of rat pups during the early postnatal period may affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurons in brain areas that are compromised by chronic stress. In the present study, a highly significant increase in hippocampal BDNF protein concentration was found in adult rats that as neonates had been subjected to 180 min of daily separation compared with handled rats separated for 15 min daily. BDNF protein was unchanged in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus/paraventricular nucleus. Expression of BDNF mRNA in the CA1, CA3, or dentate gyrus of the hippocampus or in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus was not affected by maternal separation. All animals displayed similar behavioral patterns in a forced-swim paradigm, which did not affect BDNF protein concentration in the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Repeated administration of bromodeoxyuridine revealed equal numbers of surviving, newly generated granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats from the 15 min or 180 min groups. The age-dependent decline in neurogenesis from 3 months to 7 months of age did not differ between the groups. Insofar as BDNF can stimulate neurogenesis and repair, we propose that the elevated hippocampal protein concentration found in maternally deprived rats might be a compensatory reaction to separation during the neonatal period, maintaining adult neurogenesis at levels equal to those of the handled rats.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

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    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  2. PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEURAL STEM CELLS IN ADULT RATS AFTER CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Ren-zhi Wang; Yong Yao; Zhi-hai Liu; Zhi-gang Lian; Yu-jie Zou; Yu-kui Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in adult rats after cerebral infarction.Methods Models of cerebral infarction in rats were made and the time-course expression of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Musashil, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. BrdU and Musashil were used to mark dividing neural stem cells. GFAP and NeuN were used to mark differentiating neural stem cells.Results Compared with controls, the number of BrdU-labeled and BrdU-labeled with Musashil-positive cells increased strikingly 1 day after cerebral infarction; approximately 6 fold with a peak 7 days later; markedly decreased 14 days later, but was still elevated compared with that of controls; decling to the control level 28 days later. The number of BrdU-labeled with GFAP-positive cells nearly remained unchanged in the hippocampus after cerebral infarction. The number of BrdU-labeled with NeuN-positive cells increased strikingly 14 days after cerebral infarction, reached maximum peak in the hippocampus 28 days after cerebral infarction in rats.Conclusion Cerebral infarction stimulate proliferation of inherent neural stem cells and most proliferated neural stem cells differentiate into neurons.

  3. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver.

  4. Circadian variations in expression of the trkB receptor in adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Claudia; Montaruli, Angela; Roveda, Eliana; Barajon, Isabella; Vizzotto, Laura; Grassi Zucconi, Gigliola; Carandente, Franca

    2003-12-19

    The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central nervous system (CNS) and the expression of its high-affinity trkB receptor on neuron surfaces are known to depend on neuron activity. The expression of BDNF (mRNA and protein) and trkB mRNA shows circadian oscillations in rat hippocampal homogenates. We investigated circadian variations in trkB expression in specific areas of the adult rat hippocampal formation by immunohistochemistry. In sets of two experiments performed in the spring, 39 2-month-old male Wistar rats were accustomed to a 12-h light-12-h dark cycle for 2 weeks. Three animals were then sacrificed every 4 h. Forty-micrometer-thick coronal sections of hippocampal formation were obtained and processed for trkB immunohistochemistry. Cell staining intensity was assessed by image analysis of different hippocampal areas on five sections per animal. Circadian rhythmicity was evaluated by the cosinor method. Statistically significant circadian variations in trkB expression were found in dentate gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and the CA3 and hilar regions of the hippocampus, with highest expression during the first half of the dark (activity) period. These findings suggest a relationship between trkB expression and the physiological neuronal activation of wakefulness. TrkB receptor expression in the hippocampal regions studied was continuous and changes were gradual over the 24-h cycle, suggesting that more complex regulatory mechanisms also intervened.

  5. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  6. Effects of morphine on thermal sensitivity in adult and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Drake; Mitzelfelt, Jeremiah D; Koerper, Lorraine M; Carter, Christy S

    2012-06-01

    There are contradictory data regarding older individuals' sensitivity to pain stimulation and opioid administration. Adult (12-16 months; n = 10) and aged (27-31 months; n = 7) male F344xBN rats were tested in a thermal sensitivity procedure where the animal chooses to remain in one of two compartments with floors maintained at various temperatures ranging from hot (45°C) through neutral (30°C) to cold (15°C). Effects of morphine were determined for three temperature comparisons (ie, hot/neutral, cold/neutral, and hot/cold). Aged rats were more sensitive to cold stimulation during baseline. Morphine produced antinociception during hot thermal stimulation, but had no effect on cold stimulation. The antinociceptive (and locomotor-altering) effects of morphine were attenuated in aged rats. These data demonstrate age-related differences in baseline thermal sensitivity and responsiveness to opioids. Based on behavioral and physiological requirements of this procedure, it is suggested that thermal sensitivity may provide a relevant animal model for the assessment of pain and antinociception.

  7. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubner Ronald

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH of adult (P60 male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3 and outside (at postnatal 12; P12 of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems in the LDH ipsilateral to the

  8. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ke; Novikova, Svetlana I; He, Fang; Dubner, Ronald; Lidow, Michael S

    2005-09-22

    Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR) injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors) to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH) of adult (P60) male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3) and outside (at postnatal 12; P12) of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline) and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems) were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems) in the LDH ipsilateral to the neonatally-injured paw. The

  9. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  10. Subculture of proliferating adult rat hepatocytes in medium supplemented with nicotinamide and EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, T; Kojima, T; Mizuguchi, T; Mochizuki, Y

    1996-09-01

    To establish parenchymal hepatocyte cell lines, we tried to subculture the primary hepatocytes isolated from adult rats. The hepatocytes were cultured in serum-free modified Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10 mM nicotinamide and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor. When 6 x 10(5) cells were plated on 35-mm dishes coated with rat tail collagen, the cells proliferated and reached confluence at Day 6 to Day 8. The first subculture was carried out at Day 8 using 0.005% collagenase and gentle pipettings. Most cells were recovered and plated on the new dishes coated with the collagen (first passage). The attached cells could proliferate and reached near confluence when the cells occupied more than two-thirds of the dish surface. About a week after the first subculture, the second one was conducted. Although the number of the recovered cells was smaller than at the first passage, the cells could attach and proliferate to a certain extent. Thereafter, they were maintained for more than 2 mo, but they never overgrew. Albumin secretion into the culture medium was confirmed in the subcultured cells. Ultrastructurally, these subcultured cells possessed hepatic characteristics such as peroxisomes with a crystalline nucleiod and bile-canaliculus structures. When 10% fetal bovine serum and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate were added to the cells of the second passage, they began to proliferate very slowly. These proliferating cells were mainly mononucleate and had a small cytoplasm. In addition, some of them could differentitate into typical mature hepatocytes by forming a three-dimensional structure interacting with nonparenchymal cells. In this experiment, we showed the successful subculturing of parenchymal hepatocytes isolated from adult rats and provided evidence that the subcultured cells still have the potential to proliferate and to differentiate.

  11. The Histopathological Effect of Sildenafil Citrate on Superior Colliculus of Adult Male Rat

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    Amany Shams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preclinical and very limited clinical studies suggest that sildenafil may have therapeutic potential in selected neurological disorders. However, many neurological side effects of sildenafil have been reported. This work aimed to clarify the histopathological effect of sildenafil citrate on the superior colliculus (SC of adult male albino rat. Material and methods: 24 adult male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. The first 3 groups were received respectively sildenafil citrate orally at doses 0.25, 0.70 and 1.43mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days while the 4th group was used as control. At end of the treatment, the superior colliculi were undergone light and electron microscopic investigation. Results: In the control group, superficial part of the SC has neural cells and myelinated nerve fibers. With least dose of sildenafil, the superficial part of SC revealed disturbance in neural tissue with dilated capillaries and vacuoles. Some neurons showed deeply stained nuclei shrunken cytoplasm. Some cells showed enlarged mitochondria and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. With medium dose of sildenafil, SC showed more disturbances; stripped myelin sheaths or widely separated myelin lamellae, dilated blood vessels with large vacuoles around them and many neurons with apoptotic criteria. However, maximum dose of sildenafil induced massive destruction of edematous neural tissue; invasion of the surface with massive blood vessels, marked decrease in thickness of myelin sheaths and the neural cells revealed degenerative and apoptotic changes. The mean number and size of cells revealed significantly progressive decrease in all treated rats with increasing doses of the drug. Conclusion: Long-term, daily use of sildenafil can lead to pathological effect in the superior colliculus which may be implicated in visual disturbance and this effect is dose dependent, so neurological effect of sildenafil necessitates further investigations. [J

  12. Identification of interneurons activated at different inclines during treadmill locomotion in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillakaratne, Niranjala J K; Duru, Paul; Fujino, Hidemi; Zhong, Hui; Xiao, Mei Si; Edgerton, V Reggie; Roy, Roland R

    2014-12-01

    By using c-fos as an activity-dependent marker, we identified the cholinergic interneurons around the central canal and lumbar interneurons throughout the gray matter that were activated after a 30-min bout of quadrupedal treadmill stepping at a 0° or 25° incline in adult rats. Increased loading (elevated treadmill incline) imposed during treadmill stepping activated more cholinergic interneurons in the proximity of the central canal, i.e., central canal cluster cells and partition neurons. Since cholinergic central canal cells are thought to modulate motoneuron excitability, these data suggest that increased load during stepping may increase motoneuronal activity through activating more cholinergic central canal cells. We identified the muscle-specific motoneurons and afferent terminals in the spinal cord by injecting cholera toxin subunit B in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. The number of interneurons in lumbar segments L4 (tibialis anterior) and L5 (soleus) was higher in both groups that stepped on the treadmill compared with control and was highest in rats that stepped at a 25° incline. In a majority of laminae, the distribution of total and muscle-specific activated interneurons was highest in the 25° incline group and lowest in the control group for both muscles. These data could reflect increased peripheral (proprioceptive) input as well as supraspinal drive associated with stepping and demonstrate the differences in 1) the activation of cholinergic interneurons near the central canal and 2) the laminar and segmental location of interneurons throughout the gray matter that play a role in generating stepping under different loading conditions in adult rats.

  13. Effects of H2S on the central regulation of respiration in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hou, Xuefei; Ding, Yan; Nie, Lihong; Zhou, Hua; Nie, Zheng; Tang, Yuhong; Chen, Li; Zheng, Yu

    2014-04-16

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter synthesized from cysteine (Cys) by pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. We investigated the potential roles of H2S in the regulation of central rhythmic respiration in adult rats in vivo. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS: 2.5 mM, 10 mM, and 5 mM) as a source of exogenous H2S, Cys (2.5 mM, 10 mM and 5 mM) as a source of endogenous H2S, 2.5 mM Cys+10 mM hydroxylamine (NH2OH), and 10 mM NH2OH, respectively, were intracerebroventricularly injected into rats. The rhythmic discharge of the diaphragm, including burst duration (BD), burst interval (BI), burst frequency (BF), and integrated amplitude (IA), and arterial blood pressure (BP) were measured at different time points. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance. A total of 2.5 mM NaHS did not significantly affect changes in BD, BI, BF, IA, or BP (P>0.05), whereas 2.5 mM Cys significantly altered BD, BI, and BF (P0.05). A concentration of 5 mM Cys had effects similar to those of 5 mM NaHS; both induced biphasic respiratory responses and changed the BF (P0.05) except for BD was temporarily decreased (P<0.05) in the 2.5 mM Cys+10 mM NH2OH group. These results suggest that exogenous and endogenous H2S may participate in the regulation of respiratory activity in adult rats.

  14. Fluoxetine effects on mitochondrial ultrastructure of right ventricle in rats exposed to cold stress Efeitos da fluoxetina sobre a ultraestrutura mitocondrial no ventrículo direito de ratos expostos ao estresse pelo frio

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    Fernanda V. Daud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess fluoxetine effects on mitochondrial structure of the right ventricle in rats exposed to cold stress. METHODS: The experimental study procedures were performed in 250-300g male EPM-Wistar rats. Rats (n=40 were divided into four groups: 1 Control group (CON; 2 Fluoxetine (FLU; 3 Induced hypothermia (IH and; 4 Induced hypothermia treated with fluoxetine (IHF. Animals of FLU group were treated by the administration of gavages containing 0.75 mg/kg/day fluoxetine during 40 days. The induced hypothermia was obtained by maintaining the groups 3 and 4 in a freezer at -8ºC for 4 hours. The animals were sacrificed and fragments of the right ventricle (RV were removed and processed prior to performing electron microscopic analysis. RESULTS: The ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes were quantified through the number of mitochondrial cristae pattern (cristolysis. The CON (3.85%, FLU (4.47% and IHF (8.4% groups showed a normal cellular structure aspect with preserved cardiomyocytes cytoarchitecture and continuous sarcoplasmic membrane integrity. On the other hand, the IH (34.4% group showed mitochondrial edema and lysis in cristae. CONCLUSION: The ultrastructural analysis revealed that fluoxetine strongly prevents mitochondrial cristolysis in rat heart, suggesting a protector effect under cold stress condition.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos da fluoxetina sobre a estrutura mitocondrial do ventrículo direito de ratos expostos ao estresse pelo frio. MÉTODOS: Os procedimentos do estudo foram realizados em ratos Wistar-EPM (250-300g machos. Os ratos (n=40 foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1 Controle (CON; 2 Fluoxetina (FLU; 3 Induzidos à hipotermia (IH e; 4 Induzidos à hipotermia tratados com fluoxetina (IHF. O grupo FLU foi tratado com gavagem contendo 0,75 mg/kg/dia de fluoxetina durante 40 dias. O estresse induzido pelo frio foi realizado mantendo os grupos 3 e 4 em um freezer (-8ºC por quatro horas. Os animais foram sacrificados

  15. Cardiovascular effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of Xylopia cayennensis in rats Efeitos cardiovasculares induzidos pelo extrato hidroalcoólico das cascas de Xylopia cayennensis em ratos

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    Alessandra A. Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of Xylopia cayennensis (HEXC were studied in rats using a combined in vivo and in vitro approach. In non-anesthetized rats, HEXC injections produced a significant and dose-dependent hypotension associated with an increase in heart rate. The hypotensive response was not attenuated after nitric oxide (NO synthase blockade, L-NAME (20 mg/Kg, i.v.. In isolated rat superior aortic rings, HEXC was able to relax the tonus induced by phenylephrine (1 µM and KCl (80 mM, (EC50 = 85±13 and 62±5 µg/mL, respectively. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity of HEXC was not inhibited by removal of vascular endothelium (EC50 = 58±6 µg/mL. HEXC antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in depolarizing medium nominally without Ca2+. HEXC inhibited the intracellular calcium-dependent transient contractions induced by caffeine (20 mM in Ca2+-free solution, but not those induced by norepinephrine (1 µM. In isolated rat atrial preparations, HEXC produced negative inotropic and chronotropic responses (IC50= 534±42 and 259±22 µg/mL, respectively. The results obtained suggest that the hypotensive effect of HEXC is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation, at least, secondary to an interference with the Ca2+ mobilization as a consequence of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blockade and the inhibition of Ca2+ release from caffeine-sensitive intracellular stores. Finally, HEXC acts directly on the heart decreasing contractility and heart rate, these effects are of little importance to the expression of the hypotensive response induced by HEXC.Os efeitos cardiovasculares induzidos pelo extrato hidroalcoólico do caule de Xylopia cayennensis (EHXC foram estudados em ratos, utilizando uma abordagem combinada in vivo e in vitro. Em ratos não anestesiados, EHXC induziu uma hipotensão não dependente de dose associada com um aumento da freqüência cardíaca. Esta resposta hipontesora não foi

  16. Lithium and methylphenidate: opposite effects on perirenal brown fat Lítio e metilfenidato: efeitos opostos sobre a gordura perirrenal

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    José Menna Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the administration of lithium to adult rats on brown (perirenal and white (inguinal adipose tissues and to assess whether methylphenidate modulates lithium effects. METHODS: Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were fed with either regular or lithium-containing chow for 30 days. Between days 15 to 30 of treatment, animals received daily intraperitoneal administrations of either methylphenidate or saline. RESULTS: Lithium significantly reduced perirenal fat, and this effect was minimized by the administration of methylphenidate. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the effects of lithium on inguinal fat. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that different effects on white and brown tissue distribution may be involved in lithium-induced weight gain.OBJETIVO: Avaliar como a administração de lítio afeta o tecido adiposo marrom (perirrenal e branco (inguinal e se o metilfenidato modula os efeitos do lítio. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco ratos Wistar adultos machos foram alimentados com ração normal ou contendo lítio por 30 dias. Entre os dias 15 e 30 de tratamento, os animais receberam doses intraperitoneais diárias de metilfenidato ou solução salina. RESULTADOS: A administração de lítio reduziu significativamente a gordura perirrenal. Esse efeito foi reduzido com a administração de metilfenidato. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação à gordura inguinal. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que efeitos diferenciados sobre os tecidos adiposos marrom e branco podem estar envolvidos no ganho de peso induzido pelo tratamento com lítio.

  17. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    A.O.Eweka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups.The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the medial geniculate body showed some cellular degenerative changes, autophagic vacuoles with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections. These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the medial geniculate body (MGB. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the MGB of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  18. Effects of budesonide and probiotics enemas on the systemic inflammatory response of rats with experimental colitis Efeito de enemas contendo budesonida e probióticos na resposta inflamatória sistêmica de ratos com colite experimental

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    Mardem Machado de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enemas containing probiotics and budesonide on the systemic inflammatory response in experimental colitis. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats with experimental colitis induced by 10% acetic acid enema were randomized to five groups (10 rats each according to the treatment: group 1 - saline solution, group 2 - budesonide (0.75 mg/kg/day, group 3 - probiotics (1mg/day, group 4 - probiotics plus budesonide, and group 5 - control, with not-treated rats. The following variables were studied: body weight, serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein and interleucine-6 (IL-6. RESULTS: All animals lost weight between the beginning and the end of the experiment (280+ 16 mg versus 249+21 mg, p0.05. Only probiotic rats presented a significant decrease of IL-6 than controls (0,30±0,08 mg/dL vs. 0,19±0,03 mg/dL; pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da administração retal de probióticos e budesonida na resposta inflamatória de ratos com colite experimental. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta ratos Wistar com colite experimental induzida pelo acido acético à 10% foram randomizados em 5 grupos (n=10 por grupo para diferentes tratamentos: grupo 1 - solução fisiológica; grupo 2 budesonida (0,75mg/kg/dia; grupo 3 - probióticos (1 g/dia; grupo 4 - probióticos associados a budesonida; e finalmente grupo 5 - controle, composto por ratos sem tratamento. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: peso corporal, dosagens séricas de albumina, proteína C reativa (PCR e interleucina-6 (IL-6. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais perderam peso entre o inicio e o fim do experimento (280±16 vs 249±21g; p0.05. As comparações entre o grupo controle (0,30±0,08 mg/dL e outros mostraram que houve uma queda significante nos níveis de IL-6 apenas no grupo probiótico (0,19±0,03 mg/dL; p<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: Probióticos são efetivos na diminuição do estado inflamatório mediado pela IL-6 na colite experimental.

  19. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; Phypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  20. Characterization and enrichment of hepatic progenitor cells in adult rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Lan Qin; Xia-Qiu Zhou; Wei Zhang; Hong Yu; Qin Xie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To detect the markers of oval cells in adult rat liver and to enrich them for further analysis of characterization in vitro.METHODS: Rat model for hepatic oval cell proliferation was established with 2-acetylaminofluorene and two third partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH). Paraffin embedded rat liver sections from model (11 d after hepatectomy) and control groups were stained with HE and OV6, cytokeratin19 (CK19),albumin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), connexin43, and c-kit antibodies by immunohistochemistry. Oval cell proliferation was measured with BrdU incorporation test. C-kit positive oval cells were enriched by using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) .The sorted oval cells were cultured in a low density to observe colony formation and to examine their characterization in vitroby immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. RESULTS: A 2-AAF/PH model was successfully established to activate the oval cell compartment in rat liver. BrdU incorporation test of oval cell was positive. The hepatic oval cells coexpressed oval cell specific marker OV6, hepatocytemarker albumin and cholangiocyte-marker CK19. They also expressed AFP and connexin 43. C-kit, one hematopoietic stem cell receptor, was expressed in hepatic oval cells at high levels. By using c-kit antibody in conjunction with MACS,we developed a rapid oval cell isolation protocol. The sorted cells formed colony when cultured in vitro. Cells in the colony expressed albumin or CK19 or coexpressed both and BrdU incorporation test was positive. RT-PCR on colony showed expression of albumin and CK19 gene.CONCLUSION: Hepatic oval cells in the 2-AAF/PH model had the properties of hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Using MACS, we established a method to isolate oval cells. The sorted hepatic oval cells can form colony in vitro which expresses different combinations of phenotypic markers and genes from both hepatocytes and cholangiocyte lineage.

  1. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

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    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  2. The effects of biological sex and gonadal hormones on learning strategy in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Barratt, Harriet E; Conrad, Taylor S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-02-28

    When learning to navigate toward a goal in a spatial environment, rodents employ distinct learning strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. In the early stages of learning, adult male rats prefer a hippocampus-dependent place strategy over a striatum-dependent response strategy. Alternatively, female rats exhibit a preference for a place strategy only when circulating levels of estradiol are elevated. Notably, male rodents typically perform better than females on a variety of spatial learning tasks, which are mediated by the hippocampus. However, limited research has been done to determine if the previously reported male spatial advantage corresponds with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and, if the male preference for a place strategy is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. A dual-solution water T-maze task, which can be solved by adopting either a place or a response strategy, was employed to determine the effects of biological sex and hormonal status on learning strategy. In the first experiment, male rats made more correct arm choices than female rats during training and exhibited a bias for a place strategy on a probe trial. The results of the second experiment indicated that testicular hormones modulated arm choice accuracy during training, but not the preference for a place strategy. Together, these findings suggest that the previously reported male spatial advantage is associated with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and that only performance during the training phase of a dual-solution learning task is impacted by removal of testicular hormones.

  3. Neonatal Androgen Exposure Causes Persistent Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Related to Metabolic Disease in Adult Female Rats.

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    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Martín-Núñez, Gracia María; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Alterations of gut microbiome have been proposed to play a role in metabolic disease, but the major determinants of microbiota composition remain ill defined. Nutritional and sex hormone challenges, especially during early development, have been shown to permanently alter adult female phenotype and contribute to metabolic disturbances. In this study, we implemented large-scale microbiome analyses to fecal samples from groups of female rats sequentially subjected to various obesogenic manipulations, including sex hormone perturbations by means of neonatal androgenization or adult ovariectomy (OVX), as a model of menopause, to establish whether these phenomena are related to changes in gut microbiota. Basic metabolic profiles concerning glucose/insulin homeostasis were also explored. The effects of the sex hormonal perturbations, either developmentally (androgenization) or in adulthood (OVX), clearly outshone the impact of nutritional interventions, especially concerning the gut microbiota profile. Notably, we observed a lower diversity in the androgenized group, with the highest Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, supporting the occurrence of durable alterations in gut microbiota composition, even in adulthood. Moreover, the elimination of adult ovarian secretions by OVX affected the richness of gut microbiota. Our data are the first to document the durable impact of sex steroid manipulations, and particularly early androgenization, on gut microbiota composition. Such dysbiosis is likely to contribute to the metabolic perturbations of conditions of obesity linked to gonadal dysfunction in the female.

  4. Persistent sodium current properties in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunko, Oleksii; Isaev, Dmytro; Maximyuk, Oleksandr; Ivanchick, Gleb; Sydorenko, Vadym; Krishtal, Oleg; Isaeva, Elena

    2014-01-24

    Persistent tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (INaP) plays an important role in cellular and neuronal network excitability in physiological conditions and under different pathological circumstances. However, developmental changes in INaP properties remain largely unclear. In the present study using whole cell patch clamp technique we evaluated INaP properties in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons isolated from young (postnatal day (P) 12-16) and adult (P60-75) rats. We show that the INaP density is substantially larger in the adult group. Although INaP inactivation characteristics were found to be similar in both groups, voltage dependence of INaP activation is shifted to more negative membrane potentials (young: -48.6±0.5mV vs. adult: -52.4±0.2mV, p<0.01). Our data indicates the increase of INaP contribution in the basal membrane sodium conductivity in the mature hippocampus.

  5. Expression of alpha-synuclein in different brain parts of adult and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, A; Solecka, J; Strosznajder, J B

    2005-03-01

    The synucleins are a family of presynaptic proteins that are abundant in neurons and include alpha-, beta, and gamma-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein (ASN) is involved in several neurodegenerative age-related disorders but its relevance in physiological aging is unknown. In the present study we investigated the expression of ASN mRNA and protein in the different brain parts of the adult (4-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) rats by using RT-PCR technique and Western blot, respectively. Our results indicated that mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of ASN is similar in brain cortex, hippocampus and striatum but markedly lower in cerebellum comparing to the other brain parts. Aging lowers ASN mRNA expression in striatum and cerebellum by about 40%. The immunoreactivity of ASN in synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) from aged brain cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum is significantly lower comparing to adult by 39%, 24% and 65%, respectively. Beta-synuclein (BSN) was not changed in aged brain comparing to adult. Age-related alteration of ASN may affect the nerve terminals structure and function.

  6. Antenatal Antioxidant Prevents Nicotine-Mediated Hypertensive Response in Rat Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perinatal nicotine exposure increased blood pressure (BP) in adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms were unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of hypertensive response is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps from Day 4 of gestation to Day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in the drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8-mo-old male offspring. Perinatal nicotine treatment resulted in a significant increase in arterial ROS production in offspring, which was abrogated by NAC. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced BP responses were significantly higher in nicotine-treated group than in saline-treated control group, and NAC treatment blocked the nicotine-induced increase in BP response. Consistent with that, the nicotine treatment significantly increased both Ang II-induced and phorbol [12, 13]-dibutyrate (PDBu, a Prkc activator)-induced arterial contractions in adult offspring, which were blocked by NAC treatment. In addition, perinatal nicotine treatment significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced arterial relaxation in offspring, which was also inhibited by NAC treatment. Results demonstrate that inhibition of ROS blocks the nicotine-induced increase in arterial reactivity and BP response to vasoconstrictors in adult offspring, suggesting a key role for increased oxidative stress in nicotine-induced developmental programming of hypertensive phenotype in male offspring.

  7. Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of ketoprofen on rats submitted to permanent focal brain ischemia Avaliação do efeito neuroprotetor do cetoprofeno em ratos submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal permanente

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    Manoel Nunes da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the neurobehavioral, biochemical and histopathological consequences of permanent focal brain ischemia, and the putative neuroprotective action of ketoprofen. METHOD: One-hundred-and-three Wistar rats divided into groups A and B were respectively submitted to 48 hours and 15 days of ischemia. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups: ischemic not treated, ischemic treated, sham not treated, and sham treated. Ischemic animals had the left middle cerebral artery coagulated. Ketoprofen was administered to treated subgroups 15 minutes before arterial coagulation (manipulation in the sham group. RESULTS: Exploratory activity and defecation were reduced in all ischemic animals in the first postoperative days and constant histopathological changes were observed in each group. The total brain glutamate levels were higher in treated animals 48 hours after surgery. CONCLUSION: No clear parallelism among behavioral, biochemical and histopathological findings was observed. Ketoprofen demonstrated no neuroprotective effect on the behavioral or histopathological aspects of focal permanent brain ischemia.OBJETIVO: Estudar as conseqüências comportamentais, bioquímicas e histopatológicas da isquemia cerebral focal permanente e o possível efeito neuroprotetor do cetoprofeno. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 103 ratos Wistar, divididos em grupos A e B, submetidos, respectivamente, a 48 horas e a 15 dias de isquemia. Cada grupo foi dividido em 4 subgrupos: isquêmico não tratado; isquêmico tratado; sham não tratado; sham tratado. Nos animais isquêmicos foi coagulada a artéria cerebral média esquerda. Os subgrupos tratados receberam cetoprofeno 15 minutos antes da oclusão ou manipulação arterial. RESULTADOS: Os animais isquêmicos reduziram a atividade exploratória e as evacuações nos primeiros dias pós-operatórios e mostraram alterações histopatológicas constantes em cada grupo. As concentrações do glutamato total 48 horas após a

  8. Potencialização do efeito metemoglobinizante da dapsona em ratos pela N-acetilcisteína Potentiation of dapsone induced methemoglobinemia by N-acetylcysteine in rats

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    Natália Valadares de Moraes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dapsona (DDS (4,4'diaminodifenilsulfona, fármaco de escolha para o tratamento da hanseníase, freqüentemente induz anemia hemolítica e metemoglobinemia. A N-hidroxilação, uma de suas principais vias de biotransformação, é constantemente relacionada com a metemoglobinemia observada com o uso do fármaco. Com o objetivo de prevenir a hemotoxicidade induzida pela DDS, N-acetilcisteína, fármaco precursor de glutationa, foi administrada em associação com DDS em ratos machos Wistar pesando 220-240 g. Os animais foram anestesiados e o sangue coletado da aorta para determinação da concentração plasmática de DDS por CLAE, determinação dos níveis de metemoglobina e de glutationa eritrocitária por espectrofotometria, e avaliação de parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a N-acetilcisteína potenciou o efeito metemoglobinizante da dapsona devido ao aumento de sua concentração plasmática e conseqüente aumento da formação da N-hidroxilamina. Concluímos que as interações medicamentosas com a dapsona exigem estudos individualizados a fim de evitar os efeitos adversos do fármaco.Dapsone (DDS (4,4'diaminodiphenylsulfone, the drug of choice for the treatment of leprosy, frequently induces hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia. N-hydroxylation, one of the major pathways of biotransformation, has been constantly related to the methemoglobinemia after the use of the drug. In order to prevent the dapsone-induced hemotoxicity, N-acetylcysteine, a drug precursor of glutathione, was administered in combination with DDS to male Wistar rats, weighting 220-240 g. The animals were then anaesthetized and blood was collected from the aorta for determination of plasma DDS concentration by HPLC, determination of methemoglobinemia and glutathione by spectrophotometry, and for biochemical and hematological parameters. Our results showed that N-acetylcysteine enhanced dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia due to

  9. Efeitos do chá de orégano (Origanum vulgare no perfil bioquímico de ratos Wistar = Effects of oregano (Origanum vulgare tea on the biochemical profile of Wistar rats

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    Coqueiro, Daniel Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Conclusões: O estudo dos efeitos do chá de orégano em ratos sugere que essa planta pode ter efeitos benéficos na manutenção da glicemia. Propõe-se que mais estudos clínicos sejam realizados com diferentes concentrações e períodos de tempo

  10. Efeitos da aplicação do laser de baixa potência na regeneração do nervo isquiático de ratos Effects of low-power laser on injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration

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    Renata Batagini Gonçalves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os nervos periféricos sofrem constantes lesões de origem traumática, o que resulta em perdas funcionais. A terapia com laser de baixa potência vem sendo utilizada para minimizar os efeitos maléficos da inflamação e acelerar o processo de cicatrização dos tecidos lesados. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da irradiação do laser 830 nm no comportamento do nervo isquiático de ratos submetido a esmagamento. Foram utilizados 20 ratos, todos tendo tido o nervo isquiático esmagado, divididos em 4 grupos (n=5: P7 e P14, tratamento placebo por 7 e 14 dias; L7 e L14, tratamento por laser (dosagem de 4 J/cm² por 7 e 14 dias. Os animais dos grupos P7 e P14 foram submetidos aos mesmos procedimentos, mas com o laser desligado. Os parâmetros analisados foram presença de infiltrado inflamatório e fibroblastos, destruição da bainha de mielina e degeneração axonal. Na análise estatística foi observada diferença estatística com relação a três parâmetros: os animais do grupo L14 apresentaram maior quantidade de fibroblastos (p=0,0001, menor degeneração da bainha de mielina (p=0,007 e menor quantidade de infiltrado inflamatório (p=0,001. A aplicação do laser de baixa potência contribuiu para a redução do processo inflamatório decorrente da lesão do nervo isquiático de ratos.Peripheral nerves are commonly subject to traumatic injuries, leading to functional loss. Low-power laser therapy has been used in order to minimize harmful effects of inflammation and to accelerate healing of injured tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 830 nm-laser irradiation on rat sciatic nerves submitted to crush. Twenty male Wistar rats had their sciatic nerve crushed and were divided into 4 groups (n=5: Sham7 and Sham14, placebo-treated for 7 and 14 days; L7 and L14, laser-treated (at 4 J/cm² for 7 and 14 days. Sham group animals were submitted to the same procedures, but with the laser turned off. Assessed

  11. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  12. TIME COURSE OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL CARBOFURAN, FORMETANATE, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL ON PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); ...

  13. Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

  14. Effect of neonatal or adult heat acclimation on testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production in rats.

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    Kurowicka, B; Dietrich, G J; Kotwica, G

    2015-03-01

    The accessory gland weight, testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production were analyzed in four groups of rats housed at 20 or 34°C: (1) control rats (CR) kept at 20°C from birth to day 90; (2) adult heat-acclimated rats (AHA) kept at 20°C from birth to day 45 followed by 34°C to day 90; (3) neonatal heat-acclimated rats (NHA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 90 and (4) de-acclimated rats (DA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 45 followed by 20°C to day 90. In NHA and DA rats, accessory gland weight was higher than in controls. Despite the lack of differences in testicular and epididymal morphometry, curvilinear velocity of spermatozoa was lower in the NHA group compared to controls. Areas of seminiferous tubules were lower in the DA than in CR and NHA groups, however, sperm concentration and motility were not affected by the treatment in this group. In AHA rats, epithelium of approximately 20% of seminiferous tubules was degenerated and Sertoli cell number was lower in the remaining tubules. In contrast to sperm motility, epididymal duct area, area of the duct occupied by spermatozoa and cauda epididymis sperm concentration were lower in AHA rats than in the other groups. In conclusion, neonatal heat acclimation did not affect the testicular morphometry and epididymal sperm concentration, suggesting adjustment to high ambient temperature. On the contrary, adult heat acclimation of rats affected the examined parameters, leading to decreased sperm concentration.

  15. Adult and embryonic GAD transcripts are spatiotemporally regulated during postnatal development in the rat brain.

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    Anke Popp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD. GAD exists in two adult isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67. During embryonic brain development at least two additional transcripts exist, I-80 and I-86, which are distinguished by insertions of 80 or 86 bp into GAD67 mRNA, respectively. Though it was described that embryonic GAD67 transcripts are not detectable during adulthood there are evidences suggesting re-expression under certain pathological conditions in the adult brain. In the present study we systematically analyzed for the first time the spatiotemporal distribution of different GADs with emphasis on embryonic GAD67 mRNAs in the postnatal brain using highly sensitive methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: QPCR was used to precisely investigate the postnatal expression level of GAD related mRNAs in cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb of rats from P1 throughout adulthood. Within the first three postnatal weeks the expression of both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNAs reached adult levels in hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. The olfactory bulb showed by far the highest expression of GAD65 as well as GAD67 transcripts. Embryonic GAD67 splice variants were still detectable at birth. They continuously declined to barely detectable levels during postnatal development in all investigated regions with exception of a comparatively high expression in the olfactory bulb. Radioactive in situ hybridizations confirmed the occurrence of embryonic GAD67 transcripts in the olfactory bulb and furthermore detected their localization mainly in the subventricular zone and the rostral migratory stream. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Embryonic GAD67 transcripts can hardly be detected in the adult brain, except for specific regions associated with neurogenesis and high synaptic plasticity. Therefore a functional role in processes like proliferation, migration or

  16. AT1-receptor mediated vascular damage in myocardium, kidneys and liver in rats Lesão vascular mediada pelo receptor AT1 esses efeitos em miocárdio, rins e fígado de ratos

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    Maria do Carmo Fernandez Vailati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The systemic aspect of vascular damage induced by angiotensin II (ANG II has been poorly explored in the literature. Considering the presence of ANG II and its specific receptor AT1, in several organs, all tissues might be potentially affected by its effects. The aims of this study were: To evaluate the early histological changes in the heart, liver and kidneys, produced by ANG II infusion, to evaluate the protective effect of losartan. Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control (no treatment, treated with ANG II, and treated with ANG II + losartan. ANG II was continuously infused over 72 hours by subcutaneous osmotic pumps. Histological sections of the myocardium, kidneys and liver were stained and observed for the presence of necrosis. There were ANG II-induced perivascular inflammation and necrosis of the arteriolar wall in the myocardium, kidney, and liver by, which were partially prevented by losartan. There was no significant correlation between heart and kidney damage. Tissue lesion severity was lower than that of vascular lesions, without statistical difference between groups. ANG II causes vascular injury in the heart, kidneys and liver, indicating a systemic vasculotoxic effect; the mechanisms of damage/protection vary depending on the target organ; perivascular lesions may occur even when anti-hypertensive doses of losartan are used.O aspecto sistêmico da lesão vascular induzida pela angiotensina II (ANG II tem sido pouco explorada na literatura. Considerando a presença de ANG II e de seu receptor AT1 em diversos órgãos, todos os tecidos poderiam ser potencialmente afetados por esses efeitos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar as alterações histológicas iniciais no coração, fígado e rins, produzidas pela infusão de ANG II, e avaliar o efeito protetor do losartan. Ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: controle (sem tratamento, tratados com ANG II, e tratados com ANG II + losartan. A ANG II foi

  17. Effects of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment on social interactions and opioid receptors in adult rats: behavioural and autoradiographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, C L; Van Ree, J M; Spruijt, B M; Kitchen, I

    1999-09-01

    The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment during the isolation period on (social) behaviour and mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in adulthood were investigated by using a social interaction test and in vitro autoradiography in rats. Juvenile isolation reduced social exploration in adults. Morphine treatment counteracted this reduction in isolated rats, but decreased social exploration in nonisolated rats. Self-grooming and nonsocial exploration were enhanced after juvenile isolation. Morphine treatment had no effect on self-grooming, but suppressed nonsocial exploration in isolated rats. With respect to the opioid receptors, juvenile isolation resulted in regiospecific increases in mu-binding sites with a 58% increase in the basolateral amygdala and a 33% increase in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Morphine treatment in isolated rats reversed this upregulation in both areas. The number of delta-binding sites did not differ between the experimental groups. A general upregulation of kappa-binding sites was observed after juvenile isolation, predominantly in the cortical regions, the hippocampus and the substantia nigra. Morphine treatment did not affect the upregulation of kappa-receptors. The results show that juvenile isolation during the play period causes long-term effects on social and nonsocial behaviours and on the number of mu- and kappa- but not delta-opioid receptors in distinct brain areas. The number of mu-receptors in the basolateral amygdala appears to be negatively correlated with the amount of social exploration in adult rats.

  18. Effect of light-dark changes on the locomotor activity in open field in adult rats and opossums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejbor, I; Ludkiewicz, B; Turlejski, K

    2013-11-01

    There have been no reports on how the light-dark changes determine the locomotor activity of animals in the group of high reactivity (HR) and low reactivity (LR). In the present study we have compared selected parameters of the locomotor activity of the HR and the LR groups of the laboratory opossums and Wistar rats during consecutive, light and dark phases in the open field test. Sixty male Wistar adult rats, at an average weight of 350 g each, and 24 adult Monodelphis opossums of both sexes at an average weight of 120 g each were used. The animals' activity for 2 h daily between the hours of 17:30 and 19:30, in line with the natural light-dark cycle were recorded and then analysed using VideoTrack ver.2.0 (Vievpoint France). According to our results, we noted that a change of the experimental conditions from light to dark involves an increase in the locomotor activity in rats and opossums of the HR group, while there is no effect on the activity of the rats and opossums in the LR group. Locomotor activity in the HR rats, both in the light and dark conditions is characterised by a consistent pattern of change - higher activity in the first stage of the recording and a slowdown (habituation) in the second phase of the observation. The locomotor activity of the opossum, during both light and dark conditions, was observed to be at a consistently high level compared to the rats.

  19. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on pulmonary cell death in a controlled hemorrhagic shock model in rats Efeito da N-acetilcisteína na morte celular pulmonar em um modelo de choque hemorrágico controlado em ratos

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    Paulo Fernandes Saad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC combined with fluid resuscitation on pulmonary cell death in rats induced with controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS. METHODS: Two arteries (MAP calculation and exsanguination and one vein (treatments were catheterized in 22 anesthetized rats. Two groups of male albino rats were induced with controlled HS at 35mmHg MAP for 60 min. After this period, the RL group was resuscitated with Ringer's lactate and the RL+NAC group was resuscitated with Ringer's lactate combined with 150mg/Kg NAC. The control group animals were cannulated only. The animals were euthanized after 120 min of fluid resuscitation. Lung tissue samples were collected to evaluate the following: histopathology, TUNEL and imunohistochemical expression of caspase 3. RESULTS: RL showed a greater number of cells stained by TUNEL than RL + NAC, but there was no change in caspase 3 expression in any group. CONCLUSION: N-acetylcysteine associate to fluid resuscitation, after hemorrhagic shock, decreased cell death attenuating lung injury.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da N-acetilcisteína (NAC combinada ao fluido de reposição volêmica na morte celular pulmonar de ratos submetidos ao choque hemorrágico (CH controlado. MÉTODOS: Duas artérias (cálculo da PAM e exsanguinação e uma veia (tratamentos foram cateterizadas em 22 ratos anestesiados. Dois grupos de ratos machos albinos foram induzidos ao CH controlado com PAM de 35mmHg por 60 min. Após este período, o grupo RL foi ressuscitado com Ringer lactato e o grupo RL+NAC foi ressuscitado com Ringer lactato associado com 150mg/Kg de NAC. O grupo controle sofreu somente o procedimento cirúrgico de cateterização. Os animais sofreram eutanásia após 120 min. da ressuscitação. Amostras de tecido pulmonar foram coletadas para histopatologia, TUNEL e a imuno-expressão da caspase 3. RESULTADOS: RL apresentou maior número de células marcadas pelo TUNEL do que RL+NAC, porém sem

  20. O efeito do estrógeno nas reservas glicogênicas de musculoesqueléticos desnervados de ratas The estrogen effect on glycogen reserves of denervated skeletal muscles of female rats

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    MTM Severi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito muscular do estrógeno em ratas submetidas à desnervação de membro posterior. MÉTODO: Ratas Wistar foram divididas em 5 grupos (n=6: Controle, Desnervado 7 dias, Desnervado 15 dias, Desnervado tratado com estrógeno (200µg/rato, via subcutânea, diariamente durante 7 dias e Desnervado tratado com estrógeno durante 15 dias. Após os períodos experimentais, foi realizada a avaliação de glicogênio (GLI dos músculos sóleo (S, gastrocnêmio branco (GB e vermelho (GV, além da avaliação do peso do sóleo. A análise estatística foi feita através do teste de normalidade, ANOVA e teste de Tukey (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of estrogen on muscles in female rats subjected to hindlimb denervation. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6: control; denervated 7 days; denervated 15 days; denervated treated with estrogen (200µg/rat, subcutaneously, daily for 7 days; and denervated treated with estrogen for 15 days. After the experimental periods, glycogen (GLY evaluations were performed on the soleus (S, white gastrocnemius (WG and red gastrocnemius (RG, and the soleus was weighed. The statistical analysis was performed using the normality test, ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05. RESULTS: The denervation caused a reduction (p<0.05 in GLY over a 7-day period (S: 44%, WG: 32%; RG: 32% and 15-day period (S: 62%, WG: 44%; RG: 53%, and also S weight reduction (7 days: 29.7%; 15 days: 36.6%. However, the estrogen treatment caused elevation (p<0.05 of GLY under this condition, both over 7 days (S: 19%; WG: 60%; RG: 18% and over 15 days (S: 52%; WG: 51%; RG: 11%, but it was not enough to minimize the muscle weight reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with low doses of estrogen minimized the metabolic alterations induced by denervation, but it was not effective in interfering in the weight loss of the soleus muscle. This suggests that the hormone acts by enabling chemical-metabolic protection that

  1. Effects of budesonide and probiotics enemas on the colonic mucosa of rats with experimental colitis Efeito de enemas contendo budesonida e probióticos na mucosa colonica de ratos com colite experimental

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    Mardem Machado de Souza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of enemas containing probiotics and budesonide on the colonic mucosa in experimental colitis. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats with experimental colitis induced by 10% acetic acid enema were randomized to five groups (10 rats each according to the treatment: group 1 - saline solution, group 2 - budesonide (0.75 mg/kg/day, group 3 - probiotics (1mg/day, group 4 - probiotics plus budesonide, and group 5 - control, with not-treated rats. The following variables were studied: body weight, macroscopic and microscopic score of the colonic mucosa, and DNA content of the mucosa. RESULTS: All animals lost weight between the beginning and the end of the experiment (280+ 16 mg versus 249+21 mg, pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da administração retal de probióticos e budesonida na mucosa colônica de ratos com colite experimental. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta ratos Wistar com colite experimental induzida pelo ácido acético à 10% foram randomizados em 5 grupos (n=10 por grupo para diferentes tratamentos: grupo 1 - solução fisiológica; grupo 2 - budesonida (0,75mg/kg/dia; grupo 3 - probióticos (1 g/dia; grupo 4 - probióticos associados a budesonida; e finalmente grupo 5 - controle, composto por ratos sem tratamento. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: peso corporal, aspecto macroscópico e microscópico da mucosa e conteúdo de DNA da mucosa colônica. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais perderam peso entre o início e o fim do experimento (280±16 vs 249±21g; p<0.001. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos em relação a macroscopia e histologia. O grupo budesonida + probiótico apresentou conteúdo de DNA maior que o grupo controle (1,24±0,15 versus 0,92±0,30 g/100g de tecido; p=0,01. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de budesonida com probióticos acelera o trofismo mucoso na colite experimental.

  2. Efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação no desempenho muscular isocinético em idosos Effects of different rest intervals on isokinetic muscle performance among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ernesto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação (IR entre séries de contração isocinética no desempenho muscular em idosos. MÉTODOS: Vinte idosos voluntários (66,9±3,9 anos, 76,1±13,4kg, 169±5,2cm foram submetidos a três sessões de exercício resistido isocinético unilateral da musculatura extensora do joelho com diferentes IR (1 minuto, 2 minutos, e 3 minutos na velocidade de 60°•s-1. Cada sessão consistia em três séries de 10 repetições durante as quais foram avaliados o pico de torque (PT, trabalho total (TT e índice de fadiga (IF. ANOVA fatorial para medidas repetidas, com a análise de Post hoc por Bonferroni, foi utilizada para identificar possíveis diferenças entre os IR. O nível de significância estatístico utilizado foi de p0,05. Apesar de ter sido observado menor desempenho muscular na 3ª série em todos os IR, maiores quedas no PT, TT e IF foram observadas quando adotado o IR de 1minuto (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI between sets of isokinetic contractions on muscle performance in older adults. METHODS: Twenty older participants (66.9±3.9 years; 76.1±13.4kg; 169±5.2cm underwent three sessions of unilateral isokinetic training for the knee extensor muscles, with different RI (1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes at an angular velocity of 60°•s-1. Each session consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions, during which the peak torque (PT, total work (TW and fatigue index (FI were evaluated. Factorial ANOVA for repeated measurements, with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, was used to identify possible differences between the RI. The statistical significance level was set at p0.05. Although muscle performance was lower during the third sets with all RI, the greatest decreases in PT, TW and FI occurred with the 1 minute RI (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the RI variable has an important influence on isokinetic muscle performance in older

  3. Acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles cause DNA damage in the cerebral cortex of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Eria; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Zanoni, Elton Torres; de Souza Notoya, Frederico; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Daumann, Francine; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Ortiz; Benavides, Roberto; da Silva, Luciano; Andrade, Vanessa M; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques

    2014-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles is increasing in medicine; however, their toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Studies show that gold nanoparticles can cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as accumulate in the brain. Therefore, this study was undertaken to better understand the effects of gold nanoparticles on rat brains. DNA damage parameters were evaluated in the cerebral cortex of adult rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles of two different diameters: 10 and 30nm. During acute administration, adult rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of either gold nanoparticles or saline solution. During chronic administration, adult rats received a daily single injection for 28 days of the same gold nanoparticles or saline solution. Twenty-four hours after either single (acute) or last injection (chronic), the rats were euthanized by decapitation, their brains removed, and the cerebral cortices isolated for evaluation of DNA damage parameters. Our study showed that acute administration of gold nanoparticles in adult rats presented higher levels of damage frequency and damage index in their DNA compared to the control group. It was also observed that gold nanoparticles of 30nm presented higher levels of damage frequency and damage index in the DNA compared to the 10nm ones. When comparing the effects of chronic administration of gold nanoparticles of 10 and 30nm, we observed that occurred significant different index and frequency damage, comparing with control group. However, there is no difference between the 10 and 30nm groups in the levels of DNA damage for both parameters of the Comet assay. Results suggest that gold nanoparticles for both sizes cause DNA damage for chronic as well as acute treatments, although a higher damage was observed for the chronic one.

  4. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Ch. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: meinecke@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 {mu}m thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 {mu}m) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques.

  5. ACQUISITION OF FREEZING RESPONSE IN RATS: SEX DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vargas-Irwin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian fear conditioning is one of the most popular preclinical models in the studyof Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The aim of the present research wasexplore the sex differences that characterize PTSD by means of this experimentalparadigm, as well as to offer a preliminary description of how these sex differencesbehave throughout development. Forty five naïve rats, of Wistar descent were usedas subjects, with 18 males and 27 females approximately balanced by litter acrossthe two experimental groups: adolescents and adults. The results show significantdifferences in the second measurement of the conditioned stimulus in the interactionbetween sex and age and to compare the tree measurements of the conditionedstimulus. Results are discussed regarding the discrepancies in the literature regardingthe effect of the variables evaluated in the acquisition of Conditioned fear.

  6. Systemic physiology and neuroapoptotic profiles in young and adult rats exposed to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Rami Mossad; Krammer, Caspar Weel; Hansen, Tom Giedsing;

    2015-01-01

    to one of four anaesthetics regimens: (i) sevoflurane/dexmedetomidine, (ii) sevoflurane/fentanyl; (iii) propofol/dexmedetomidine, and (iv) propofol/fentanyl. Animals underwent a dorsal skin flap procedure while physiologic, metabolic and biochemical parameters were closely monitored. Neuroapoptotic...... of sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine resulted in the highest number of caspase-3 positive cells, although the extent of cell death remained relatively low in all experimental groups. CONCLUSION: Combination of anaesthesia and surgery induces significant perturbations of physiological parameters in both young...... and adult spontaneously breathing rats undergoing surgery. These observations further enlighten the need for detailed physiological monitoring under these experimental conditions. Although some statistically significant differences in activated caspase-3 profiles were detected between experimental groups...

  7. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied methods that are state of the art in regard to stereological cell counting methods. Using a validated rat model of depression in combination with a clinically relevant schedule of electroconvulsive stimulation, we estimated the total number...... induces depression-like behavior, without significantly changing neurogenesis, the total number of neurons or the volume of the hippocampus. Further, electroconvulsive stimulation prevents stress-induced depression-like behavior and increases neurogenesis. The total number of neurons and the granule cell...

  8. Dissociable effects of ethanol consumption during the light and dark phase in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brendan M; Walker, Jennifer L; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2008-03-01

    In adolescence, high levels of drinking over short episodes (binge drinking) is commonly seen in a proportion of the population. Because adolescence is an important neurodevelopmental period, the effects of binge drinking on brain and behavior has become a significant health concern. However, robust animal models of binge drinking in rats are still being developed and therefore further efforts are needed to optimize paradigms for inducing maximal self-administration of alcohol. In the present experiment, 1-h limited-access self-administration sessions were instituted to model excessive drinking behavior in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. In addition to age, the involvement of sex and phase within the light/dark cycle (i.e., drinking in the light or dark) on sweetened 5% ethanol intake were also evaluated over 14 limited-access sessions using a between-groups design. The results of the experiment showed that over 14 limited-access sessions, sweetened ethanol intake (g/kg) was significantly higher for adolescents compared to adults. Females were also found to drink more sweetened ethanol as compared to males. Additionally, drinking in the light produced a robust increase in sweetened ethanol intake (g/kg) in adolescents, as compared to adults during the light phase and as compared to both adolescent and adult rats drinking in the dark. Furthermore, the increase in ethanol consumption observed in adolescents drinking during the light phase was dissociable from sweetened solution intake patterns. These results identify that age, sex, and time of day all significantly influence consumption of sweetened ethanol in Wistar rats. Knowledge of these parameters should be useful for future experiments attempting to evaluate the effects of self-administered ethanol exposure in adult and adolescent rats.

  9. Behavioral differences between late preweanling and adult female Sprague-Dawley rat exploration of animate and inanimate stimuli and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kiersten S; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-03-01

    The late preweanling rat has potential as a preclinical model for disorders initially manifested in early childhood that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism). No reports, however, of specific-stimulus exploration in the late preweanling rat are found in the literature. We examined the behavioral responses of normal late preweanling (PND 18-19) and adult rats when presented with exemplars of categorically-varied stimuli, including inanimate objects systematically varied in size and interactive properties, biological stimuli, and food. Preweanlings were faster to initiate specific stimulus exploration and were more interactive with most specific stimuli than adults; the magnitude of these preweanling-adult quantitative differences ranged from fairly small to very large depending upon the stimulus. In contrast, preweanlings were adult-like in their interaction with food and prey. Preweanling response to some stimuli, for example to live pups, was qualitatively different from that of adults; the preweanling behavioral repertoire was characterized by pup-seeking while the adult response was characterized by pup-avoidance. The specific stimulus interactions of preweanlings were less impacted than those of adults by the time of day of testing and placement of a stimulus in an anxiety-provoking location. The impact of novelty was stimulus dependent. The differences in interactions of preweanlings versus adults with specific stimuli suggests that CNS systems underlying these behavior patterns are at different stages of immaturity at PND 18 such that there may be an array of developmental trajectories for various categories of specific stimuli. These data provide a basis for the use of the preweanling as a preclinical model for understanding and medicating human disorders during development that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli.

  10. Effect of short-term ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate pretreatment on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats Efeitos do pré-tratamento em curto prazo com ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato na isquemia-reperfusão intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Silvio Gouveia Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of preventive enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomized into five groups (G1-G5, n = 12. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6 and treated with calcium carbonate (CaCa or OKG by gavage. Thirty minutes later, the animals were anesthetized with xylazine 15mg + ketamine 1mg ip and subjected to laparotomy. G1-G3 rats served as controls. Rats in groups G4 and G5 were subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes. Ischemia was achieved by clamping the small intestine and its mesentery, delimiting a segment of bowel 5 cm long and 5 cm apart from the ileocecal valve. In addition, G5 rats underwent reperfusion for 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected at the end of the laparotomy (G1, after 30 minutes (G2, G4 and 60 minutes (G3, G5 to determine concentrations of metabolites (pyruvate, lactate, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and glutathione (GSH. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in tissue pyruvate and lactate and plasma CPK levels in OKG-treated rats at the end of reperfusion period. GSH levels did not change significantly in ischemia and reperfusion groups. However, TBARS levels increased significantly (pOBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da administração enteral preventiva de ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato (OKG em modelo de isquemia-reperfusão no rato. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos foram randomizados em cinco grupos (G1-G5, n=12. Cada grupo foi redistribuído em dois subgrupos (n=6 e tratado com carbonato de cálcio (CaCa ou OKG por gavagem. Trinta minutos mais tarde, os animais foram anestesiados com xilazina 1mg+cetamina 15mg i.p. e submetidos à laparotomia. Os ratos dos grupos G4-G5 foram submetidos à isquemia por 30 minutos. A isquemia foi obtida por pinçamento do intestino delgado, delimitando um segmento com 5 cm de comprimento e distando 5 cm da válvula ileocecal. O

  11. Toxicity Induced after Subchronic Administration of the Synthetic Food Dye Tartrazine in Adult Rats, Role of Oxidative Stress

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    Narges El Golli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxic potential of tartrazine, a food color, in different tissues in adult rat: blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen. Tartrazine was administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight to adult male Wistar rats during a period of 30 days. Tartrazine treatment led to an increase in platelets count, a reduction in peripheral lymphocytes and in spleen T CD8-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tartrazine increased the activities of hepatocellular enzymes and promoted changes in kidney biomarkers. In order to explore the possible mechanism involved, oxidative-stress assessment was performed. Results identified critical oxidative alterations in all tested organs, as shown by the promotion of lipid peroxidation and the modification of endogenous antioxidant-defense enzymes. Thus, tartrazine is able to induce in adult rats’ hematotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and liver and kidney injuries by changing the whole balance between oxidants and antioxidants.

  12. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenti, AnnMarie E; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 microg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P<0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P<0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor beta was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P<0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P<0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  13. Response of ependymal progenitors to spinal cord injury or enhanced physical activity in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Dasa; Nagyova, Miriam; Slovinska, Lucia; Novotna, Ivana; Radonak, Jozef; Cizek, Milan; Mechirova, Eva; Tomori, Zoltan; Hlucilova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Sulla, Igor; Vanicky, Ivo

    2009-09-01

    Ependymal cells (EC) in the spinal cord central canal (CC) are believed to be responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis following pathological or stimulatory conditions. In this study, we have analyzed the proliferation of the CC ependymal progenitors in adult rats processed to compression SCI or enhanced physical activity. To label dividing cells, a single daily injection of Bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered over a 14-day-survival period. Systematic quantification of BrdU-positive ependymal progenitors was performed by using stereological principles of systematic, random sampling, and optical Dissector software. The number of proliferating BrdU-labeled EC increased gradually with the time of survival after both paradigms, spinal cord injury, or increased physical activity. In the spinal cord injury group, we have found 4.9-fold (4 days), 7.1-fold (7 days), 4.9-fold (10 days), and 5.6-fold (14 days) increase of proliferating EC in the rostro-caudal regions, 4 mm away from the epicenter. In the second group subjected to enhanced physical activity by running wheel, we have observed 2.1-2.6 fold increase of dividing EC in the thoracic spinal cord segments at 4 and 7 days, but no significant progression at 10-14 days. Nestin was rapidly induced in the ependymal cells of the CC by 2-4 days and expression decreased by 7-14 days post-injury. Double immunohistochemistry showed that dividing cells adjacent to CC expressed astrocytic (GFAP, S100beta) or nestin markers at 14 days. These data demonstrate that SCI or enhanced physical activity in adult rats induces an endogenous ependymal cell response leading to increased proliferation and differentiation primarily into macroglia or cells with nestin phenotype.

  14. Urea production in long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Santoyo, A; López, M L; Hernández, A; Mendoza-Figueroa, T

    1994-04-01

    To study the functionality of the urea cycle in long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes, urea production and the activity of two urea cycle enzymes were measured in hepatocytes cultured on 3T3 cells for 15 days. Urea production was also measured in cultures maintained with medium containing either 0.4 mm arginine or 0.4 mm ornithine and in cultures exposed to different concentrations of NH(4)Cl, an in vivo inducer of urea production. In hepatocytes seeded on 3T3 cells, urea production decreased gradually to 50% of the initial value after 15 days. Urea production was similar in 3T3-hepatocyte cultures maintained for 11 days with medium containing ornithine or arginine. Hepatocytes exposed for 24 hr to 1, 3 and 5 mm NH(4)Cl showed an average increase in urea production of 25, 50 and 69%, respectively, above that of unexposed cultures over 15 days. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) activity decreased by 84% after 5 days in culture and remained constant thereafter, while arginase activity remained constant over 15 days. In contrast, in hepatocytes seeded on plastic substratum, urea production decreased to 24% of the initial value after 8 days in culture. OTC and arginase activities also decreased to 13 and 10% of their initial values after 8 days in culture. These results show that 3T3-hepatocyte cultures from adult rats produce urea from ornithine and/or arginine for at least 15 days and respond to an inducer of urea production as in vivo. They also show that these cultures have decreasing and constant levels of OTC and arginase activities, respectively, owing probably to an adaptative response dependent on substrate concentrations and hormonal regulation. These findings also suggest that 3T3-hepatocyte cultures are a suitable in vitro system to study urea production, its regulation by substrates and hormones and its alteration by drugs and toxic chemicals.

  15. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

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    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PLASTICITY OF PROLIFERATED NEURAL STEM CELLS IN ADULT RATS AFTER CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Ren-zhi Wang; Zhi-gang Lian; Yang Song; Yong Yao

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there is endogenous neural stem cell proliferation and whether these proliferated neural stem cells represent neural plasticity in the adult rats after cerebral infarction.Methods Cerebral infarction models of rats were established and the dynamic expression of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), BrdU/polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. BrdU was used to mark dividing neural stem cells. PSA-NCAM was used to mark the plasticity of neural stem cells.Results Compared with controls, the number of BrdU-positive cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampus increased significantly at 1st day after cerebral infarction (P<0.05), reached maximum at 7th day, decreased markedly at 14th day, but it was still elevated compared with that of the controls (P<0.05). The number of BrdU-labeled with PSA-NCAM-positive cells increased significantly at 7th day (P<0.05 ), reached maximum at 14th day,markedly decreased at 28th day, but it was still elevated compared with that of the controls (P<0.05). It was equal to 60% of the number of BrdU-positive cells in the same period.Conclusion Cerebral infarction may stimulate the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in situ and most proliferated neural stem cells represent neural plasticity.

  17. Methoxychlor induced biochemical alterations and disruption of spermatogenesis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Azhar, Ahmad S

    2013-09-01

    Adult male albino rats were treated orally with methoxychlor at doses of 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 15 consecutive days. Testicular weight, sperm count and motility were significantly decreased. Methoxychlor at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity, while plasma testosterone was significantly decrease by the three dose levels in a dose-related pattern. Testicular activities of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, SDH were significantly decreased, while ACP, ALP (except for 50 mg/kg), and LDH were significantly increased. H2O2 production and LPO were significantly increased while the enzymic (SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymic antioxidants (thiol content) were significantly decreased. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in a dose related manner. The findings of this study indicate that methoxychlor induces oxidative stress associated with impairment of spermatogenesis, in addition to apoptosis. These data provide insight into the mode of action of methoxychlor-induced toxicity in the rat testis.

  18. The effects of synthetic salmon calcitonin on thyroid C and follicular cells in adult female rats

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    M. Manojlovic-Stojanoski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural and morphometric features of thyroid C and follicular cells were studied in adult rat females after treatment with synthetic salmon calcitonin (CT. The animals were chronically treated with either a low (10 IU/kg b.w or a high (100 IU/kg b.w dose of CT. A stereological method was applied to determine the volume density and the number of immunoreactive C cells. The height and volume density of follicular epithelium, colloid, interstitium and the follicles (epithelium plus colloid, as well as the index of activation rate were calculated. A significant decrease in body weight, as well as the volume density of immunoreactive C cells and the number of C cells per mm2, was observed in rats treated with both doses of CT. The height and volume density of follicular epithelium and follicles, as well as the index of activation rate were significantly increased in the animals given the high CT dose, while the volume densities of colloid and interstitium were reduced. No significant changes in the examined morphometric parameters were detected after treatment with the low CT dose. According to these results it can be concluded that the structural features of thyroid C and follicular cells were affected by the high dose CT treatment in the opposite manner, while the low dose CT treatment influenced only C cells.

  19. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  20. Effect of Camphor on Pituitary-Gonadal Hormonal Axis and Oogenesis in Adult Female Rats

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    Habibollah Johari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Camphor stimulates the nervous system and the circulatory system, reduces lactation, and prevents conception and embryo embedding. We investigated the effects of camphor on the pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis and concentration of steroidal hormones.   Materials & Methods: The parameters investigated were concentrations of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Forty adult female rats at a mean weight of 180 ± 20 grams were divided into five groups. Camphor solution was prepared in olive oil at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg doses, and 0.2 cc injections were done intraperitoneally every day for 2 weeks. The control group received no injection. The sham group received olive oil (as solvent of camphor and treatment groups of 1, 2, and 3 received doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. The treatment groups were sacrificed one day after the last injection, and their hearts were dissected and blood samples were obtained. The concentrations of the hormones were measured by the ELISA test, and the results were evaluated via the t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan.   Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of testosterone and progesterone (p value < 0.05 and a significant increase in the concentrations of LH and FSH (p value <0.05.   Conclusion: Camphor augmented oogenesis via effecting a rise in the concentrations of LH and FSH in our rats.

  1. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

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    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  2. Expression and role of PAK6 after spinal cord injury in adult rat

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    CHEN Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To observe p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6 expression and its possible role after spinal cord injury (SCI in adult rat. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to spinal cord injury. To explore the pathological and physiological significance of PAK6, the expression patterns and distribution of PAK6 were observed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Western blot analysis showed PAK6 protein level was significantly up-regulated on day 2 and day 4, then reduced and had no up-regulation till day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the expression of PAK6 was significantly increased on day 4 compared with the control group. Besides, double immunofluorescence staining showed PAK6 was primarily expressed in the neurons and astrocytes in the control group. While after injury, the expression of PAK6 was increased significantly in the astrocytes and neurons, and the astrocytes were largely proliferated. We also examined the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and found its change was correlated with the expression of PAK6. Importantly, double immunofluorescence staining revealed that cell proliferation evaluated by PCNA appeared in many PAK6-expressing cells on day 4 after injury. Conclusion: The up-regulation of PAK6 in the injured spinal cord may be associated with glial proliferation. Key words: PAK6 protein, human; p21-activated kinases; Spinal cord injury; Astrocytes

  3. Adult-age inflammatory pain experience enhances long-term pain vigilance in rats.

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    Sheng-Guang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous animal studies have illustrated a modulatory effect of neonatal pain experience on subsequent pain-related behaviors. However, the relationship between chronic pain status in adulthood and future pain perception remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we investigated the effects of inflammatory pain experience on subsequent formalin-evoked pain behaviors and fear conditioning induced by noxious stimulation in adult rats. Our results demonstrated an increase of the second but not the first phase of formalin-induced pain behaviors in animals with a history of inflammatory pain that have recovered. Similarly, rats with persistent pain experience displayed facilitated acquisition and prolonged retention of pain-related conditioning. These effects of prior pain experience on subsequent behavior were prevented by repeated morphine administration at an early stage of inflammatory pain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that chronic pain diseases, if not properly and promptly treated, may have a long-lasting impact on processing and perception of environmental threats. This may increase the susceptibility of patients to subsequent pain-related disorders, even when chronic pain develops in adulthood. These data highlight the importance of treatment of chronic pain at an early stage.

  4. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease in Adult Rats

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    Adel Jungling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life.

  5. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life. PMID:28216584

  6. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson's Disease in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life.

  7. The effect of calabash chalk on some hematological parameters in female adult Wistar rats

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    Amabe Otoabasi Akpantah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calabash chalk is a naturally occurring mineral consumed among the Nigerian community for pleasure and commonly by pregnant women as a remedy for morning sickness. Reports have shown that it contains different toxic substances, with lead being the most abundant. This study was therefore undertaken to ascertain the effect of two commonly available preparations of this chalk on some hematological parameters.Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats with average weight of 100 g were assigned into three groups (1, 2, 3. Group 1 served as the control and the animals received distilled water, while Groups 2 and 3 were treated by oral gavage with 40 mg/kg of non-salted (NSCC and salted calabash chalk (SCC, respectively, for 14 days.Results: The hemoglobin (Hb concentration and red blood cell (RBC count were significantly (p<0.05, 0.001 respectively lower in the NSCC group, while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the NSCC group compared to the control. There were no significant differences in packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC and platelet (Pl counts compared to the control. The SCC group presented no significant difference in all blood count parameters compared to the control.Conclusion: This infers that calabash chalk, particularly the non-salted form, alters the normal concentration of Hb, RBC and Pl counts, and ESR, as observed in the female Wistar rats studied.

  8. Regulation of molecular components of the synapse in the developing and adult rat superior cervical ganglion

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    Wu, K.; Black, I.B.

    1987-12-01

    Rat superior cervical sympathetic ganglion was used to begin studying the regulation of molecular components of the synapse. Ganglionic postsynaptic densities (PSDs) exhibited a thin, disc-shaped profile electron microscopically, comparable to that described for brain. Moreover, the presumptive ganglionic PSD protein (PSDp) was phosphorylated in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ and calmodulin, bound /sup 125/I-labeled calmodulin, and exhibited a M/sub r/ of 51,000 all characteristic of the major PSD protein of brain. These initial studies indicated that ganglionic PSDp and the major PSD protein of brain are comparable, allowing the study synaptic regulation in the well-defined superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. To obtain enough quantities of ganglionic PSDp, the authors used synaptic membrane fractions. During postnatal development, calmodulin binding to the ganglionic PSDp increased 411-fold per ganglion from birth to 60 days, whereas synaptic membrane protein increased only 4.5-fold. Consequently, different synaptic components apparently develop differently. Moreover, denervation of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion in adult rats caused an 85% decrease in ganglionic PSDp-calmodulin binding, but denervation caused no change in synaptic membrane protein 2 weeks postoperatively. The observations suggest that presynaptic innervation selectively regulates specific molecular components of the postsynaptic membrane structure.

  9. Nanoparticles of Zinc Oxide Reduces Acute Somatic Pain in Adult Female Wistar Rats

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    Mahnaz Kesmati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With appearance of nano particles as an important component in modern medicine, and considering to new properties of these components, study of their effects on human health is essential. Since zinc components influences mechanisms of nociception, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano zinc oxide as a new source of zinc and important components in pharmaceutical and hygienic cosmetic production on nociception in adult female rats. Materials and Methods: Female rats were divided into groups: control (receiving saline 0.9% and receiving nano ZnO (0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg. Hot plate and tail flick tests as models of somatic acute pain were used for evaluation of the pain. The mean of latency time in paw licking and tail withdrawal respectively recorded as nociception indexes in each test for every animal. The animal numbers in each group was seven. Results: In tail flick test, nano ZnO (0.5, 1 mg/kg and in the hot plate test in dose of 0.5 mg/kg, induces significant analgesia (p<0.05 and with increasing of dose reduced its analgesic effect. Conclusion: It seems nano ZnO inhibit the nociception mechanisms and these analgesic properties are more efficient in the low doses. Probably by increasing dose of nano particles aggregation phenomenon prevent of anti-nociception effects of nano ZnO.

  10. Early maternal care predicts reliance on social learning about food in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeyer, Charlotte M; Meaney, Michael J; Reader, Simon M

    2013-03-01

    Many vertebrates rely extensively on social information, but the value of information produced by other individuals will vary across contexts and habitats. Social learning may thus be optimized by the use of developmental or current cues to determine its likely value. Here, we show that a developmental cue, early maternal care, correlates with social learning propensities in adult rodents. The maternal behavior of rats Rattus norvegicus with their litters was scored over the first 6 days postpartum. Rat dams show consistent individual differences in the rate they lick and groom (LG) pups, allowing them to be categorized as high, low, or mid-LG mothers. The 100-day old male offspring of high and low-LG mothers were given the opportunity to learn food preferences for novel diets from conspecifics that had previously eaten these diets ("demonstrators"). Offspring of high-LG mothers socially learned food preferences, but offspring of low-LG mothers did not. We administered oxytocin to subjects to address the hypothesis that it would increase the propensity for social learning, but there were no detectable effects. Our data raise the possibility that social learning propensities may be both relatively stable throughout life and part of a suite of traits "adaptively programmed" by early developmental experiences.

  11. Methoxychlor induces apoptosis via mitochondria- and FasL-mediated pathways in adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithinathan, S; Saradha, B; Mathur, P P

    2010-04-29

    In the past few years, there has been much concern about the adverse health effects of environmental contaminants in general and organochlorine in particular. Studies have shown the repro-toxic effects of long-term exposure to methoxychlor, a member of the organochlorine family. However, the insight into the mechanisms of gonadal toxicity induced by methoxychlor is not well known. In the present study we sought to elucidate the mechanism(s) underpinning the gonadal effects within hours of exposure to methoxychlor. Experimental rats were divided into six groups of four each. Animals were orally administered with a single dose of methoxychlor (50mg/kg body weight) and killed at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72h post-treatment. The levels and time-course of induction of apoptosis-related proteins like cytochorome C, caspase 3 and procaspase 9, Fas-FasL and NF-kappaB were determined to assess sequential induction of apoptosis in the rat testis. DNA damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and flowcytometry. Administration of methoxychlor resulted in a significant increase in the levels of cytosolic cytochrome c and procaspase 9 as early as 6h following exposure. Time-dependent elevations in the levels of Fas, FasL, pro- and cleaved caspase 3 were observed. The DNA damage was measured and showed time-dependent increase in the TUNEL positive cells, and also by flowcytometry of testicular cells. The study demonstrates induction of testicular apoptosis in adult rats following exposure to a single dose of methoxychlor.

  12. Streptozotocin diabetes and insulin resistance impairment of spermatogenesis in adult rat testis: central vs. local mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawe, A P; Oyerinde, A; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Obika, L F O

    2012-12-18

    Mammalian reproduction is dynamically regulated by the pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones are synthesized in the pituitary gland following stimulation by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and act by stimulating steroid production and gametogenesis in both males and females. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (120 - 140 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group 1 > Control group; fed on normal rat pellets. Group 2 > Streptozotocin group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin 45 mg/kg BW in Na+ citrate buffer pH 4.5. Group 3 > Streptozotocin-insulin treated group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin as in group 2 above and treated with insulin sub-cutaneously. Group 4 > Streptozotocin-ginger treated group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin as in group 2 above and treated with 500 mg/Kg Ginger extract orally. Group 5 > Insulin resistant group; fed ad libitum on a special diet containing 25% fructose mixed with 75% normal rat chow (w/w). Group 6 > Insulin resistant-pioglitazone treated group; fed ad libitum on a special diet as in group 5 above and treated with Pioglitazone 15 mg/kg orally. Group 7 > Insulin resistant-ginger treated group; fed ad libitum on a special diet as in group 4 above, and also treated with 500 mg/Kg Ginger extract orally. Hormonal and tissue biochemistry analyses revealed that both central and local mechanisms are implicated in the impairment of spermatogenesis by diabetes but the hypothalamo-pituitary testicular axis alteration might not likely have a major impact as the local defect on steroidogenesis in the testis. This local defect could also predispose to male hypogonadism, i.e. failure of gonadal function.

  13. The Protective Role of Mecobalamin Following Optic Nerve Crush in Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangmei Kong; Xinghuai Sun; Jinjun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential for Mecobalamin as a neuroprotective agent in optic nerve crush injury.Methods: Twenty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups.One group acted as normal controls, while in the other three groups the right eye was subjected to optic nerve crush injury. Of the three crush injury groups one group received no treatment, while the other two groups received intramuscular injections of VitaminB12 or Mecobalamin (10μg) immediately after crush injury and then every two days. All the rats were sacrificed one month post-treatment, and the eyes attached with optic nerves were removed for histology. The morphological changes of optic nerve axons and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were assessed under light microscope (LM) and transmission electromicroscope (TEM). The numbers of axons and RGCs were counted.Results: In this study we demonstrate the potential for Mecobalamin as a neuroprotective agent following optic nerve crush injury. We show here that the axons of optic nerves were loose in structure or destroyed. The mitochondria of the RGCs was swollen, and the Nissel body was less evident after the crush injury. Moreover, the number of axons and RGCs was significantly reduced (P < 0.001). However, these changes were less dramatic after the Mecobalamin-treatment. More axons and RGCs were remained in the group than those in the untreated injury group (P = 0.010 and 0.003 respectively), and those in the VitaminB12-treated group (P=0.037 and 0.035 respectively). More significantly, there were newly formed axons found in the Mecobalamin-treated group.Conclusions: Optic nerve crush injury in rats causes the loss of the axons and RGCs but this may be ameliorated by treatment with Mecobalamin.

  14. Estrogen normalizes perinatal nicotine-induced hypertensive responses in adult female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Daliao; Huang, Xiaohui; Yang, Shumei; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-06-01

    Perinatal nicotine exposure caused a sex-dependent heightened vascular response to angiotensin II (Ang II) and increased blood pressure in adult male but not in female rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen normalizes perinatal nicotine-induced hypertensive response to Ang II in female offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol replacement were performed on 8-week-old female offspring. At 5 months of age, Ang II-induced blood pressure responses were not changed by nicotine treatment in the sham groups. In contrast, nicotine significantly enhanced Ang II-induced blood pressure responses as compared with saline control in the ovariectomy groups, which was associated with increased Ang II-induced vascular contractions. These heightened responses were abrogated by 17β-estradiol replacement. In addition, nicotine enhanced Ang II receptor type I, NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase type 2 protein expressions, and reactive oxygen species production of aortas as compared with saline control in the ovariectomy groups. Antioxidative agents, both apocynin and tempol, inhibited Ang II-induced vascular contraction and eliminated the differences of contractions between nicotine-treated and control ovariectomy rats. These findings support a key role of estrogen in the sex difference of perinatal nicotine-induced programming of vascular dysfunction, and suggest that estrogen may counteract heightened reactive oxygen species production, leading to protection of females from development programming of hypertensive phenotype in adulthood.

  15. External Root Resorption During Standardised Orthodontic Tooth Movement In Young And Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-jin; JC. Maltha; AM Kuijpers-Jagtman

    2004-01-01

    目的:比较研究幼鼠和成年鼠正畸牙齿移动过程中的牙根吸收.方法:本研究包括两组大鼠,其中幼鼠30只(年龄约6周),成年鼠30只(年龄约9~12个月).大鼠上颌牙一侧用于实验侧,另一侧用于对照.实验侧的三颗磨牙用结扎丝颌粘接剂固为一个整体,在超弹性拉簧作用下(力值为0.1牛顿)向切牙侧移动.1,2,4,8和12周时给予大鼠过量麻醉剂,材料用于组织学研究.上颌第一磨牙的近中颊侧根为根吸收研究对象.压力侧和张力侧的牙根吸收程度在显微镜下进行长度测量.实验侧与对照侧,压力侧与张力侧,幼鼠与成年鼠之间的牙根吸收程度分别以实验时间为参照,在统计学手段下进行了组间和组内分析和比较,以探讨牙齿移动时间和年龄因素对于牙根吸收的影响.结果:实验侧的牙根吸收在幼鼠与成年鼠之间在1,2,4,8周时均没有统计学差异.而在第12周时,成年鼠实验侧牙根吸收大于幼鼠 (P<0.05).成年鼠实验组压力侧的牙根吸收明显大于对照组压力侧,而在幼鼠组没有发现这一差异.两组年龄幼鼠的实验组其压力侧和张力侧的牙根吸收均高度相关.结论:相对于对照侧,正畸牙齿移动并没有在幼鼠的实验侧诱发更多的牙根吸收.在成年鼠,长期的正畸作用力倾向于诱发更多的牙根吸收.这些研究结果表明对于正畸成年病人的后期治疗要更加注意防止牙根吸收.%Objective: To evaluate root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in young and adult rats. Material and Methods: Standardised orthodontic tooth movement was performed in two groups of 30 male rats; a juvenile group aged 6 wks and an adult group aged 9-12 months. A split mouth design was chosen. The three maxillary molars at the experimental sides were moved as one unit mesially by a Sentalloy coil spring delivering a force of 10 cN over a long range of activation. The contra-lateral molars served as

  16. Distribution and posttranslational modification of synaptic ERα in the adult female rat hippocampus.

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    Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza; Woolley, Catherine S

    2013-02-01

    Acute 17β-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ERα is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ERα is associated with both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ERα in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ERα runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ERα from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ERα on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ERα in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain.

  17. Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar

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    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group. Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05 obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto normal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis

  18. Pamidronate and zoledronate effects in the increment of bone mineral density and histomorphometry in rats Efeitos do pamidronato e zoledronato no incremento da densitometria óssea e histomorfometria em ratos

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    Antônio Fiel Cruz Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare increment of bone mineral density (BMD with pamidronate, zoledronate and the isolated effect of proteinous diet in undernourished oophorectomized and non-oophorectomized female rats, besides validating BMD's indexes. METHODS: 60 young female Lewis rats were divided into five experimental groups and a control group, oophorectomized and non-oophorectomized. The administration of drugs were submitted to proteinous and aproteinous diets. The variables analyzed were weight, bone densitometry, histomorphometry and biochemical evolution. RESULTS: In weight evaluation, the first interval showed a statistically meaningful increase in oophorectomized sample. In densitometry evaluation, the first interval showed statistically meaningful decrease in four medicated groups and third showed a statistically meaningful increase in 2 non-oophorectomized groups. In laboratory evaluation, there were an increase of total proteins and globulin, decrease of alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus and calcium (except for the oophorectomized in four medicated groups and increase of phosphorus and calcium in 2 not medicated groups. In histomorphometric evaluation, the oophorectomized groups had smaller increment of BMD. CONCLUSIONS: The pamidronate and zoledronate have shown effectives in the increment of BMD. The proteinous diet itself possesses therapeutic effect in BMD though not significant compared with medicated animals. The results of histomorphometry allow validating BMD's indexes in this experimental model.OBJETIVO: Comparar o incremento de densidade mineral óssea (DMA com pamidronato, zoledronato e o efeito isolado de dieta protéica em ratas desnutridas ooforectomizadas e não ooforectomizadas, além de validar índices de DMA. MÉTODOS: 60 ratas jovens Lewis foram divididas em cinco grupos experimentais e um grupo controle, com e sem ooforectomia. A administração das drogas foi submetida às dietas protéica e aprotéica. As vari

  19. Gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from barks of Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae in rats Efeito gastroprotetor do extrato hidroalcoólico da casca da Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae em ratos

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    Simone A. Cosmo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae is used in folk medicine to treat skin wounds and gastric disorders. This study evaluates the potential of crude hydroalcoholic extract (EHA as gastroprotective and its acute toxicity. Swiss mice were treated with EHA by oral (p.o. and intraperitoneal (i.p. routes with doses of 0.125 to 10 g/kg and were observed until 14 days after the administration of the extract. The calculated LD50 of EHA after i.p. administration was 480 mg/kg in mice and the LD50 values of EHA by the oral route were calculated to be up to 10 g/kg in mice. Wistar rats were orally pretreated with EHA (30, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg before induction of gastric lesions by 70% ethanol (0.5 mL/animal, p.o., indomethacin (20 mg/kg, s.c. and hypothermic restraint stress (during 3 h at 4 ºC. The EHA protected the gastric mucosa against lesions induced by ethanol, but did not reduce the stress- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. When the EHA was injected into the duodenal lumen (i.d., the volume, pH and total acidity of the gastric secretion of rats with pylorus ligature was not altered with different doses of the extract. Results therefore suggest that the cytoprotective effect of this extract against the direct necrosing action of ethanol and its effect were not related with reduction of gastric acid secretion.Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae é utilizada na medicina tradicional para o tratamento de lesões cutâneas e distúrbios gástricos. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o potencial gastroprotetor e a toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto hidroalcóolico da Persea major Kopp (EHA. Camundongos Swiss foram tratados com EHA pelas vias oral (v.o. e intraperitoneal (i.p. com as doses de 0,125 a 10 g/kg e foram observados por 14 dias. A DL50 calculada após administração i.p. de EHA foi de 480 mg/kg e superior a 10 g/kg pela via oral, em camundongos. Ratos Wistar foram pré-tratados oralmente com EHA (30, 100,300 e 1000 mg/kg antes da indução de les

  20. Effect of crude extracts of leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon on glycemia in diabetic rats Efeito do extrato bruto das folhas de Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon sobre a glicemia de ratos diabéticos

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    Silmara Baroni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of crude extracts from yacon leaves, obtained by aqueous cold (Y C or hot (Y H extraction, or hydro-ethanolic extraction (Y E, on glycemia of the diabetic (induced by streptozotocine, 50 mg/kg, ip and nondiabetic rats. The animals were treated orally with the extracts (400 mg/kg or water for 3, 7, 10, and 14 days. After this period, the animals were anesthetized and blood samples were collected for measurement of plasmatic glucose and creatinine and activity of the enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP. Also were evaluated the consumption of food, water, urine volume, body weight of the animals and LD50 of Y E. Treatment with Y E for 14 days reduced glycemia in diabetic and nondiabetic animals. No similar reduction was observed in animals treated with Y C or Y H. Additionally, Y E restored the activity of the plasmatic enzymes that were altered, and improved weight gain in the diabetic animals. These results showed that the effectiveness of the yacon extracts is related to the method of preparation and to the time of treatment. The effect of Y E on glycemia in diabetic rats is not related to reduction of food intake or to interference of the extract with intestinal absorption of carbohydrates.O presente estudo investigou o efeito do extrato bruto das folhas de yacon, obtido por extração a frio (Y C ou a quente (Y H, ou por extração hidro-alcoólica (Y E, na glicemia de ratos diabéticos (induzidos por estreptozocina, 50 mg/kg, i.p. e não diabéticos. Os animais foram tratados por via oral com os extratos (400 mg/kg ou água por um período de 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias. Após o tratamento, os animais foram anestesiados e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para determinações dos níveis de glicose e creatinina plasmática e da atividade de enzimas (AST, ALT, ALP. Também foi avaliado o consumo de ração, água, volume de urina, peso corporal dos animais e a DL50 do Y E. O tratamento dos animais com Y E, por 14 dias

  1. Efeito do ultrassom terapêutico de baixa intensidade em fratura induzida em tíbia de ratos The effect of low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound in induced fracture of rat tibiae

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    Aldo José Fontes-Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Averiguar os possíveis efeitos do ultrassom de baixa intensidade, utilizado em tratamentos fisioterapêuticos de rotina, em fratura induzida em tíbia de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 ratos machos Wistar, distribuídos em 2 grupos, com 10 animais, cada. No grupo ultrassom (GUS, os animais sofreram fratura óssea e tratamento com ultrassom terapêutico (UST a 1,0 MHz e intensidade de 0,2 W/cm², no modo pulsado a 20%, aplicado de forma estacionária, por 10 minutos, na região da fratura, durante cinco semanas. O grupo controle (GC sofreu fratura óssea e não foi tratado com UST. RESULTADOS: Nas radiografias, observou-se melhor consolidação no GUS em relação ao GC. Já na análise de fosfatase alcalina (FALC e cálcio sérico (CS, não se evidenciou efeito estatisticamente significativo. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com o presente estudo, o UST aplicado conforme esses parâmetros promoveu aceleração da consolidação, comprovada por radiografia, entretanto a análise bioquímica não foi conclusiva. Um dos motivos para essa divergência pode ter sido alguma inadequação do protocolo bioquímico, atualmente em investigação. Nível de Evidência II, Estudo prospectivo comparativo.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible effects of low-intensity ultrasound on induced tibia fracture of rats in a dose commonly used in physical therapy treatments. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups with 10 animals each. In the ultrasound group (USG, the animals were submitted to bone fracture and treatment with therapeutic ultrasound (TUS. Ultrasonic parameters are: frequency of 1.0 MHz, intensity of 0.2 W/cm2, pulsed mode at 20%, applied in stationary form during 10 minutes on the fracture region, for five weeks. The control group (CG was submitted to bone fracture but not treated with ultrasound. RESULTS: The radiographies showed better consolidation in USG compared to CG. The statistical tests for alkaline phosphatase and

  2. Hypoglycaemic effect of Croton cuneatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Efeito hipoglicêmico de Croton cuneatus em ratos diabéticos induzido por estreptozotocina

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    Fatima Torrico

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of the stem barks of Croton cuneatus Klotz (Euphorbiaceae was investigated for hypoglycaemic activity in streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. Increasing doses of aqueous extract (6.5, 13, 26 and 52 mg/kg i.p. were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and diabetic rats. Plasma glucose concentration, cholesterol and changes in body weight were evaluated. The chronic intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of the extract for 22 days was found to induce significant reduction in blood glucose level. A comparison was made between the action of the aqueous extract of C. cuneatus and the reference standard drug glibenclamide. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that this plant has an antidiabetic activity in hiperglycaemic rat models.A ação hipoglicemiante do extrato aquoso das cascas do caule de Croton cuneatus Klotz (Euphorbiaceae foi investigada em ratos com diabetes induzida pela estreptozotocina (STZ. Doses crescentes do extrato aquoso (6,5, 13, 26 e 52 mg/kg i.p. foram administradas separadamente a grupos de animais normais e diabéticos em jejum. Foram avaliadas as concentrações plasmáticas de glicose e colesterol, assim como mudanças no peso corporal. A administração crônica intraperitoneal (i.p. do extrato durante 22 dias induziu uma redução significativa nos níveis de glicose sanguínea. Foi feita uma comparação entre o extrato aquoso de C. cuneatus e a droga de referência glibenclamida. Os resultados desse experimento indicam que esta planta possui atividade antidiabética em modelo com animais hiperglicêmicos.

  3. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

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    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  4. Juvenile stress potentiates aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and freezing during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic experiences that occur during adolescence can render individuals vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders. A model in juvenile rats (age: 27-29 days) was developed previously to study the long-term effects of adolescent stress exposure on behaviour and physiology. This paradigm, termed juvenile stress, involves subjecting juvenile rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we investigated the effects of the juvenile stress paradigm on freezing behaviour and aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats (age: 68-90 days). We found that rats previously subjected to juvenile stress increased aversive 22-kHz USVs (total calls and time spent calling) compared with controls during fear-conditioning training. The acoustic USV parameters between control and juvenile stress rats were largely equivalent, including duration, peak frequency and amplitude. While rats did not differ in freezing behaviour during fear conditioning, juvenile stress rats exhibited greater cue-conditioned freezing upon testing 24 h later. Our results show that juvenile stress elicited different long-term changes in freezing and aversive USVs during fear conditioning. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of assessing USVs to detect experience-dependent differences between control and stress-exposed animals which are not detectable by measuring visible behaviour.

  5. Extensive neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cell grafts in adult rat spinal cord.

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    Jun Yan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective treatments for degenerative and traumatic diseases of the nervous system are not currently available. The support or replacement of injured neurons with neural grafts, already an established approach in experimental therapeutics, has been recently invigorated with the addition of neural and embryonic stem-derived precursors as inexhaustible, self-propagating alternatives to fetal tissues. The adult spinal cord, i.e., the site of common devastating injuries and motor neuron disease, has been an especially challenging target for stem cell therapies. In most cases, neural stem cell (NSC transplants have shown either poor differentiation or a preferential choice of glial lineages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present investigation, we grafted NSCs from human fetal spinal cord grown in monolayer into the lumbar cord of normal or injured adult nude rats and observed large-scale differentiation of these cells into neurons that formed axons and synapses and established extensive contacts with host motor neurons. Spinal cord microenvironment appeared to influence fate choice, with centrally located cells taking on a predominant neuronal path, and cells located under the pia membrane persisting as NSCs or presenting with astrocytic phenotypes. Slightly fewer than one-tenth of grafted neurons differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The presence of lesions increased the frequency of astrocytic phenotypes in the white matter. CONCLUSIONS: NSC grafts can show substantial neuronal differentiation in the normal and injured adult spinal cord with good potential of integration into host neural circuits. In view of recent similar findings from other laboratories, the extent of neuronal differentiation observed here disputes the notion of a spinal cord that is constitutively unfavorable to neuronal repair. Restoration of spinal cord circuitry in traumatic and degenerative diseases may be more realistic than previously thought, although major

  6. Susceptibility to Inhaled Flame-Generated Ultrafine Soot in Neonatal and Adult Rat Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Anderson, Donald S.; Abid, Aamir D.; Wallis, Christopher D.; Dickinson, Dale A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    Over a quarter of the U.S. population is exposed to harmful levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution, which has been linked to development and exacerbation of respiratory diseases leading to morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Young children are especially susceptible to PM and can experience altered anatomic, physiologic, and biological responses. Current studies of ambient PM are confounded by the complex mixture of soot, metals, allergens, and organics present in the complex mixture as well as seasonal and temporal variance. We have developed a laboratory-based PM devoid of metals and allergens that can be replicated to study health effects of specific PM components in animal models. We exposed 7-day-old postnatal and adult rats to a single 6-h exposure of fuel-rich ultrafine premixed flame particles (PFPs) or filtered air. These particles are high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content. Pulmonary cytotoxicity, gene, and protein expression were evaluated at 2 and 24 h postexposure. Neonates were more susceptible to PFP, exhibiting increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and ethidium homodimer-1 cellular staining in the lung in situ as an index of cytotoxicity. Basal gene expression between neonates and adults differed for a significant number of antioxidant, oxidative stress, and proliferation genes and was further altered by PFP exposure. PFP diminishes proliferation marker PCNA gene and protein expression in neonates but not adults. We conclude that neonates have an impaired ability to respond to environmental exposures that increases lung cytotoxicity and results in enhanced susceptibility to PFP, which may lead to abnormal airway growth. PMID:21914721

  7. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

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    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood.

  8. Microscopic analysis of the effect of fractionated radiation therapy on submandibular gland of rats; Analise microscopica do efeito da radioterapia fracionada em glandula submandibular de rato

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    Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Amenabar, Jose Miguel; Cherubini, Karen; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de; Yurgel, Liliane Soares [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Doutorado em Estomatologia Clinica]. E-mail: kebini.ez@terra.com.br

    2005-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the histological changes produced by radiation therapy both on the stroma and the parenchyma of submandibular gland in rats. Materials and methods: The sample size consisted of 30 Wistar rats, divided in two groups: test and control. The 15 animals of the test group were irradiated daily on the head and neck region with a dose of 2 Gy for six weeks using a rotational fractionated modality of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays. At the end of the experimental period the animals had received a total dose of 60 Gy. Sixty hours after the last radiation therapy session the submandibular glands of the animals from both groups were excised, processed using paraffin technique, stained with hematoxyline-eosin and analyzed by optical microscopy. Results: The mean proportional volume of the glandular parenchyma and stroma was obtained using a stereological method of manual point counting. The proportional volume of the acini on the irradiated group (60.67%{+-}6.43) was significantly lower than the control group (67.42%{+-}10.90) (p = 0.048), however there was no statistical difference between the groups for parenchyma, ducts and stroma (Student t test, p > 0.05). Conclusion: The radiation therapy produced acinar atrophy in submandibular glands. No total quantitative changes in the stroma or in the parenchyma were observed. (author)

  9. The protective effect of vitamin E against oxidative damage caused by formaldehyde in the testes of adult rats

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    Dang-Xia Zhou; Shu-Dong Qiu; Jie Zhang; Hong Tian; Hai-Xue Wang

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of formaldehyde (FA) on testes and the protective effect of vitamin E (VE) against oxidative damage by FA in the testes of adult rats. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1)control; (2) FA treatment group (Fat); and (3) Fat + VE group. Fat and Fat + VE groups were exposed to FA by inhalation at a concentration of 10 mg/m3 for 2 weeks. In addition, Fat + VE group were orally administered VE during the 2-week FA treatment. After the treatment, the histopathological and biochemical changes in testes, as well as the quantity and quality of sperm, were observed. Results: The testicular weight, the quantity and quality of sperm, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione (GSH) were significantly decreased whereas the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased in testes of rats in Fat group compared with those in the control group. VE treatment restored these parameters in Fat + VE group. In addition,microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed that seminiferous tubules atrophied, seminiferous epithelial cells disintegrated and shed in rats in Fat group and VE treatment significantly improved the testicular structure in Fat + VE group. Conclusion: FA destroys the testicular structure and function in adult rats by inducing oxidative stress,and this damage could be partially reversed by VE.

  10. Isquemia e reperfusão hepática total associada ao estado de choque hemorrágico controlado: efeitos no seqüestro de neutrófilos no fígado do rato Total hepatic warm ischemia and reperfusion associated with controlled hemorrhagic shock: effects of neutrophil sequestration in rat liver

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    Mario Mantovani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito deste trabalho experimental foi estudar os efeitos da isquemia e reperfusão hepática total sobre o acúmulo de neutrófilos no fígado de ratos, em condições de normalidade e submetidos ao estado de choque hemorrágico controlado. MÉTODO: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar, machos, foram divididos em quatro grupos de oito animais cada: grupo Controle, submetido à laparotomia com um período de 60 minutos de observação; grupo Choque, submetido a choque hemorrágico controlado (PAM = 40 mmHg, 20 min. seguido de reposição volêmica (Ringer lactato + sangue, 3:1 e reperfusão (60 min.; grupo Pringle, submetido a isquemia hepática total (15 min. e reperfusão (60 min.; grupo Total submetido a choque hemorrágico controlado (15 min. seguido de reposição volêmica (Ringer lactato + sangue, 3:1 mais isquemia hepática total (15 min. e reperfusão (60 min.. A dosagem do lactato arterial e déficit de base foram utilizados para caracterizar o estado de choque hemorrágico com baixa perfusão tecidual. Após a morte dos animais, procedeu-se à contagem de neutrófilos no tecido hepático. RESULTADOS: Na contagem de neutrófilos no fígado o grupo Pringle diferiu dos grupos Choque e Total, os quais não diferiram entre si (Controle 10,30±3,20; Choque 13,94±2,84; Pringle 7,00±3,40; Total 12,45±3,65. CONCLUSÃO: Em ratos submetidos a estado de choque hemorrágico controlado, associado à isquemia hepática total de 15 minutos, seguido de 60 minutos de reperfusão, não ocorreu acúmulo significativo de neutrófilos no fígado.BACKGROUND:The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of total hepatic ischemia and reperfusion on the accumulation of neutrophils in the liver of rats, under normal conditions and in rats submitted to controlled hemorrhagic shock . METHODS: Thirty two adult male Wistar rats, were divided into four groups: the Control group, was submitted to the standard procedures for a period of

  11. Temperament moderates the influence of periadolescent social experience on behavior and adrenocortical activity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, M J; McClintock, M K; Cavigelli, S A

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant behavioral and physiological maturation, particularly related to stress responses. Animal studies that have tested the influence of adolescent social experiences on stress-related behavioral and physiological development have led to complex results. We used a rodent model of neophobia to test the hypothesis that the influence of adolescent social experience on adult behavior and adrenocortical function is modulated by pre-adolescent temperament. Exploratory activity was assessed in 53 male Sprague-Dawley rats to classify temperament and then they were housed in one of the three conditions during postnatal days (PND) 28-46: (1) with familiar kin, (2) with novel social partners, or (3) individually with no social partners. Effects on adult adrenocortical function were evaluated from fecal samples collected while rats were individually-housed and exposed to a 1-hour novel social challenge during PND 110-114. Adolescent-housing with novel or no social partners led to reduced adult glucocorticoid production compared to adolescent-housing with familiar littermates. Additionally, highly-exploratory pre-weanling rats that were housed with novel social partners during adolescence exhibited increased exploratory behavior and a more rapid return to basal glucocorticoid production in adulthood compared to those housed with familiar or no social partners during adolescence and compared to low-exploratory rats exposed to novel social partners. In sum, relatively short-term adolescent social experiences can cause transient changes in temperament and potentially longer-term changes in recovery of glucocorticoid production in response to adult social challenges. Furthermore, early temperament may modulate the influence of adolescent experiences on adult behavioral and adrenocortical function.

  12. Efeito do alongamento e do exercício contra-resistido no músculo esquelético de rato Effect of stretching and resistive exercise on skeletal muscles in rats

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    KV Secchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito do alongamento e do exercício resistido no músculo sóleo de rato. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 24 ratos Wistar (380±50g divididos em quatro grupos (n=6: C, controle-intacto; Along, alongamento do músculo sóleo esquerdo durante 40 minutos; ER, exercício resistido, quatro séries de dez saltos; ER+Along, exercício resistido e alongamento. Após oito semanas, foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais e os músculos sóleos foram avaliados quanto ao peso muscular, área de secção transversa das fibras musculares (ASTFM, comprimento muscular, número de sarcômeros em série, comprimento dos sarcômeros e porcentagem de tecido conjuntivo. A análise estatística foi realizada pela comparação entre grupos, por meio do teste de análise de variância (ANOVA post hoc Tukey, com significância OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of stretching and resistive exercise on the soleus muscle in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats (380±50g were evaluated, divided into four groups (n=6: C, intact controls; S, left soleus muscle stretched for 40 minutes twice a week; RE, resistive exercise consisting of four series of ten jumps three times a week; and RE+S, resistive exercise plus stretching. After eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and their soleus muscles were evaluated regarding muscle weight, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (MFCSA, muscle length, number of sarcomeres in series, sarcomere length and percentage of connective tissue. The statistical analysis consisted of comparisons between the groups using the analysis of variance (ANOVA post-hoc Tukey tests, with a significance level set at <0.05. RESULTS: The MFCSA in RE and S were greater than in C. Muscle length and the number of sarcomeres in series in RE+S were less than in S and RE. The number of sarcomeres in series in S was greater than in C. No changes were found in sarcomere length or percentage of connective tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Resistive

  13. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in rats with subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior pole Efeito da oxigenoterapia hiperbárica em ratos submetidos à esplenectomia subtotal com preservação do polo inferior

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    Marcela Souza Lima Paulo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the survival and weight of rats submitted to subtotal splenectomy and on the viability and growth of the inferior pole. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats underwent subtotal splenectomy with preservation of the inferior pole and distributed into two groups: Group A (n=20 - not treated with hyperbaric oxygen, Group B (n=20 - treated with hyperbaric oxygen. These groups were divided into two subgroups of 10 animals each, according to the time of euthanasia, 15th and 45th days. The survival and weight of the animals were recorded. The inferior pole was measured, weighed and morphologically analyzed. RESULTS: All animals survived. The weight of the animals increased in all subgroups, but decreased on the 10th day in the subgroups treated with hyperbaric oxygen (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da oxigenoterapia hiperbárica na sobrevida e peso de ratos submetidos à esplenectomia subtotal e na viabilidade e crescimento do polo inferior. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos Wistar foram submetidos à esplenectomia subtotal com preservação do polo inferior e distribuídos em dois grupos: A (n=20 v - não tratados com oxigênio hiperbárico, B (n=20 - tratados. Esses grupos foram divididos em dois subgrupos de 10 animais cada, de acordo com a época de eutanásia: 15º e 45º dias. A sobrevida e peso dos animais foram anotadas. O pólo inferior foi medido, pesado e analisado morfologicamente. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais sobreviveram. O peso aumentou em todos os subgrupos, porém diminuiu no 10º dia nos subgrupos tratados com oxigênio hiperbárico (p<0,001. A viabilidade do polo inferior foi mais evidente nos animais tratados no 15º dia, porém não diferiu no 45º dia. O crescimento do polo inferior não ocorreu no 15º e sim no 45º dia pós-operatório, nos animais não tratados (p<0,01 e tratados (p<0,05. O aumento celular e vascular nos animais tratados foi mais significativo do que nos animais n

  14. Corticosteroid effect upon intestinal and hepatic interleukin profile in a gastroschisis rat model Efeito do corticoesteróide sobre o perfil das interleucinas intestinais e hepáticas no modelo de gastrosquise em ratos

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    Frances Lilian Lanhellas Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of corticosteroids on intestinal and liver interleukin profile in an experimental model of gastroschisis in fetal rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats at 19.5 days of gestation had its fetuses operated for the creation of gastroschisis. Two groups of fetuses were studied with and without maternal administration of dexamethasone. Each group was composed of fetuses who underwent gastroschisis (G, control fetuses without manipulation (C and sham fetuses (S. A dosage of the following interleukins was carried out in fetal intestinal and liver tissues: IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ. The differences between the groups and subgroups were tested by ANOVA with Tukey post-test, with significant values of pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação do corticosteroide no perfil de interleucinas intestinais e hepáticas no modelo experimental de gastrosquise em fetos de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratas Sprague-Dawley com 19,5 dias de gestação tiveram fetos operados para criação de gastrosquise. Dois grupos de fetos foram estudados: com e sem administração materna de dexametasona. Cada grupo foi composto por fetos submetidos a gastrosquise (G, fetos controles sem manipulação (C e fetos sham (S. Realizou-se a dosagem das seguintes interleucinas no tecido intestinal e hepático fetal: IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α e interferon-gama (IFN-γ. As diferenças entre os grupos e subgrupos foram testadas pelo teste de ANOVA com pós-teste de Tukey, com valores significativos de p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A dexametasona levou a um aumento da IL-6 intestinal e hepática (p<0,05 e a uma diminuição do TNF-α intestinal (p<0,001 em fetos com gastrosquise. CONCLUSÃO: O corticosteróide apresentou efeito sobre o perfil de IL intestinal e pouco na hepática, devido a imaturidade imunológica dos fetos e também dos fetos com gastrosquise a ação do esteróide pode não ser exclusivamente

  15. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) -α and -β transcripts in the neonatal and adult rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the present study expression of estrogen receptor subtype -α (ERα) and -β (ERβ) in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb was investigated and compared between neonatal (1~ 3-days-old) and adult (250~350g) rats, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No ERα transcripts were detectable in the adult cerebellum and olfactory bulb, whereas very weak expression of ERα was present in the adult cerebral cortex. No significant difference in ERβ transcripts was detectable between the neonatal and adult rats. While transcripts for both ER subtypes were co-expressed in these brain areas of neonatal rats, although ERα expression was significantly weaker than ERβ. Even in the cerebral cortex known to contain both ER subtypes in adult rats, ERα transcripts in neonatal rats were much higher than in adult. These observations provide evidence for the existence of different expression patterns of ERα/ERβ transcripts in these three brain areas between the neonatal and adult rats, suggesting that each ER subtype may play a distinct role in the regulation of differentiation, development, and functions of the brain by estrogen.

  16. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

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    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  17. Effects of bromopride on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis Efeitos da bromoprida na cicatrização de anastomoses no cólon esquerdo de ratos sob sepse abdominal induzida

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    Silvana Marques e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of bromopride on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into two groups to receive either bromopride (experimental group- E or saline (control group- C. Each group was divided into subgroups of ten animals each to be euthanized on third (E3 and C3 or seventh day (E7 and C7 after surgery. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The rats underwent segmental left colon resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Adhesion formation, tensile strength and hydroxyproline concentration were assessed. Histomorphometry of collagen and histopathological analysis were also performed. RESULTS: On postoperative third day, anastomoses in bromopride-treated animals showed lower tensile strength (p=0.02 and greater reduction in hydroxyproline concentration (p=0.04 than in control animals. There was no statistical difference in these parameters on seventh day, and the remaining parameters were similar across subgroups. Collagen content was also similar across subgroups. CONCLUSION: In the presence of abdominal sepsis, the administration of bromopride was associated with decreased tensile strength and hydroxyproline concentration in left colonic anastomoses in rats three days after surgery.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da bromoprida sobre a cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon esquerdo de ratos na presença de sepse abdominal. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos distribuídos em grupos contendo 20 animais para administração de bromoprida ou salina. Cada grupo foi dividido em subgrupos contendo dez animais, para eutanásia no terceiro ou no sétimo dia de pós-operatório. A indução da sepse foi realizada pelo método de ligadura e punção do ceco. Foi realizada ressecção de um segmento do cólon esquerdo e anastomose término-terminal. À re-laparotomia, foi avaliada a quantidade total de aderências e removido um segmento colônico contendo a anastomose

  18. Efeitos do treinamento físico de alta intensidade sobre os leucócitos de ratos diabéticos Effects of high intensity physical training on the leukocytes of diabetic rats

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    Camila Aparecida Machado de Oliveira

    2002-12-01

    aumentou os monócitos, o que pode representar um efeito positivo sobre a resposta imunológica desses animais.Several studies have demonstrated that regular physical activity improves diabetes conditions, favoring the peripheral glucose uptake, glycogen and protein metabolism. However, the effects of high intensity physical training on the immune system of diabetic organisms are not totally clear. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of high intensity physical training on the total and differential leukocyte count of diabetic rats. Male young Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: sedentary control (SC, trained control (TC, sedentary diabetic (SD and trained diabetic (TD. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (30 mg/kg body weight i.v.. During six weeks the animals of TC and TD groups followed a high intensity physical training protocol which consisted of four sets of 10 jumps/day (interrupted by one minute of rest interval in a swimming pool, with the water level corresponding to 150% of the body length and overload equivalent to 50% of the body weight. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected for total and differential leukocyte count. The results were analyzed by ANOVA at a significance level of 5%. Serum glucose was increased in diabetic groups while the insulin level was reduced in these groups. There were no significant differences in lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and in total leukocyte count when the groups were compared. Monocytes count was higher in both trained groups (SC = 10.0 ± 4.5, TC* = 25.4 ± 7.9, SD = 19.75 ± 7.4, TD* = 25.8 ± 4.4%. The relative weight of the thymus was reduced by diabetes and training (SC = 125.0 ± 37.7, TC* =74.6 ± 8.2, SD* = 47.5 ± 12.2, TD* = 40.1 ± 16.9. In conclusion, the high intensity physical training protocol did not change the general diabetes conditions, but improved relative monocytes. These results can represent a positive effect on the immune response.

  19. Efeitos das vitaminas A e C em anastomoses intestinais de ratos tratados com corticosteróide Effects of vitamines A and C on the healing of intestinal anastomosis of rats treated with corticosteroid

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    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudo experimental realizado com o propósito de verificar a possibilidade das vitaminas A e C reverterem os efeitos deletérios do corticosteróide na cicatrização de anastomoses do intestino delgado. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar, pesando 247± 22g, divididos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos de dez animais, observados em gaiolas individuais com água e alimento ad libitum. A anestesia foi feita com pentobarbital sódico na dose de 20 mg/Kg e operados sob condições assépticas. Durante sete dias no pré-operatório e por sete dias no pós-operatório, os grupos foram assim tratados com doses farmacológicas: I-controle; II-metilprednisolona IM; III- metilprednisolona + vitamina A; IV- metilprednisolona + vitamina C; V- metilprednisolona + Vit. A + Vit. C. Foi feita ressecção de segmento de 1 cm do íleo terminal e anastomose em pontos simples separados. Após sete dias de observação foi determinada a pressão de ruptura das anastomoses, que foram em seguida ressecadas, fixadas em formol 10%, processadas com técnica padrão para histopatologia com coloração HE e tricrômico de Masson. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student com significância 0,05. A pressão de ruptura das anastomoses do controle não mostrou diferença com o grupo V (p>0,05 e foi significativamente maior que a dos grupos II, III e IV (p0,05. O controle apresentou histopatologia uniforme atingindo escore 142± 17, significativamente maior que no grupo II (95± 22 e não mostrou diferença significante nos escores com o grupo V (153± 15. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a metilprednisolona exerce um efeito deletério sobre a cicatrização de anastomoses intestinais em ratos e as vitaminas A e C, quando usadas associadas, contribuíram para reverter esse efeito.OBJETIVE: There is a need to clearly define the affect of A and C vitamines in the healing of intestinal anastomosis on individuals under corticosteroid treatment, and this is the

  20. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

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    Oboma, Yibala .I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26 adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6 and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal injection of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sacrifice was carried out on 24hrs, 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. Tissues collected were prepared for histology using heamatoxylin and eosin staining techniques while serum lipid profile, glucose level, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde (MDA and liver enzymes were analyze using Selectra and micro Elisa. RESULT: High doses (500mg/kg and prolonged exposure to the extract resulted in spectrum effects. Prolonged and increase concentration of extract administration causes increase in body weight and is statistically significant at P<0.05, t=35 and df=8, decrease in lipid profile, creatine kinase (CK-MB, malondialdehyde (MDA, liver enzymes and glucose at both higher and lower doses of 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively. Photomicrograph with magnification of x400, show normal histology of the heart and liver. CONCLUSION: Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera show a potential anti-hyperglycemia and antilipidemic properties with no notable hepatotoxicity and cardiac injury. This study supports the popular sayings about the tradomedicinal use of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  1. Anxiety-like behaviour in adult rats perinatally exposed to maternal calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Paolini, Antonio G; Govic, Antonina; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen

    2008-08-22

    Environmental stimuli such as caloric availability during the perinatal period exert a profound influence on the development of an organism. Studies in this domain have focused on the effects of under- and malnutrition while the effects of more mild levels of restriction have not been delineated. Rat dams and their offspring were subjected to one of five dietary regimens: control, CR50% for 3 days preconception, CR25% during gestation, CR25% during lactation, and CR25% during gestation, lactation, and post-weaning (lifelong). The pup retrieval test and maternal observations were conducted during lactation to quantify maternal care. In the pup retrieval test, dams that were concurrently experiencing CR (i.e., from the lactation and lifelong groups) displayed shorter latencies to retrieve all pups than the control and preconception groups and the lactation group constructed better nests than all groups. Adult offspring were tested in three tests of anxiety: the elevated plus maze, open field, and emergence test. No differences were observed in the elevated plus maze; however, in the open field preconception animals made fewer entries and spent more time in the central zone than controls. In addition, preconception offspring exhibited longer latencies to full body emergence, spent less time fully emerged, and spent more time engaged in risk assessment behaviours than all other groups. Offspring from the preconception group were also on average 11% heavier than control rats throughout life and displayed 37% higher serum leptin concentrations than controls. A potential role for leptin in the anxiogenic effect of preconception CR is discussed.

  2. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  3. Effect of arsenite on urea production by long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Santoyo, A; Hernández, A; López, M L; Mendoza-Figueroa, T

    1996-01-01

    Urea cycle is a hepatic metabolic pathway involving five enzymes and several intermediary metabolites and can be altered by different chemicals. To investigate the effect of arsenic, an ubiquitous hepatotoxic agent, on urea production we exposed long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes, which produce urea, to 1.33 and 6.67 microM arsenite for 2 weeks. In cultures exposed to 6.67 microM, urea production decreased 60-70% and cellular arginase activity decreased 30, 70 and 85% after 4, 7 and 14 days of exposure, respectively. The arginase activity released to the medium increased significantly after 4, 7 and 14 days, with a maximum value after 7 days of exposure that was 27-fold higher than that of the untreated controls. The total arginase activity also decreased 35, 52 and 82% after 4, 7 and 14 days of exposure and protein content decreased 57 and 65% after 7 and 14 days of exposure, respectively. Exposure to 6.67 microM arsenite also produced accumulation of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets, vacuolizations and enlargement of the intercellular spaces. On the other hand, exposure of hepatocytes to 1.33 microM arsenite caused an initial decrease of 20% in urea production, did not change cellular, released and total arginase activity and cellular protein content and produced accumulation of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets. These results show that long-term exposure of cultured rat hepatocytes to 6.67 microM arsenite decreases urea production, cellular and total arginase activity and protein content and increases the release of arginase into the culture medium. These alterations could be useful markers of hepatotoxicity in in vitro assays.

  4. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

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    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  5. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  6. The influence of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on the brain iron metabolism in adult Sprague dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qiong; Li Yaru; Chang Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Iron is an essential element in all living organisms and is required as a cofactor for oxygen-binding proteins. Iron metabolism, oxygen homeostasis and erythropoiesis are consequently strongly inter-connected. In mammalian cells, exposure to a low-oxygen environment triggers a hypoxic response pathway cen-tered on the regulated expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ( HIF) . Hypoxia has been shown to increase the expression of a variety of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. However, little is known about brain iron metabolism after intermittent hypobaric hypoxia ( IHH) treatment. In this study, adult Sprague dawley ( SD) rats were treated with IHH for 28 days, 8h per day and then we detected iron homeostasis in different brain areas of SD rats. Results:The protein level of hippocampus transferrin receptor 1 ( TfR1 ) , divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) with IRE, DMT1 (-IRE), ferritin-H, iron regulatory protein (IRP) 2 and ceruloplasmin (CP) is ele-vated significantly while ferritin-L decreased. We have also found the down regulation of IRP1. We observe the same results in the cerebral cortex in the brain. Conclusions:We first discover that IHH has an influence on the brain iron homeostasis and the decreased ferritin-L corresponds to the down regulation of IRP1 indicating hypoxia can affect the expression of ferritin-L through IRE/IRP system. Although there is a marked increase in TfR1 ex-pression that would lead to the raised level of LIP in cells. It can finally result in the higher ROS which can damage the cells. The concerned mechanisms involved in it remain to be deliberated.

  7. Efeito da hialuronidase na sobrevida de retalhos cutâneos em ratas Hyaluronidase effect on the suvival of skin flaps in female rats

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    Cristhian Enrique Acevedo-Bogado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O insucesso de retalhos devido a necrose total ou parcial não é um fato isolado. O edema pode ser um fator importante na perda do retalho. A hialuronidase degrada o ácido hialurônico presente no tecido conjuntivo que está envolvido na homeostase da água na matriz extracelular, e pode ser importante na melhora da sobrevida de retalhos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a efetividade da hialuronidase na melhora da sobrevida de retalhos cutâneos em ratas. Quarenta e duas ratas Wistar distribuídas em quatro grupos foram incluídas na pesquisa. Praticou-se um retalho randomizado de 7 x 2 cm no dorso do animal. Três grupos receberam tratamento pós-operatório durante quatro dias. O grupo A (n=11 recebeu 100 UI/dia de hialuronidase, o grupo B (n=11 50 UI/dia de hialuronidase e o grupo C (n=10 água destilada. O grupo D (n=10 não recebeu tratamento. Foi avaliada a área de necrose e submetido a análise estatística. As taxas de necrose no dia 7 foram: no grupo A 38,69% (± 9,26, grupo B 38,20% (± 15,05, grupo C 51,97% (± 8,37 e grupo D 45,90% (± 12,57. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante (pFlap failure related to total or partial necrosis is not a rare event. Flap edema could be an important factor on flap losing. Hyaluronidase breaks down the hyaluronic acid existing in the connective tissue, which is involved on water homeostasis of intercellular ground substance, and may be important on increasing flap survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hyaluronidase on improving cutaneuos flap survival in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats divided in four groups were included in this study. It was made a 7 x 2 cm random flap in the dorsal aspect of the animal. Three groups received post-operative treatment during four days. Group A (n=11 received 100 UI per day of hyaluronidase, group B (n=11 50 UI per day and group C (n=10 received distilled water. Group D (n=10 was not treated. It was evaluated the

  8. Efeito do tratamento com etanol sobre a gliconeogênese em ratos intolerantes à glicose = Effect of ethanol treatment on gluconeogenesis in glucoseintolerant rats

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    Juarez de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento com etanol (Et sobre a gliconeogênese em ratos intolerantes à glicose. A intolerância à glicose foi induzida pela injeção de dexametasona (DEXA (0,1 mg kg-1; s.c., quatro dias. O teste de tolerância àglicose (GTT e os experimentos de perfusão de fígado in situ (avaliação da gliconeogênese foram realizados em ratos submetidos a jejum de 15h dos grupos experimentais: Controle (salina 0,9%, s.c., quatro dias; DEX (DEXA 0,1 mg kg-1; s.c., quatro dias; DEX+Et 3% (per os, 14 dias; DEX+Et 20% (per os, 14 dias; DEX+Met (Mettformina 300 mg kg-1, per os, quatro dias. Os animais tratados com DEX apresentaram elevada concentração de glicose sanguínea e também no perfusato coletado. O tratamento com metformina promoveu redução significativa na concentração de glicose no perfusato obtido de animais intolerantes à glicose. Entretanto, somente o tratamento com Et 3% promoveu redução na intolerância à glicose, mas não na produção da glicose hepática observada em animais DEX. Os dados obtidos demonstram que a administração de Et 3% melhora a intolerância à glicose induzida pela DEX sem influenciar na gliconeogênese, diferentemente do observado pelo tratamento com a metformina.In this work, the influence of ethanol (Et treatment on gluconeogenesis in glucose-intolerance rats was evaluated. Glucose intolerance in rats was induced by dexamethasone (DEXA injection (0.1 mg kg-1; s.c., 4 days. The glucose tolerance test (GTT and liver perfusion in situ experiments (gluconeogenesis evaluation were performed with 15-hour fasted rats in the following experimental groups: Control (saline 0.9%, s.c., 4 days; DEX (DEXA 0.1 mg kg-1; s.c., 4 days; DEX+Et 3% (per os, 14 days; DEX+Et 20% (per os, 14 days; DEX+Met (Metformin 300 mg kg-1, per os, 4 days. DEX-treated animals showed high glucose concentration in blood and also in the perfusate collected. Metformin treatment resulted

  9. Exposição repetida à cafeína aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos Repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats

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    Ana Helena Paro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A cafeína e o femproporex são substâncias psicoestimulantes. O femproporex é muito utilizado no Brasil como anorexígeno enquanto a cafeína é amplamente consumida como constituinte regular da dieta. A administração repetida de psicoestimulantes induz sensibilização comportamental que se caracteriza pelo aumento progressivo dos seus efeitos locomotores. Pode ocorrer ainda sensibilização cruzada entre essas substâncias. Investigamos se a administração repetida de cafeína aumenta a locomoção induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos. Quarenta e oito ratos adolescentes (dia pós-natal 27 e 32 adultos (dia pós-natal 60 foram distribuídos em dois grupos que receberam injeção intra-peritoneal de 10,0 mg/kg de cafeína (CAF (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 ou salina (SAL (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 diariamente durante 10 dias. Três dias após a última injeção, cada grupo CAF ou SAL foi subdividido em dois subgrupos que receberam injeção i.p. de salina (SAL (1 mL/kg ou femproporex (FEM (2,0 mg/kg. Após as injeções, a atividade locomotora foi avaliada automaticamente em intervalos de 5 minutos durante 1 hora. Nossos resultados demonstraram que em ratos adolescentes e adultos o pré-tratamento com CAF aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pela administração aguda de FEM, sugerindo que a cafeína causa sensibilização aos efeitos locomotores desse derivado anfetamínico.Caffeine and femproporex are psychostimulants drugs widely consumed in Brazil. Behavioral sensitization is defined as an augmentation in the behavioral effect of a psychostimulant upon re-administration. Repeated administration of a psychostimulant produces behavioral sensitization to that drug and cross-sensitization to other drugs. We investigated whether repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Forty-eight adolescent (postnatal day 27 and 32 adult

  10. Effect of Selegiline on Pituitary- Gonad Axis and Spermatogenesis in Adult Male Rats

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    M. Mokhtari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Selegiline is an inhibitor of B-Mono amino oxidase (MAO-B. In view of its usages in treatment of nervous illnesses such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and depression the side effects of selegiline on the endocrine axises are very important. In this research the effect of selegiline on pituitary- gonad axis and spermatogenesis in adult male rats were studied. For experimental and control groups 32 adult male rats from wistar race were divided into 4 groups of 8. The experimental groups (B,C,D were given oral doses of 5,10,15 (mg/kg.B.W selegiline for the period of 30 days and the control group (A received saline. The blood samples were taken 8 hour after receiving last dose at 30th day and the concentration of LH, FSH and testosterone was measured by RIA. In adition at the 30th day the testes were separated and histological changes was studied among experimental and control groups. The results were evaluated by using ANOVA and Duncan test. The statistical analysis of the results indicated that receiving different dosages of selegiline showed a significant increase in concentration of LH hormone in comparison with control group, but concentration of FSH did not show significant difference compared to the control group. In addition concentration of testosterone in response to different dosages in relative to the control group showed a significant decrease.According to the results we suggest that through LH increase, selegiline causes a decrease in concentration of testosterone via down-regulation receptors on leydig cells. Furthermore selegiline causes increase in dopamine concentration in striatum area as an inhibitor of MAO-B and intern causes decrease in concentration of prolactin. The decrease in prolactin secretion reduce the effect of LH hormone on leydig cell. In addition histological studies showed a significant effects caused by selegiline such as decreased number of spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules, leydig cells and reduced

  11. Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric artery Efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, em artéria mesentérica de ratos

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    Ítalo J. A. Moreira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa dichloromethane extract (HFDE on isolated rings of rat mesenteric artery was evaluated in this study. In intact rings, HFDE (0.1-3000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxations (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6 of phenylephrine tonus that were not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, after KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 or in rings pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. In endothelium denuded rings, HFDE (300 or 1000 µg/mL inhibited contractions induced by CaCl2 (maximal inhibition = 25±7% and 95±1%; respectively. Furthermore, HFDE promoted an additional vasorelaxation (15±3%; n = 7 after maximal response of 10 µM nifedipine (78±3%; n = 7. In conclusion, HFDE induces vasorelaxant effect through an endothelium-independent pathway, which appears to be due in major part to inhibition of the Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels.O efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae (HFDE, em anéis isolados de artéria mesentérica de ratos foi avaliado nesse estudo. Em anéis intactos, pré-contraídos com fenilefrina (10 µM, HFDE (0,1-3000 µg/mL induziu vasorelaxamento de maneira dependente de concentração (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6, o qual não foi afetado após remoção do endotélio (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, após KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 ou em anéis pré-contraídos com KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. Em anéis sem endotélio, HFDE (300 ou 1000 µg/mL inibiu as contrações induzidas por CaCl2 (inibição máxima = 25±7% e 95±1%, respectivamente. Além disso, HFDE promoveu um vasorelaxamento adicional (15±3%; n = 7 sobre o relaxamento máximo de 10 µM de nifedipina (78±3%, n = 7. Em conclusão, HFDE induz efeito vasorelaxante através de uma via independente de endotélio, possivelmente devido à inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através de canais de Ca2+ operados por voltagem.

  12. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  13. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D F; Pacheco, P D G; Alvarenga, P V; Buratini, J; Castilho, A C S; Lima, P F; Sartori, D R S; Vicentini-Paulino, M L M

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  14. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  15. Methylphenidate treatment leads to abnormalities on krebs cycle enzymes in the brain of young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Scaini, Giselli; Furlanetto, Camila B; Morais, Meline O S; Jeremias, Isabela C; Mello-Santos, Lis Mairá; Freitas, Karolina V; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between energy metabolism and methylphenidate (MPH); however, there are no studies evaluating the effects of MPH in Krebs cycle. So, we investigated if MPH treatment could alter the activity of citrate synthase (CS), malate dehydrogenase (MD), and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ID) in the brain of young and adult Wistar rats. Our results showed that MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg) reduced CS in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PF), with MPH at all doses in the cerebellum and hippocampus after chronic treatment in young rats. In adult rats the CS was reduced in the cerebellum after acute treatment with MPH at all doses, and after chronic treatment in the PF and cerebellum with MPH (10 mg/kg), and in the hippocampus with MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg). The ID decreased in the hippocampus and striatum with MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg), and in the cortex (10 mg/kg) after acute treatment in young rats. In adult rats acute treatment with MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg) reduced ID in the cerebellum, and with MPH (10 mg/kg) in the cortex; chronic treatment with MPH (10 mg/kg) decreased ID in the PF; with MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg) in the cerebellum, and with MPH at all doses in the hippocampus. The MD did not alter. In conclusion, our results suggest that MPH can alter enzymes of Krebs cycle in brain areas involved with circuits related with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; however, such effects depend on age of animal and treatment regime.

  16. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in rats: programming effects on stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Drake, Amanda J; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with significantly increased risks of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Exposure to excessive maternal glucocorticoids may underlie this fetal programming effect. In the current study, we assessed how prenatal dexamethasone administration during the last week of gestation affects stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring. Stress reactivity was assessed by evaluating anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. In addition, to characterize the long-term cognitive outcomes of prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids, animals were assessed on two cognitive tasks, a spatial reference memory task with reversal learning and a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone had no observable effect on anxiety-like behavior, but affected cognition in the adult offspring. Prenatally dexamethasone-exposed animals showed a transient deficit in the spatial reference memory task and a trend to faster acquisition during the reversal-learning phase. Furthermore, prenatally dexamethasone-treated animals also showed faster learning of new platform positions in the DMTP task. These results suggest that fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids programs a phenotype characterized by cognitive flexibility and adaptability to frequent changes in environmental circumstances. This can be viewed as an attempt to increase the fitness of survival in a potentially hazardous postnatal environment, as predicted by intrauterine adversity. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in rats could be used as an animal model for studying some cognitive components of related psychiatric disorders.

  17. Expression of connexin36 in the adult and developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluardo, N; Mudò, G; Trovato-Salinaro, A; Le Gurun, S; Charollais, A; Serre-Beinier, V; Amato, G; Haefliger, J A; Meda, P; Condorelli, D F

    2000-05-19

    The distribution of connexin36 (Cx36) in the adult rat brain and retina has been analysed at the protein (immunofluorescence) and mRNA (in situ hybridization) level. Cx36 immunoreactivity, consisting primarily of round or elongated puncta, is highly enriched in specific brain regions (inferior olive and the olfactory bulb), in the retina, in the anterior pituitary and in the pineal gland, in agreement with the high levels of Cx36 mRNA in the same regions. A lower density of immunoreactive puncta can be observed in several brain regions, where only scattered subpopulations of cells express Cx36 mRNA. By combining in situ hybridization for Cx36 mRNA with immunohistochemistry for a general neuronal marker (NeuN), we found that neuronal cells are responsible for the expression of Cx36 mRNA in inferior olive, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Cx36 mRNA was also demonstrated in parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons of cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex. Analysis of developing brain further revealed that Cx36 reaches a peak of expression in the first two weeks of postnatal life, and decreases sharply during the third week. Moreover, in these early stages of postnatal development Cx36 is detectable in neuronal populations that are devoid of Cx36 mRNA at the adult stage. The developmental changes of Cx36 expression suggest a participation of this connexin in the extensive interneuronal coupling which takes place in several regions of the early postnatal brain.

  18. Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Fuentes, Sílvia; Gagliano, Humberto; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Armario, Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Nadal, Roser

    2011-10-01

    Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.

  19. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

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    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  20. Synaptic reorganization in the adult rat's ventral cochlear nucleus following its total sensory deafferentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heika Hildebrandt

    Full Text Available Ablation of a cochlea causes total sensory deafferentation of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem, providing a model to investigate nervous degeneration and formation of new synaptic contacts in the adult brain. In a quantitative electron microscopical study on the plasticity of the central auditory system of the Wistar rat, we first determined what fraction of the total number of synaptic contact zones (SCZs in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN is attributable to primary sensory innervation and how many synapses remain after total unilateral cochlear ablation. Second, we attempted to identify the potential for a deafferentation-dependent synaptogenesis. SCZs were ultrastructurally identified before and after deafferentation in tissue treated for ethanolic phosphotungstic acid (EPTA staining. This was combined with pre-embedding immunocytochemistry for gephyrin identifying inhibitory SCZs, the growth-associated protein GAP-43, glutamate, and choline acetyltransferase. A stereological analysis of EPTA stained sections revealed 1.11±0.09 (S.E.M.×10(9 SCZs per mm(3 of AVCN tissue. Within 7 days of deafferentation, this number was down by 46%. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses were differentially affected on the side of deafferentation. Excitatory synapses were quickly reduced and then began to increase in number again, necessarily being complemented from sources other than cochlear neurons, while inhibitory synapses were reduced more slowly and continuously. The result was a transient rise of the relative fraction of inhibitory synapses with a decline below original levels thereafter. Synaptogenesis was inferred by the emergence of morphologically immature SCZs that were consistently associated with GAP-43 immunoreactivity. SCZs of this type were estimated to make up a fraction of close to 30% of the total synaptic population present by ten weeks after sensory deafferentation. In conclusion, there appears to be a substantial potential

  1. Treadmill intervention attenuates the cafeteria diet-induced impairment of stress-coping strategies in young adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cigarroa, Igor; Ferrer Lalanza, Jaume; Caimari, Antoni; Bas, Josep M. del; Capdevila Ortís, Lluís; Arola i Ferrer, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    The current prevalence of diet-induced overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults is continuously growing. Although the detrimental biochemical and metabolic consequences of obesity are widely studied, its impact on stress-coping behavior and its interaction with specific exercise doses (in terms of intensity, duration and frequency) need further investigation. To this aim, we fed adolescent rats either an obesogenic diet (cafeteria diet, CAF) or standard chow (ST). Each group was subdi...

  2. Vitamin D Receptor and Enzyme Expression in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Adult Female Rats: Modulation by Ovarian Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Tague, Sarah E.; Smith, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency impacts sensory processes including pain and proprioception, but little is known regarding vitamin D signaling in adult sensory neurons. We analyzed female rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for vitamin receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24. Western blots and immunofluorescence revealed the presence of these proteins in sensory neurons. Nuclear VDR immunoreactivity was present within nearly all neurons, while cytoplasmic VDR was found prefe...

  3. Mixed electrical-chemical synapses in adult rat hippocampus are primarily glutamatergic and coupled by connexin-36

    OpenAIRE

    Farid eHamzei-Sichani; Davidson, Kimberly G. V.; Thomas eYasumura; William G M Janssen; Wearne, Susan L.; Patrick R. Hof; Traub, Roger D.; Rafael eGutierrez; Ole Petter Ottersen; Rash, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Dendrodendritic electrical signaling via gap junctions is now an accepted feature of neuronal communication in the mammalian brain, whereas axodendritic and axosomatic gap junctions have rarely been described. We present ultrastructural, immunocytochemical, and dye-coupling evidence for mixed (electrical/chemical) synapses in adult rat hippocampus on both principal cells and interneurons. Thin-section electron microscopic images of small gap junction-like appositions were found at mossy fiber...

  4. Mixed Electrical–Chemical Synapses in Adult Rat Hippocampus are Primarily Glutamatergic and Coupled by Connexin-36

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzei-Sichani, Farid; Davidson, Kimberly G. V.; Yasumura, Thomas; William G M Janssen; Wearne, Susan L.; Patrick R. Hof; Traub, Roger D.; Gutiérrez, Rafael; Ottersen, Ole P.; Rash, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Dendrodendritic electrical signaling via gap junctions is now an accepted feature of neuronal communication in mammalian brain, whereas axodendritic and axosomatic gap junctions have rarely been described. We present ultrastructural, immunocytochemical, and dye-coupling evidence for “mixed” (electrical/chemical) synapses on both principal cells and interneurons in adult rat hippocampus. Thin-section electron microscopic images of small gap junction-like appositions were found at mossy fiber (...

  5. Efeitos da Corticosteroidoterapia na Uretra e na Bexiga de Ratas Castradas antes e durante Reposição Estrogênica Effects of Corticosteroids in the Urethra and Bladder of Castrated Female Rats before and during Estrogen Replacement Teraphy

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    João Batista dos Santos Junior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos do uso de corticóides sobre os vasos e o epitélio da bexiga e da uretra de ratas. Método: utilizaram-se 54 ratas, divididas em 5 grupos: Grupo I - dez ratas castradas; Grupo II - onze ratas castradas que receberam succinato sódico de prednisolona, na dose de 15 mg/kg de peso, por via intraperitoneal durante 26 dias; Grupo III - doze ratas castradas que receberam o mesmo corticosteróide, na mesma dose associado ao 17 beta-estradiol na dose de 10 mg/kg, subcutâneo, nos últimos 5 dias antes de serem sacrificadas; Grupo IV - onze ratas castradas que receberam placebo por 26 dias; Grupo V - dez ratas não-castradas que receberam o mesmo corticosteróide, na dose e duração do grupo II. Resultados: observou-se na bexiga do grupo castrado que recebeu corticosteróide uma média de 1,8 vasos, número semelhante ao que recebeu corticosteróide e estrogênio, contra 0,8 vasos no grupo com placebo. Já na uretra, identificaram-se 0,7 vaso no grupo com corticosteróide, contra 0,9 vaso do grupo com corticosteróide associado ao estrogênio e 0,4 vaso no grupo placebo. Quanto à mucosa, observou-se que a espessura do epitélio vesical passou de 14,1 mm do grupo placebo para 20,6 mm no que recebeu corticosteróide e para 22,6 mm com corticosteróide e estrogênio. Da mesma maneira, a espessura do epitélio uretral passou de 12,4 mm no grupo controle para 15,1 mm no grupo com corticosteróide e para 16,7 mm com corticosteróide e estrogênio. Conclusões: a prednisolona, na dose e na duração utilizadas, aumentaram o número de vasos e a espessura do epitélio da bexiga e da uretra.Purpose: the effects of corticosteroids on the female urinary tract are not well understood, specially in climacteric women with or without estrogen replacement therapy. We studied the effects of corticosteroids on the blood vessels and epithelium of the bladder and urethra of female rats. Method: fifty-four female rats were used, divided into

  6. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni; Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Ali Ghorbani Ranjbary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses ...

  7. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Ghorbani Ranjbary, Ali; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Khabbaz Kherameh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, ...

  8. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

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    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  9. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  10. Intrastriatal transplantation of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells improves functional outcome in parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Janine; Ossig, Christiana; Greiner, Johannes F W; Hauser, Stefan; Fauser, Mareike; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Storch, Alexander; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered the second most frequent and one of the most severe neurodegenerative diseases, with dysfunctions of the motor system and with nonmotor symptoms such as depression and dementia. Compensation for the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons during PD using current pharmacological treatment strategies is limited and remains challenging. Pluripotent stem cell-based regenerative medicine may offer a promising therapeutic alternative, although the medical application of human embryonic tissue and pluripotent stem cells is still a matter of ethical and practical debate. Addressing these challenges, the present study investigated the potential of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells derived from the inferior turbinate (ITSCs) transplanted into a parkinsonian rat model. Emphasizing their capability to give rise to nervous tissue, ITSCs isolated from the adult human nose efficiently differentiated into functional mature neurons in vitro. Additional successful dopaminergic differentiation of ITSCs was subsequently followed by their transplantation into a unilaterally lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine rat PD model. Transplantation of predifferentiated or undifferentiated ITSCs led to robust restoration of rotational behavior, accompanied by significant recovery of DA neurons within the substantia nigra. ITSCs were further shown to migrate extensively in loose streams primarily toward the posterior direction as far as to the midbrain region, at which point they were able to differentiate into DA neurons within the locus ceruleus. We demonstrate, for the first time, that adult human ITSCs are capable of functionally recovering a PD rat model.

  11. Chronic exposure of adult, postnatal and in utero rat models to low-dose 137Cesium: impact on circulating biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manens, Line; Grison, Stéphane; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Lestaevel, Philippe; Guéguen, Yann; Benderitter, Marc; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Souidi, Maâmar

    2016-01-01

    The presence of 137Cesium (137Cs) in the environment after nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and more recently Fukushima Daiichi raises many health issues for the surrounding populations chronically exposed through the food chain. To mimic different exposure situations, we set up a male rat model of exposure by chronic ingestion of a 137Cs concentration likely to be ingested daily by residents of contaminated areas (6500 Bq.l−1) and tested contaminations lasting 9 months for adult, neonatal and fetal rats. We tested plasma and serum biochemistry to identify disturbances in general indicators (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and electrolytes) and in biomarkers of thyroid, heart, brain, bone, kidney, liver and testis functions. Analysis of the general indicators showed increased levels of cholesterol (+26%), HDL cholesterol (+31%), phospholipids B (+15%) and phosphorus (+100%) in the postnatal group only. Thyroid, heart, brain, bone and kidney functions showed no blood changes in any model. The liver function evaluation showed changes in total bilirubin (+67%) and alkaline phosphatase (–11%) levels, but only for the rats exposed to 137Cs intake in adulthood. Large changes in 17β-estradiol (–69%) and corticosterone (+36%) levels affected steroidogenesis, but only in the adult model. This study showed that response profiles differed according to age at exposure: lipid metabolism was most radiosensitive in the postnatal model, and steroid hormone metabolism was most radiosensitive in rats exposed in adulthood. There was no evidence of deleterious effects suggesting a potential impact on fertility or procreation. PMID:27466399

  12. ERK is involved in the reorganization of somatosensory cortical maps in adult rats submitted to hindlimb unloading.

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    Erwan Dupont

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity in adult rats submitted to a sensorimotor restriction, we analyzed the time-course of ERK1/2 activation by immunoblot and of cortical reorganization by electrophysiological recordings, on rats submitted to hindlimb unloading over four weeks. Immunohistochemistry analysis provided evidence that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in layer III neurons of the somatosensory cortex. This increase was transient, and parallel to the changes in hindpaw cortical map area (layer IV. By contrast, receptive fields were progressively enlarged from 7 to 28 days of hindlimb unloading. To determine whether ERK1/2 was involved in cortical remapping, we administered a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD-98059 through osmotic mini-pump in rats hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Results demonstrate that focal inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway prevents cortical reorganization, but had no effect on receptive fields. These results suggest that ERK1/2 plays a role in the induction of cortical plasticity during hindlimb unloading.

  13. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

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    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.

  14. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: Comparison of aged and adult rats

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    Emin Ozbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7 and aged (24 mo, n = 7 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14 fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrified and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  15. The effects of sildenafil ciltrate on the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus- A histological study

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatment groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers’ mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the lateral geniculate body (LGB showed some varying degree of reduced cellular population based on its sparse distribution, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma. Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  16. Dose-dependent effect of Bisphenol-A on insulin signaling molecules in cardiac muscle of adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivashanmugam, Preethi; Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-03-25

    Environmental contaminant, Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen, an essential component used for the production of two classes of polymers such as polycarbonate and epoxy resin which disrupts the normal endocrine function. BPA has intense effects on mice endocrine pancreas, an essential tissue involved in glucose metabolism. It disrupts pancreatic β-cell insulin content, induces hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in male rats. Cardiac muscle is an insulin responsive organ and insulin has direct effects on glucose transport. The present study was designed to assess the effect of BPA on insulin signaling molecules in the cardiac muscle of adult male Wistar rat. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were selected and divided into following groups: Group 1: Control (vehicle treated), Group 2: Rats treated with 10 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally, Group 3: Rats treated with 100 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally, Group 4: Rats treated with 400 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally. IR (insulin receptor) and pIR(Tyr1162) proteins were significantly decreased in the high dose group (400 mg). There was no change in IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate-1) and Akt proteins. Whereas, a decrease in pIRS1(Tyr632) (100 mg and 400 mg), pAkt (Ser473) (400 mg) and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) (cytosolic and plasma membrane) proteins was observed which may affect the cardiovascular function. It is concluded that BPA exposure has adverse effect on cardiac insulin signal transduction which may affect its function.

  17. Characterization of dsRed2-positive cells in the doublecortin-dsRed2 transgenic adult rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, A; Schroedl, F; Marschallinger, J; Rivera, F J; Bogner, B; Runge, C; Couillard-Despres, S; Aigner, L; Reitsamer, H A

    2014-12-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) is predominantly expressed in neuronal precursor cells and young immature neurons of the developing and adult brain, where it is involved in neuronal differentiation, migration and plasticity. Moreover, its expression pattern reflects neurogenesis, and transgenic DCX promoter-driven reporter models have been previously used to investigate adult neurogenesis. In this study, we characterize dsRed2 reporter protein-expressing cells in the adult retina of the transgenic DCX promoter-dsRed2 rat model, with the aim to identify cells with putative neurogenic activity. Additionally, we confirmed the expression of the dsRed2 protein in DCX-expressing cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus. Adult DCX-dsRed2 rat retinas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of DCX, NF200, Brn3a, Sox2, NeuN, calbindin, calretinin, PKC-a, Otx2, ChAT, PSA-NCAM and the glial markers GFAP and CRALBP, followed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. In addition, brain sections of transgenic rats were analyzed for dsRed2 expression and co-localization with DCX, NeuN, GFAP and Sox2 in the cortex and dentate gyrus. Endogenous DCX expression in the adult retina was confined to horizontal cells, and these cells co-expressed the DCX promoter-driven dsRed2 reporter protein. In addition, we encountered dsRed2 expression in various other cell types in the retina: retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a subpopulation of amacrine cells, a minority of bipolar cells and in perivascular cells. Since also RGCs expressed dsRed2, the DCX-dsRed2 rat model might offer a useful tool to study RGCs in vivo under various conditions. Müller glial cells, which have previously been identified as cells with stem cell features and with neurogenic potential, did express neither endogenous DCX nor the dsRed2 reporter. However, and surprisingly, we identified a perivascular glial cell type expressing the dsRed2 reporter, enmeshed with the glia/stem cell marker GFAP and colocalizing with the

  18. Isquemia e reperfusão hepática total associada ao estado de choque hemorrágico controlado: efeitos no seqüestro de neutrófilos no pulmão do rato Total hepatic warm ischemia and reperfusion associated with controlled hemorrhagic shock: effects of neutrophil sequestration in lung of rats

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    Mario Mantovani

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da isquemia e reperfusão hepática total sobre acúmulo de neutrófilos no interstício pulmonar de ratos, em condições de normalidade e submetidos ao estado de choque hemorrágico controlado. MÉTODOS: 32 ratos Wistar, machos, foram divididos em quatro grupos de oito animais cada: grupo Sham, submetido aos procedimentos padrões com um período de 60 minutos de observação; grupo Choque, submetido a choque hemorrágico controlado (PAM = 40 mmHg, 20 min. seguido de reposição volêmica (Ringer lactato + sangue, 3:1 e reperfusão (60 min.; grupo Pringle, submetido a isquemia hepática total (15 min. e reperfusão (60 min.; grupo Total submetido a choque hemorrágico controlado (15 min. seguido de reposição volêmica (Ringer lactato + sangue, 3:1 e reperfusão (60 min.. Após o sacrifício dos animais, procedeu-se à contagem de neutrófilos no interstício pulmonar. RESULTADOS: Os valores encontrados para contagem de neutrófilos no interstício pulmonar indicaram que, os animais dos grupos Pringle, Total e, também, do grupo Choque, não diferiram dos animais do grupo Sham com valores de (Sham 21,08± 14,12; Choque 35,15± 18,74; Pringle 19,78± 15,38; Total 23,90± 16,37 (p=0.253 CONCLUSÃO: Em ratos submetidos a estado de choque hemorrágico controlado associado a isquemia hepática de 15 minutos, seguida de 60 minutos de reperfusão, não ocorreu acúmulo significativo de neutrófilos no interstício pulmonar.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this experimental work was to study the effects of total hepatic ischemia and reperfusion on the accumulation of neutrophils in the lung of rats, under normal conditions and submitted to controlled hemorrhagic shock state. METHODS: thirty two adult male Wistar rats, were divided into four groups: the Sham group, was submitted to the standard procedures for a period of 60 min. of observation; Shock group, was submitted to controlled hemorrhagic shock (PAM=40 mmHg, 20 min

  19. Efeitos da espironolactona sobre as alterações miocárdicas induzidas pelo hormônio tireoideano em ratos Spironolactone effects on myocardium changes induced by thyroid hormone in rats

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    Maria Luiza Mendonça Pereira Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estudar o papel do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona na hipertrofia miocárdica induzida pelo hormônio tireoideano, utilizando-se a espironolactona. OBJETIVO: Analisar as alterações morfológicas no miocárdio induzidas pelo hormônio tireoideano e os efeitos da espironolactona nesse processo. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 40 ratos Wistar, divididos em quatro grupos, que receberam: veículo utilizado para a diluição do hormônio tireoideano (C; levotiroxina sódica (50 µg/rato/dia (H; espironolactona (0,3 mg/kg/dia (E e hormônio tireoideano + espironolactona (HE, nas mesmas doses citadas, durante 28 dias consecutivos. Todos os animais foram submetidos a pesagem, coleta de sangue para dosagens hormonais e realização de ECG no início e no final do experimento. Ao final do período de estudo, os animais foram sacrificados para determinação do peso do ventrículo esquerdo (VE e obtenção de cortes de VE para análise morfológica. RESULTADOS: Houve aumento dos níveis de T3 no plasma, perda de peso corporal e aumento da freqüência cardíaca nos animais que receberam o hormônio. O peso do VE foi maior nos grupos H e HE. A análise histométrica mostrou maiores diâmetros dos miócitos no grupo H, com os valores decrescentes nos grupos HE, E e C, sendo as diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre todos os grupos. A espironolactona associada ao hormônio tireoideano (HT diminuiu em 14,6% a hipertrofia transversal dos miócitos. CONCLUSÃO: Em ratos tratados com hormônio tireoideano ocorre hipertrofia cardíaca com aumento do peso do VE e do diâmetro do miócito. A associação de espironolactona ao hormônio tireoideano previne parcialmente essa hipertrofia por mecanismos ainda desconhecidos.BACKGROUND: To study the possible role of aldosterone on thyroid hormone-induced myocardium hypertrophy, using spironolactone. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate morphological changes in the myocardium induced by thyroid hormone and the

  20. Effect of cadmium on the floor of the mouth on rats during lactation Efeito do cádmio no soalho da boca de ratos durante a lactação

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    Lara Cristina Picoli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd present in the air, drinking water and food has the potential to affect the health of people, mainly those who live in highly industrialized regions. Cd affects placental function, may cross the placental barrier and directly modify fetal development. It is also excreted into milk. The body is particularly susceptible to Cd exposure during perinatal period. The effect on rat oral epithelium (floor of the mouth after continuous exposure to drinking water containing low levels of Cd during lactation was studied. Female rats were supplied with ad libitum drinking water containing 300 mg/l of CdCl2 throughout the whole lactation period. Control animals received a similar volume of water without Cd. Lactating rats (21 day-old were killed by lethal dose of anesthetic. The heads were retrieved, fixed in "alfac" solution (alcohol, acetic acid and formaldehyde for 24 h, serially sectioned in frontal plane, at the level of the first molars. The 6 µm sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Nuclear epithelium parameters were estimated, as well as cytoplasm and cell volume, nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, numeric and surface densities, and epithelial thickness. Mean body weight was 34.86 g for the control group and 18.56 g for the Cd-treated group. Histologically, the floor of the mouth epithelium was thinner in the treated group, with smaller and more numerous cells. In this experiment, Cd induced epithelial hypotrophy, indicating a direct action in oral mucosa cells, besides retarded development of the pups.O cádmio (Cd do ar, da água e dos alimentos tem o potencial de afetar a saúde das pessoas, principalmente daquelas que vivem em regiões altamente industrializadas. O Cd afeta a função placentária, podendo atravessar a barreira placentária e provocar distúrbios no desenvolvimento fetal. Pode, também, ser excretado pelo leite. O organismo é particularmente susceptível à exposição ao Cd no período perinatal. Foi

  1. Efeito do laser de baixa intensidade (660 nm na regeneração do nervo isquiático lesado em ratos Effect of low- power laser (660 nm on regeneration of injured rat sciatic nerve

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    Rafael Inácio Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os nervos periféricos são estruturas que, ao sofrerem lesões, podem originar incapacidades motoras e sensitivas importantes. O laser de baixa intensidade é um dos diversos recursos terapêuticos para promover a regeneração nervosa precoce, mas ainda não há consenso sobre sua utilização. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, por meio de avaliação funcional, o efeito da terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (660 nm na regeneração do nervo isquiático após esmagamento. Foram utilizados 18 ratos (Wistar submetidos à lesão do nervo isquiático divididos em dois grupos, controle e grupo laser, submetido ao tratamento a laser (AsGaAl, 660 nm, 10J/cm2, 30 mW e 0,06 cm² por 21 dias no local da lesão. Para a avaliação funcional, foi aplicado o índice funcional do ciático (IFC no pré-operatório e nos 7º, 14º e 21º dias de pós-operatório. Quando comparados o IFC dos grupos no 14o dia de pós-operatório, foi encontrada melhora significante no grupo laser em relação ao controle. Na amostra analisada e nos parâmetros utilizados, pôde-se constatar que a aplicação do laser foi eficaz na recuperação funcional precoce do nervo ciático esmagado.Peripheral nerves, when injured, may originate important motor and sensitive disability. Studies have used several therapeutic resources in order to achieve early nervous regeneration, such as low-power laser; but there is no consensus on its use, which leads to controversial conclusions. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of GaAlAs laser (660 nm on functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. Sciatic nerves of 18 Wistar rats were crushed and divided into sham group and treated group, the latter submitted to laser therapy (660 nm, 10 J/cm², 30 mW and 0.06 cm2 for 21 days. The sciatic functional index (SFI was measured before surgery and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. A significant difference, showing better regeneration of the treated group, was

  2. The spatiotemporal localization of JAM-C following sciatic nerve crush in adult rats.

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    Avari, Parizad; Huang, Wenlong; Averill, Sharon; Colom, Bartomeu; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Priestley, John V

    2012-07-01

    JAM-C is a junctional adhesion molecule, enriched at tight junctions on endothelial and epithelial cells, and also localized to Schwann cells at junctions between adjoining myelin end loops. The role of JAM-C following peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is currently unknown. We examined the localization of JAM-C after sciatic nerve crush injury in adult rats. JAM-C immunoreactivity was present in paranodes and incisures in sham surgery control nerve, but distal to the crush injury significantly decreased at three and 14 days. JAM-C was re-expressed at 28 days and, by 56 days, was significantly increased in the distal nerve compared to controls. In a 7-mm length of sciatic nerve sampled distal to the crush site, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive paranodes increased in the distal direction. Conversely, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive incisures were highest immediately distal to the crush site and decreased in the more distal direction. Further analysis revealed a strong correlation between JAM-C localization and remyelination. Fifty-six days after crush injury, greater densities of JAM-C paranodes were seen compared to the nodal marker jacalin, suggesting that paranodal JAM-C precedes node formation. Our data are the first to demonstrate a potential role of JAM-C in remyelination after PNI.

  3. Nicotine enhances the expression of a sucrose or cocaine conditioned place preference in adult male rats.

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    Buffalari, Deanne M; Marfo, Nana Yaa A; Smith, Tracy T; Levin, Melissa E; Weaver, Matthew T; Thiels, Edda; Sved, Alan F; Donny, Eric C

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine has been shown to enhance the motivational properties of non-nicotine stimuli. This reinforcement-enhancing property of nicotine has the potential to promote the use of other illicit substances as well as maladaptive patterns of food intake. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether nicotine enhances preference for contexts paired with cocaine or sucrose utilizing a place conditioning procedure. Separate groups of adult male rats were administered sucrose or cocaine in one of two compartments of a standard CPP chamber on four consecutive days. Preference was then assessed following no injection, a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of nicotine, and a s.c. saline injection. The animals preferred the chamber paired with either sucrose or cocaine, as evident from an increased time spent in the paired chamber compared to baseline. Nicotine further increased the time spent in the sucrose- or cocaine-paired chamber, consistent with a reinforcement-enhancement effect. Previous results demonstrate an interaction between nicotine and intake of other drugs or food. The present findings provide an additional mechanism that may underlie these effects and which may have implications for drug dependence and obesity.

  4. Generation of New Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Rats after Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury

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    Luisa Muratori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of neurons generated ex novo in sensory ganglia of adult animals is still debated. In the present study, we investigated, using high resolution light microscopy and stereological analysis, the changes in the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia after 30 days from a crush lesion of the rat brachial plexus terminal branches. Results showed, as expected, a relevant hypertrophy of dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we reported, for the first time in the literature, that neuronal hypertrophy was accompanied by massive neuronal hyperplasia leading to a 42% increase of the number of primary sensory neurons. Moreover, ultrastructural analyses on sensory neurons showed that there was not a relevant neuronal loss as a consequence of the nerve injury. The evidence of BrdU-immunopositive neurons and neural progenitors labeled with Ki67, nanog, nestin, and sox-2 confirmed the stereological evidence of posttraumatic neurogenesis in dorsal root ganglia. Analysis of morphological changes following axonal damage in addition to immunofluorescence characterization of cell phenotype suggested that the neuronal precursors which give rise to the newly generated neurons could be represented by satellite glial cells that actively proliferate after the lesion and are able to differentiate toward the neuronal lineage.

  5. Toxic effects of methoxychlor administered subcutaneously on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult rats.

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    Lafuente, A; Cabaleiro, T; Caride, A; Esquifino, A I

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methoxychlor MTX at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult male rats. This global objective comprises three major aims: (1) to analyze the possible differential MTX effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence; (2) to evaluate effects induced by MTX exposure on gonadotropins and testosterone; 93 to elucidate whether the regulatory interactions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are modified by this pesticide. Animals were administered subcutaneously 25mg/kg/day of MTX for 1 month. MTX increased norepinephrine and serotonin content in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05), but decreased serotonin concentration in posterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05). MTX diminished serotonin turnover in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.01) and decreased plasma LH (P < or = 0.001) and testosterone (P < or = 0.05) levels but those of FSH remained unmodified. We can conclude that MTX exposure: (1) could exert differential effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence, being the anterior hypothalamus the most sensitive region to the pesticide; (2) could inhibit LH and testosterone secretion without changing FSH; (3) four potential pathways might be involved in MTX effects on testosterone secretion (changing LH secretion; modifying serotonin and norepinephrine at the hypothalamic level; alterating the direct neural pathway between brain and testes; and/or by a direct effect in testes).

  6. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 regulate hippocampal neurogenesis in adult and aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachstetter, Adam D.; Morganti, Josh M.; Jernberg, Jennifer; Schlunk, Andrea; Mitchell, Staten H.; Brewster, Kaelin W.; Hudson, Charles E.; Cole, Michael J; Harrison, Jeffrey K.; Bickford, Paula C.; Gemma, Carmelina

    2010-01-01

    Microglia have neuroprotective capacities, yet chronic activation can promote neurotoxic inflammation. Neuronal fractalkine (FKN), acting on CX3CR1, has been shown to suppress excessive microglia activation. We found that disruption in FKN/ CX3CR1 signaling in young adult rodents decreased survival and proliferation of neural progenitor cells through IL-1β. Aged rats were found to have decreased levels of hippocampal FKN protein; moreover, interruption of CX3CR1 function in these animals did not affect neurogenesis. The age-related loss of FKN could be restored by exogenous FKN reversing the age-related decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. There were no measureable changes in young animals by the addition of exogenous FKN. The results suggest that FKN/ CX3CR1 signaling has a regulatory role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis via mechanisms that involve indirect modification of the niche environment. As elevated neuroinflammation is associated with many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, enhancing FKN/ CX3CR1 interactions could provide an alternative therapeutic approach to slow age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:20018408

  7. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahmood; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Shobha, Jagdish C; Naidu, Madireddi U; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina, a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  8. HPA and sympathoadrenal activity of adult rats perinatally exposed to maternal mild calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Paolini, Antonio G; Govic, Antonina; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen

    2010-03-17

    Developmental programming of neuroendocrine systems is profoundly influenced by environmental cues such as caloric availability. The focus of investigations in this area has been on the effects of under- and malnutrition while there is a paucity of research examining the effects of more mild levels of calorie restriction (CR). Rat dams and their offspring were subjected to one of five dietary regimens: control, CR50% for 3 days preconception, CR25% during gestation, CR25% during lactation, and CR25% during gestation, lactation, and post-weaning (lifelong). Adult male offspring were decapitated and trunk blood collected to assay for basal concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), as well as plasma concentrations of adrenalin (A) and noradrenalin (NA). Basal serum ACTH was reduced by 35-43% in all dietary regimens except the lifelong group. Although a similar trend was observed in the concentrations of serum CORT, only the decrease in the lactation group attained statistical significance. A was reduced by 33-49% as a result of all dietary regimens and NA was reduced in the gestation and lifelong groups by 51% and 39%, respectively. The potential mechanisms underlying these neuroendocrine alterations are discussed.

  9. Ependymal cell reactions in spinal cord segments after compression injury in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Arai, Yasuhisa; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Sueyoshi, Noriyoshi; Shirai, Shunichi

    2003-02-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells exist in the ependyma that forms the central canal of the spinal cord. In this study, we produced various degrees of thoracic cord injury in adult rats using an NYU-weight-drop device, assessed the degree of recovery of lower limb motor function based on a locomotor rating scale, and analyzed the kinetics of ependymal cell proliferation and differentiation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or GAP-43 immunostaining. The results showed that the time course of the ependymal cell proliferation and differentiation reactions differed according to the severity of injury, and that the responses occurred not only in the neighborhood of the injury but in the entire spinal cord. An increase in the locomotor rating score was related to an increase in the number of PCNA-positive cells, and the differentiation of ependymal cells into reactive astrocytes was involved in injury repair. No apoptotic cells in the ependyma were detectable by the TUNEL method. These results indicate that the ependymal cells of the spinal central canal are themselves multipotent, can divide and proliferate according to the severity of injury, and differentiate into reactive astrocytes within the ependyma without undergoing apoptosis or cell death.

  10. Thrombin modulates persistent sodium current in CA1 pyramidal neurons of young and adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunko, O O; Isaev, D S; Krishtal, O O; Isaeva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Serine protease thrombin, a key factor of blood coagulation, participates in many neuronal processes important for normal brain functioning and during pathological conditions involving abnormal neuronal synchronization, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Our previous study on CA3 pyramidal neurons showed that application ofthrombin through the activation of specific protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) produces a significant hyperpolarizing shift of the activation of the TTX-sensitive persistent voltage-gated Na+ current (I(Nap)) thereby affecting membrane potential and seizure threshold at the network level. It was shown that PAR1 is also expressed in CA1 area of hippocampus and can be implicated in neuronal damage in this area after status epilepticus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of thrombin on I(NaP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons from adult and young rats. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique we demonstrate that thrombin application results in the hyperpolarization shift of I(NaP) activation as well as increase in the I(NaP) amplitude in both age groups. We have found that I(NaP) in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA 1 region is more vulnerable to the thrombin action than I(NaP) in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA3 region. We have also found that the immature hippocampus is more sensitive to thrombin action which emphasizes the contribution of thrombin-dependent pathway to the regulation of neuronal activity in immature brain.

  11. Dimethyl sulfoxide enhances lipid synthesis and secretion by long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Vega, F M; Mendoza-Figueroa, T

    1991-05-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was tested for its effects on lipid metabolism of long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. The addition of 1% DMSO to 3T3-hepatocyte cultures was not toxic to cells and in fact treated cultures maintained better their characteristic morphology for up to 14 days of exposure. DMSO treatment increased 2-3 fold the de novo synthesis of total lipids from[14C]acetate. The analysis by thin layer chromatography of cellular and secreted lipids revealed that DMSO increased the levels of cellular triglycerides, phospholipides and free and sterified cholesterol at 7 days of exposure while at 14 days there was also a 2-3-fold increase in medium secreted lipids. Additionally, DMSO increased the activity of glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase, a marker enzyme of glycerolipid synthesis, by greater than 50% at either 7 or 14 days of exposure. These results show that 1% DMSO not only is not detrimental to cultured hepatocytes but also enhances lipid synthesis and secretion, both hepatic-differentiated functions.

  12. Cultivation of adult rat hepatocytes on 3T3 cells: expression of various liver differentiated functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri-Harcuch, W; Mendoza-Figueroa, T

    1989-08-01

    Adult rat hepatocytes were maintained in culture for at least 1 month without losing the expression of their differentiated functions; they were cultured on lethally treated 3T3 fibroblasts inoculated at 35,000 cells/cm2 with medium containing 10-25 micrograms/ml hydrocortisone. Hepatocytes showed their typical morphology; they formed bile canaliculi, microvilli, and intercellular junctions with desmosomes and nexus; some formed structures that may resemble the perisinusoidal space of Disse. In addition, they showed DNA synthesis and expressed some liver-specific functions. They synthesized albumin and other proteins, which were exported to the culture medium. Like parenchymal liver cells in vivo, de novo fatty acid synthesis and esterification took place, and more than 80% of the lipids synthesized by the hepatocytes were secreted into the medium as triglycerides; they also showed cytochrome-P450 activity that was inducible with phenobarbital, suggesting that the hepatocytes have the capacity to metabolize drugs. These culture conditions allow the study of various hepatocyte differentiated functions, and they may provide the means to analyze the effect on liver of hormones, viruses and hepatotoxic chemicals and drugs; they may also indicate conditions adequate for serial growth of hepatocytes.

  13. PRDM5 Expression and Essential Role After Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wu, Weijie; Hao, Jie; Yu, Mingchen; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xinlei; Qian, Rong; Zhang, Feng

    2016-12-01

    PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ) domain proteins (PRDM) are a subfamily of the kruppel-like zinc finger gene products that modulate cellular processes such as differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. PRDM5 is a recently identified family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor and behaves as a putative tumor suppressor in different types of cancer. However, the expression and function of PRDM5 in spinal cord injury (SCI) are still unknown. In the present study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of PRDM5 expression in the spinal cord. We found that PRDM5 protein levels gradually increased, reaching a peak at day 5 and then gradually declined to a normal level at day 14 after SCI with Western blot analysis. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that PRDM5 immunoreactivity was found in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. However, the expression of PRDM5 was increased predominantly in neurons. Additionally, colocalization of PRDM5/active caspase-3 was been respectively detected in neurons. In vitro, we found that depletion of PRDM5 by short interfering RNA, obviously decreases neuronal apoptosis. In summary, this is the first description of PRDM5 expression in SCI. Our results suggested that PRDM5 might play crucial roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI and this research will provide new drug targets for clinical treatment of SCI.

  14. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

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    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  15. The Petroselinum crispum L. hydroalcoholic extract effects on pituitary- gonad axis in adult Rats

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    F Bastampoor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Infertility is one of the major issues in medical science which various chemical and herbal medicines have been used for its treatment from ancient times. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs and with regard to the cause of infertility in men is a hormonal disorder, thus, the study aimed to investigate the effect of ethanol extracts of parsley leaves performed on serum levels of pituitary - gonadal hormones. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on fifty adult male rats. The animals were divided into 5 groups of 10 specimens, including controls, and three sets of empirical receiving doses 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg ethanol extract of parsley leaves respectively. Prescriptions were done as gavage for 28 days. At the end of the test, the hearts of the animal and the serum hormones levels of testosterone, FSH and LH were measured. The Data were analyzed with t-test and Duncan and significant differences of data was considered at p = 0.05. Results: The findings revealed that the leaf extract of parsley caused a significant increase in FSH and LH and testosterone significantly increased at minimum and medium doses and decreased significantly in maximum dose. Conclusion: Parsley leaf , having antioxidant compounds, led to the increasing of FSH and LH hormones at three doses and increasing testosterone at minimum and medium doses and decreasing at maximum dose.

  16. Sensitization of capsaicin and icilin responses in oxaliplatin treated adult rat DRG neurons

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    Anand Praveen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin chemotherapy induced neuropathy is a dose related cumulative toxicity that manifests as tingling, numbness, and chronic pain, compromising the quality of life and leading to discontinued chemotherapy. Patients report marked hypersensitivity to cold stimuli at early stages of treatment, when sensory testing reveals cold and heat hyperalgesia. This study examined the morphological and functional effects of oxaliplatin treatment in cultured adult rat DRG neurons. Results 48 hour exposure to oxaliplatin resulted in dose related reduction in neurite length, density, and number of neurons compared to vehicle treated controls, using Gap43 immunostaining. Neurons treated acutely with 20 μg/ml oxaliplatin showed significantly higher signal intensity for cyclic AMP immunofluorescence (160.5 ± 13 a.u., n = 3, P Conclusions Oxaliplatin treatment induces TRP sensitization mediated by increased intracellular cAMP, which may cause neuronal damage. These effects may be mitigated by co-treatment with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, like CB2 agonists, to alleviate the neurotoxic effects of oxaliplatin.

  17. Coalescence of deep and superficial epileptic foci into larger discharge units in adult rat neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Ruggero; Andrade, Rodrigo; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-30

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyper-synchrony that can involve both neocortical and hippocampal brain regions. While much is known about the network properties of the hippocampus little is known of how epileptic neocortical hyper-synchrony develops. We aimed at characterizing the properties of epileptic discharges of a neocortical epileptic focus. We established a multi-electrode-array method to record the spatial patterns of epileptiform potentials in acute adult rat brain slices evoked by 4-Aminopyridine in the absence of magnesium. Locations of discharges mapped to two anatomical regions over the somatosensory cortex and over the lateral convexity separated by a gap at a location matching the dysgranular zone. Focal epileptiform discharges were recorded in superficial and deep neocortical layers but over superficial layers, they exhibited larger surface areas. They were often independent even when closely spaced to one another but they became progressively coupled resulting in larger zones of coherent discharge. The gradual coupling of multiple, independent, closely spaced, spatially restricted, focal discharges between deep and superficial neocortical layers represents a possible mechanism of the development of an epileptogenic zone.

  18. COALESCENCE OF DEEP AND SUPERFICIAL EPILEPTIC FOCI INTO LARGER DISCHARGE UNITS IN ADULT RAT NEOCORTEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    SERAFINI, RUGGERO; ANDRADE, RODRIGO; LOEB, JEFFREY A.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyper-synchrony that can involve both neocortical and hippocampal brain regions. While much is known about the network properties of the hippocampus little is known of how epileptic neocortical hyper-synchrony develops. We aimed at characterizing the properties of epileptic discharges of a neocortical epileptic focus. We established a multi-electrode-array method to record the spatial patterns of epileptiform potentials in acute adult rat brain slices evoked by 4-Aminopyridine in the absence of magnesium. Locations of discharges mapped to two anatomical regions over the somatosensory cortex and over the lateral convexity separated by a gap at a location matching the dysgranular zone. Focal epileptiform discharges were recorded in superficial and deep neocortical layers but over superficial layers, they exhibited larger surface areas. They were often independent even when closely spaced to one another but they became progressively coupled resulting in larger zones of coherent discharge. The gradual coupling of multiple, independent, closely spaced, spatially restricted, focal discharges between deep and superficial neocortical layers represents a possible mechanism of the development of an epileptogenic zone. PMID:25701714

  19. Regulation of neuropilin 1 by spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Marta; Robinson, Michelle; Cafferty, William; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Kilkenny, Carol; Hunt, Stephen P; McMahon, Stephen B

    2005-03-01

    Using RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence, we have analyzed the expression of neuropilin 1 (Np1) in two models of spinal cord injury (spinal cord hemisection and dorsal column crush) and following dorsal root rhizotomy in adult rats. Our results show that Np1 RNA and protein are up-regulated in the spinal cord after all these lesions but remain unaltered in the adjacent dorsal root ganglia. In control animals, Np1 levels in the spinal cord are low and appear to be localized mainly in blood vessels, motoneurons, and in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn. After DCC and rhizotomy, Np1 is expressed de novo around the injury and in the deafferentated dorsal horn, respectively, mainly by OX42-positive microglial cells. Both lesions affect the sensory projections, and interestingly a consistent increase of Np1 signal is additionally seen in the dorsal horn where these projections terminate. Unexpectedly, this increase is bilateral after unilateral rhizotomy.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of evoked potentials for functional impairment after contusive spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy; Zhou, James; Krishnan, Rohan; Manem, Nihita; Umredkar, Shreya; Hamilton, D K; Balzer, Jeffrey R; Oudega, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Iatrogenic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a cause of potentially debilitating post-operative neurologic complications. Currently, intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) via somatosensory evoked potentials and motor-evoked potentials is used to detect and prevent impending SCI. However, no empirically validated interventions exist to halt the progression of iatrogenic SCI once it is detected. This is in part due to the lack of a suitable translational model that mimics the circumstances surrounding iatrogenic SCI detected via IONM. Here, we evaluate a model of simulated contusive iatrogenic SCI detected via IONM in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. We show that transient losses of somatosensory evoked potentials responses are 88.24% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.53-98.20) and 80% specific (95% CI 51.91-95.43) for significant functional impairment following simulated iatrogenic SCI. Similarly, we show that transient losses in motor-evoked potentials responses are 70.83% sensitive (95% CI 48.91-87.33) and 100% specific (95% CI 62.91-100.00) for significant functional impairment following simulated iatrogenic SCI. These results indicate that our model is a suitable replica of the circumstances surrounding clinical iatrogenic SCI.

  1. Metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenouda, Sylvia K; Varner, Kurt J; Carvalho, Felix; Lucchesi, Pamela A

    2009-03-01

    Repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (ecstasy) produces eccentric left ventricular (LV) dilation and diastolic dysfunction. While the mechanism(s) underlying this toxicity are unknown, oxidative stress plays an important role. MDMA is metabolized into redox cycling metabolites that produce superoxide. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Metabolites of MDMA used in this study included alpha-methyl dopamine, N-methyl alpha-methyl dopamine and 2,5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA. Dihydroethidium was used to detect drug-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in ventricular myocytes. Contractile function and changes in intracellular calcium transients were measured in paced (1 Hz), Fura-2 AM loaded, myocytes using the IonOptix system. Production of ROS in ventricular myocytes treated with MDMA was not different from control. In contrast, all three metabolites of MDMA exhibited time- and concentration-dependent increases in ROS that were prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). The metabolites of MDMA, but not MDMA alone, significantly decreased contractility and impaired relaxation in myocytes stimulated at 1 Hz. These effects were prevented by NAC. Together, these data suggest that MDMA-induced oxidative stress in the left ventricle can be due, at least in part, to the metabolism of MDMA to redox active metabolites.

  2. Ontogeny of rat chondrocyte proliferation: studies in embryo, adult and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madaí A GóMEZ-CAMARILLO; Juan B.KOURI

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ontogeny of chondrocyte cell division using embryo, adult and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. We searched for mitosis phases and performed a comparative evaluation of mitotic index, basic fibroblast growth factor b (FGFb), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) receptors, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK1)and Cyclin-B expression in fetal, neonate, 3, 5, 8 weeks old rats and experimental OA. Our results showed that mitosis phases were observed in all normal cartilage studied, although, we found a decrease in mitotic index in relation to tissue development. No mitosis was detected in OA cartilage. We also found a statistical significant reduction in cell number in OA cartilage, compared with the normal tissue. Furthermore, FGFb and TGF-β1 receptors diminished in relation to tissue development, and were very scarce in experimental OA. Western blot assays showed CDK-1 expression in all cases, including human-OA cartilage. Similar results were observed for Cyclin-B, except for 8 weeks, when it was not expressed. Our results suggest that cell division seems to be scarce, if not absent within the OA cartilage studied.Nevertheless, the existence of factors essential for cell division leaves open the question concerning chondrocyte proliferation in OA cartilage, which is likely to be present in the early stages of the disease.

  3. Ultrastructural features of dopamine axon terminals in the anteromedial and the suprarhinal cortex of adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguéla, P; Watkins, K C; Descarries, L

    1988-02-23

    The ultrastructural features and synaptic relationships of dopamine (DA) axon terminals were examined in the prefrontal cortex of adult rat after immunocytochemical staining with a highly specific polyclonal antiserum directed against DA-glutaraldehyde-lysyl-protein conjugate (donated by M. Geffard). Single and serial ultrathin sections were obtained from the deep layers of the anteromedial and the suprarhinal DA fields. The DA axon terminals from both regions averaged 0.7 micron in diameter, contained a mixed population of small, round and clear synaptic vesicles associated with a few larger dense-cored or fully immunostained vesicles, and frequently exhibited synaptic contacts which were exclusively made on dendritic shafts and spines. These synapses were mostly of the symmetrical type (80%) and were more often seen on dendritic shafts than spines, particularly in the suprarhinal (89%) compared with the anteromedial cortex (62%). As estimated either by stereological extrapolation from single sections or by direct observation in serial sections, the synaptic incidence of these DA varicosities was significantly greater in the anteromedial than suprarhinal DA field. In the longest series of thin sections, a junctional complex could be observed on 93% of the DA varicosities from the anteromedial cortex but only on 56% in the suprarhinal cortex. Such an inter-regional disparity in the relational characteristics of the DA input will need to be taken into account in elucidating the role and properties of this monoamine in cerebral cortex.

  4. Vascularized peripheral nerve trunk autografted in the spinal cord: a new experimental model in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of vascularized peripheral nerve trunk autografted in spinal cord. Methods: With modern microsurgical technique,vascularized peripheral median and ulnar nerve trunk autografted in the upper thoracic region of the spinal cord were established in 20 female adult rats. The origin and the termination of axons in the graft were studied by retrograde neuronal labeling with horseradish peroxidase (HRP).Cord, nerve grafts and some normal median and ulnar nerves in the right upper limb were removed and sectioned for Bielschowsky's silver stain and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Light and electron microscopic examination and electrophysiological examination were applied.Results: The grafts were innervated by many new fibers. Studies with HRP indicated that new axons in graft were originated from intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) neurons with their cell bodies from brain stem to sacral segments of spinal cord. Other axons arose from dorsal root ganglia at the level of graft and at least 19 distal segments to them. Together with electron microscopy, electrophysiological examination, silver and H&E stain, the results demonstrated that vascularized peripheral nerve trunk grafted in spinal cord attracted many neurons to grow into the nerve grafts.Conclusions: The findings implicate that CNS is able to regenerate much better in vascularized nerve autografted in spinal cord.

  5. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricki, Denise A; Hutson, Thomas H; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Shine, H David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C R; Gage, Fred H; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke.

  6. Axon-glial relations during regeneration of axons in the adult rat anterior medullary velum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M; Hunter, A S; Duncan, A; Lordan, J; Kirvell, S; Tsang, W L; Butt, A M

    1998-12-01

    The anterior medullary velum (AMV) of adult Wistar rats was lesioned in the midsagittal plane, transecting all decussating axons including those of the central projection of the IVth nerve. At selected times up to 200 days after transection, the degenerative and regenerative responses of axons and glia were analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In particular, both the capacity of oligodendrocytes to remyelinate regenerated fibers and the stability of the CNS/PNS junctional zone of the IVth nerve rootlet were documented. Transected central AMV axons exhibited four patterns of fiber regeneration in which fibers grew: rostrocaudally in the reactive paralesion neuropil (Group 1); randomly within the AMV (Group 2); into the ipsilateral IVth nerve rootlet, after turning at the lesion edge and growing recurrently through the old degenerated contralateral central trochlear nerve trajectory (Group 3); and ectopically through paralesion tears in the ependyma onto the surface of the IVth ventricle (Group 4). Group 1-3 axons regenerated unperturbed through degenerating central myelin, reactive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and large accumulations of hematogenous macrophages. Only Group 3 axons survived long term in significant numbers, and all became myelinated by oligodendrocytes, ultimately establishing thin sheaths with relatively normal nodal gaps and intersegmental myelin sheath lengths. Schwann cells at the CNS/PNS junction of the IVth nerve rootlet did not invade the CNS, but astrocyte processes grew across the junction into the PNS portion of the IVth nerve. The basal lamina of the junctional glia limitans remained stable throughout the experimental period.

  7. Axon-myelin sheath relations of oligodendrocyte unit phenotypes in the adult rat anterior medullary velum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, A M; Ibrahim, M; Berry, M

    1998-04-01

    Axon-oligodendrocyte relations of Rip-immunolabelled and dye-injected oligodendrocyte units are characterised in the adult rat anterior medullary velum (AMV). Each oligodendrocyte unit comprised the oligodendrocyte cell body, processes and the internodal myelin segments they support. Oligodendrocyte units corresponded to classically described type I/II or type III/IV unit phenotypes which respectively myelinated discrete populations of small and large diameter axons, delineated by a myelinated fire diameter of 2-4 microns (diameter of the axon plus its myelin sheath). Within units, mean fibre diameter was directly related to mean internodal length and inversely related to the number of myelin sheaths in the unit. The relationship between fibre diameter and internodal length was retained in units which myelinated axons of different diameters, indicating that axon diameter was an important determinant of the longitudinal dimensions of myelin sheaths. We also show that type III/IV units maintained a far greater volume of myelin than type I/II units. It was concluded that type I/II and III/IV oligodendrocytes represent two functionally and morphologically distinct phenotypes whose distribution densities were determined by the diameter and spatial dispersion of axons.

  8. Preparation and Primary Culture of Liver Cells Isolated from Adult Rats by Dispase Perfusion

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    Wahid,Syarifuddin

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available The dispase perfusion technique was used to isolate liver cells from adult rats. The optimum conditions for obtaining many isolated liver cells with high viability were an enzyme concentration of 2000 U/ml, a pH of 7.5 and a perfusion time of 20 min. The population of isolated liver cells prepared with dispase consisted of 43.6% cells with diameters less than 20 micron and 56.4% cells with diameters above 20 micron. The isolated liver cells were cultured in basal culture medium either supplemented with or without dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5M and insulin (10 micrograms/ml. The addition of hormones to the culture medium improved the attachment efficiency of the isolated liver cells and delayed the disappearance of mature hepatocytes. Epithelial-like clear cells proliferated early in primary culture even in the presence of hormones. Therefore, functioning mature hepatocytes and proliferating epithelial-like clear cells coexisted well in the hormone-containing medium. Furthermore, the number of cultured cells reached a maximal level earlier in the presence of hormones than in the absence of hormones. The level of TAT activity in primary cultured cells was higher up to 3 days after inoculation in the presence of hormones than in their absence. No difference between G6Pase activity in primary cultured cells in the presence of hormones and that in the absence of hormones was found.

  9. Apoptotic effects of inositol hexaphosphate on biomarker Itpr3 in induced colon rat carcinogenesis Efeito de apoptose do inositol hexafosfato no marcador biológico Itpr3 em carcinogênese induzida de colo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Guido

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effect of the modulation of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 in the biological immunohistochemistry expression of cellular signaling marker apoptosis, in model of carcinogenesis of colon induced by azoxymethane (AOM. METHODS: Wistar rats (N=112 distributed in 4 groups (n=28: Control; B, AOM (5 mg kg-1, 2x, to break week 3; C, IP6 (in water 1%, six weeks; D, IP6+AOM. Weekly euthanasia (n=7, from week three. Immunohistochemistry of ascendant colon with biological marker inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor type III (Itpr3. Quantification of the immune-expression with use of computer-assisted image processing. Analysis statistics of the means between groups, weeks in groups, groups in weeks, and established significance when pOBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da modulação do inositol hexafosfato (IP6 na expressão imunoistoquímica de marcador biológico de sinalização celular de apoptose, em modelo de carcinogênese induzida pelo azoximetano (AOM. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (N=112 distribuídos em 4 grupos (n=28: A, controle; B, AOM (5 mg Kg-1, 2x, a partir semana 3; C, IP6 (em água a 1%, seis semanas; D, IP6+AOM. Eutanásia semanal (n=7, a partir de semana três. Imunoistoquímica de colo ascendente com marcador biológico inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor type III (Itpr3. Quantificação da imunoexpressão com uso de processamento imagem assistida computador. Análise estatística da expressão média entre grupos, semanas em grupos e grupos em semanas, e estabelecido significância quando p<0.05. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se diferença significante entre grupos na expressão de Itpr3, p<0.0001; com diminuição Itpr3 de grupo BxD, p<0.001. CONCLUSÃO: O inositol hexafostato promove a modulação de marcador biológico com diminuição Itpr3 em carcinogênese de colo.

  10. Effect of glutamine on the total antioxidant system of rats subjected to renal ischemia and reperfusion Efeito da glutamina no sistema antioxidante total de ratos submetidos a isquemia e reperfusão renal

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    Valter Torezan Gouvêa Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the protective effects of glutamine administered before renal ischemia-reperfusion on plasma antioxidant protection, and lung and renal tissue injury. METHODS: 33 rats underwent right nephrectomy. On the eighth postoperative day, animals were randomized into three groups (n=11: glutamine, control and sham. Each group of animals received, by gavage, a particular diet for 7 days. On day 14 following nephrectomy, the animals were subjected to left renal ischemia-reperfusion. After this, blood samples were collected and the animals were killed. At necropsy the kidney and lung were removed for histology. RESULTS: The levels of total antioxidant capacity were higher in the glutamine group and control group compared with the sham group. The levels of glutathione peroxidase in both the sham and glutamine groups were higher when compared with the control group (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos na proteção antioxidante plasmática e na lesão tecidual renal e pulmonar da glutamina oral administrada precedendo a isquemia/ reperfusão renal. MÉTODOS: Trinta e três ratos foram submetidos à nefrectomia à direita. No oitavo dia de pós-operatório, os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n=11: glutamina, controle e sham. Cada grupo de animal recebeu por gavagem uma dieta distinta por sete dias. Ao final do 14º dia da nefrectomia procedeu-se a isquemia renal esquerda e posterior reperfusão. A seguir procedeu-se a coleta de sangue, eutanásia e retirada do rim e pulmões para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de capacidade antioxidante total foram maiores no grupo glutamina e grupo controle em relação ao grupo sham. Os níveis de glutationa peroxidase nos grupos sham e glutamina foram mais elevados quando comparados com o grupo controle (p<0,05. A dosagem de superóxido dismutase foi maior no grupo sham quando comparado com os grupos glutamina e controle. Não houve diferença na análise histológica do rim e pulm

  11. The effect of progesterone in the prevention of the chemically induced experimental colitis in rats Efeito da progesterona na prevenção de colite experimental induzida quimicamente em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Karatepe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects of progesterone on an experimental colitis model. METHODS: Wistar albino rats were treated subcutaneously with 2mg/kg once a day during seven days Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 5mg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Disease activities, macroscopic and microscopic scores were evaluated. To determine the response provoked by progesterone we measured Colonic malondialdehyde (MDA, TNF alfa, IL-6 and Nitric oxide (NO levels in addition to the MPO (Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities. RESULTS: Progesterone ameliorated significantly the macroscopic and microscopic scores. TNBS-induced colitis significantly increased the colonic MDA levels and caspase-3 activities in group 2 in comparison to the control group. The results of the study revealed a decline in MDA, NO, IL6 and TNF-α levels in the colon tissue and in blood due to progesterone therapy in group 3 when compared to the group 2, a significant improvement. Progesterone treatment was associated with decreased MDA, MPO, TNF alfa and caspase-3 activity. CONCLUSION: Progesterone therapy decreased oxidative damage in the colonic mucosa.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da progesterona em um modelo de colite experimental. MÉTODOS: Ratos albinos Wistar foram tratados subcutaneamente com 2mg/kg por dia durante sete dias. A colite foi induzida por administração intrarretal de 5mg ácido sulfônico trinitrobenzeno (TNBS. Foram avaliadas as atividades da doença, escores macroscópicos e microscópicos Para determinar a resposta provocada pela progesterona foi medida no cólon os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA, TNF alfa, IL-6 e óxido nítrico (NO, além da atividade da MPO (Myeloperoxidase e caspase-3. RESULTADOS: A progesterone melhorou significantemente os escores macroscópicos e microscópicos. A colite induzida pelo TNBS significantemente aumentou os níveis colônicos de MDA e a atividade da caspase-3 no grupo 2 em comparação com o grupo

  12. Efeitos do uso crônico da dexametasona na cicatrização de feridas cutâneas em ratos Effects of chronic use of dexamethasone on cutaneous wound healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pundek Tenius

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Acredita-se que os glicocorticóides prejudiquem a cicatrização, causando decréscimo da proliferação celular, da neovascularização e da produção de matriz. OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos do uso crônico dos corticoesteróides na cicatrização de feridas cutâneas. MÉTODOS: Após injeções de dexametasona (0,1mg/kg/dia por 30 dias, fez-se incisão no dorso de ratos e estudou-se a cicatrização no terceiro, sétimo e 14o dias. A resistência da cicatriz, a densidade do colágeno e a reação inflamatória foram avaliadas pela histometria. RESULTADOS: As cicatrizes do grupo tratado com dexametasona eram menos resistentes à tração em todos os tempos (p=0,008 e apresentavam menor densidade de colágeno. A do colágeno tipo III foi menor em todos os tempos estudados (pBACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids are believed to hinder healing process, causing decreased cell proliferation, neovascularization and matrix production. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the chronic use of corticosteroids on skin wound healing. METHODS: After daily injections of dexamethasone (0.1 mg/Kg for 30 days, an excision was made in the dorsum of rats. Wound healing was evaluated at postoperative days 3, 7 and 14. Scar resistance, collagen density and inflammatory reaction were assessed by histometry. RESULTS: The scars of the dexamethasone-treated group were less resistant to traction in all days (p=0.008 and presented lower collagen density. Collagen III density was affected at all times (p<0.0001 and collagen I density was lower only on day 14 (p<0.0001. The inflammatory cell infiltration was less intense in the dexamethasone-treated group in the first two evaluations (p=0.001 and p=0.016, but there was no significant difference on day 14, (p=0.367. CONCLUSIONS: We observed decreased scar resistance and lower total collagen density in all periods studied. In the beginning of the process, low collagen III density was observed and later collagen

  13. Efeitos da suplementação oral com creatina sobre o metabolismo e a morfologia hepática em ratos Effects of creatine oral supplementation on the hepatic metabolism and morphology of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo de Paula Vieira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A creatina é uma amina nitrogenada e tem sido utilizada principalmente por atletas e praticantes de atividade física que desejam aumentar a massa muscular e o desempenho físico. Entretanto seu uso não está somente relacionado à prática esportiva, pois inúmeros trabalhos apresentam efeitos benéficos na prática médica. Alguns estudos demonstraram que a suplementação oral com creatina resulta em aumento da sua biodisponibilidade plasmática e também de seus estoques em inúmeros órgãos. Entretanto, estudos sobre possíveis efeitos tóxicos da suplementação com creatina são escassos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os possíveis efeitos tóxicos da suplementação oral com creatina sobre a função e morfologia hepáticas em ratos após 14 dias de suplementação oral com creatina na dose de 0.5 g/kg/dia. A função hepática foi avaliada através de testes bioquímicos e a estrutura hepática foi avaliada através da massa hepática relativa e da análise histológica. Os resultados demonstraram que 14 dias de suplementação com creatina não alteraram a função hepática quando comparado os grupos controle e suplementado: AST (39.5 x 44.4 U/L, ALT (18.6 x 30.8 U/L, ALP (38.5 x 31.4 U/L, GGT (134.8 x 143.8 U/L, proteínas totais (5.1 x 5.5 g/dl, triglicérides (141.0 x 141.0 mg/dl, colesterol total (130.1 x 126.2 mg/dl, colesterol LDL (36.1 x 36.1 mg/dl, colesterol HDL (65.6 x 62.4 mg/dl, colesterol VLDL (25.0 x 28.0 mg/dl, e também estrutura hepática, exceto nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina (3.0 x 3.5 mg/dl - pCreatine is a nitrogenated amine and it has been used mainly by athletes and physical activity practitioners who wish to increase muscle mass and performance. However its use is not just related to sports practice, once several studies have shown beneficial effects on medical practice. Some studies have demonstrated that oral creatine supplementation increases its plasmatic bioavailability and also

  14. Comparison of aortic intima and inner media in young adult versus aging rats. Stereology in a polarized system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, J. R.; Lindsay, K. L.; Dao, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    Age-related ultrastructural changes in the intima and inner media of rat thoracic aorta were examined by new morphometric techniques. Young adult male rats, 10 weeks old, were compared with 1-year-old male rats. The most marked changes were found in the sub-endothelium, which increased in thickness more than five-fold. Basement-membrane-like and granular material accounted for the bulk of this thickening. Certain other structures were increased sevenfold or more in subendothelium. These structures and the volume fractions they occupied in 1-year-old rats were as follows: banded collagen, 4.3%; mononuclear leukocytes, 4.5%; cystic structures, 3.3%; and fibrillar elastin, 1.0%. Changes were also demonstrated in the fenestrae of and at selected depth levels below the innermost, or alternatively the internal, elastic lamina. Collagen increased strikingly within fenestrae and just below the elastic lamina. This was associated with a 28% increase in the thickness of the elastic lamina and a recession of smooth muscle cytoplasm to a deeper position within the first musculoelastic medial layer. The alterations in subendothelial tissues imply an altered basis for mechanical support for aortic endothelium in aging rats. These results mark the successful application of micro-computer-based stereology to a situation of polarized geometry. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6846504

  15. The gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A; Abdel-Daiem, Wafaa M; Sayyed Bakheet, Mohamad

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, control males and group II, control females; group III, acute cold restraint stressed males and group IV, acute cold restraint stressed females; group V, fluoxetine-treated stressed males and group VI, fluoxetine-treated stressed females. Acute cold restraint stress was established by fixing the four limbs of the rat and placing it in a refrigerator at 4°C for 3h. Fluoxetine was given intraperitoneal in a single dose of 10mg/kg/day. After 2 weeks, stomach and brain tissues were collected for the assay of gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), catalase, nitric oxide (NO) and cortical gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Stressed animals exhibited increased total acidity in association with decreased gastric secretion volume. Gastric MDA was increased while gastric catalase, NO, and cortical GABA were decreased in stressed male rats when compared to stressed females. However, fluoxetine administration attenuated these stress-induced changes especially in stressed male animals. Stressed male rats were more responsive to the antiulcer effect of fluoxetine more than stressed females. However, fluoxetine might be considered to be the first-choice drug in depressive patients with gastric ulcers in the future.

  16. Long-term exposure to a ‘safe’ dose of bisphenol A reduced protein acetylation in adult rat testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zuo, Xuezhi; He, Dongliang; Ding, Shibin; Xu, Fangyi; Yang, Huiqin; Jin, Xin; Fan, Ying; Ying, Li; Tian, Chong; Ying, Chenjiang

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical, induces epigenetic inheritance. Whether histone acetylation plays a role in these effects of BPA is largely unknown. Here, we investigated histone acetylation in male rats after long-term exposure to a ‘safe’ dose of BPA. Twenty adult male rats received either BPA (50 μg/kg·bw/day) or a vehicle diet for 35 weeks. Decreased protein lysine-acetylation levels at approximately ~17 kDa and ~25 kDa, as well as decreased histone acetylation of H3K9, H3K27 and H4K12, were detected by Western blot analysis of testes from the treated rats compared with controls. Additionally, increased protein expression of deacetylase Sirt1 and reduced binding of Sirt1, together with increased binding of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a structural protein component of caveolar membranes, were detected in treated rats compared with controls. Moreover, decreased acetylation of Cav-1 was observed in the treated rats for the first time. Our study showed that long-term exposure to a ‘safe’ dose of BPA reduces histone acetylation in the male reproductive system, which may be related to the phenotypic paternal-to-offspring transmission observed in our previous study. The evidence also suggested that these epigenetic effects may be meditated by Sirt1 via competition with ERβ for binding to Cav-1. PMID:28067316

  17. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.

  18. Long-term exposure to a ‘safe’ dose of bisphenol A reduced protein acetylation in adult rat testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zuo, Xuezhi; He, Dongliang; Ding, Shibin; Xu, Fangyi; Yang, Huiqin; Jin, Xin; Fan, Ying; Ying, Li; Tian, Chong; Ying, Chenjiang

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical, induces epigenetic inheritance. Whether histone acetylation plays a role in these effects of BPA is largely unknown. Here, we investigated histone acetylation in male rats after long-term exposure to a ‘safe’ dose of BPA. Twenty adult male rats received either BPA (50 μg/kg·bw/day) or a vehicle diet for 35 weeks. Decreased protein lysine-acetylation levels at approximately ~17 kDa and ~25 kDa, as well as decreased histone acetylation of H3K9, H3K27 and H4K12, were detected by Western blot analysis of testes from the treated rats compared with controls. Additionally, increased protein expression of deacetylase Sirt1 and reduced binding of Sirt1, together with increased binding of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a structural protein component of caveolar membranes, were detected in treated rats compared with controls. Moreover, decreased acetylation of Cav-1 was observed in the treated rats for the first time. Our study showed that long-term exposure to a ‘safe’ dose of BPA reduces histone acetylation in the male reproductive system, which may be related to the phenotypic paternal-to-offspring transmission observed in our previous study. The evidence also suggested that these epigenetic effects may be meditated by Sirt1 via competition with ERβ for binding to Cav-1.

  19. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

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    Kuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCsin vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr and DG (approximately 10 Torr were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr. Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  20. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhou, Yanzhao; Zhao, Tong; Wu, Liying; Huang, Xin; Wu, Kuiwu; Xu, Lun; Li, Dahu; Liu, Shuhong; Zhao, Yongqi; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCs)in vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr) and DG (approximately 10 Torr) were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr). Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.