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Sample records for adult rat ventricular

  1. Metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shenouda, Sylvia K.; Varner, Kurt J.; Carvalho, Felix; Lucchesi, Pamela A.

    2009-01-01

    Repeated administration of MDMA (ecstasy) produces eccentric left ventricular (LV) dilation and diastolic dysfunction. While the mechanism(s) underlying this toxicity are unknown; oxidative stress plays an important role. MDMA is metabolized into redox cycling metabolites that produce superoxide. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Metabolites of MDMA used in this study included: al...

  2. Current-Voltage Relationship for Late Na(+) Current in Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R B; Giles, W R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that the slowly inactivating component of the Na(+) current (INa-L) in the mammalian heart is a significant regulator of the action potential waveform. This insight has led to detailed studies of the role of INa-L in a number of important and challenging pathophysiological settings. These include genetically based ventricular arrhythmias (LQT 1, 2, and 3), ventricular arrhythmias arising from progressive cardiomyopathies (including diabetic), and proarrhythmic abnormalities that develop during local or global ventricular ischemia. Inhibition of INa-L may also be a useful strategy for management of atrial flutter and fibrillation. Many important biophysical parameters that characterize INa-L have been identified; and INa-L as an antiarrhythmia drug target has been studied extensively. However, relatively little information is available regarding (1) the ion transfer or current-voltage relationship for INa-L or (2) the time course of its reactivation at membrane potentials similar to the resting or diastolic membrane potential in mammalian ventricle. This chapter is based on our preliminary findings concerning these two very important physiological/biophysical descriptors for INa-L. Our results were obtained using whole-cell voltage clamp methods applied to enzymatically isolated rat ventricular myocytes. A chemical agent, BDF 9148, which was once considered to be a drug candidate in the Na(+)-dependent inotropic agent category has been used to markedly enhance INa-L current. BDF acts in a potent, selective, and reversible fashion. These BDF 9148 effects are compared and contrasted with the prototypical activator of INa-L, a sea anemone toxin, ATX II. PMID:27586292

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Cinobufagin on L-Type Ca2+ Currents, Contractility, and Ca2+ Homeostasis of Isolated Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinya Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinobufagin (CBG, a major bioactive ingredient of the bufanolide steroid compounds of Chan Su, has been widely used to treat coronary heart disease. At present, the effect of CBG on the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa-L of ventricular myocytes remains undefined. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of CBG on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i handling and cell contractility in rat ventricular myocytes. CBG was investigated by determining its influence on ICa-L, Ca2+ transient, and contractility in rat ventricular myocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and video-based edge-detection and dual-excitation fluorescence photomultiplier systems. The dose of CBG (10−8 M decreased the maximal inhibition of CBG by 47.93%. CBG reduced ICa-L in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 4 × 10−10 M, upshifted the current-voltage curve of ICa-L, and shifted the activation and inactivation curves of ICa-L leftward. Moreover, CBG diminished the amplitude of the cell shortening and Ca2+ transients with a decrease in the time to peak (Tp and the time to 50% of the baseline (Tr. CBG inhibited L-type Ca2+ channels, and reduced [Ca2+]i and contractility in adult rat ventricular myocytes. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cardioprotective efficacy of CBG.

  4. Effects of Perindopril on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Osteopontin Expression in Rats With Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To observe the effects of perindopril on left ventricular remodeling and myocardial osteopontin expression in rats with myocardial infarction. Methods In this study male adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3groups: sham-operation group, MI-saline group and MI-perindopril group. Left anterior descending artery was ligated to generate myocardial infarction. Perindopril (2 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered from the next day of MI.Four weeks later, left ventricular diameter (LVEDD and LVESD) and left ventricular ejection fraction was estimated with echocardiography, LVSP, LVEDP and ± dp/dtmax was detected with hemodynamic measurement, cardiomyocyte diameter and interstitial fibrosis infiltration were evaluated with histological methods, and myocardium osteopontin protein expression level was detected with western blot. Results ①Compared with the sham-operation group, all rats with MI developed significant systolic and diastolic dysfunction, as was indicated by decreased LVEF, LVSP and ± dp/dtmax, as well as increased LVEDP. ②Rats with MI showed significantly dilated left ventricles and higher ventricular weight / body weight ratio, significantly increased cardiomyocyte diameter and marked interstitial fibrosis in the non-infarction area. ③Perindopril treatment partly prevented cardiac dysfunction and left ventricular remodeling as indicated by the parameters mentioned above. ④No osteopontin protein was detected in myocardium of sham-operation rats. In rats with MI, high level osteopontin protein expression was significantly inhibited by perindopril treatment. Conclusions In rats with MI, perindopril treatment significantly prevented left ventricular remodeling and myocardium osteopontin protein expression.

  5. Ventricular repolarization in a rat model of global heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandycheva, Valeria; Kharin, Sergey; Strelkova, Marina; Shumikhin, Konstantin; Sobolev, Aleksey; Shmakov, Dmitry

    2013-07-01

    Isoproterenol in high doses induces infarction-like myocardial damage and structural and functional remodelling of the ventricular myocardium. The purpose of the present study was to investigate ventricular repolarization in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced heart failure. Isoproterenol was administered twice to female Wistar rats (170 mg/kg, s.c., 24 h apart). Four weeks after the injections, cardiac output was measured and unipolar epicardial ventricular electrograms were recorded in situ. Activation-recovery intervals were calculated to assess repolarization. Histological examination of the heart ventricles was also performed. Heart failure in rats treated with isoproterenol was indicated by myocardial histopathological damage and reduced cardiac output. In rats with heart failure, the regional differences in activation-recovery interval prolongation over the ventricular epicardium resulted in increasing heterogeneity in the activation-recovery interval distribution and increasing repolarization heterogeneity of the ventricular subepicardium. Myocardial damage and haemodynamic changes in heart failure induced by isoproterenol were accompanied by significant changes in ventricular repolarization, which were not associated with myocardial hypertrophy.

  6. Ryanodine prolongs Ca-currents while suppressing contraction in rat ventricular muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, M. R.; Powell, T; Terrar, D. A.; Twist, V. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ryanodine (1 microM) suppressed or abolished contraction in response to step depolarization in voltage-clamped cells isolated from adult rat ventricular myocardium. The step depolarizations evoked the second inward current, which is carried largely by Ca ions under these conditions, and there was little or no change in the amplitude of this current when contraction was reduced or abolished by ryanodine. The effects of ryanodine on contraction were, however, accompanied by a prolongation of th...

  7. Frequent ventricular premature beats increase blood pressure variability in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-yu MIAO; Li-ping XU; Jian-guo LIU; He-hui XIE; Wen-jun YUAN; Ding-feng SU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that nonfatal ventricular arrhythmia such as ventricular premature beats (VPB) is a contributing factor in the elevation of blood pressure variability (BPV). METHODS:Blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram were continuously recorded. The relation between VPB and BPV was observed under conscious state in chronic myocardial infarction (MI) rats one month after ligation of the left.coronary artery, and further verified under anesthetized state in rat model of ventricular arrhythmia produced by acute intravenous infusion of aconitine. RESULTS: MI rats exhibited a big difference in the count and pattern of VPB, and were divided into no VPB, occasional VPB, and frequent VPB groups. Among the three groups, there were no differences in BP, heart period (HP), and MI size. However, BPV was markedly higher in frequent not occasional VPB rats, and HP variability (HPV) was larger in both frequent and occasional VPB rats, when compared with no VPB rats. In the whole population of MI rats, BPV was positively correlated with VPB and HPV, not with BP, HP and MI size. Infusion of aconitine had no effect on BP, HP, BPV, and HPV during the period without VPB.Frequent VPB after several minutes of aconitine infusion induced significant increase in BPV and HPV with no change in BP and HP. BPV was also positively correlated with VPB and HPV, not with BP and HP. Hemodynamics in aconitine-evoked ventricular tachycardia was characterized as lower BP, higher BPV, and higher HPV.CONCLUSION: High BPV can be caused by frequent not occasional VPB in rats.

  8. The Effect and Mechanism of Forsinopril on Ventricular Hypertrophy of SHR and Left Ventricular Pressure overloading Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄恺; 戴闺柱

    2002-01-01

    The effects and mechanism of long-term angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)Forsinopril on left ventricular hypertrophy of spontaneous hypertension rat (SHR) and left ventricular pressure overloading rat were studied. The left ventricular index (left ventricle weight/body weight) was used to evaluate left ventricular hypertrophy and the in situ hybridization to investigate the TGF-β1 gene expression in left ventricle. The results showed that Forsinopril significantly decreased the left ventricular index of both SHR and left ventricle pressure overloading rat. Forsinopril reduced the integral photic density of TGF-β1 gene statement from 2. 836± 0. 314 to 1.91 ± 0. 217(P<0.01, n=8 ) of SHR rat and from 3. 071±0. 456 to 2. 37640. 379 (P<0.01, n=8) of left ventricular pressure overloading rat respectively. It was concluded that Forsinopril could prevent the occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy and reduce the TGF-β1 gene expression in left ventricle of both SHR and left ventricular pressure overloading rat significantly.

  9. 神经介素 B 对大鼠心室肌细胞 L 型钙离子通道调节及机制研究%Modulation of L-type Ca2 + channels by neuromedin B in adult rat ventricular myocytes and the underlying mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应娇茜; 张园; 孙玉芳; 张国强; 常志刚

    2016-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigagte the effects of neuromedin B (NeuroB) on L-type Ca2 +channel currents ( IL ) and clarify the relevant signal pathway in adult rat ventricular myocytes.Methods RT-PCR and western blotting analysis were used todetect the expression ofNeuroB receptors in adult rat ventricular myocytes. The content of cAM P was detected by ELISA. The whole-cell patch clamp recording was used to investigate the effect of NeuroB on IL in adult rat ventricular myocytes. Further transduction pathway was studied by pharmacological methods.Results The NeuroB receptorwas endogenouly expressed in adult rat ventricular myocytes. NeuroB enhanced IL in a concentration-dependent manner. NeuroB-mediated increasement of IL was blocked by phosphokinase A ( PKA ) antagonist KT-5720 ,while the antagonist of phosphokinase C (PKC ) GF109203X elicited no such effects. NeuroB induced significant increase of cAM P level in adult rat ventricular myocytes.Conclusions NeuroB enhanced IL in adult rat ventricular myocytes through a NeuroB receptor-denpendent PKA signalling pathway ,whereas PKC was not involved.%目的:研究神经介素 B(NeuroB)对成年大鼠心室肌细胞 L 型钙离子通道的调节及信号转导机制。方法应用 RT-PCR 及 Western blot 方法研究 NeuroB 受体 mRNA 及蛋白在成年大鼠心室肌细胞中的表达。应用 ELISA 方法检测 NeuroB 对心室肌细胞中 cAMP 含量的影响。应用全细胞膜片钳技术研究 NeuroB 对成年大鼠心室肌细胞 L 型钙离子通道电流(IL )的作用,并应用药理学方法阐明其信号转导机制。结果 NeuroB 受体在成年大鼠心室肌细胞中呈高表达。 NeuroB 对大鼠心室肌细胞 IL 具有量效依赖性的增加作用。蛋白激酶 A(PKA)阻断剂 KT-5720能够抑制 NeuroB对该 IL 的增强作用,但蛋白激酶 C(PKC)阻断剂 GF109203X 却无任何效应。 NeuroB 可浓度依赖性增加心室肌细胞中 cAMP 含量水平。结论 NeuroB

  10. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...... studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.......The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and...... in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing...

  11. The susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia to aconitine in conscious Lyon hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LI; Jin WANG; He-hui XIE; Fu-ming SHEN; Ding-feng SU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The present work was designed to investigate the relationship between hemodynamic parameters and the susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia to aconitine in conscious Lyon hypertensive rats (LH). Methods: Male LH and Lyon low blood pressure rats (LL) were used. After the determination of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), ventricular arrhythmia was induced by aconitine infusion inconscious rats. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded during the period of infusion. Results: Compared with the LL rats, the LH rats possessed significantly higher BP, blood pressure variability and lower BRS. The threshold of aconitine required for ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest in the LH rats were significantly lower than those in the LL rats. It was found that all the hemodynamic parameters studied were not correlated with the tl~eshold of aconitine required for arrhythmia, with the exception of BRS, which was positively related to the threshold of aconitine required for ventricular premature beat. Conclusion: The LH rats possessed greater susceptibility to aconitine-induced ventricular arrhythmias when compared to the LL rats. This greater susceptibility could not be attributed to anyone of the hemodynamic parameters alone studied in the LH rats. It is proposed that various hypertension-associated abnormalities, including the abnormal hemodynamics, may co-contribute to this vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias.

  12. Geometrical models of left ventricular contraction from MRI of the normal and spontaneously hypertensive rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study develops a quantitative analysis and model for the differences in left ventricular dynamics in normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats, as determined using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We emerge with a characterization of the geometrical changes in the left ventricle resulting from hypertension. In addition, the techniques we have adopted are potentially applicable to the study of other disease models for important human cardiac pathologies. A gradient-echo multislice imaging sequence (echo time 4.3 ms) achieved complete image coverage of the heart at high time resolution (13 ms) through the cardiac cycle. Cardiac anatomy in two age-matched groups of young adult (8 and 12 weeks old) normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=8) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=8) was imaged in synchrony with the electrocardiographic R wave in defined planes both parallel and perpendicular to the principal cardiac axis. The transverse left ventricular image sections were circularly symmetrical; this permitted application of different analytical models for the three-dimensional geometry of the epi- and endocardial borders. An ellipsoidal figure of revolution offered an effective description of the three-dimensional left ventricular geometry throughout the cardiac cycle in both normal WKY and SHR animals. The model successfully characterized both the changes in the shape of the left ventricle through the cardiac cycle and the pathological alterations resulting from spontaneous hypertension. The elliptical model also formed the basis of a simple stress distribution analysis. Such parametric descriptions thus provided a useful alternative to more complex finite element analyses of cardiac function. The eccentricity of the ventricle was characterized by an ellipticity factor a, where a=1 for a sphere and a<1 for a prolate ellipsoid. At end systole, the endocardial surface of the left ventricle gave a=0.43±0.02 and 0.49±0.02 for the WKY and SHR animals

  13. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with left ventricular mass (assessed using MRI) in an adult population (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, J; Crouse, JR; Bluemke, DA; Lima, JAC; Polak, JF; Burke, GL; Herrington, DM

    2010-01-01

    Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a measure of endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. Endothelial nitric oxide controls vascular tone and is likely to modify the ventricular muscle coupling mechanism. The association between left ventricular mass and FMD is not well understood. We assessed the association between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and FMD in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). MESA is a population-based study of 6814 adults free of clin...

  14. Activation of autophagy improves neuron injury after the restoration of spontaneous circulation from ventricular fibrillation in wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of activation of autophagy on cerebral injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR)in Wistar rats.Methods At first 36healthy adult male Wistar rats were induced to suffer ventricular fibrillation(VF)by an external transthoracic alternating electricity current shock for 7 minutes and then received CPR.Before VF(0)and at 1 h,2 h,4 h,8 h and 12 hours after the restoration of spontaneous circulation(ROSC)from VF,cerebral cortex were harvested to

  15. Effects of glucose-insulin-potassium on baroreflex sensitivity, left ventricular function and ventricular arrhythmia in the subacute phase of myocardial infarction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Guo; SHU He; SHEN Fu-Ming; MIAO Chao-Yu; SU Ding-Feng

    2004-01-01

    Objective:Glucose-insulin-potassium(GIK) is clinically used for reducing mortality in acute myocardial infarction(MI). It is known that ventricular arrhythmia, left ventricular dysfunction and impaired baroreflex sensitivity(BRS) are the three major determinants for predicting the mortality after acute MI. The present work was designed to study the effects of GIK on BRS, ventricular arrhythmia, and left ventricular function in rats with coronary artery ligature. Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the myocardial infarction was produced by ligature of the left anterior descending artery. Five weeks after coronary artery ligation, BRS was measured in conscious state with a computerized blood pressure monitoring system and left ventricular function and electrocardiogram were determined in the anaesthetized state in the subacute phase of myocardial infarction. It was found that GIK did not affect the blood pressure and heart period in both conscious and anaesthetized rats. GIK did not enhance BRS, but reduced ventricular arrhythmia and improved left ventricular function by reducing left ventricular end diastolic pressure in anaesthetized rats with MI. It is proposed that reducing ventricular arrhythmia and improving left ventricular function contribute to the effect of GIK on reducing the mortality after MI.

  16. Neuroendocrine mechanisms of left ventricular dysfunction stimulated by anger stress in rats with atherosclerosis-a putative role of natriuretic peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chen; Xian-Zhi He; Qi-Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of natriuretic peptide in the process of left ventricular dysfunction caused by emotional stress. Methods: Adult male SD rats (n=30) and Wistar rats (n=60) were selected in this study. Atherosclerosis models were induced with high-fat diet and excess VD3 injection (eight consecutive weeks), and anger stress models were prepared by resident-intruder stress experiment (two consecutive weeks). Furthermore, left ventricular functions were examined by high-resolution echocardiograph, after which left ventricular myocardium and coronary arteries were prepared for pathological section and observed with electron microscope. At the same time, the hypothalamus, medulla oblongata and left ventricular myocardium were also prepared for pathological sections to detect the localization and expression of ANP, BNP and NPR-A with immunofluorescence and western blot. Results: We found that left ventricular functions of atherosclerosis or emotional stress modeled rats were both inferior to the healthy ones and superior to the combined (atherosclerosis and emotional stress) modeled ones (P<0.05). We also found that atherosclerosis and emotional stress could both cause morphological changes of left ventricular cells and capillary which contribute to apoptosis and hyperblastosis. Further more, there was NPR-A distributed in hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, as well as left ventricular tissues with the same express trend between groups, with atherosclerosis modeled rats the highest and the healthy rats the lowest. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that anger stress could cause an excess consumption of ANP, BNP and NPR-A in nervous and cardiovascular system which inhibit the compensatory self-repair function of atherosclerosis rats, leading to a promotion of fibrosis and lipid peroxidation, offering insight into the neuroendocrine mechanisms of left heart function obstacle.

  17. Dissociation enzyme effects on the biophysical properties of calcium current in acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Álvarez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin and pronase E are widely used to acutely dissociate adult cardiomyocytes. There is some evidence that enzyme treatment can alter ionic channels. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the characteristics of the L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL of rat ventricular cardiomyocytes dissociated with two enzyme combinations: collagenase + trypsin (C+T and collagenase + pronase E (C+P. ICaL density (pA/pF was significantly lower (~ 2 pA/pF in myocytes isolated with the C+P combination. However, its inactivation time course was barely affected. As well, the voltage dependency of ICaL kinetics was not affected by the C+P treatment. Our results suggest that, compared to the C+T, treatment with the C+P enzyme combination could decrease the number of functional (expressed channels in the sarcolemma.

  18. Influence of calcium preconditioning and streptomycin on ventricular dilation-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of ventricular dilation-induced arrhythmias by dilating isolated rat hearts. Methods Isolated rat hearts were perfused by Langerdorff method. After equilibration, 80 hearts were randomly divided into four groups as follows: (1) control group (n=20), (2) Ca2+ preconditioning (CPC) group (n=20), (3) streptomycin group (n=20), and (4) CPC + streptomycin group (n=20). A latex balloon which can be filled with fluid was anchored in the left ventricle through the left atrium and mitral valve. Epicardial ECG of the left ventricle, left ventricular pressure, coronary flow and heart rate were recorded before and during ventricular dilation by injecting fluid into the latex balloon. The rate and duration of ventricular dilation-induced arrhythmias were recorded. Results Under the same increase in ventricular end-diastolic pressure made by inflation of the balloon, the rate of arrhythmias was 100% and duration of arrhythmias was 2.56±0.46 s in the control group. Both the rates of premature ventricular beat (90 %) and ventricular tachycardia 70 % ) were high. Compared with the control group, the total rate (60 % ) of arrhythmias was lower, and duration (1.67±0.61 s ) of arrhythmias was shorter in the CPC group. Both the rates of premature ventricular beat (60%) and ventricular tachycardia (40%) were low comparatively. The rate of arrhythmias (45 %) was lower and duration ( 1.64±0.42 s)of arrhythmias was shorter, and the rates of premature ventricular beat (30 % ) or ventricular tachycardia (35 %) were lower in the streptomycin group than in the control one. The least ventricular dilation-induced arrhythmias occurred in the CPC + streptomycin group. The rate of arrhythmias (10%) was the lowest and duration (1.01±0.37s) of arrhythmias was the shortest; both the rates of premature ventricular beat (5%) and ventricular tachycardia (10%) were the lowest. Conclusions Ventricular dilation may induce arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts. Stretch

  19. STIM1 enhances SR Ca2+ content through binding phospholamban in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guiling; Li, Tianyu; Brochet, Didier X P; Rosenberg, Paul B; Lederer, W J

    2015-08-25

    In ventricular myocytes, the physiological function of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) Ca(2+) sensor, is unclear with respect to its cellular localization, its Ca(2+)-dependent mobilization, and its action on Ca(2+) signaling. Confocal microscopy was used to measure Ca(2+) signaling and to track the cellular movement of STIM1 with mCherry and immunofluorescence in freshly isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes and those in short-term primary culture. We found that endogenous STIM1 was expressed at low but measureable levels along the Z-disk, in a pattern of puncta and linear segments consistent with the STIM1 localizing to the junctional SR (jSR). Depleting SR Ca(2+) using thapsigargin (2-10 µM) changed neither the STIM1 distribution pattern nor its mobilization rate, evaluated by diffusion coefficient measurements using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Two-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and coimmunoprecipitation showed that STIM1 in the heart exists mainly as a large protein complex, possibly a multimer, which is not altered by SR Ca(2+) depletion. Additionally, we found no store-operated Ca(2+) entry in control or STIM1 overexpressing ventricular myocytes. Nevertheless, STIM1 overexpressing cells show increased SR Ca(2+) content and increased SR Ca(2+) leak. These changes in Ca(2+) signaling in the SR appear to be due to STIM1 binding to phospholamban and thereby indirectly activating SERCA2a (Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase). We conclude that STIM1 binding to phospholamban contributes to the regulation of SERCA2a activity in the steady state and rate of SR Ca(2+) leak and that these actions are independent of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, a process that is absent in normal heart cells. PMID:26261328

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging derived left ventricular global and region function parameters in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆莉莎

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish cardiac magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)derived left ventricular(LV)global and region function parameters in normal adults.Methods Twenty normal adults were examined with fast imaging employing steady-state(Fiesta)acquisition sequence of cardiac MRI,LV global function and LV region function were measured at basal,middle,apical level and at 16

  1. Intracellular Ca2+ Modulation during Short Exposure to Ischemia-Mimetic Factors in Isolated Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Danijel, Pravdic; Nikolina, Vladic; Zeljko, Bosnjak J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different ischemia-mimetic factors on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Ventricular myocytes were isolated from adult Wistar rats, and [Ca2+]i was measured using fluorescent indicator fluo-4 AM by confocal microscopy. Intracellular pH was measured using c5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF-1 AM, a dual emission pH-sensitive ionophore. Myocytes were exposed to hypoxia, extracellular acidosis (pHo 6.8), Na-lactate (10 mM), or to combination of those factors for 25 m...

  2. The Relation Between Hypertrophied Myocardium and Ventricular Fibrillation Threshold in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhibin; Wu Wei; Deng Yijun; Fang Chang; Wei Yulin; Zhou Shuxian; Wang Jingfeng

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relation between hypertrophied myocardium and ventricular fibrillation threshold in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods 20 male SHR were randomly divided into two groups: 10 week group (n=10) and 18 week group (n=10). 10week male Wistar rats were controlled group (n=10). The systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart mass index (HMI), ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) and ventricular fibrillation threshold(VFT) were measured respectively.Results ① The SBP and HMI of SHR were significantly higher than those of Wistar rats(P<0.001).The VFT of SHR were significantly lower than that of Wistar rats (P < 0.001). ②In SHR, the SBP and HMI of 18 week SHR were significantly higher than those of 10 week SHR (P < 0.001). The VFT of 18 week SHR were significantly lower than that of 10 week SHR (P<0.001). ③There were no significant difference of VERP among 10 week SHR, 18 week SHR and Wistar rats(P > 0.05). ④There was no relationship between HMI and VFT or SBP in Wistar rats. There was significant relationship between HMI and VFT or SBP in different age spontaneously hypertensive rats. ⑤HMI, age and species of animal were the major influent factors of VFT. Conclusions The VFT of hypertrophied myocardium decreased. The higher the degree of hypertrophy of myocardium and the higher the systolic blood pressure were, the lower the ventricular fibrillation threshold was.

  3. Functional analysis of Na+/K+-ATPase isoform distribution in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, Sanda; Bers, Donald M

    2007-07-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is the main route for Na(+) extrusion from cardiac myocytes. Different NKA alpha-subunit isoforms are present in the heart. NKA-alpha1 is predominant, although there is a variable amount of NKA-alpha2 in adult ventricular myocytes of most species. It has been proposed that NKA-alpha2 is localized mainly in T-tubules (TT), where it could regulate local Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange and thus cardiac myocyte Ca(2+). However, there is controversy as to where NKA-alpha1 vs. NKA-alpha2 are localized in ventricular myocytes. Here, we assess the TT vs. external sarcolemma (ESL) distribution functionally using formamide-induced detubulation of rat ventricular myocytes, NKA current (I(Pump)) measurements and the different ouabain sensitivity of NKA-alpha1 (low) and NKA-alpha2 (high) in rat heart. Ouabain-dependent I(Pump) inhibition in control myocytes indicates a high-affinity NKA isoform (NKA-alpha2, K(1/2) = 0.38 +/- 0.16 microM) that accounts for 29.5 +/- 1.3% of I(Pump) and a low-affinity isoform (NKA-alpha1, K(1/2) = 141 +/- 17 microM) that accounts for 70.5% of I(Pump). Detubulation decreased cell capacitance from 164 +/- 6 to 120 +/- 8 pF and reduced I(Pump) density from 1.24 +/- 0.05 to 1.02 +/- 0.05 pA/pF, indicating that the functional density of NKA is significantly higher in TT vs. ESL. In detubulated myocytes, NKA-alpha2 accounted for only 18.2 +/- 1.1% of I(Pump). Thus, approximately 63% of I(Pump) generated by NKA-alpha2 is from the TT (although TT are only 27% of the total sarcolemma), and the NKA-alpha2/NKA-alpha1 ratio in TT is significantly higher than in the ESL. The functional density of NKA-alpha2 is approximately 4.5 times higher in the T-tubules vs. ESL, whereas NKA-alpha1 is almost uniformly distributed between the TT and ESL. PMID:17392375

  4. Hemoglobin A1c and arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults.

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    Susan J Zieman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Arterial and ventricular stiffening are characteristics of diabetes and aging which confer significant morbidity and mortality; advanced glycation endproducts (AGE are implicated in this stiffening pathophysiology. We examined the association between HbA(1c, an AGE, with arterial and ventricular stiffness measures in older individuals without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: Baseline HbA(1c was measured in 830 participants free of diabetes defined by fasting glucose or medication use in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 65 years. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline exam data including echocardiography, ankle and brachial blood pressure measurement, and carotid ultrasonography. We examined the adjusted associations between HbA(1c and multiple arterial and ventricular stiffness measures by linear regression models and compared these results to the association of fasting glucose (FG with like measures. RESULTS: HbA(1c was correlated with fasting and 2-hour postload glucose levels (r = 0.21; p<0.001 for both and positively associated with greater body-mass index and black race. In adjusted models, HbA(1c was not associated with any measure of arterial or ventricular stiffness, including pulse pressure (PP, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, end-arterial elastance, or left ventricular mass (LVM. FG levels were positively associated with systolic, diastolic and PP and LVM. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of older adults without diabetes, HbA(1c was not associated with arterial or ventricular stiffness measures, whereas FG levels were. The role of AGE in arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults may be better assessed using alternate AGE markers.

  5. Modeling CICR in rat ventricular myocytes: voltage clamp studies

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    Palade Philip T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca2+ loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, and administration of blockers caffeine and thapsigargin have been utilized to probe the phenomena surrounding SR Ca2+ release. Here, we develop a deterministic mathematical model of a rat ventricular myocyte under VC conditions, to better understand mechanisms underlying the response of an isolated cell to calcium perturbation. Motivation for the study was to pinpoint key control variables influencing CICR and examine the role of CICR in the context of a physiological control system regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]myo. Methods The cell model consists of an electrical-equivalent model for the cell membrane and a fluid-compartment model describing the flux of ionic species between the extracellular and several intracellular compartments (cell cytosol, SR and the dyadic coupling unit (DCU, in which resides the mechanistic basis of CICR. The DCU is described as a controller-actuator mechanism, internally stabilized by negative feedback control of the unit's two diametrically-opposed Ca2+ channels (trigger-channel and release-channel. It releases Ca2+ flux into the cyto-plasm and is in turn enclosed within a negative feedback loop involving the SERCA pump, regulating[Ca2+]myo. Results Our model reproduces measured VC data published by several laboratories, and generates graded Ca2+ release at high Ca2+ gain in a homeostatically-controlled environment where [Ca2+]myo is precisely regulated. We elucidate the importance of the DCU elements in this process, particularly the role of the ryanodine receptor in controlling SR Ca2+ release, its activation by trigger Ca2+, and its

  6. Reversibility of electrophysiological changes induced by chronic high-altitude hypoxia in adult rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouabe, C; Amsellem, J; Espinosa, L; Ribaux, P; Blaineau, S; Mégas, P; Bonvallet, R

    2002-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that regression of left ventricular hypertrophy normalizes membrane ionic current abnormalities. This work was designed to determine whether regression of right ventricular hypertrophy induced by permanent high-altitude exposure (4,500 m, 20 days) in adult rats also normalizes changes of ventricular myocyte electrophysiology. According to the current data, prolonged action potential, decreased transient outward current density, and increased inward sodium/calcium exchange current density normalized 20 days after the end of altitude exposure, whereas right ventricular hypertrophy evidenced by both the right ventricular weight-to-heart weight ratio and the right ventricular free wall thickness measurement normalized 40 days after the end of altitude exposure. This morphological normalization occurred at both the level of muscular tissue, as shown by the decrease toward control values of some myocyte parameters (perimeter, capacitance, and width), and the level of the interstitial collagenous connective tissue. In the chronic high-altitude hypoxia model, the regression of right ventricular hypertrophy would not be a prerequisite for normalization of ventricular electrophysiological abnormalities. PMID:11893582

  7. Effects of remifentanil on intracellular Ca2+ and its transients induced by electrical stimulation and caffeine in rat ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ye; Michael G. Irwin; LI Rui; CHEN Zhiwu; Tak-Ming Wong

    2009-01-01

    Background Preconditioning with remifentanil confers cardioprotection. Since Ca2+ overload is a precipitating factor of injury, we determined the effects of remefentanil on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]I) and its transients induced by electrical stimulation and caffeine, which reflects Ca2+ handling by Ca2+ handling proteins, in rat ventricular myocytes. Methods Freshly isolated adult male Sprague-Dawley rat myocytes were loaded with Fura-2/AM and [Ca]I was determined by spectrofluorometry. Remifentanil at 0.1-1000 μg/L was administered. Ten minutes after administration, either 0.2 Hz electrical stimulation was applied or 10 mmol/L caffeine was added. The [Ca2+]I, and the amplitude, time resting and 50% decay (t50) of both transients induced by electrical stimulation (E[Ca2+]I) and caffeine (C[Ca2+]I) were determined.Results Remifentanil (0.1-1000.0 μg/L) decreased the [Ca2+]I in a dose-dependent manner. It also decreased the amplitude of both transients dose-dependently. Furthermore, it increased the time to peak and t50 of both transients dose-dependently.Conclusion Remifentanil reduced the [Ca2+]I and suppressed the transients induced by electrical stimulation and caffeine in rat ventricular myocytes.

  8. Effect of hypertonic saline solution on the left ventricular functions of isolated hearts from burned rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 刘大维; 王正国; 朱佩芳

    2002-01-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic saline solution on the left ventricular functions of isolated hearts from burned rats. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were used and divided into 4 groups: (1) normal hearts perfused with isotonic Krebs-Henseleit solution; (2) normal hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution which contained 215 mmol/L Na+; (3) hearts of rats suffered from 25% TBSA third degree burn and perfused with isotonic Krebs-Henseleit solution; (4) hearts of the burned rats perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution which contained 215 mmol/L Na+. The systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle were observed. Results: During perfusion, there were very short periods of decrease in heart systolic and diastolic functions at first, but they recovered very soon and even became stronger than normal both in the normal and burned rats. The systolic and diastolic functions of the hearts increased very significantly when the perfusion solution was changed to isotonic solution from the hypertonic solutions. The effect of the hypertonic saline solution on the ventricular systolic and diastolic improvements was stronger in the hearts of the burned rats than that in the normal hearts. Conclusions: Hypertonic saline solution can directly affect myocardium and significantly improve the ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, especially in the hearts of the burned rats.

  9. Effect of Salvia Miltiorrhiza on Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Cardiac Aldosterone in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩少杰; 郑智; 任大宏

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Chronic treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza preventing left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH) and its possible mechanism-inhibiting the action of cardiac aldosterone in spontaneouslyhypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. Normotensive Wistar-kyoto (WKY) rats and SHRswere used. Part of SHRs was treated with Salvia Miltiorrhiza for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pres-sure (SBP) and left ventricular mass index were measured. Sections of heart tissue were stainedwith HE method and VanGieson method. Collagen volume fraction was determined in the left ven-tricle by automatically quantitative morphometry. Cardiac aldosterone concentration was measuredby radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that compared with WKY rats, SHRs exhibited high-er SBP, left ventricular collagen volume fraction, and aldosterone concentration (all P<0. 05).After the treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza, SBP, left ventricular collagen volume fraction, andaldosterone concentration in SHR were decreased as compared with control group (P<0. 05) ex-cept SBP. It was concluded that chronic treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza could prevent left ven-tricular hypertrophy in SHR, significantly inhibit collagen compositions in left ventricle. Themechanism was probably related with the inhibition of the cardiac aldosterone action.

  10. Outcome of Prolonged Ventricular Fibrillation and CPR in a Rat Model of Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

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    Xiangshao Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic left ventricular (LV dysfunction are assumed to have a lower chance of successful CPR and lower likelihood of ultimate survival. However, these assumptions have rarely been documented. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF and CPR in a rat model of chronic LV dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to (1 chronic LV dysfunction: animals underwent left coronary artery ligation; and (2 sham control. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac performance before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Four weeks after surgical intervention, 8 min of VF was induced and defibrillation was delivered after 8 min of CPR. LV dilation and low ejection fraction were observed 4 weeks after coronary ligation. With optimal chest compressions, coronary perfusion pressure values during CPR were well maintained and indistinguishable between groups. There were no differences in resuscitability and numbers of shock required for successful resuscitation between groups. Despite the significantly decreased cardiac index in LV dysfunction animals before induction of VF, no differences in cardiac index were observed between groups following resuscitation, which was associated with the insignificant difference in postresuscitation survival. In conclusion, the outcomes of CPR were not compromised by the preexisting chronic LV dysfunction.

  11. Observational cohort study of ventricular arrhythmia in adults with Marfan syndrome caused by FBN1 mutations.

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    Ali Aydin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is associated with ventricular arrhythmia but risk factors including FBN1 mutation characteristics require elucidation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an observational cohort study of 80 consecutive adults (30 men, 50 women aged 42±15 years with Marfan syndrome caused by FBN1 mutations. We assessed ventricular arrhythmia on baseline ambulatory electrocardiography as >10 premature ventricular complexes per hour (>10 PVC/h, as ventricular couplets (Couplet, or as non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT, and during 31±18 months of follow-up as ventricular tachycardia (VT events (VTE such as sudden cardiac death (SCD, and sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT. We identified >10 PVC/h in 28 (35%, Couplet/nsVT in 32 (40%, and VTE in 6 patients (8%, including 3 with SCD (4%. PVC>10/h, Couplet/nsVT, and VTE exhibited increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide serum levels(P10/h and Couplet/nsVT also related to increased indexed end-systolic LV diameters (P = .024 and P = .020, to moderate mitral valve regurgitation (P = .018 and P = .003, and to prolonged QTc intervals (P = .001 and P = .006, respectively. Moreover, VTE related to mutations in exons 24-32 (P = .021. Kaplan-Meier analysis corroborated an association of VTE with increased NT-proBNP (P<.001 and with mutations in exons 24-32 (P<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Marfan syndrome with causative FBN1 mutations is associated with an increased risk for arrhythmia, and affected persons may require life-long monitoring. Ventricular arrhythmia on electrocardiography, signs of myocardial dysfunction and mutations in exons 24-32 may be risk factors of VTE.

  12. Study of transmembrane La3+ movement in rat ventricular myocytes by the patch-clamp technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We have studied transmembrane La3+ movement in rat ventricular myocytes for the first time by using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording mode. La3+ (0.01-5.0 mmol/L) could not bring out inward currents through the L-type calcium channel in rat ventricular myocytes, while it could enter the cells by the same way carried by 1μmol/L ionomycin. When the outward Na+ concentration gradient is formed, La3+ can enter the cells via Na-Ca exchange, and the exchange currentsincrease with the increase of external La3+ concentrations. But compared with Na-Ca exchange currents in the same concentration, the former is only 14%-38% of the latter. The patch-clamp experiment indicates that La3+ normally can not enter ventricular myocytes through L-type calcium channel, but it can enter the cells via Na-Ca exchange.

  13. Effects of Tribuli Saponins on Left Ventricular Remodeling after Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats with Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan; YIN Hui-jun; SHI Da-zhuo; CHEN Ke-ji

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Tribuli saponins (TS) on left ventricularremodeling after acute myocardial infarction(AMI) in rats with hyperlipemia. Methods: A composite model of myocardial infarction and hyperlipemia was established and treated with TS to observe its effect on cardiac structure and function by echocardiography. Results: (1) Cardiac function: As compared with the model group, the fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) got increased, and the left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and systolic volume (LVESV) got lower in the groups treated with high dose TS and simvastatin ( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ), but difference between the two treated groups was insignificant. (2) Cardiac structure: As compared with the model group, the left ventricular dimension end diastole (LVDd) and systole (LVDs) in the groups treated with high dose TS and simvastatin got lower ( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). No treatment showed any effect on the thickness of ventricular wall. (3)Ventricular weight index: Both high dose TS and simvastatin could decrease the left ventricular weight index (LVWI) ( P<0.05). Conclusion: TS could attenuate the left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction to certain extent, and improve cardiac function in the early phase after AMI, thus playing an important role in controlling morbidity and mortality of cardiac events and long-term prognosis.

  14. Left ventricular hypertrophy in children, adolescents and young adults with sickle cell anemia

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    Gustavo Baptista de Almeida Faro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to estimate the frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy and to identify variables associated with this condition in under 25-year-old patients with sickle cell anemia.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed of children, adolescents and young adults with sickle cell anemia submitted to a transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. The mass of the left ventricle was determined by the formula of Devereux et al. with correction for height, and the percentile curves of gender and age were applied. Individuals with rheumatic and congenital heart disease were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy and compared according to clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory variables.RESULTS: A total of 37.6% of the patients had left ventricular hypertrophy in this sample. There was no difference between the groups of patients with and without hypertrophy according to pathological history or clinical characteristics, except possibly for the use of hydroxyurea, more often used in the group without left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy presented larger left atria and lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, reticulocyte index and a higher albumin:creatinine ratio in urine.CONCLUSION: Left ventricular hypertrophy was observed in more than one-third of the young patients with sickle cell anemia with this finding being inversely correlated to the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and reticulocyte index and directly associated to a higher albumin/creatinine ratio. It is possible that hydroxyurea had had a protective effect on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  15. Resveratrol treatment reduces cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction and prevents morpho-functional ventricular remodeling in type-1 diabetic rats.

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    Francesca Delucchi

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that both adult cardiac cell and the cardiac stem/progenitor cell (CSPC compartments are involved in the patho-physiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM. We evaluated whether early administration of Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant polyphenolic compound, in addition to improving cardiomyocyte function, exerts a protective role on (i the progenitor cell pool, and (ii the myocardial environment and its impact on CSPCs, positively interfering with the onset of DCM phenotype. Adult Wistar rats (n = 128 with streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes were either untreated (D group; n = 54 or subjected to administration of trans-Resveratrol (i.p. injection: 2.5 mg/Kg/day; DR group; n = 64. Twenty-five rats constituted the control group (C. After 1, 3 or 8 weeks of hyperglycemia, we evaluated cardiac hemodynamic performance, and cardiomyocyte contractile properties and intracellular calcium dynamics. Myocardial remodeling and tissue inflammation were also assessed by morphometry, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Eventually, the impact of the diabetic "milieu" on CSPC turnover was analyzed in co-cultures of healthy CSPCs and cardiomyocytes isolated from D and DR diabetic hearts. In untreated animals, cardiac function was maintained during the first 3 weeks of hyperglycemia, although a definite ventricular remodeling was already present, mainly characterized by a marked loss of CSPCs and adult cardiac cells. Relevant signs of ventricular dysfunction appeared after 8 weeks of diabetes, and included: 1 a significant reduction in ±dP/dt in comparison with C group, 2 a prolongation of isovolumic contraction/relaxation times, 3 an impaired contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes associated with altered intracellular calcium dynamics. Resveratrol administration reduced atrial CSPC loss, succeeded in preserving the functional abilities of CSPCs and mature cardiac cells, improved cardiac environment by reducing

  16. Ventricular function during exercise in mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, Jian-Ping; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    The mouse has many advantages over other experimental models for the molecular investigation of left ventricular (LV) function. Accordingly, there is a keen interest in, as well as an intense need for, a conscious, chronically instrumented, freely moving mouse model for the determination of cardiac function. To address this need, we used a telemetry device for repeated measurements of LV function in conscious mice at rest and during exercise. For reference, we compared the responses in mice t...

  17. Structural characterization of rat ventricular tissue exposed to the smoke of two types of waterpipe

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    Wajdy Al-Awaida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:this study focused on the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure toxicity on the structure of albino rat’s ventricular tissue and their recovery. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups: control, flavored, and unflavored. The control group was exposed to normal air while the flavored and unflavored groups were exposed to waterpipe smoke for a period of 90 days. Each group was followed by a period of 90 days of fresh air exposure. Following each period, the ventricular tissue was removed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Results:The ventricular tissues of waterpipe exposed rats showed some degree of separation between cardiac muscle fibers, infiltration of lymphocytes, and congestion of blood vessel. Also, thin cross sections of ventricular cells revealed pleomorphic mitochondria with partially disrupted cristae, partial disruption of the myofibrils, and deposited toxic materials. The unflavored waterpipe has more deleterious effects on heart ventricular tissues than the flavored one. Waterpipe smoke didn't induce apoptosis in the ventricular tissue. We also found very high levels of plasma thiocyanate after exposure to smoke in the flavored and unflavored groups, while the control group showed no increase. After the recovery period, those tissues showed partial recovery. Conclusion: Waterpipe smoke induces structural changes in the heart ventricle tissues, causing a negative impact on the capacity of the cardiac muscle for pumping blood and may lead to heart attack due to accumulation of free radicals and tissue inflammation. Cessation of smoking is important in returning most of these changes to their normal structure.

  18. [Isolated left ventricular muscular diverticulum in an adult. Value of non-invasive examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeman, A; Bellorini, M; Lefevre, T; Lévy, M; Loiret, J; Huerta, F; Thébault, B; Funck, F

    1997-10-01

    The authors report a case of ventriculum in a 45 year old women investigated for chest pain. This was a congenital muscular left ventricular diverticulum confirmed by a complete imaging series including echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, angio-scintigraphy and conventional angiography. This diverticulum was unusual due to the fact that there was no associated congenital disease and that it was discovered in an adult. The authors review the literature and discuss the value of non-invasive imaging procedures.

  19. Effects of losartan on ventricular remodeling in experimental infarction in rats

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    Zornoff Leonardo A. M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of losartan on ventricular remodeling and on survival after myocardial infarction in rats. METHODS: After surgical occlusion of left coronary artery, 84 surviving male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: LO treated with losartan (20mg/kg/day, n=33 and NT (n=51, without medication. After 3 months, we analyzed mortality; ventricular to body mass ratio (VM /BM; myocardial hydroxyproline concentration (HOP; isovolumetric pressure, +dp/dt, -dp/dt, and diastolic volume/left ventricle mass ratio (VO/LV. RESULTS: Mortality was: LO = 22%, and NT = 47% (p0.05. The V0/LV values (median were 0.24 mL/g in group LO and 0.31 mL/g in group NT (p<0.05 compared to NT group. There were no differences between the groups for +dp/dt and -dp/dt parameters. CONCLUSION: 1- The use of losartan myocardial infarction causes an attenuation of ventricular remodeling, bringing about an increased survival, an attenuation of ventricular hypertrophy and dilation, and an improvement of the isovolumetric pressure; 2- the treatment does not modify the myocardial collagen concentration.

  20. Ventricular fibrillation is reduced in hypothyroid rats with enhanced myocardial alpha-adrenoceptor responsiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Chess-Williams, R; Coker, S J

    1989-01-01

    1. The severity of ventricular arrhythmias induced by coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion has been examined in control rats and animals made hypothyroid by pretreatment with 6-propylthiouracil (PTU). The maximal driving frequency and sensitivity of isolated left atria and papillary muscles to isoprenaline and to phenylephrine in the presence of propranolol, were also examined in tissues from control and hypothyroid animals. 2. Pretreatment with PTU resulted in a potentiation of response...

  1. Voluntary exercise-induced changes in β2-adrenoceptor signalling in rat ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Stones, Rachel; Natali, Antonio; Billeter, Rudolf; Harrison, Simon; White, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Regular exercise is beneficial to cardiovascular health. We tested whether mild voluntary exercise training modifies key myocardial parameters [ventricular mass, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) handling and the response to β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) stimulation] in a manner distinct from that reported for beneficial, intensive training and pathological hypertrophic stimuli. Female rats performed voluntary wheel-running exercise for 6–7 weeks. The mRNA expression of target proteins was measured in ...

  2. Effect of Xinjikang on left ventricular hypertrophy remodeling in hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Bo Liu; Chun-Hua Lin; Guang-Yu Zhou; Guo-Zhen Chen; Wei-Yan Cai

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects ofXinjikang on the left ventricular hypertrophy remodeling and myocardial activity in hypertension.Methods:SixtyWistar rats were randomly divided into four groups.The pressure-loaded left ventricular hypertrophy model was established with abdominal aorta ligation method.Rats inA andB groups were intragastrically administered with physiological saline, whileC andD groups were administered withXinjikang and metoprolol, respectively.The changes in blood pressure,E/A ratio, myocardial pathological morphology, myocardial lipoperoxides and superoxide dismustase activity in four groups were observed and compared before and after treatment. Results:There were statistically significant differences inE/A ratio betweenC group after treatment and model group(P0.05); after treatment the myocardial lipoperoxides and superoxide dismustase contents inC andD groups were improved significantly compared with model group(P<0.05).Conclusions:Xinjikang can improve myocardial injury, restore myocardial parenchyma and myocardial interstitial remodeling functions in hypertensive rats with the left ventricular hypertrophy.

  3. APOPTOSIS OF DIFFERENT MYOCARDIAL CELLS CONTRIBUTES TO LEFT VENTRICULAR REMODELING IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫兵; 殷明; 秦永文

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the change and role of apoptosis in hypertensive left ventricular remodeling. Methods Hearts from 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats(WKY) were investigated. Apoptosis in left ventricle sections was assessed by in situ end-labeling technique(TUNEL), the feature and type of cells undergoing apoptosis were identified uitrastructurally by transmission electron microscope (ECM). Additionally, localization of Fas protein-a mediator of apoptotic cell death was ex-

  4. The relationship between ventricular dilatation, neuropathological and neurobehavioural changes in hydrocephalic rats

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    Olopade Funmilayo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motor and cognitive deficits observed in hydrocephalus are thought to be due to axonal damage within the periventricular white matter. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between ventricular size, cellular changes in brain, and neurobehavioural deficits in rats with experimental hydrocephalus. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced in three-week old rats by intracisternal injection of kaolin. Behavioural and motor function were tested four weeks after hydrocephalus induction and correlated to ventricular enlargement which was classified into mild, moderate or severe. Gross brain morphology, routine histology and immunohistochemistry for oligodendrocytes (CNPase, microglia (Iba-1 and astrocytes (GFAP were performed to assess the cellular changes. Results Decreases in open field activity and forelimb grip strength in hydrocephalus correlated with the degree of ventriculomegaly. Learning in Morris water maze was significantly impaired in hydrocephalic rats. Gradual stretching of the ependymal layer, thinning of the corpus callosum, extracellular oedema and reduced cortical thickness were observed as the degree of ventriculomegaly increased. A gradual loss of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex was most marked in the severely-hydrocephalic brains, whereas the widespread astrogliosis especially in the subependymal layer was most marked in the brains with mild hydrocephalus. Retraction of microglial processes and increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the white matter was associated ventriculomegaly. Conclusions In hydrocephalic rats, oligodendrocyte loss, microglia activation, astrogliosis in cortical areas and thinning of the corpus callosum were associated with ventriculomegaly. The degree of ventriculomegaly correlated with motor and cognitive deficits.

  5. Anthrax toxins induce shock in rats by depressed cardiac ventricular function.

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    Linley E Watson

    Full Text Available Anthrax infections are frequently associated with severe and often irreversible hypotensive shock. The isolated toxic proteins of Bacillus anthracis produce a non-cytokine-mediated hypotension in rats by unknown mechanisms. These observations suggest the anthrax toxins have direct cardiovascular effects. Here, we characterize these effects. As a first step, we administered systemically anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx and edema toxin (EdTx to cohorts of three to twelve rats at different doses and determined the time of onset, degree of hypotension and mortality. We measured serum concentrations of the protective antigen (PA toxin component at various time points after infusion. Peak serum levels of PA were in the microg/mL range with half-lives of 10-20 minutes. With doses that produced hypotension with delayed lethality, we then gave bolus intravenous infusions of toxins to groups of four to six instrumented rats and continuously monitored blood pressure by telemetry. Finally, the same doses used in the telemetry experiments were given to additional groups of four rats, and echocardiography was performed pretreatment and one, two, three and twenty-four hours post-treatment. LeTx and EdTx each produced hypotension. We observed a doubling of the velocity of propagation and 20% increases in left ventricular diastolic and systolic areas in LeTx-treated rats, but not in EdTx-treated rats. EdTx-but not LeTx-treated rats showed a significant increase in heart rate. These results indicate that LeTx reduced left ventricular systolic function and EdTx reduced preload. Uptake of toxins occurs readily into tissues with biological effects occurring within minutes to hours of serum toxin concentrations in the microg/mL range. LeTx and EdTx yield an irreversible shock with subsequent death. These findings should provide a basis for the rational design of drug interventions to reduce the dismal prognosis of systemic anthrax infections.

  6. Role of Bradykinin on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-zhu ZHANG; Li-quan LEI; Chang-cong CUI; Jian LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the influences of bradykinin (BK) on hemodynamics, left ventricular hypertrophy and interstitial collagen metabolism after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats and the contribution of BK in angiotensin-con-verting enzyme (ACE) inhibition therapy. Methods By means of hemodynamic measurements, morphometric study of myocyte hypertrophy and SDS-PAGE technique ,the effects of enalapril pressure (500μg·kg-1·day-1) ,enalapril(500μg·kg-1·day-1) with BK B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140 (500μg·kg-1·day-1),angiotensin Ⅱ (AgII) type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan(3mg·kg-1·day-1)on mean arterial pressure (MAP) ,left ventricular end-dias-tolic pressure (LVEDP), as well as maximum positive left ventricular pressure change (+ dp/dtmax), Ⅴ(m) n, col-lagen content and the ratio of type Ⅰ to type Ⅲ collagen (Ⅰ / Ⅲ) of noninfarcted area were observed in rats after MI. Treatments were started on the 3rd day after MI and continued for another 28 days. Results Enalapril reduced LV-EDP, Ⅴ(m) n and collagen content as well as collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ compared with the untreated MI group (P < 0. 05), and all of these effects of enalapril were partly blunted by concomitant treatment with hoe-140 (P < 0. 05). Losartan was less effective than enalapril (P < 0. 05). However, three treatment groups had no significant differences in + dp/dtmax and had similar reductions in MAP compared with untreated MI group. Conclusions BK can improve cardiac function and prevent left ventricular hypertrophy with myocardial fibrosis independent of blood pressure. The mechanisms of ACEI are both blockade of Ang Ⅱ formation and inhibition of BK degradation.

  7. Effect of carvedilol on cardiac function and left ventricular remodeling in rats after acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 贾国良; 王海昌

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of carvedilol injection on left ventricular function and collagen remodeling in rat with myocardial infarction. Methods: Sixty rats with a model of myocardial infarction were randomly divided into nine groups. The rats of therapeutical group were treated with carvedilol injection (2 mg/d intraperitoneal injection) and/or captopil (2 g/L drinking water). Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group did not receive drug treatment. The animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after coronary artery ligation. The levels of plasma angiotensin Ⅱ and plasma aldosterone and left ventricle function were determined at different time. The collagen content and the ratio of type I and Ⅲ collagen of noninfarcted area were also assessed. Results: Compared with AMI group, the levels of plasma and myocardium angiotensin Ⅱ and plasma aldosterone in both carvedilol and captopil group decreased at the eighth week (P<0.05). In addition, carvedilol improved systolic and diastolic function (P<0.05). Compared with sham group, both collagen content and the ratio of type Ⅰ/Ⅲ collagen of noninfarcted area increased in AMI4 and AMI8 group (P<0.05). The hydroxyproline levels and the ratio of type Ⅰ/Ⅲ collagen significantly decreased after carvedilol and/or captopil treatment , compared with AMI group at 4 or 8 week (P<0.05). Conclusion: Carvedilol can improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction and has beneficial effect on left ventricular remodeling.

  8. Roles of Wnt Signaling in the Neurogenic Niche of the Adult Mouse Ventricular-Subventricular Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yuki; Sawada, Masato; Huang, Shih-Hui; Ogino, Takashi; Ohata, Shinya; Kubo, Akiharu; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2016-02-01

    In many animal species, the production of new neurons (neurogenesis) occurs throughout life, in a specialized germinal region called the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In this region, neural stem cells undergo self-renewal and generate neural progenitor cells and new neurons. In the olfactory system, the new neurons migrate rostrally toward the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into mature interneurons. V-SVZ-derived new neurons can also migrate toward sites of brain injury, where they contribute to neural regeneration. Recent studies indicate that two major branches of the Wnt signaling pathway, the Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/planar cell polarity pathways, play essential roles in various facets of adult neurogenesis. Here, we review the Wnt signaling-mediated regulation of adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26572545

  9. Purinergic facilitation of ATP-sensitive potassium current in rat ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Babenko, Andrey P.; Vassort, Guy

    1997-01-01

    The effects of different purinergic agonists on the cardiac adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium current (IK(ATP)), appearing during dialysis of rat isolated ventricular myocytes with a low-ATP (100 μM) internal solution under whole-cell patch-clamp conditions, were examined in the presence of a P1 purinoceptor antagonist.The extracellular application of ATP in the micromolar range induced, besides known inward currents through cationic and chloride channels, the facilitation o...

  10. Quantification of left ventricular myocardial collagen system in children, young adults, and the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bogoslavsky Levy Mendes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the collagen system of the human myocardium are still limited compared to those on small laboratory animals. The aim of this work was to observe the collagen tissue of the myocardium of the human heart as a function of age. The types of collagen, as well as the density of collagen tissue and the diameter of collagen fibrils, were examined. Fragments of the left ventricular wall from 15 hearts, 5 from children, 5 from young adults, and 5 from elderly individuals, were analyzed by using the Picrosirius-polarization method and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results showed the presence of collagen type III and collagen type I, both in the endomysium and perimysium of the 3 groups studied. Measurements of collagen content in myocardial tissue displayed that both endomysial and perimysial collagen increase in number and thickness in the adult and elderly. These histochemical results coincided with the observations obtained with the electron microscope in showing an increase in the number of collagen fibrils with a large diameter in the adult and elderly hearts. The present results on cardiac collagen may be important for assessing the pathogenesis of several cardiopathies in the hearts of children, young adults, and the elderly.

  11. Phosphorylation of PTEN increase in pathological right ventricular hypertrophy in rats with chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Xin; Shi Yiwei; Yu Wenyan; Xu Jianying; Hu Xiaoyun; Du Yongcheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome ten (PTEN) acts as a convergent nodal signalling point for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy,growth and survival.However,the role of PTEN in cardiac conditions such as right ventricular hypertrophy caused by chronic hypoxic pulmonary,hypertension remains unclear.This study preliminarily discussed the role of PTEN in the cardiac response to increased pulmonary vascular resistance using the hypoxia-induced PH rats.Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for 1,3,7,14 or 21 days to induce hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy.Right ventricular systolic pressure was measured via catheterization.Hypertrophy index was calculated as the ratio of right ventricular mass to left ventricle plus septum mass.Tissue morphology and fibrosis were measured using hematoxylin,eosin and picrosirius red staining.The expression and phosphorylation levels of PTEN in ventricles were determined by real time PCR and Western blotting.Results Hypoxic exposure of rats resulted in pathological hypertrophy,interstitial fibrosis and remodelling of the right ventricle.The phosphorylation of PTEN increased significantly in the hypertrophic right ventricle compared to the normoxic control group.There were no changes in protein expression in either ventricle.Conclusion Hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension developed pathological right ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling probablv related to an increased phosohorvlation of PTEN.

  12. Rare Case of Unilateral Hypoplasia of Lung with Associated Ventricular Mass in an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Azad; Iyer, Aparna; Kutty, Jayalakshmi Thelapurath

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplasia of the lung is a rare congenital condition which can be: a) primary i.e. no apparent cause is found; or b) secondary i.e. associated with other congenital anomalies that are implicated in its pathogenesis. These anomalies may involve the diaphragm, cardiovascular, central nervous, urogenital and musculoskeletal system. Patients usually present in neonatal, infancy or childhood period and very rarely in adulthood. Our patient was an adult having a unilateral hypoplastic lung associated with a ventricular mass and to our knowledge this rare combination has never been reported in the English literature; though there are reports of prenatal or newborns with hypoplastic lung and rhabdomyoma of ventricle who did not survive.

  13. Continual electric field stimulation preserves contractile function of adult ventricular myocytes in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, H J; Prasad, S K; Davidoff, A J; Pimental, D; Ellingsen, O; Marsh, J D; Smith, T W; Kelly, R A

    1994-01-01

    To model with greater fidelity the electromechanical function of freshly isolated heart muscle cells in primary culture, we describe a technique for the continual electrical stimulation of adult myocytes at physiological frequencies for several days. A reusable plastic cover was constructed to fit standard, disposable 175-cm2 tissue culture flasks and to hold parallel graphite electrodes along the long axis of each flask, which treated a uniform electric field that resulted in a capture efficiency of ventricular myocytes of 75-80%. Computer-controlled amplifiers were designed to be capable of driving a number of flasks concurrently, each containing up to 4 x 10(6) myocytes, over a range of stimulation frequencies (from 0.1 to 7.0 Hz) with reversal of electrode polarity after each stimulus to prevent the development of pH gradients around each electrode. Unlike quiescent, unstimulated myocytes, the amplitude of contraction, and velocities of shortening and relaxation did not change in myocytes paced at 3-5 Hz for up to 72 h. The maintenance of normal contractile function in paced myocytes required mechanical contraction per se, since paced myocytes that remained quiescent due to the inclusion of 2.5 microM verapamil in the culture medium for 48 h also exhibited a decline in contractility when paced after verapamil removal. Similarly, pacing increased peak calcium current compared with quiescent cells that had not been paced. Thus myocyte contraction at physiological frequencies induced by continual uniform electric field stimulation in short-term primary culture in defining medium maintains some biophysical parameters of myocyte phenotype that are similar to those observed in freshly isolated adult ventricular myocytes.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of arterial and left ventricular pressure in conscious freely moving rats by telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreti, Jason A; Polakowski, James S; Blomme, Eric A; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive cardiovascular assessment in conscious rodents by utilizing telemetry has been limited by the restriction of current devices to one pressure channel. The purpose of this study was to test and validate a dual pressure transmitter that allows the simultaneous measurement of arterial pressure (AP) and left ventricular pressure (LVP) in conscious freely moving rats. Six rats were surgically implanted with dual pressure transmitters. Baseline hemodynamics and circadian rhythm were observed to return within 7days. AP, heart rate (HR), LVP and indices of left ventricular contractility were stable and demonstrated a prominent circadian rhythm over a two-week period of uninterrupted recordings. Administration of the vasodilator nifedipine produced the anticipated dose-dependent decrease in AP which was accompanied by a baroreflex mediated increase in HR and cardiac contractility. The negative inotrope verapamil produced the expected dose-dependent decreases in AP and cardiac contractility. Finally, a terminal validation of the dual pressure transmitter was performed under anesthesia by measuring AP and LVP simultaneously via telemetry and from a fluid filled arterial catheter and an intraventricular Millar catheter, respectively. A range of pressures and cardiac contractility were studied by administering sequential intravenous infusions of the positive inotrope dobutamine followed by verapamil. Linear regression analysis revealed a high level of agreement between pressures measured by the dual pressure transmitter and the exteriorized catheters. Histopathologic analysis of the heart revealed mild peri-catheter fibrosis. In conclusion, the simultaneous measurement of AP and LVP offers the potential for more detailed cardiovascular assessment in conscious rats. PMID:26778372

  15. QRS Voltage-Duration Product in the Identification of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Bacharova Ljuba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - Evaluation of the performance of the QRS voltage-duration product (VDP for detection of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS - Orthogonal electrocardiograms (ECG were recorded in male SHR at the age of 12 and 20 weeks, when systolic blood pressure (sBP reached the average values of 165±3 mmHg and 195±12 mmHg, respectively. Age- and sex- matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats were used as controls. VDP was calculated as a product of maximum QRS spatial vector magnitude and QRS duration. Left ventricular mass (LVM was weighed after rats were sacrificed. RESULTS - LVM in SHR at 12 and 20 weeks of age (0.86±0.05 g and 1.05±0.07 g, respectively was significantly higher as compared with that in WKY (0.65±0.07 g and 0.70±0.02 g. The increase in LVM closely correlated with the sBP increase. VDP did not reflect the increase in LVM in SHR. VDP was lower in SHR as compared with that in WKY, and the difference was significant at the age of 20 weeks (18.2mVms compared with 10.7mVms, p<0.01. On the contrary, a significant increase in the VDP was observed in the control WKY at the age of 20 weeks without changes in LVM. The changes in VDP were influenced mainly by the changes in QRSmax. CONCLUSION - LVM was not the major determinant of QRS voltage changes and consequently of the VDP. These data point to the importance of the nonspatial determinants of the recorded QRS voltage in terms of the solid angle theory.

  16. Atorvastatin prevents connexin43 remodeling in hypertrophied left ventricular myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-juan; YAO Lei; CHEN Tu-gang; YU Min; WANG Li-hong; CHEN Jun-zhu

    2007-01-01

    Background Connexin43 (Cx43) is the predominant gap junction protein in heart and is involved in the control of cell-to-cell communication to modulate the contractility and the electrical coupling of cardiac myocytes. Left ventricular(LV) hypertrophy is accompanied by changes of Cx43 expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that statins reduced cardiac hypertrophy. However, it is unknown whether statins can affect Cx43 expression in hypertrophied left ventricular myocardium. This study was designed to assess the effects of atorvastatin on LV hypertrophy and Cx43 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods Nine-week old SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. Some received atorvastatin at 30 mg/kg by oral gavage once daily for 8 weeks (SHR-A); others received vehicle. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) received atorvastatin or vehicle for 8 weeks were used as controls. At the end of the experiment, we investigated LV hypertrophy and the expression of Cx43 in LV myocardium in four groups. Cx43 expression was investigated by the methods of Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscope. LV hypertrophy was accessed by pathological analysis and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level.Results LV hypertrophy was prominent in untreated SHR. In SHR, LV myocardium Cx43 level was upregulated, and the distribution of Cx43 was displaced from their usual locations to other sites at various distances away from the intercalated disks. After atorvastatin treatment, myocardium Cx43 level was reduced in SHR-A, and the distribution of Cx43 gap junction became much regular and confined to intercalated disk. Statins also prevented LV hypertrophy in SHR.Conclusions These results provide novel in vivo evidence for the key role of Cx43 gap junctions in LV hypertrophy and the possible mechanism in anti-hypertrophic effect of statins. Atorvastatin treatment may have beneficial effects on LV hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive

  17. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  18. Effect of resveratrol on L-type calcium current in rat ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping ZHANG; Jing-xiang YIN; Zheng LIU; Yi ZHANG; Qing-shan WANG; Juan ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of resveratrol on L-type calcium current (ICa-L) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods:ICa-L was examined in isolated single rat ventricular myocytes by using the whole cell patch-clamp recording technique. Results: Resveratrol (10-40 μmol/L) reduced the peak amplitude of ICa-L and shifted the current-voltage (I-V) curve upwards in a concentration-dependent manner. Resveratrol (10, 20, 40 μmol/L)decreased the peak amplitude of ICa-L from -14.2± 1.5 pA/pF to -10.5± 1.5 pA/pF (P<0.05), -7.5±2.4 pA/pF (P<0.01), and -5.2±1.2 pA/pF (P<0.01), respectively.Resveratrol (40 μmol/L) shifted the steady-state activation curve of ICa-L to the right and changed the half-activation potential (V0.5) from -19.4±0.4 mV to -15.4±1.9 mV (P<0.05). Resveratrol at a concentration of 40 μmol/L did not affect the steady-state inactivation curve of ICa-L, but did markedly shift the timedependent recovery curve of ICa-L to the right, and slow down the recovery of ICa-L from inactivation. Sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4; 1 mmol/L), a potent inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatase, significantly inhibited the effects of resveratrol (P<0.01). Conclusion: Resveratrol inhibited ICa- L mainly by inhibiting the activation of L-type calcium channels and slowing down the recovery of L-type calcium channels from inactivation. This inhibitory effect of resveratrol was mediated by the inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase in rat ventricular myocytes.

  19. Voluntary exercise-induced changes in beta2-adrenoceptor signalling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Rachel; Natali, Antonio; Billeter, Rudolf; Harrison, Simon; White, Ed

    2008-09-01

    Regular exercise is beneficial to cardiovascular health. We tested whether mild voluntary exercise training modifies key myocardial parameters [ventricular mass, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) handling and the response to beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) stimulation] in a manner distinct from that reported for beneficial, intensive training and pathological hypertrophic stimuli. Female rats performed voluntary wheel-running exercise for 6-7 weeks. The mRNA expression of target proteins was measured in left ventricular tissue using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Simultaneous measurement of cell shortening and [Ca2+]i transients were made in single left ventricular myocytes and the inotropic response to beta1- and beta2-AR stimulation was measured. Voluntary exercise training resulted in cardiac hypertrophy, the heart weight to body weight ratio being significantly greater in trained compared with sedentary animals. However, voluntary exercise caused no significant alteration in the size or time course of myocyte shortening and [Ca2+]i transients or in the mRNA levels of key proteins that regulate Ca2+ handling. The positive inotropic response to beta1-AR stimulation and the level of beta1-AR mRNA were unaltered by voluntary exercise but both mRNA levels and inotropic response to beta2-AR stimulation were significantly reduced in trained animals. The beta2-AR inotropic response was restored by exposure to pertussis toxin. We propose that in contrast to pathological stimuli and to beneficial, intense exercise training, modulation of Ca2+ handling is not a major adaptive mechanism in the response to mild voluntary exercise. In addition, and in a reversal of the situation seen in heart failure, voluntary exercise training maintains the beta1-AR response but reduces the beta2-AR response. Therefore, although voluntary exercise induces cardiac hypertrophy, there are distinct differences between its effects on key myocardial regulatory mechanisms

  20. The Effects of Puerarin on Rat Ventricular Myocytes and the Potential Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Zhao, Manxi; Liang, Shenghui; Huang, Quanshu; Xiao, Yunchuan; Ye, Liang; Wang, Qinyi; He, Longmei; Ma, Lanxiang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Hui; Ke, Xiao; Gu, Yuchun

    2016-01-01

    Puerarin, a known isoflavone, is commonly found as a Chinese herb medicine. It is widely used in China to treat cardiac diseases such as angina, cardiac infarction and arrhythmia. However, its cardioprotective mechanism remains unclear. In this study, puerarin significantly prolonged ventricular action potential duration (APD) with a dosage dependent manner in the micromolar range on isolated rat ventricular myocytes. However, submicromolar puerarin had no effect on resting membrane potential (RMP), action potential amplitude (APA) and maximal velocity of depolarization (Vmax) of action potential. Only above the concentration of 10 mM, puerarin exhibited more aggressive effect on action potential, and shifted RMP to the positive direction. Millimolar concentrations of puerarin significantly inhibited inward rectified K+ channels in a dosage dependent manner, and exhibited bigger effects upon Kir2.1 vs Kir2.3 in transfected HEK293 cells. As low as micromolar range concentrations of puerarin significantly inhibited Kv7.1 and IKs. These inhibitory effects may due to the direct inhibition of puerarin upon channels not via the PKA-dependent pathway. These results provided direct preclinical evidence that puerarin prolonged APD via its inhibitory effect upon Kv7.1 and IKs, contributing to a better understanding the mechanism of puerarin cardioprotection in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27762288

  1. The complex regulation of tanshinone IIA in rats with hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Han, Bing; Yu, Tao; Peng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA has definite protective effects on various cardiovascular diseases. However, in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH), the signaling pathways of tanshinone IIA in inhibition of remodeling and cardiac dysfunction remain unclear. Two-kidney, one-clip induced hypertensive rats (n = 32) were randomized to receive tanshinone IIA (5, 10, 15 mg/kg per day) or 5% glucose injection (GS). Sham-operated rats (n = 8) received 5%GS as control. Cardiac function and dimensions were assessed by using an echocardiography system. Histological determination of the fibrosis and apoptosis was performed using hematoxylin eosin, Masson's trichrome and TUNEL staining. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 2 (TIMP2) protein expressions in rat myocardial tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Rat cardiomyocytes were isolated by a Langendorff perfusion method. After 48 h culture, the supernatant and cardiomyocytes were collected to determine the potential related proteins impact on cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis. Compared with the sham rats, the heart tissues of H-LVH (5%GS) group suffered severely from the oxidative damage, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In the H-LVH group, tanshinone IIA treated decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocytes apoptosis as confirmed by the reduction of TUNEL positive cardiomyocytes and the down-regulation of Caspase-3 activity and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Meanwhile, plasma apelin level increased with down-regulation of APJ receptor. Tanshinone IIA suppressed cardiac fibrosis through regulating the paracrine factors released by cardiomyocytes and the TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our in vivo study showed that tanshinone IIA could improve heart function by enhancing myocardial contractility, inhibiting ECM deposition

  2. Pharmacological inhibition of IK1 by PA-6 in isolated rat hearts affects ventricular repolarization and refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarsfeldt, Mark A; Carstensen, Helena; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi; Buhl, Rikke; Bentzen, Bo H; Jespersen, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The inwardly rectifying potassium current (IK 1) conducted through Kir2.X channels contribute to repolarization of the cardiac action potential and to stabilization of the resting membrane potential in cardiomyocytes. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the recently discovered IK 1 inhibitor PA-6 on action potential repolarization and refractoriness in isolated rat hearts. Transiently transfected HEK-293 cells expressing IK 1 were voltage-clamped with ramp protocols. Langendorff-perfused heart experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats, effective refractory period, Wenckebach cycle length, and ventricular effective refractory period were determined following 200 nmol/L PA-6 perfusion. 200 nmol/L PA-6 resulted in a significant time-latency in drug effect on the IK 1 current expressed in HEK-293 cells, giving rise to a maximal effect at 20 min. In the Langendorff-perfused heart experiments, PA-6 prolonged the ventricular action potential duration at 90% repolarization (from 41.8 ± 6.5 msec to 72.6 ± 21.1 msec, 74% compared to baseline, P < 0.01, n = 6). In parallel, PA-6 significantly prolonged the ventricular effective refractory period compared to baseline (from 34.8 ± 4.6 msec to 58.1 ± 14.7 msec, 67%, P < 0.01, n = 6). PA-6 increased the short-term beat-to-beat variability and ventricular fibrillation was observed in two of six hearts. Neither atrial ERP nor duration of atrial fibrillation was altered following PA-6 application. The results show that pharmacological inhibition of cardiac IK 1 affects ventricular action potential repolarization and refractoriness and increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in isolated rat hearts. PMID:27117805

  3. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: Clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, Cengiz, E-mail: drcengizerol@yahoo.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Koplay, Mustafa, E-mail: koplaymustafa@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Olcay, Ayhan, E-mail: drayhanolcay@gmail.com [29 May Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Vatan Street, Fatih, 34150 Istanbul (Turkey); Kivrak, Ali Sami, E-mail: alisamikivrak@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Ozbek, Seda, E-mail: dsadr@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Seker, Mehmet, E-mail: hikmet.irfan@hotmail.com [29 May Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vatan Street, Fatih, 34150 Istanbul (Turkey); Paksoy, Yahya, E-mail: yahyapaksoy@yahoo.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Materials and methods: Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. Results: The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P = 0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal-apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two.

  4. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  5. Trophic effect of human pericardial fluid on adult cardiac myocytes. Differential role of fibroblast growth factor-2 and factors related to ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, S; Mebazaa, A; Gandolfini, M P; Fitting, C; Marotte, F; Peynet, J; Charlemagne, D; Cavaillon, J M; Payen, D; Rappaport, L; Samuel, J L

    1997-11-01

    Pericardial fluid (PF) may contain myocardial growth factors that exert paracrine actions on cardiac myocytes. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of human PF and serum, collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery, on the growth of cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes and (2) to relate the growth activity of both fluids to the adaptive changes in overloaded human hearts. Both PF and serum increased the rate of protein synthesis, measured by [14C]phenylalanine incorporation in adult rat cardiomyocytes (PF, +71.9 +/- 8.2% [n = 17]; serum, +14.9 +/- 6.5% [n = 13]; both P < .01 versus control medium). The effects of both PF and serum on cardiomyocyte growth correlated positively with the respective left ventricular (LV) mass. However, the magnitude of change with PF was 3-fold greater than with serum (P < .01). These trophic effects of PF were mimicked by exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and inhibited by anti-FGF2 antibodies and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), suggesting a relationship to FGF2. In addition, FGF2 concentration in PF was 20 times greater than in serum. On the other hand, the LV mass-dependent trophic effect, present in both fluids, was independent of FGF2 concentration or other factors, such as angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic factor, and TGF-beta. These data suggest that FGF2 in human PF is a major determining factor in normal myocyte growth, whereas unidentified LV mass-dependent factor(s), present in both PF and serum, participates in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:9351441

  6. Losartan reduced connexin43 expression in left ventricular myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li ZHAO; Hong-juan CHEN; Jun-zhu CHEN; Min YU; Yun-lan NI; Wei-fang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan on myocardium connexin43 (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigate possible mechanisms. Methods: Sixteen 9-week-old male SHRs and 8 age-matched male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were included in this study. SHRs were randomly divided into two groups to receive losartan at 30mg/(kg·d) by oral gavage once daily for 8 weeks (SHR-L) or vehicle (0.9% saline) to act as controls (SHR-V); WKY rats receiving vehicle for 8 weeks served as normotensive controls. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and the hearts were removed. Expressions of Cx43 and nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65) proteins in all three groups were observed and further investigations on the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor antagonist losartan (30mg/(kg·d), 8 weeks) on Cx43 expression were conducted with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. NF-κB p65 protein in nuclear extracts was determined by Western blot. Results: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was prominent in SHRs, Cx43 and NF-κB p65 protein expressions were obviously upregulated and Cx43 distribution was dispersed over the cell surface. Treatment with losarton reduced the over-expressions of Cx43 and NF-κB p65 in LV myocardium. The distribution of Cx43 gap junction also became much regular and confined to intercalated disk after losartan treatment. Conclusion: Cx43 level was upregulated in LV myocardium of SHR during early stage of hypertrophy. Angiotensin Ⅱ type l receptor antagonist losartan prevented Cx43 gap junction remodeling in hypertrophied left ventricles, possibly through the NF-κB pathway.

  7. The left ventricular contractility of the rat heart is modulated by changes in flow and a1-adrenoceptor stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Vassallo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial contractility depends on several mechanisms such as coronary perfusion pressure (CPP and flow as well as on a1-adrenoceptor stimulation. Both effects occur during the sympathetic stimulation mediated by norepinephrine. Norepinephrine increases force development in the heart and produces vasoconstriction increasing arterial pressure and, in turn, CPP. The contribution of each of these factors to the increase in myocardial performance needs to be clarified. Thus, in the present study we used two protocols: in the first we measured mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure and rate of rise of left ventricular pressure development in anesthetized rats (N = 10 submitted to phenylephrine (PE stimulation before and after propranolol plus atropine treatment. These observations showed that in vivo a1-adrenergic stimulation increases left ventricular-developed pressure (Pa1-adrenoceptors and increased flow, increased cardiac performance acting simultaneously and synergistically.

  8. Quantitative ontogenetic assessment of connective tissue cell dynamics in the ventricular rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the dynamics of connective tissue cell number in nonvascular stroma have been studied in different myocardial sites of left and right ventricles in rat hearts during prenatal and early postnatal periods of ontogenesis. The materials of study were hearts of 115 white rats. It has been studied 10 age groups – from 14 days of prenatal development to 20 days of postnatal life. Nonvascular stromal cell quantitative density was estimated by calculation of there nuclei count referred to the square of the cut. During prenatal development it have been studied separately the compact layer and trabecular layer of myocardium, during postnatal period – subendocardial, intramural and subepicardial layers of myocardium. Following pre-sent study a quantitative evaluation of the connective tissue cell number dynamics has been evaluated in ventricular myocardium. The most intensive stromal cell number dynamics in the myocardium have been documented twice – at 14-16 days of embryologic development and at first two weeks after birth. The dynamics in connective tissue cells number during prenatal period had more prominent rate in the compact layer of myocardium in comparison with the trabecular layer. This pattern may point to cellular migration from the developing epicardium toward endocardium. At every stage of cardiogenesis the dynamics in quantitative changes in myocardial connective tissue component correlated with myocardiocyte differentia-tion and microvasculature formation.

  9. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert Tr; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. PMID:27300271

  10. Cellular mechanisms of reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in L-thyroxin-induced rat ventricular hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai-jing SONG; Guan-lei WANG; Jie LIU; Qin-ying QIU; Jing-hua OU; Yong-yuan GUAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To examine how the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content changes and the underlying mechanism in L-thyroxin-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Methods:Echocardiography was used to confirm the establishment of the cardiac hypertro-phy model. The confocal microscopy and fluorescent indicator Fluo-3 was ap-plied to examine the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]I), the Ca2+ sparks, and the caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient in freshly isolated cardiac ventricular myocytes. The activity of sarcolemmal and SR Ca2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) in the ventricular tissue was also measured, respectively. Results:L-thyroxin (1 mg/kg injection for 10 d) induces left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy with normal myocardial function. The decreased caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient in the Ca2+-free solution was detected. The spontaneous Ca2+ sparks in hypertrophied myocytes occurred more frequently than in normal cells, with similar duration and spatial spread, but smaller amplitude. Then the basal [Ca2+]I increase was observed in quiescent left ventricular myocytes from hyperthyroidism rats. The activity of sarcolemmal and SR Ca2+-ATPase was decreased in the hypertrophied ventricle tissue. Conclusion:The results suggested that the reduced SR Ca2+ content may be associated with an increased Ca2+ leak and reduced SERCA2a activity, contributing to abnormal intracellular Ca2+ handling during hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism rats.

  11. Early teatment with hepatocyte growth factor improves pulmonary artery and right ventricular remodeling in rats with pulmonary artery hypertension by modulating cytokines expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of early treatment with hepatocyte growth factor(HGF)on the cytokine expression and pulmonary artery,right ventricular(RV)remodeling in the rat model of pulmonary artery hypertension(PAH).Methods The rat model of PAH was produced by injecting monocrotaline,and the model rats were randomly divided into empty adenovirus transfection group(MCT group,n=10)and HGF gene transfection group(HGF group,n=10).Another group of rats served as the Sham operation group(Sham group n=10).After 4 weeks of HGF gene transfection,the histological sections of the lungs and right ventricular(RV)

  12. Early echocardiographic predictors of increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure three months after myocardial infarction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Paula S. Azevedo; Polegato, Bertha F.; Marcos F. Minicucci; Pio, Stephan M.; Igor A. Silva; Priscila P Santos; Okoshi, Katashi; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The objective of this study was to determine the early echocardiographic predictors of elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) after a long follow-up period in the infarcted rat model. Material/Methods Five days and three months after surgery, sham and infarcted animals were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography. Regression analysis and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed for predicting increased LVEDP 3 months after MI. Resul...

  13. Effects of Matrine on Aconitine-Induced Electrophysiological Changes in Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANHong-li; YANGBao-feng; ZHOUYu-hong; WANGHe; LIBao-xin

    2004-01-01

    Aim To explore the reason that the antiarrhythmic effect of the extract of traditional Chinese medicinal herb, matrine, is weaker than quinidine and verapamil by comparision of the effect and efficacy of matrine on various kinds of transmembrane ionic currents with those of quinidine and verapamil; and to demonstrate the best targets for antiarrhythinic drugs. Methods Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to record the action potential and ionic currents in single cells of rat ventrictdar myocytes. Aconitine was used to induce the changes of ionic currents, then study the effects of matrine and quinidine, verapamil on aconitine-induced imbalanced channel currents and action potential. Results Aconitine 1μmol·L-1 induced significant changes in transmembrane currents and action potential in single cells of rat ventricular myocytes. APD was significantly prolonged by aconitine. Simtdtaneously, aconitine increased sodium, L-type calcium and in-ward rectifier potassium currents. Matrine 100μmol·L-1 reversed the aconitine-induced changes of sodium current (INa)from (-70.2±10.5) pA/pF to (-39.6±4.0) pA/pF (n=5, P<0.05 vs aconitine) ; L-type calcium current (ICa-L)from (20.4±3.8) pA/pF to (-12.9±2.9) pA/pF (n=6, P<0.01); the inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) from (-32.2±1.08) pA/pF to (-24.0±3.4) pA/pF (n=6, P<0.01 ), and action potential duration. The reversal effectsof quinidine and verapamil on aconitine-induced changes of APD and ionic currents were more marked than matrine. Conclusion Aco-nitine significantly disturbs the normal equilibrium of ion channels in ventricular myecytes. It induces changes of INa, ICa-L, IK1 and prolongation of action potential duration. Matrine at concentration 50 or 100μmol·L-1 statistically significantly suppresses aconitine-induced changes of APD and ionic currents. The potency and efficacy of inhibitory effect of matrine are markedly weaker than those of commonly used verapamil and quinidine.

  14. Impaired Cerebral Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Function in a Rat Model of Ventricular Fibrillation and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcardiac arrest brain injury significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity in patients suffering from cardiac arrest (CA. Evidence that shows that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a key factor in tissue damage after ischemia/reperfusion is accumulating. However, limited data are available regarding the cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and its relationship to the alterations of high-energy phosphate. Here, we sought to identify alterations of mitochondrial morphology and oxidative phosphorylation function as well as high-energy phosphates during CA and CPR in a rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF. We found that impairment of mitochondrial respiration and partial depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr developed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus following a prolonged cardiac arrest. Optimal CPR might ameliorate the deranged phosphorus metabolism and preserve mitochondrial function. No obvious ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria have been found during CA. We conclude that CA causes cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction along with decay of high-energy phosphates, which would be mitigated with CPR. This study may broaden our understanding of the pathogenic processes underlying global cerebral ischemic injury and provide a potential therapeutic strategy that aimed at preserving cerebral mitochondrial function during CA.

  15. Effects of Angiotensin Ⅱ on Expression of the Gap Junction Channel Protein Connexin 43 in Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yang; Wei Wu

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of angiotensin Ⅱ,as a mediator of cardiac hypertrophy,on expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and correlation of expression of Cx43 and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.Methods Cardiomyocytes were isolated from newborn SD rats.Angiotensin Ⅱ was added into the media to induce myocyte hypertrophy.Cultures were exposed to 10 ~6 mol/L angiotensin Ⅱ for 72 h,Cx43 expression was characterized by RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence methods.Results Immunofluorescence analysis revealed decreased Cx43 immunoreactivity in cells treated for 72 h with angiotensin Ⅱ.RT-PCR analysis demonstrated there was an obvious decrease of Cx43 mRNA level in cells exposed to angiotensin Ⅱ for 72 h.The changes of expression of connexin 43 were related to its entrance into S phase of the cell cycle.Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed for 72 h to increase concentrations of angiotensin Ⅱ ( 1.0 × 10-9 ~ 1.0 × 10-6mol/L),resulting in significantly decreased Cx43 expression.Conclusions Angiotensin Ⅱ leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in Cx43 protein in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes by decreasing Cx43 mRNA synthesis.Signal transduction pathways activated by angiotensin Ⅱ under pathophysiologic conditions of cardiac hypertrophy could initiate remodeling of gap junctions.

  16. CAVEOLIN-3 IS UP-REGULATED IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY INDUCED BY VOLUNTARY EXERCISE TRAINING IN RATS

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    Ikuo Yokoyama

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Various substances have been introduced in relation with cardiac hypertrophy almost always with controversy in their roles in signal transduction. Those controversies may attribute to the diversity of cardiac hypertrophy. We previously showed that calcineurin was activated in physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH induced by voluntary exercise training, but not in decompensated pressure-overload LVH. In the current study, we advanced our search for the differences between the voluntary exercise-induced LVH and the pressure-overload LVH into several other hypertrophy-related substances including caveolin. Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following three groups: 10 weeks of voluntary exercise (EX, sedentary regimen (SED, and 4 weeks of ascending aortic constriction (AC. The EX rats voluntarily ran 1.6±1.1 km/day in the specially manufactured cages resulting in LVH (24 % increase in left ventricular weight per body weight ratio. Myocardial tissue homogenate of the EX rats revealed different characteristics in signal transduction of hypertrophy from that of the AC. The EX rats had normal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca2+ATPase mRNA level and normal myosin heavy chain isozyme pattern assessed by RNA protection assay, while AC rats had decreased SR Ca2+ATPase mRNA level and increased beta myosin heavy chain mRNA level. Myocardial caveolin-3 protein levels assessed by Western blotting increased in the EX rats but decreased in the AC rats. The voluntary exercise-induced LVH differed in signal transduction from the decompensated pressure-overload LVH. Caveolin-3 was induced in the voluntary exercise-induced LVH, while it was decreased in the decompensated pressure-overload LVH

  17. 3D Printing to Guide Ventricular Assist Device Placement in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Saeed, Omar; Zaidi, Ali; Sanz, Javier; Nielsen, James C; Hsu, Daphne T; Jorde, Ulrich P

    2016-04-01

    As the population of adults with congenital heart disease continues to grow, so does the number of these patients with heart failure. Ventricular assist devices are underutilized in adults with congenital heart disease due to their complex anatomic arrangements and physiology. Advanced imaging techniques that may increase the utilization of mechanical circulatory support in this population must be explored. Three-dimensional printing offers individualized structural models that would enable pre-surgical planning of cannula and device placement in adults with congenital cardiac disease and heart failure who are candidates for such therapies. We present a review of relevant cardiac anomalies, cases in which such models could be utilized, and some background on the cost and procedure associated with this process. PMID:27033018

  18. Speckle-tracking echocardiography elucidates the effect of pacing site on left ventricular synchronization in the normal and infarcted rat myocardium.

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    Michal Mor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV pacing generates regional disparities in electrical activation and mechanical function (ventricular dyssynchrony. In contrast, left ventricular (LV or biventricular (BIV pacing can improve cardiac efficiency in the setting of ventricular dyssynchrony, constituting the rationale for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT. Animal models of ventricular dyssynchrony and CRT currently relay on large mammals which are expensive and not readily available to most researchers. We developed a methodology for double-site epicardial pacing in conscious rats. Here, following post-operative recovery, we compared the effects of various pacing modes on LV dyssynchrony in normal rats and in rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Two bipolar electrodes were implanted in rats as follows: Group A (n = 6 right atrial (RA and RV sites; Group B (n = 7 RV and LV sites; Group C (n = 8 as in group B in combination with left coronary artery ligation. Electrodes were exteriorized through the back. Following post-operative recovery, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography was performed during pacing through the different electrodes. Segmental systolic circumferential strain (Ecc was used to evaluate LV dyssynchrony. RESULTS: In normal rats, RV pacing induced marked LV dyssynchrony compared to RA pacing or sinus rhythm, as measured by the standard deviation (SD of segmental time to peak Ecc, SD of peak Ecc, and the average delay between opposing ventricular segments. LV pacing and, to a greater extend BIV pacing diminished the LV dyssynchrony compared to RV pacing. In rats with extensive MI, the effects of LV and BIV pacing were markedly attenuated, and the response of individual animals was variable. CONCLUSIONS: Rodent cardiac pacing mimics important features seen in humans. This model may be developed as a simple new tool to study the pathophysiology of ventricular dyssynchrony and CRT.

  19. CyPA-CD147-ERK1/2-cyclin D2 signaling pathway is upregulated during rat left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fu-Cai; Wang, Hong-Yan; Ma, Ming-Ming; Guan, Tian-Wang; Pan, Long; Yao, Dun-Chen; Chen, Ya-Lan; Chen, Wei-Bei; Tu, Yong-Sheng; Fu, Xiao-Dong

    2015-08-25

    The changes of serum cyclophilin A (CyPA), its receptor CD147 and the downstream signaling pathway during the process of cardiac hypertrophy remain unknown. The present study aims to investigate the relationships between CyPA-CD147-ERK1/2-cyclin D2 signaling pathway and the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricular hypertrophy was prepared by 2-kidney, 2-clip in Sprague-Dawley rats and observed for 1 week, 4 and 8 weeks. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by ratio of left ventricular heart weight to body weight (LVW/BW) and cardiomyocyte cross sectional area (CSA). CyPA levels in serum were determined with a rat CyPA ELISA kit. Expressions of CyPA, CD147, phospho-ERK1/2 and cyclin D2 in left ventricular myocytes were determined by Western blot and immunostaining. Compared with sham groups, systolic blood pressure reached hypertensive levels at 4 weeks in 2K2C groups. LVW/BW and CSA in 2K2C groups were significantly increased at 4 and 8 weeks after clipping. ELISA results indicated a prominent increase in serum CyPA level associated with the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. Western blot revealed that the expressions of CyPA, CD147, phospho-ERK1/2 and cyclin D2 in left ventricular tissues were also remarkably increased as the cardiac hypertrophy developed. The results of the present study demonstrates that serum CyPA and CyPA-CD147-ERK1/2-cyclin D2 signaling pathway in ventricular tissues are time-dependently upregulated and activated with the process of left ventricular hypertrophy. These data suggest that CyPA-CD147 signaling cascade might play a role in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy, and CyPA might be a prognosticator of the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:26300251

  20. Lead reduces tension development and the myosin ATPase activity of the rat right ventricular myocardium

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    D.V. Vassallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb2+ poisoning causes hypertension, but little is known regarding its acute effects on cardiac contractility. To evaluate these effects, force was measured in right ventricular strips that were contracting isometrically in 45 male Wistar rats (250-300 g before and after the addition of increasing concentrations of lead acetate (3, 7, 10, 30, 70, 100, and 300 µM to the bath. Changes in rate of stimulation (0.1-1.5 Hz, relative potentiation after pauses of 15, 30, and 60 s, effect of Ca2+ concentration (0.62, 1.25, and 2.5 mM, and the effect of isoproterenol (20 ng/mL were determined before and after the addition of 100 µM Pb2+. Effects on contractile proteins were evaluated after caffeine treatment using tetanic stimulation (10 Hz and measuring the activity of the myosin ATPase. Pb2+ produced concentration-dependent force reduction, significant at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The force developed in response to increasing rates of stimulation became smaller at 0.5 and 0.8 Hz. Relative potentiation increased after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment. Extracellular Ca2+ increment and isoproterenol administration increased force development but after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment the force was significantly reduced suggesting an effect of the metal on the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. Concentration of 100 µM Pb2+ also reduced the peak and plateau force of tetanic contractions and reduced the activity of the myosin ATPase. Results showed that acute Pb2+ administration, although not affecting the sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, produces a concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect and reduces myosin ATPase activity. Results suggest that acute lead administration reduced myocardial contractility by reducing sarcolemmal calcium influx and the myosin ATPase activity. These results also suggest that lead exposure is hazardous and has toxicological consequences affecting cardiac muscle.

  1. Ca2+ sparks evoked by depolarization of rat ventricular myocytes involve multiple release sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANGWei-Jin; YUXiao-Jiang; ZANGYi-Min

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the fundamental nature of calcium release events (Ca2+‘sparks’) evoked in rat ventricular myocytes during excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. METHODS: High-resolution line-scan confocal imaging with the fluorescent calcium indicator and patch-clamp techniques were used to study the spontaneous Ca2+ sparks and sparks evoked by depolarization. RESULTS: 1)Line scans oriented along the length of the cell showed that both spontaneous sparks and sparks evoked by depolarization to -35mV appeared to arise at single sites spacing about 1.80μm apart (ie, the sarcomere length), and measurements of their longitudinal spread (full-width at halfmaximal amplitude:FWHM) followed single Gaussian distributions with means of 2.6μm. 2)Different to this,transverse line scans often revealed spontaneous and evoked sparks that appeared to arise near-synchronously from paired sites. Measurements of transverse FWHM of both spontaneous and evoked sparks showed bimodal distributions, which were fit well by the sums of two Gaussian curves with means of 1.8 and 2.9μm for spontaneous sparks and ith means of 1.9 and 3.1 μm for evoked sparks. Relative areas under the two Gaussian curves were 1.73:1 and 1.85:1, respectively, for spontaneous and evoked sparks. CONCLUSIONS: Ca2+ sparks evoked by depolarization are not ′unitary′ events, but often involve multiple sites of origin along Z-lines, as previously shown for spontaneous sparks. Thus, Ca2+ released during sparks directly triggered by influx through L-type Ca2+ channels may, in turn, trigger neighboring sites. The restricted involvement of only a few transverse release sites preserves the essential feature of the ‘local control’ theory of E-C coupling.

  2. Effect of osmotic stress on spontaneous calcium sparks in rat ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong XIE; Pei-hong ZHU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study whether the volume of cardiomyocytes and their functions would change under severe pathological conditions or osmotic stress. To clarify the role of ryanodine receptors/calcium release channels (RyRs) in the functional change, the effect of osmotic stress on spontaneous Ca2+ sparks in rat ventricular myocytes was investigated. Methods: A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect spontaneous Ca2+ sparks of intact or saponin permeabilized myocytes loaded with Fluo-4. High and low tonicity was obtained by adding sucrose and reducing NaCl concentration in the external medium, respectively. Results: In intact myocytes the frequency of Ca2+ sparks was increased and decreased by hyperosmotic (1.5 T) and hyposmotic (0.6 T) exposure, respectively. In addition, hyperosmotic exposure increased the temporal parameters and decreased the spatial parameter of Ca2+ sparks, while opposite changes occurred with hyposmotic exposure. The spatio-temporal properties of Ca2+ sparks were slightly affected by altering [K+]i (50-200 mmol/L) in saponin permeabilized myocytes in the presence of 8% dextran. It was observed that the spatio-temporal parameters of the Ca2+ sparks in permeabilized myocytes were dose-dependently altered by dextran. The propagating velocity of Ca2+ waves in intact and permeabilized myocyte was also affected by osmotic pressure or dextran. Conclusion: The effect of osmotic stress on the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks might be ascribed to the change of myoplasmic Ca2+ and Ca2+ content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, while the effect on the spatio-temporal properties is caused by the alteration of Ca2+ diffusion mainly resulting from the morphological change of the myocytes.

  3. Altered ventricular torsion and transmural patterns of myocyte relaxation precede heart failure in aging F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart G; Haynes, Premi; Kelsey Snapp, W; Nava, Kristofer E; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explain changes in ventricular and cellular function that contribute to aging-associated cardiovascular disease in aging F344 rats. Three groups of female F344 rats, aged 6, 18, and 22 mo, were studied. Echocardiographic measurements in isoflurane-anesthetized animals showed an increase in peak left ventricular torsion between the 6- and the 18-mo-old groups that was partially reversed in the 22-mo-old animals (P 75 cells for each of the nine age-region groups). The decay time of the Ca(2+) transient and the time required for 50% length relaxation both increased with age but not uniformly across the three regions (P 50% reduction in troponin I phosphoprotein content in 22-mo-old epicardium relative to the other regions. These data suggest that between 18 and 22 mo of age (before the onset of heart failure), F344 rats display epicardial-specific myofilament-level modifications that 1) break from the progression observed between 6 and 18 mo and 2) coincide with aberrant patterns of cardiac torsion.

  4. Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Targeting Myocardial Reactive Oxygen Species Production Improves Left Ventricular Remodeling and Function in Rats With Ischemic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccarollo, Daniela; Galuppo, Paolo; Neuser, Jonas; Bauersachs, Johann; Widder, Julian D

    2015-11-01

    Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability contributes to progression of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in ischemic heart failure. Clinical use of organic nitrates as nitric oxide donors is limited by development of nitrate tolerance and reactive oxygen species formation. We investigated the effects of long-term therapy with pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), an organic nitrate devoid of tolerance, in rats with congestive heart failure after extensive myocardial infarction. Seven days after coronary artery ligation, rats were randomly allocated to treatment with PETN (80 mg/kg BID) or placebo for 9 weeks. Long-term PETN therapy prevented the progressive left ventricular dilatation and improved left ventricular contractile function and relaxation in rats with congestive heart failure. Mitochondrial superoxide anion production was markedly increased in the failing left ventricular myocardium and nearly normalized by PETN treatment. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that PETN beneficially modulated the dysregulation of mitochondrial genes involved in energy metabolism, paralleled by prevention of uncoupling protein-3, thioredoxin-2, and superoxide dismutase-2 downregulation. Moreover, PETN provided a remarkable protective effect against reactive fibrosis in chronically failing hearts. Mechanistically, induction of heme oxygenase-1 by PETN prevented mitochondrial superoxide generation, NOX4 upregulation, and ensuing formation of extracellular matrix proteins in fibroblasts from failing hearts. In summary, PETN targeting reactive oxygen species generation prevented the changes of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes and progressive fibrotic remodeling, leading to amelioration of cardiac functional performance. Therefore, PETN might be a promising therapeutic option in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases involving oxidative stress and impairment in nitric oxide bioactivity.

  5. Developmental-stage-dependent radiosensitivity of neural cells in the ventricular zone of telencephalon in mouse and rat fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant ICR mice were treated with single whole-body X-radiation at a dose of 0.24 Gy on day 10, 13, or 15 of gestation. Fetuses were obtained from mothers during 1 and 24 hours after irradiation. Pyknotic cells in the ventricular zone of telencephalon were counted in serial histological sections. Incidence of pyknotic cells peaked during 6 and 9 hours after irradiation in each gestation day group. Then, dose-response curves were obtained 6 hours after 0-0.48 Gy of irradiation. All three dose-response curves showed clear linearity in the dose range lower than 0.24 Gy. Ratios of radiosensitivity estimated from the slopes of dose-response curves in day 10, 13, and 15 groups were 1, 1.4, and 0.4, respectively. These demonstrated that ventricular cells in the day 13 fetal telencephalon were the most radiosensitive among the three different age groups. In order to confirm the presence of the highly radiosensitive stage common to mammalian cerebral cortical histogenesis, pregnant F344 rats were treated with single whole-body gamma-irradiation at a dose of 0.48 Gy on day 13, 14, 15, 17, or 19 of gestation. The incidence of pyknotic cells in the ventricular zone of telencephalon was examined microscopically during 1 and 24 hours after irradiation. The peak incidence was shown 6 hours after irradiation in all the treated groups, and the highest peak incidence was shown in day-15-treated group. The developmental stage of telencephalon of day 15 rat fetuses was comparable to that of day 13 mouse fetuses. Thus, the highest radiosensitivity in terms of acute cell death was shown in the same developmental stage of brain development, i.e., the beginning phase of cerebral cortical histogenesis, in both mice and rats

  6. Alpha1A-adrenergic receptor-directed autoimmunity induces left ventricular damage and diastolic dysfunction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Wenzel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agonistic autoantibodies to the alpha(1-adrenergic receptor occur in nearly half of patients with refractory hypertension; however, their relevance is uncertain. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We immunized Lewis rats with the second extracellular-loop peptides of the human alpha(1A-adrenergic receptor and maintained them for one year. Alpha(1A-adrenergic antibodies (alpha(1A-AR-AB were monitored with a neonatal cardiomyocyte contraction assay by ELISA, and by ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human alpha(1A-adrenergic receptor transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rats were followed with radiotelemetric blood pressure measurements and echocardiography. At 12 months, the left ventricles of immunized rats had greater wall thickness than control rats. The fractional shortening and dp/dt(max demonstrated preserved systolic function. A decreased E/A ratio in immunized rats indicated a diastolic dysfunction. Invasive hemodynamics revealed increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressures and decreased dp/dt(min. Mean diameter of cardiomyocytes showed hypertrophy in immunized rats. Long-term blood pressure values and heart rates were not different. Genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, collagens, extracellular matrix proteins, calcium regulating proteins, and proteins of energy metabolism in immunized rat hearts were upregulated, compared to controls. Furthermore, fibrosis was present in immunized hearts, but not in control hearts. A subset of immunized and control rats was infused with angiotensin (Ang II. The stressor raised blood pressure to a greater degree and led to more cardiac fibrosis in immunized, than in control rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that alpha(1A-AR-AB cause diastolic dysfunction independent of hypertension, and can increase the sensitivity to Ang II. We suggest that alpha(1A-AR-AB could contribute to cardiovascular endorgan damage.

  7. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  8. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF AN ADULT PATIENT WITH UNCORRECTED VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT POSTED FOR OBSTRUCTED INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaramu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adults with unrepaired acyanotic heart disease scheduled for a non - cardiac surgery present serious concerns for the anaesthesiologists. Ventricular septal defect (VSD, is an acyanotic congenital heart disease, characterized by a left to right shunt. The incidence varies between 2 to 6 per 1000 live births. It is found in 30% to 60% of all the newborns with congenital heart disease, thus making it one of the most common congenital heart diseases VSD is the commonest form of CHD. Unlike ASD, the majority will undergo spontaneous closure : 40% by the age of 2yr and 90% by the age of 10 yr . 1 The goal of anesthetic management should be to maintain intravascular volume. Systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance changes, such as might occur due to acidosis, hypothermia, hypercarbia or excessive airway pressures, should be avoided. Maintenance of preload, contractility and sinus rhythm is of major importance. The c omplex pathophysiologies of such heart disease, in addition to the circumstances of emergency operation, exacerbate the total anesthetic risk. We present here a rare case of obstructed right sided inguinal hernia repair with successful outcome in an adult with ventricular septal defect.

  9. Influence of Transplantation of Allogenic Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on the Left Ventricular Remodeling of Rat after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To probe into the influence of transplantation of allogenic bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) on the left ventricular remodeling of rat after acute myocardial infarction (AMD,60 male Wistar rats were evenly divided into three groups at random: control group 1, control group 2and transplantation group. In control group 1, chest was opened without ligation of coronary artery;in control group 2 and transplantation group, the left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was ligated to establish AMI model. Prepared culture medium and allogenic BM-MNCs suspension were respectively implanted the surrounding area of infracted cardiac muscle via epicardium of control group 2 and transplantation group. Four weeks after the operation, the osteopontin gene (OPN mRNA, P<0.01), type Ⅰ collagen (P<0.01) and angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ, P<0.01) content in the left ventricular non-infracted myocardium, and the Ang Ⅱ density in blood plasma (P<0.05) of transplantation group and control group 2 were all significantly higher than that of control group 1. In the transplantation group, the myocardial OPN mRNA, type Ⅰ collagen and Ang Ⅱ content of non-infracted zone in left ventricle, and the Ang Ⅱ concentration in blood plasma were all significantly lower than those of control group 2 (P<0.05 for all). It is concluded that allogenic BM-MNCs transplantation may ease left ventricular remodeling after AMI by inhibiting the synthesis of type Ⅰ collagen in the cardiac muscle and down-regulating the expression of Ang Ⅱ and OPN gene.

  10. Effects and mechanism of different adrenergic receptor antagonists on left ventricular hypertrophy subsequent to coarctation of abdominal aorta in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qin; LI Long-gui; ZHANG Yun

    2004-01-01

    To study the changes of a collagen-binding protein (Colligin) and myosin heavy chain isoform (α/β-MHC) gene and protein in left ventricular hypertrophy subsequent to coarctation of abdominal aorta in rats and the ef-fects of three kinds of adrenergic receptor blockers: Carvedilol (CAR), Metoprolol (MET) and Terazosin (TER) on these changes, and to elucidate the effects and new mechanism of CAR on left ventricular hypearophy regression. Methods: A model of hypertrophy induced by coarctation of abdominal aorta(CAA) was used in this study. Thirty two male istar rats were divided randomly into four groups 4 weeks after CAA operation: CAA, CAR, MET and TER.emodynamics, ventric-ular remodeling parameters, expressions of Colligin and α/β-MHC mRNA, protein expressions of Collagen Ⅰ /Ⅲ and Colligin were investigated in the four groups and sham operation group. Results: Left ventricle hypertrophy was observed clearly 16 weeks after operation. The ratio of α/β-MHC mRNA decreased, while expressions of Collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ proteins and Colligin mRNA/protein increased( P < 0.05). CAR could ameliorate left ventricle hypertrophy prior to MET and TER. CAR could also change the expressions of α/β-MHC, Collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ and Colligin in both gene and protein levels ( P < 0.05), while MET and TER have no effect on them ( P > 0.05). Conclusion: The effects of CAR on extracellular matrix proteins and MHC isoform shift regression of left ventricle may be due to antiproliferative or antioxidative mechanism, which was indepen-dent of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist.

  11. Quantitative assessment of systolic left ventricular function with speckle-tracking echocardiography in adult patients with repaired aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Myrthe E; van Grootel, Roderick W J; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Eindhoven, Jannet A; McGhie, Jackie S; Cuypers, Judith A A E; Witsenburg, Maarten; Helbing, Willem A; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2016-05-01

    Despite successful aortic coarctation (CoA) repair, systemic hypertension often recurs which may influence left ventricular (LV) function. We aimed to detect early LV dysfunction using LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) in adults with repaired CoA, and to identify associations with patient and echocardiographic characteristics. In this cross-sectional study, patients with repaired CoA and healthy controls were recruited prospectively. All subjects underwent echocardiography, ECG and blood sampling within 1 day. With speckle-tracking echocardiography, we assessed LV GLS on the apical four-, three- and two-chamber views. We included 150 subjects: 75 patients (57 % male, age 33.4 ± 12.8 years, age at repair 2.5 [IQR: 0.1-11.1] years) and 75 healthy controls of similar sex and age. LV GLS was lower in patients than in controls (-17.1 ± 2.3 vs. -20.2 ± 1.6 %, P detection of ventricular dysfunction. PMID:26780661

  12. Dutch survey of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults: coronary artery-left ventricular multiple micro-fistulas multi-center observational survey in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, S.A.M.; Werf, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital coronary artery-left ventricular multiple micro-fistulas (CA-LVMMFs) in adults are rare anomalies. They may cause angina pectoris and myocardial infarction in association with normal coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the medical databases of a Dutch Survey of corona

  13. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  14. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  15. Effect of exercise training on Ca{sup 2+} release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular do Exercício, Escola de Educação Física e Esportes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, L.B. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Cruz, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Membranas Excitáveis e Biologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mill, J.G. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca{sup 2+} sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of

  16. Effects of Dantrolene Treatment on Ventricular Electrophysiology and Arrhythmogenesis in Rats With Chronic β-Adrenergic Receptor Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Shi, Shao-bo; Qin, Mu; Huang, Cong-xin

    2015-07-01

    Dantrolene, which is primarily used to treat malignant hyperthermia, has recently been suggested for the prevention of arrhythmogenesis in various animal models. In this study, the effects of dantrolene treatment on electrophysiological properties and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in rats with chronic β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) activation were investigated. Rats were randomized to treatment with saline (control group), isoproterenol (ISO; ISO group), or ISO + dantrolene (ID group) for 2 weeks. An electrophysiological study was performed to assess action potential duration restitution (APDR) and induce action potential duration (APD) alternans or VA in vitro. The protein levels of Cav1.2, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a), and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) were detected by Western blot. Compared with the control group, chronic administration of ISO significantly increased APD, the maximum slope (Smax) of APDR curve, and the spatial dispersions of Smax and APD (all P effects were attenuated by dantrolene treatment (all P < .05). Additionally, chronic ISO administration significantly reduced the protein levels of SERCA2 and RyR2, but increased the Cav1.2 protein expression (all P < .05). However, compared with the ISO group, dantrolene treatment preserved SERCA2a and RyR2 protein levels and decreased Cav1.2 protein levels in the ID group (all P < .05). The intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) levels measured by incubating isolated cardiomyocytes with Fluo-3/alveolar macrophages were significantly increased in the ISO group compared with the control group (P < .01). Dantrolene treatment markedly reduced the rise of [Ca(2+)]i levels caused by chronic administration of ISO (P < .05). Dantrolene treatment also prevented the reductions in the APD alternans and VA thresholds induced by chronic ISO stimulation (all P < .05). These data suggest that dantrolene stabilizes ventricular electrophysiological characteristics and increases the expression of key

  17. Effects of β2-Adrenergic Antagonist on Cytosolic Ca2+ in Ventricular Myocytes from Infarcted Rat Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hui; Wu Wei; Zeng Chong; Deng Chunyu; Fang Chang; Chen Shanming

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of β2-adrenergic antagonist on cytosolic Ca2 +([Ca2+]i) in ventricular myocytes from infarcted rat heart. Methods A ligature was placed around left anterior descending coronary artery of rat hearts. Rats in the control group were sham-operated.Cardiomyocytes were dissociated at two, four, eight weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) and [Ca2+]i was measured via fura-2 fluorescence. The response of cardiomyocytes to isoproterenol in presence or absenceof beta1-adrenergic antagonist atenolol, beta2-adrenergic antagonist ICI118, 551 or non-selective β1,2- adrenergic antagonists propranolol was examined.Results The followings were found that ICI11 8, 551 had no significant effects on the rise of [Ca2+]i induced by isoproterenol in normal ventricular myocytes (P >0.05), ICI118, 551 only significantly attenuated the rise of [Ca2+]i induced by isoproterenol at four weeks and eight weeks after MI (24.5% ±5.7% vs 57.8% ±13.2%, P< 0.01; 12.2%±7.9% vs 44.6%±11.3%, P<0.01). Atenolol had suppressive effects only in the control group and the post-MI group of two weeks (P<0.05), and propranolol had suppressive effects in the control and all the three post-MI groups (P<0.01).Conclusions Beta2-adrenergic antagonist ICI118,551 may exert negative effects on Ca2+ overload initiated by sympathetic stimulation after MI.

  18. Effect of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge on Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and the Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lianping; ZHENG Zhi

    2007-01-01

    The effects of salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (SMB) on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats and the action mechanism were investigated. Normal Wistar-kyoto (WKY) rats were used as negative control, and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly assigned to receive placebo or SMB. SMB (1 g/kg·d) was injected intraperitoneally for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured. HE, VG and immunohistochemical staining combined with computed morphometry were employed to evaluate the cardiomyocyte size,diameter, the collagen volume fraction (CVF), perivascular circumferential area (PVCA), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in the left ventricular tissue. The results showed, as compared with WKY rats, the SBP, LVMI, cardiomyocyte size, diameter, CVF, PCVA, and TNF-α expression were increased markedly in the 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats. SMB decreased LVMI (P<0.01), size of cardiomyocytes (P<0.01), collagen volume fraction (P<0.01), perivascular circumferential area (P<0.01), and TNF-α expression (P<0.01), but had no effect on SBP (P>0.05). It was suggested that chronic administration of SMB could inhibit and reverse the development of LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats independent of BP. TNF-α may be involved in the reversal mechanism of LVH by SMB.

  19. Measuring ventricular width on cranial computed tomography. Feasibility of dose reduction in a custom-made adult phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daubner, D.; Cerhova, J.; Linn, J. [Dresden Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Spieth, S. [Dresden Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kirchhof, K. [Chemnitz Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuradiology

    2016-01-15

    To estimate feasible dose reduction to reliably measure ventricular width in adults with hydrocephalus in follow-up cranial computed tomography (CCT) using a custom-made phantom. A gelatine-filled adult calvarium with embedded central fibers of two carrots representing the lateral ventricles was used as a phantom. The phantom was scanned 11 times with two CT scanners (LightSpeed Ultra, GE and Somatom Sensation, Siemens), using tube currents of 380/400, 350, 300, 250, 200, 150 and 100 mA, and tube voltages of 140, 120, 100 and 80 kV. The width of the carrots was measured at four sites in consensus decision of two principle investigators blinded to the scan parameters. Values measured at 380/400 mA and 140 kV served as a reference for the width of the ventricles. Measurements received 1 point if they did not differ more than 0.5 mm from the reference values. A maximum score of 4 could be achieved. The relationship between the correct width measurement of the carrots (lateral ventricles) and the radiation dose can be described by a quadratic regression function. Pixel noise increases and accuracy of measurements decreases with a lower radiation dose. Starting from a tube current of 380/400 mA and a tube voltage of 140 kV, the dose can be reduced by 76 % for LightSpeed Ultra and by 80 % for Somatom Sensation provided that a margin of error of 37.5 % (score = 2.5) for correct width measurement of the carrots is accepted. Lowering the radiation dose by up to 48 % for LightSpeed Ultra and by 52 % for Somatom Sensation, compared to the standard protocol (120 kV and 400 mA) still allowed reliable measurements of ventricular widths in this model.

  20. Islands of spatially discordant APD alternans underlie arrhythmogenesis by promoting electrotonic dyssynchrony in models of fibrotic rat ventricular myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Rupamanjari; Engels, Marc C.; de Vries, Antoine A. F.; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Pijnappels, Daniël A.

    2016-04-01

    Fibrosis and altered gap junctional coupling are key features of ventricular remodelling and are associated with abnormal electrical impulse generation and propagation. Such abnormalities predispose to reentrant electrical activity in the heart. In the absence of tissue heterogeneity, high-frequency impulse generation can also induce dynamic electrical instabilities leading to reentrant arrhythmias. However, because of the complexity and stochastic nature of such arrhythmias, the combined effects of tissue heterogeneity and dynamical instabilities in these arrhythmias have not been explored in detail. Here, arrhythmogenesis was studied using in vitro and in silico monolayer models of neonatal rat ventricular tissue with 30% randomly distributed cardiac myofibroblasts and systematically lowered intercellular coupling achieved in vitro through graded knockdown of connexin43 expression. Arrhythmia incidence and complexity increased with decreasing intercellular coupling efficiency. This coincided with the onset of a specialized type of spatially discordant action potential duration alternans characterized by island-like areas of opposite alternans phase, which positively correlated with the degree of connexinx43 knockdown and arrhythmia complexity. At higher myofibroblast densities, more of these islands were formed and reentrant arrhythmias were more easily induced. This is the first study exploring the combinatorial effects of myocardial fibrosis and dynamic electrical instabilities on reentrant arrhythmia initiation and complexity.

  1. Effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction on Ventricular Remodeling and Differential Protein Profile in a Rat Model of Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD is a well-known and canonical Chinese medicine formula from “Correction on Errors in Medical Classics” in Qing dynasty. Here, we show that BYHWD could alleviate the ventricular remodeling induced by left anterior descending (LAD artery ligation in rats. BYHWD treatment (18 g/kg/day decreased heart weight/body weight (HW/BW, left ventricle (LV dimension at end diastole (LVDd and increased LV ejection fraction (LVEF and LV fractional shortening (LVFS significantly compared to model group at the end of 12 weeks. The collagen volume of BYHWD group was more significantly decreased than that of model group. Proteomic analysis showed that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF was downregulated; heat shock protein beta-6 (HSPB6 and peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6 were upregulated in BYHWD-treated group among successfully identified proteins. The apoptotic index (AI was reduced by BYHWD accompanied by decreased expression of Bax and caspase 3 activity, increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and phosphorylation of HSPB6 compared to that of model group. Taken together, these results suggest that BYHWD can alleviate ventricular remodeling induced by LAD artery ligation. The antiremodeling effects of BYHWD are conferred by decreasing AI through affecting multiple targets including increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and decreased caspase 3 activity that might be via upregulated PRDX6, phosphorylation of HSPB6 and subsequently reduction of ANF.

  2. Effects of buyang huanwu decoction on ventricular remodeling and differential protein profile in a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying Chun; Liu, Bin; Li, Ying Jia; Jing, Lin Lin; Wen, Ge; Tang, Jing; Xu, Xin; Lv, Zhi Ping; Sun, Xue Gang

    2012-01-01

    Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) is a well-known and canonical Chinese medicine formula from "Correction on Errors in Medical Classics" in Qing dynasty. Here, we show that BYHWD could alleviate the ventricular remodeling induced by left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation in rats. BYHWD treatment (18 g/kg/day) decreased heart weight/body weight (HW/BW), left ventricle (LV) dimension at end diastole (LVDd) and increased LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV fractional shortening (LVFS) significantly compared to model group at the end of 12 weeks. The collagen volume of BYHWD group was more significantly decreased than that of model group. Proteomic analysis showed that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) was downregulated; heat shock protein beta-6 (HSPB6) and peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6) were upregulated in BYHWD-treated group among successfully identified proteins. The apoptotic index (AI) was reduced by BYHWD accompanied by decreased expression of Bax and caspase 3 activity, increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and phosphorylation of HSPB6 compared to that of model group. Taken together, these results suggest that BYHWD can alleviate ventricular remodeling induced by LAD artery ligation. The antiremodeling effects of BYHWD are conferred by decreasing AI through affecting multiple targets including increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and decreased caspase 3 activity that might be via upregulated PRDX6, phosphorylation of HSPB6 and subsequently reduction of ANF. PMID:23049607

  3. Nicorandil prevents right ventricular remodeling by inhibiting apoptosis and lowering pressure overload in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Rong Zuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of the deaths among patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH are caused by progressive right ventricular (RV pathological remodeling, dysfunction, and failure. Nicorandil can inhibit the development of PAH by reducing pulmonary artery pressure and RV hypertrophy. However, whether nicorandil can inhibit apoptosis in RV cardiomyocytes and prevent RV remodeling has been unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RV remodeling was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT. RV systolic pressure (RVSP was measured at the end of each week after MCT injection. Blood samples were drawn for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP ELISA analysis. The hearts were excised for histopathological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and Western blotting analyses. The MCT-injected rats exhibited greater mortality and less weight gain and showed significantly increased RVSP and RV hypertrophy during the second week. These worsened during the third week. MCT injection for three weeks caused pathological RV remodeling, characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, dysfunction, and RV mitochondrial impairment, as indicated by increased levels of apoptosis. Nicorandil improved survival, weight gain, and RV function, ameliorated RV pressure overload, and prevented maladaptive RV remodeling in PAH rats. Nicorandil also reduced the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes, with a concomitant increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD reversed these beneficial effects of nicorandil in MCT-injected rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nicorandil inhibits PAH-induced RV remodeling in rats not only by reducing RV pressure overload but also by inhibiting apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through the activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+ (mitoK(ATP channels. The use of a mitoK(ATP channel opener such as nicorandil for PAH-associated RV remodeling and dysfunction may represent a new therapeutic strategy for the amelioration of RV

  4. Non-targeted metabolomics identified a common metabolic signature of lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia (LVTA) in two rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Wang, Dian; Yu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guohong; Wu, Jiayan; Zhu, Guanghui; Su, Ruibing; Lv, Junyao

    2016-06-21

    Lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia (LVTA) is the predominant underlying mechanism of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of this study is to characterize the metabolic features of myocardia following LVTA, and identify potential biomarkers to diagnose LVTA. We developed two LVTA rat models induced by aconitine injection or coronary artery ligation, which represent cardiac ion channel disease-related and cardiac ischemia-related SCD, respectively. The myocardial metabolic profile was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. Twenty-three aconitine-injected and 14 coronary artery ligation-treated rats developed LVTA SCD. A total of 38 differential metabolites of myocardia were identified in aconitine-induced LVTA rats, of which 31 metabolites showed a similar change in coronary artery ligation-related LVTA rats. Fatty acids (stearic, palmitic, linoleic, elaidic, and myristic) and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) were the most down-regulated metabolites. Furthermore, elevated ADP, phosphate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, threonine, choline and arginine were also observed. Major pathways regarding these dysregulated metabolites post LVTA are energy excessive consumption and deficit, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, cardiac cytotoxicity and membrane injury. Valine, stearic acid and leucine collectively enable a precision of 92.9% to distinguish LVTA from its control, and are correlated with several arrhythmia indices. Our results uncovered a common metabolic feature of LVTA in myocardia in two rat models, which represent cardiac ion channel disease and cardiac ischemia, respectively. l-Valine, l-leucine and stearic acid jointly confer good potential for distinguishing LVTA, which might be potential biomarkers of LVTA-related SCD. PMID:27138062

  5. Repeated sauna therapy attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats by increasing coronary vascularity of noninfarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Shida, Takuya; Ohori, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Matsuki, Akira; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Repeated sauna therapy (ST) increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and improves cardiac function in heart failure as well as peripheral blood flow in ischemic limbs. The present study investigates whether ST can increase coronary vascularity and thus attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We induced MI by ligating the left coronary artery of Wistar rats. The rats were placed in a far-infrared dry sauna at 41°C for 15 min and then at 34°C for 20 min once daily for 4 wk. Cardiac hemodynamic, histopathological, and gene analyses were performed. Despite the similar sizes of MI between the ST and non-ST groups (51.4 ± 0.3 vs. 51.1 ± 0.2%), ST reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 10.7 ± 0.5 mm, P myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA levels. Vascular density was reduced in the noninfarcted myocardium of non-ST rats, and the density of cells positive for CD31 and for α-smooth muscle actin was decreased. These decreases were attenuated in ST rats compared with non-ST rats and associated with increases in myocardial eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. In conclusion, ST attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI, at least in part, through improving coronary vascularity in the noninfarcted myocardium. Repeated ST might serve as a novel noninvasive therapy for patients with MI.

  6. Effects of AMP579 and adenosine on L-type Ca2+ current in isolated rat ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong WANG; Bo-wei WU; Dong-mei WU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of AMP579 and adenosine on L-type Ca2+ current (ICa- L) in rat ventricular myocytes and explore the mechanism by which AMP579 acts on ICa-L. Methods: ICa-L was recorded by patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Results: Adenosine (10 nmol/L to 50 μmol/L) showed no effect on basal ICa- L, but it inhibited the ICa-L induced by isoproterenol 10 nmol/L in a concen tration-dependent manner with the IC50 of 13.06 μmol/L. Similar to adenosine,AMP579 also showed an inhibitory effect on the ICa-L induced by isoproterenol.AMP579 and adenosine (both in 10 μmol/L) suppressed isoproterenol-induced ICa-L by 11.1% and 5.2%, respectively. In addition, AMP579 had a direct inhibitory effect on basal ICa-L in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 (1.17 μmol/L).PD116948 (30 μmol/L), an adenosine A1 receptor blocker, showed no action on the inhibitory effect of AMP579 on basal ICa-L. However, GF109203X (0.4 μmol/L), a special protein kinase C (PKC) blocker, could abolish the inhibitory effect of AMP579 on basal ICa-L. So the inhibitory effect of AMP579 on basal ICa-L was induced through activating PKC, but not linked to adenosine A1 receptor. Conclusion:AMP579 shows a stronger inhibitory effect than adenosine on the ICa-L induced by isoproterenol. AMP579 also has a strong inhibitory effect on basal ICa-L in rat ventricular myocytes. Activation of PKC is involved in the inhibitory effect of AMP579 on basal ICa-L at downstream-mechanism.

  7. Effect of naringin on hemodynamic changes and left ventricular function in renal artery occluded renovascular hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asjad Visnagri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal artery occlusion (RAO induced hypertension is a major health problem associated with structural and functional variations of the renal and cardiac vasculature. Naringin a flavanone glycoside derived possesses metal-chelating, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive activity of naringin in RAO induced hypertension in rats.Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats (180-200 g were divided into five groups Sham, RAO, naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg. Animals were pretreated with naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg p.o for 4 weeks. On the last day of the experiment, left renal artery was occluded with renal bulldog clamp for 4 h. After assessment of hemodynamic and left ventricular function various biochemical (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione [GSH] and malondialdehyde [MDA] and histological parameters were determined in the kidney. Results: RAO group significantly (P < 0.001 increased hemodynamic parameters at 15, 30 and 45 min of clamp removal. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treated groups showed a significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters at 15 min. after clamp removal that remained sustained for 60 min. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treated groups showed significant improvement in left ventricular function at 15, 30 and 45 min after clamp removal. Alteration in level of SOD, GSH and MDA was significantly restored by naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treatment. It also reduced histological aberration induced in kidney by RAO. Conclusion: It is concluded that the antihypertensive activity of naringin may result through inhibition of oxidative stress.

  8. Effects of transplanted myoblasts transfected with human growth hormone gene on improvement of ventricular function of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Cell transplantation for myocardial repair is limited by early cell death.Gene therapy with human growth hormone(hGH)has been shown to promote angiogensis and attenuate apoptosis in the experimental animal.This study was conducted to explore the effects of myoblast-based hGH gene therapy on heart function restoration and angiogenesis after myocardial infarction,and to compare the differences between myoblast-based hGH gene therapy and myoblast therapy.Methods Myoblasts were isolated from several SD rats,cultured,purified,and transfected with plasmid pLghGHSN and pLgGFPSN.Radioimmunoassay(RIA)was used to detect the expression of hGH in these myoblasts.SD rats underwent the ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery so as to establish a heart ischemia model.Thirty surviving rats that underwent ligation were randomly divided into 3 equal groups 2 weeks after left coronary artery occlusion:pLghGHSN group received myoblast infected with hGH gene transplantation;pLgGFPSN group received myoblast infected with GFP gene transplantation;control group:received cultured medium only.Four weeks after the injection the surviving rat underwent evaluation of cardiac function by echocardiography.The rats were killed and ventricular samples were undergone immunohistochemistry with hematoxylin-eosin and factorⅧ.Cryosection was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy to examine the expression of green fluorescent protein.Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)was used to examine the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF),bax and Bcl-2.hGH expression in myocardium was examined by Western blot.Results Myoblast can be successfully isolated,cultured and transfected.The expression of hGH in transfected myoblast was demonstrated with RIA.Four weeks after therapy,the cardiac function was improved significantly in pLghGHSN group and pLgGFPSN group.Fractional shortening(FS)and ejection fraction(EF)in pLghGHSN group were elevated

  9. The cardiopulmonary reflexes of spontaneously hypertensive rats are normalized after regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension

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    T.A. Uggere

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary reflexes are activated via changes in cardiac filling pressure (volume-sensitive reflex and chemical stimulation (chemosensitive reflex. The sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to these stimuli is impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and other models of hypertension and is thought to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy. The present study investigated whether the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary reflexes in SHR is restored when cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension are reduced by enalapril treatment. Untreated SHR and WKY rats were fed a normal diet. Another groups of rats were treated with enalapril (10 mg kg-1 day-1, mixed in the diet; SHRE or WKYE for one month. After treatment, the volume-sensitive reflex was evaluated in each group by determining the decrease in magnitude of the efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA produced by acute isotonic saline volume expansion. Chemoreflex sensitivity was evaluated by examining the bradycardia response elicited by phenyldiguanide administration. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined from the left ventricular/body weight (LV/BW ratio. Volume expansion produced an attenuated renal sympathoinhibitory response in SHR as compared to WKY rats. As compared to the levels observed in normotensive WKY rats, however, enalapril treatment restored the volume expansion-induced decrease in RSNA in SHRE. SHR with established hypertension had a higher LV/BW ratio (45% as compared to normotensive WKY rats. With enalapril treatment, the LV/BW ratio was reduced to 19% in SHRE. Finally, the reflex-induced bradycardia response produced by phenyldiguanide was significantly attenuated in SHR compared to WKY rats. Unlike the effects on the volume reflex, the sensitivity of the cardiac chemosensitive reflex to phenyldiguanide was not restored by enalapril treatment in SHRE. Taken together, these results indicate that the impairment of the volume-sensitive, but not the

  10. The preventive effects of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells intra-ventricular injection on brain stroke in rats

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    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is one of the most important causes of disability in developed countries and, unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for this major problem of central nervous system (CNS; cell therapy may be helpful to recover this disease. In some conditions such as cardiac surgeries and neurosurgeries, there are some possibilities of happening brain stroke. Inflammation of CNS plays an important role in stroke pathogenesis, in addition, apoptosis and neural death could be the other reasons of poor neurological out come after stroke. In this study, we examined the preventive effects of the neural stem cells (NSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs intra-ventricular injected on stroke in rats. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of neural and MSCs for stroke in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSCs were isolated by flashing the femurs and tibias of the male rats with appropriate media. The NSCs were isolated from rat embryo ganglion eminence and they cultured NSCs media till the neurospheres formed. Both NSCs and MSCs were labeled with PKH26-GL. One day before stroke, the cells were injected into lateral ventricle stereotactically. Results: During following for 28 days, the neurological scores indicated that there are better recoveries in the groups received stem cells and they had less lesion volume in their brain measured by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Furthermore, the activities of caspase-3 were lower in the stem cell received groups than control group and the florescent microscopy images showed that the stem cells migrated to various zones of the brains. Conclusion: Both NSCs and MSCs are capable of protecting the CNS against ischemia and they may be good ways to prevent brain stroke consequences situations.

  11. The Actions of Lyophilized Apple Peel on the Electrical Activity and Organization of the Ventricular Syncytium of the Hearts of Diabetic Rats

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    Elideth Martínez-Ladrón de Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of lyophilized red delicious apple peel (RDP on the action potentials (APs and the input resistance-threshold current relationship. The experiments were performed on isolated papillary heart muscles from healthy male rats, healthy male rats treated with RDP, diabetic male rats, and diabetic male rats treated with RDP. The preparation was superfused with oxygenated Tyrode’s solution at 37°C. The stimulation and the recording of the APs, the input resistance, and the threshold current were made using conventional electrophysiological methods. The RDP presented no significant effect in normal rats. Equivalent doses in diabetic rats reduced the APD and ARP. The relationship between input resistance and threshold current established an inverse correlation. The results indicate the following: (1 The functional structure of the cardiac ventricular syncytium in healthy rats is heterogeneous, in terms of input resistance and threshold current. Diabetes further accentuates the heterogeneity. (2 As a consequence, conduction block occurs and increases the possibility of reentrant arrhythmias. (3 These modifications in the ventricular syncytium, coupled with the increase in the ARP, are the adequate substrate so that, with diabetes, the heart becomes more arrhythmogenic. (4 RDP decreases the APD, the ARP, and most syncytium irregularity caused by diabetes.

  12. The Adult Ventricular-Subventricular Zone (V-SVZ) and Olfactory Bulb (OB) Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel A; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-05-02

    A large population of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) persists in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located in the walls of the lateral brain ventricles. V-SVZ NSCs produce large numbers of neuroblasts that migrate a long distance into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local circuit interneurons. Here, we review a broad range of discoveries that have emerged from studies of postnatal V-SVZ neurogenesis: the identification of NSCs as a subpopulation of astroglial cells, the neurogenic lineage, new mechanisms of neuronal migration, and molecular regulators of precursor cell proliferation and migration. It has also become evident that V-SVZ NSCs are regionally heterogeneous, with NSCs located in different regions of the ventricle wall generating distinct OB interneuron subtypes. Insights into the developmental origins and molecular mechanisms that underlie the regional specification of V-SVZ NSCs have also begun to emerge. Other recent studies have revealed new cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that enable lifelong neurogenesis in the V-SVZ. Finally, we discuss intriguing differences between the rodent V-SVZ and the corresponding human brain region. The rapidly expanding cellular and molecular knowledge of V-SVZ NSC biology provides key insights into postnatal neural development, the origin of brain tumors, and may inform the development regenerative therapies from cultured and endogenous human neural precursors.

  13. The Adult Ventricular-Subventricular Zone (V-SVZ) and Olfactory Bulb (OB) Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel A; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    A large population of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) persists in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located in the walls of the lateral brain ventricles. V-SVZ NSCs produce large numbers of neuroblasts that migrate a long distance into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local circuit interneurons. Here, we review a broad range of discoveries that have emerged from studies of postnatal V-SVZ neurogenesis: the identification of NSCs as a subpopulation of astroglial cells, the neurogenic lineage, new mechanisms of neuronal migration, and molecular regulators of precursor cell proliferation and migration. It has also become evident that V-SVZ NSCs are regionally heterogeneous, with NSCs located in different regions of the ventricle wall generating distinct OB interneuron subtypes. Insights into the developmental origins and molecular mechanisms that underlie the regional specification of V-SVZ NSCs have also begun to emerge. Other recent studies have revealed new cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that enable lifelong neurogenesis in the V-SVZ. Finally, we discuss intriguing differences between the rodent V-SVZ and the corresponding human brain region. The rapidly expanding cellular and molecular knowledge of V-SVZ NSC biology provides key insights into postnatal neural development, the origin of brain tumors, and may inform the development regenerative therapies from cultured and endogenous human neural precursors. PMID:27048191

  14. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants....... The effect of in vivo carcinogen pretreatment was also studied. The explant culture from control untreated animals showed good epithelial differentiation with crypts until 6 weeks. In contrast, the explants from animals pretreated with 4 weekly doses of azoxymethane consistently showed epithelial...

  15. Ventricular synchronicity: observations comparing pulse flow and tissue Doppler assessment in a Chinese healthy adult cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Xin; ZHU Tian-gang; GUO Shi; MA Jian-xin; WANG Xin; GUO Ji-hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Mechanical asynchrony is an important parameter in predicting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy,but detailed knowledge about cardiac timing in healthy persons is scarce.Therefore,in the current study,we sought to investigate the physiological status of interventricular synchronicity using pulse wave flow and tissue Doppler imaging in a healthy Chinese population.Methods Eighty-eight healthy volunteers underwent standard flow and tissue Doppler echocardiographic examinations.Ventricular inflow and outflow pulse wave flow Doppler patterns were recorded together with annulus pulse tissue Doppler imaging.Time intervals from the beginning of the QRS complex to the onset,peak and end of each wave were measured.Results The onsets of systole between left and right ventricles were highly synchronized by both imaging modalities.However,the left ventricle reached the peak flow ejection and peak mechanical contraction earlier than the right ventricle,(165.61±26.23) ms vs.(204.3±34.55) ms (P <0.01) and (133.62±26.19) ms vs.(191.25±38.47) ms (P <0.01).Time to peak early diastolic relaxation was earlier in the left ventricle than in the right heart,(500.23±56.52) me vs.(524.94±47.42) ms (P <0.01).Conclusions Left and right ventricles were well synchronized at the onsets of systole and diastole even though interventricular peak systolic and peak early diastolic dyssynchrony was observed in healthy people by pulse wave Doppler imaging.In addition,diastolic timing events were slightly affected by age and gender.

  16. Comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging features of isolated left ventricular non-compaction in adults versus dilated cardiomyopathy in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H. [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, S., E-mail: cjrzhaoshihua2009@163.com [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Jiang, S.; Lu, M.; Yan, C.; Ling, J.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Q.; Ma, N.; Yin, G.; Wan, J. [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Yang, Y. [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, L. [Department of Pathology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Jerecic, R. [MR Research and Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Chicago, IL (United States); He, Z. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Aim: To compare cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features between isolated left ventricular non-compaction (IVNC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in adults. Materials and methods: A consecutive series of 50 patients with IVNC from a single institution were reviewed. During the same period, 50 patients with DCM who had prominent trabeculations, who were matched for age, gender, and body surface area, were prospectively included. Left ventricular (LV) morphology and function were assessed using cardiac MRI. Results: Compared with patients with DCM, patients with IVNC had a significantly lower LV sphericity index and end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) and a greater LV ejection fraction (LVEF), number of trabeculated segments, and ratio of non-compacted to compacted myocardium (NC/C ratio). There were no significant differences in stroke volume index, cardiac output, and cardiac index between the two patient groups. In patients with IVNC, the number of trabeculated segments and the NC/C ratio correlated positively with LVEDVI (r = 0.626 and r = 0.559, respectively) and negatively with LVEF (r = -0.647 and r = -0.521, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). In patients with DCM, the number of non-compacted segments and the NC/C ratio had no correlation with either the LVEDVI (r = -0.082 and r = -0.135, respectively) or the LVEF (r = 0.097 and r = 0.205, respectively). Conclusion: There are demonstrable morphological and functional differences between IVNC and DCM at LV assessment using cardiac MRI. The occurrence of trabeculated myocardium might be due to a different pathophysiological mechanism.

  17. Análisis ecocardiográfico de la geometría ventricular izquierda en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry the in spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Eduardo M. Escudero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo fue diseñado para analizar ecocardiográficamente la geometría del ventrículo izquierdo en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR. Se estudiaron 114 ratas macho de 4 meses de edad, 73 SHR y 41 Wistar (W a las que se les registró la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardíaca y se les realizó un ecocardiograma. Con las mediciones de diámetros y espesores de la pared ventricular izquierda se calcularon el espesor parietal relativo (h/r, el índice de masa del ventrículo izquierdo (IMVI, el volumen minuto, y el acortamiento medio ventricular. La geometría ventricular izquierda normal fue definida analizando el grupo de ratas normotensas y fijando los límites de IMVI y h/r a partir de la media más 2 desvíos estándar. Los patrones de geometría anormal se definieron como: remodelado concéntrico (RC: IMVI 0.71; hipertrofia excéntrica (HE: IMVI>2.06 mg/g - h/r 2.06 mg/g - h/r > 0.71. La presión arterial sistólica y el volumen minuto se utilizaron para estimar la resistencia periférica total (RPT. Doce por ciento de SHR presentaron geometría ventricular izquierda normal; 18% RC; 33% HC y 37% HE. El RC mostró el volumen latido más pequeño y la RPT más alta de cualquier grupo. HE presentó presión arterial sistólica similar a la de los otros grupos de SHR, volumen latido más alto y la RPT más baja. Estos hallazgos en SHR exhibiendo diferentes patrones de geometría ventricular izquierda, similares a los referidos en humanos, intensifican las similitudes entre la hipertensión esencial humana y las SHR.The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI, relative wall thickness (RWT, stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic

  18. Effects of the venom of the spider Ornithoctonus hainana on neonatal rat ventricular myocytes cellular and ionic electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiya; Liu, Jinyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Meichi; Wang, Jing; Lu, Shanshan; Zhu, Li; Zeng, Xiongzhi; Liang, Songping

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac ion channels are membrane-spanning proteins that allow the passive movement of ions across the cell membrane along its electrochemical gradient, which regulates the resting membrane potential as well as the shape and duration of the cardiac action potential. Additionally, they have been recognized as potential targets for the actions of neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs of cardiac diseases. Spider venoms contain high abundant of toxins that target diverse ion channels and have been considered as a potential resource of new constituents with specific pharmacological properties. However, few peptides from spider venoms were detected as cardiac channel antagonists. In order to explore the effects of the venom of Ornithoctonus hainana on the action potential and ionic currents of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record action potential duration (APD), sodium current (INa), L calcium current (ICaL), rapidly activating and inactivating transient outward currents (Ito1), rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components of the delayed rectifier currents and the inward rectifier currents (IK1). Our results showed that 100 μg/mL venom obviously prolonged APDs. Significantly, the venom could inhibit INa and ICaL effectively, while no evident inhibitory effects on cardiac K(+) channels (Ito1, Iks, Ikr and Ik1) were observed, suggesting that the venom represented a multifaceted pharmacological profile. The effect of venom on Na(+) and Ca(2+) currents of ventricular myocytes revealed that the hainan venom as a rich resource of cardiac channel antagonists might be valuable tools for the investigation of both channels and drug development.

  19. Protective effect of ghrelin on left ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats is associated with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao; ZHU Xiao-ying; LI Meng; BAI Ying-long; HU Jian

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that exogenous ghrelin administration could prevent eady left ventricular remodeling in rats with myocardial infarction.We investigated herein whether ghrelin attenuated left ventricular remodeling induced by hypertension and whether ghrelin's effect was mediated through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ)-dependent pathway.Methods Spontaneously hypertensive rats (8-week-old males) were randomly divided into three groups with 12 rats in each:ghrelin group (received ghrelin 100 μg/kg subcutaneously (sc) twice daily);ghrelin+GW9662 group (received the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 at 2 mg/kg sc,and then ghrelin as above);saline controls.Normal male Wistar Kyoto rats (n=12) served as normal controls.Four weeks later,the effects of ghrelin on cardiac remodeling were evaluated by echocardiographic,hemodynamic,and histopathological examination,and gene expression analysis (PPAR-γ protein and mRNA expression).The serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)αa were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Results Ghrelin prevented ventricular remodeling,increased PPAR-y expression in the myocardium,suppressed collagen I and collagen III mRNA expression,and also decreased the serum levels of TNF-α,but not CRP.All abovementioned effects of ghrelin were inhibited by GW9662.Conclusion Ghrelin inhibited ventricular remodeling induced by hypertension,and the preventive effects of ghrelin may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory actions of the PPAR-y-dependent pathway.

  20. Myocardial impulse propagation is impaired in right ventricular tissue of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Kristine Boisen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular complications including arrhythmias, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. Decreased conduction velocity (CV, which is an independent risk factor for re-entry arrhythmias, is present in models with streptozotocin (STZ induced type 1 diabetes. Whether CV is also disturbed in models of type 2 diabetes is currently unknown. Methods We used Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats, as a model of type 2 diabetes, and their lean controls Zucker Diabetic Lean (ZDL rats to investigate CV and its response to the anti-arrhythmic peptide analogue AAP10. Gap junction remodeling was examined by immunofluorescence and western blotting. Cardiac histomorphometry was examined by Masson`s Trichrome staining and intracellular lipid accumulation was analyzed by Bodipy staining. Results CV was significantly slower in ZDF rats (56±1.9 cm/s compared to non-diabetic controls (ZDL, 66±1.6 cm/s, but AAP10 did not affect CV in either group. The total amount of Connexin43 (C×43 was identical between ZDF and ZDL rats, but the amount of lateralized C×43 was significantly increased in ZDF rats (42±12 % compared to ZDL rats (30±8%, p Conclusion CV is reduced in type 2 diabetic ZDF rats. The CV disturbance may be partly explained by increased lateralization of C×43, but other factors are likely also involved. Our data indicates that lipotoxicity potentially may play a role in development of conduction disturbances and arrhythmias in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Brain ventricular dimensions and relationship to outcome in adult patients with bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporrborn, Janni L; Knudsen, Gertrud B; Sølling, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that changes in brain ventricle size are key events in bacterial meningitis. This study investigated the relationship between ventricle size, clinical condition and risk of poor outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed...... with bacterial meningitis admitted to two departments of infectious diseases from 2003 through 2010 were identified. Clinical and biochemical data as well as cerebral computed tomographic images were collected. The size of the brain ventricles were presented as a Ventricle to Brain Ratio (VBR). Normal range...... changes in size as a consequence of meningitis. Increased brain ventricle size in the acute phase of bacterial meningitis was associated with increased mortality....

  2. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  3. The Protective Effect of MicroRNA-320 on Left Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chun-Li; Liu, Bin; Diao, Hong-Ying; Shi, Yong-Feng; Li, Yang-Xue; Zhang, Ji-Chang; Lu, Yang; WANG, GUAN; Liu, Jia; Yu, Yun-Peng; Guo, Zi-Yuan; Wang, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Zhuo; Liu, Jian-Gen; Liu, Yi-Hang

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study investigated the role of microRNA-320 (miR-320) on left ventricular remodeling in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and we intended to explore the myocardial mechanism of miR-320-mediated myocardium protection. We collected 120 male Wistar rats (240–280 g) in this study and then randomly divided them into three groups: (1) sham surgery group (sham group: n = 40); (2) ischemia-reperfusion model group (I/R group: n = 40); and (3) ...

  4. The Protective Effect of MicroRNA-320 on Left Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Li Song; Bin Liu; Hong-Ying Diao; Yong-Feng Shi; Yang-Xue Li; Ji-Chang Zhang; Yang Lu; Guan Wang; Jia Liu; Yun-Peng Yu; Zi-Yuan Guo; Jin-Peng Wang; Zhuo Zhao; Jian-Gen Liu; Yi-Hang Liu

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study investigated the role of microRNA-320 (miR-320) on left ventricular remodeling in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and we intended to explore the myocardial mechanism of miR-320-mediated myocardium protection. We collected 120 male Wistar rats (240–280 g) in this study and then randomly divided them into three groups: (1) sham surgery group (sham group: n = 40); (2) ischemia-reperfusion model group (I/R group: n = 40); and (3)...

  5. Contextual fear conditioning differs for infant, adolescent, and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmorís-Arranz, Francisco J; Méndez, Cástor; Spear, Norman E

    2008-07-01

    Contextual fear conditioning was tested in infant, adolescent, and adult rats in terms of Pavlovian-conditioned suppression. When a discrete auditory-conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) within the largely olfactory context, infants and adolescents conditioned to the context with substantial effectiveness, but adult rats did not. When unpaired presentations of the CS and US occurred within the context, contextual fear conditioning was strong for adults, weak for infants, but about as strong for adolescents as when pairings of CS and US occurred in the context. Nonreinforced presentations of either the CS or context markedly reduced contextual fear conditioning in infants, but, in adolescents, CS extinction had no effect on contextual fear conditioning, although context extinction significantly reduced it. Neither CS extinction nor context extinction affected responding to the CS-context compound in infants, suggesting striking discrimination between the compound and its components. Female adolescents showed the same lack of effect of component extinction on response to the compound as infants, but CS extinction reduced responding to the compound in adolescent males, a sex difference seen also in adults. Theoretical implications are discussed for the development of perceptual-cognitive processing and hippocampus role.

  6. Differential vascular permeability along the forebrain ventricular neurogenic niche in the adult murine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Castelán, Dannia; Ramírez-Santos, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2016-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis is influenced by blood-borne factors. In this context, greater or lesser vascular permeability along neurogenic niches would expose differentially neural stem cells (NSCs), transit amplifying cells (TACs), and neuroblasts to such factors. Here we evaluate endothelial cell morphology and vascular permeability along the forebrain neurogenic niche in the adult brain. Our results confirm that the subventricular zone (SVZ) contains highly permeable, discontinuous blood vessels, some of which allow the extravasation of molecules larger than those previously reported. In contrast, the rostral migratory stream (RMS) and the olfactory bulb core (OBc) display mostly impermeable, continuous blood vessels. These results imply that NSCs, TACs, and neuroblasts located within the SVZ are exposed more readily to blood-borne molecules, including those with very high molecular weights, than those positioned along the RMS and the OBc, subregions in which every stage of neurogenesis also takes place. These observations suggest that the existence of specialized vascular niches is not a precondition for neurogenesis to occur; specialized vascular beds might be essential for keeping high rates of proliferation and/or differential differentiation of neural precursors located at distinct domains. PMID:26492830

  7. Long-Term Left Ventricular Remodelling in Rat Model of Nonreperfused Myocardial Infarction: Sequential MR Imaging Using a 3T Clinical Scanner

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    Muhammad G. Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate whether 3T clinical MRI with a small-animal coil and gradient-echo (GE sequence could be used to characterize long-term left ventricular remodelling (LVR following nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI using semi-automatic segmentation software (SASS in a rat model. Materials and Methods. 5 healthy rats were used to validate left ventricular mass (LVM measured by MRI with postmortem values. 5 sham and 7 infarcted rats were scanned at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery to allow for functional and structural analysis of the heart. Measurements included ejection fraction (EF, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, and LVM. Changes in different regions of the heart were quantified using wall thickness analyses. Results. LVM validation in healthy rats demonstrated high correlation between MR and postmortem values. Functional assessment at 4 weeks after MI revealed considerable reduction in EF, increases in ESV, EDV, and LVM, and contractile dysfunction in infarcted and noninfarcted regions. Conclusion. Clinical 3T MRI with a small animal coil and GE sequence generated images in a rat heart with adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for successful semiautomatic segmentation to accurately and rapidly evaluate long-term LVR after MI.

  8. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

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    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  9. Some growth factors stimulate cultured adult rabbit ventricular myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. S.; Cook, M. G.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Decker, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Cultured adult rabbit cardiac myocytes treated with recombinant growth factors display enhanced rates of protein accumulation (ie, growth) in response to insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), but epidermal growth factor, acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor failed to increase contractile protein synthesis or growth of the heart cells. Insulin and IGF-1 increased growth rates by stimulating anabolic while simultaneously inhibiting catabolic pathways, whereas IGF-2 elevated growth modestly by apparently inhibiting lysosomal proteolysis. Neutralizing antibodies directed against either IGF-1 or IGF-2 or IGF binding protein 3 blocked protein accumulation. A monoclonal antibody directed against the IGF-1 receptor also inhibited changes in protein turnover provoked by recombinant human IGF-1 but not IGF-2. Of the other growth factors tested, only transforming growth factor-beta 1 increased the fractional rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis, with beta-MHC synthesis being elevated and alpha-MHC synthesis being suppressed. However, the other growth factors were able to modestly stimulate the rate of DNA synthesis in this preparation. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed that these growth factors increased DNA synthesis in myocytes and nonmyocytes alike, but the heart cells displayed neither karyokinesis or cytokinesis. In contrast, cocultures of cardiac myocytes and nonmyocytes and nonmyocyte-conditioned culture medium failed to enhance the rate of cardiac MHC synthesis or its accumulation, implying that quiescent heart cells do not respond to "conditioning" by cardiac nonmyocytes. These findings demonstrated that insulin and the IGFs promote passively loaded cultured adult rabbit heart cells to hypertrophy but suggest that other growth factors tested may be limited in this regard.

  10. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

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    Kuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCsin vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr and DG (approximately 10 Torr were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr. Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  11. Nongenomic steroid action: Inhibiting effects on cell-to-cell communication between rat ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Verrecchia, Franck; Sarrouilhe, Denis; Hervé, Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    Numerous steroids are now believed to possess rapid membrane effects independent of the classical gene activation pathways and are potent modulators of membrane proteins, including voltage-and ligand-operated channels. The effects of steroids on the functional state of the intercellular channels clustered in gap junctions were compared by estimation of either the permeability for a fluorescent dye or the electrical conductance in cardiac myocytes of newborn rat. At 25 μM, the esters of 17β-es...

  12. Prevalence and determinants of anemia in adults with complex congenital heart disease and ventricular dysfunction (subaortic right ventricle and single ventricle physiology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nicholas; Piran, Sanaz; Harrison, Jeanine; Azevedo, Eduardo; Oechslin, Erwin; Silversides, Candice K

    2008-09-01

    Anemia is well recognized as a marker of poor prognosis in patients with acquired heart disease and heart failure. Adults with complex congenital heart disease and ventricular dysfunction (subaortic right ventricle or single-ventricle physiology) represent a different population, because they are typically much younger and have less co-morbidity compared with patients with acquired forms of heart disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anemia in this population. Baseline hemoglobin levels were recorded at the time of the initial clinic visit, and final hemoglobin levels were those recorded before death or transplantation or at study completion. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin complex congenital heart disease and ventricular dysfunction, in particular those with Fontan physiology.

  13. Relation of fragmented QRS complex to right ventricular fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance in adults with repaired tetralogy of fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Seung Woo; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Kang, I-Seok; Lee, Heung Jae; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Huh, June

    2012-01-01

    Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on 12-lead electrocardiography reflects conduction delay caused by myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction. Ventricular fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is reportedly correlated with worse clinical outcomes in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of fQRS is associated with right ventricular (RV) fibrosis or dysfunction in this patient group. In 37 consecutive patients (median age 30 years, median age at repair 6.6 years), the number of leads showing fQRS, defined as the presence of >2 notches on the R/S wave in ≥2 contiguous leads, was counted. RV systolic function, dilatation, and LGE score were measured using LGE CMR. Ventricular LGE was observed mainly at the previous surgical sites: the RV outflow tract (33 of 37), ventricular septal defect patch region (15 of 37), and RV anterior wall (11 of 37). Fragmented QRS was found mostly in the right and mid precordial leads. The fQRS group (n = 20) demonstrated higher RV LGE scores (p <0.001) and lower RV ejection fractions (p = 0.02) and a trend toward larger RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (p = 0.12 and p = 0.06, respectively) compared to the non-fQRS group (n = 17). The number of electrocardiographic leads showing fQRS was positively correlated with RV LGE score (r = 0.75, p <0.001). The presence of fQRS remained independently associated with the presence of supramedian RV LGE score, even after adjusting for relevant parameters. In conclusion, fQRS was closely associated with more extensive RV fibrosis and dysfunction in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

  14. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  15. Effects of Metformin Intra Ventricular Injection on Learning and Spatial Memory in Streptozotocin Rat Model of Alzheimer\\\\\\'s Disease

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    L Ghasemi Abhari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Insulin and its receptor are located in the central nervous system where it regulates many important processes such as neural proliferation, apoptosis, synaptic transmission, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ plaques, and intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein. Currently there is widening recognition that AD is closely associated with impaired insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in brain, suggesting it to be a brain-specific form of diabetes and so also termed as "type 3 diabetes". Insulin has been shown to affect both Aβ levels and Tau phosphorylation. Experimental evidence suggests a link between type 2 diabetes and AD. Insulin modulates metabolism of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP in neurons, decreasing the intracellular accumulation of Aβ. Therefore investigating the role of agents that could improve neuronal insulin resistance merit attention in AD therapeutics. In present study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of intra ventricular injection of metformin on spatial learning and memory of streptozotocin(STZ Rat Model of AD Materials and Methods: 48 Female wistar rate (200-250gr were divided into 6 groups(n=6: control, STZ, STZ+Salin(5ul, STZ+Metformin(50,100,200ug/kg, i.c.v. for 10 day. For induction of AD, STZ (3 mg/kg, i.c.v, 10 μl each were administered bilaterally into latral ventricles. All rates were tested spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze. Results : We observed that pre-training microinjection of Metformin in to lateral ventricle for 10 day improves spatial learning and memory in STZ Rat Model of AD in a dose dependent manner, so that rats of these groups found platform in less time and with less distance traveled, in comparison with STZ+Salin group, in the radial maze. Conclusion: The results demonstrate possible

  16. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiao, Jun [Department of Cardiology, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, Chongqing (China); Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiu, Yun [Institute of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); She, Qiang [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-17

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (I{sub to}) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of I{sub to} was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated I{sub to} reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced I{sub to} of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM.

  17. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (Ito) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg−1·day−1). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of Ito was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated Ito reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced Ito of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM

  18. Enhancement of contraction and L-type Ca(2+) current by murrayafoline-A via protein kinase C in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidipi, Bojjibabu; Son, Min-Jeong; Kim, Joon-Chul; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Toan, Tran Quoc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Lee, Byung Ho; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that murrayafoline-A (1-methoxy-3-methyl-9H-carbazole, Mu-A) increases the contractility of ventricular myocytes, in part, via enhancing Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels, and that it increases the Ca(2+) transients by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we further examined the cellular mechanisms for the enhancement of contractility and L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) by Mu-A. Cell shortening and ICa,L were measured in rat ventricular myocytes using a video edge detection method and perforated patch-clamp technique, respectively. We found that the positive inotropic effect of Mu-A was not affected by pre-exposure to the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors KT5720 or H-89, or the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Interestingly, the Mu-A-mediated increases in cell shortening and in the rate of contraction were completely suppressed by pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. The stimulatory effect of Mu-A on ICa,L was not altered by inhibition of PKA (KT5720), G-protein coupled receptors (suramin), or α1-adrenoceptor (prazosin). However, pre-exposure to the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X or chelerythrine, abolished the Mu-A-induced increase in ICa,L. Pre-exposure to the Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN93 slightly reduced the stimulatory effects on contraction and ICa,L by Mu-A. Phosphorylation of PKC was enhanced by Mu-A in ventricular myocytes. These data suggest that Mu-A increases contraction and ICa,L via PKC in rat ventricular myocytes, and that the PKC-mediated responses in the presence of Mu-A may be partly mediated by CaMKII.

  19. Are there gender differences in left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Serra, Andrey Jorge; dos Santos, Alexandra Alberta; Vieira, Stella Sousa; Silva, Jairo Montemor Augusto; Yoshizaki, Amanda; Sofia, Renato Rodrigues; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective An unclear issue is whether gender may influence at cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated left ventricle remodeling in female and male rats post-MI. Methods Rats were submitted to anterior descending coronary occlusion. Echocardiographic evaluations were performed on the first and sixth week post-occlusion to determine myocardial infarction size and left ventricle systolic function (FAC, fractional area change). Pulsed Doppler was applied to analyze left ventricle diastolic function using the following parameters: E wave, A wave, E/A ratio. Two-way ANOVA was applied for comparisons, complemented by the Bonferroni test. A P≤=0.05 was considered significant. Results There were no significant differences between genders for morphometric parameters on first (MI [Female (FE): 44.0±5.0 vs. Male (MA): 42.0±3.0%]; diastolic [FE: 0.04±0.003 vs. MA: 0.037±0.005, mm/g] and systolic [FE: 0.03±0.0004 vs. MA: 0.028±0.005, mm/g] diameters of left ventricle) and sixth (MI [FE: 44.0±5.0 vs. MA: 42.0±3.0, %]; diastolic [FE: 0.043±0.01 vs. MA: 0.034±0.005, mm/g] and systolic [FE: 0.035±0.01 vs. MA: 0.027±0.005, mm/g] of LV) week. Similar findings were reported for left ventricle functional parameters on first (FAC [FE: 34.0±6.0 vs. MA: 32.0±4.0, %]; wave E [FE: 70.0±18.0 vs. MA: 73.0±14.0, cm/s]; wave A [FE: 20.0±12.0 vs. MA: 28.0±13.0, cm/s]; E/A [FE: 4.9±3.4 vs. MA: 3.3±1.8]) and sixth (FAC [FE: 29.0±7.0 vs. MA: 31.0±7.0, %]; wave E [FE: 85.0±18.0 vs. MA: 87.0±20.0, cm/s]; wave A [FE: 20.0±11.0 vs. MA: 28.0±17.0, cm/s]; E/A [FE: 6.2±4.0 vs. MA: 4.6±3.4]) week. Conclusion Gender does not influence left ventricle remodeling post-MI in rats. PMID:25859870

  20. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  1. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF LOSARTAN, ENALAPRIL AND THEIR COMBINATION IN THE PREVENTION OF LEFT VENTRICULAR REMODELING AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨跃进; 张沛; 阮英茆; 宋来凤; 徐新林; 李永利; 周燕文; 田毅; 徐义枢; 陈在嘉

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effects of losartan, enalapril and their combination in the prevention ofleft ventricular remodeling (LVRM) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the rat. Methods. AMI model was induced in female SD rats by ligating left coronary artery. Forty-eight hours after the procedure, 83 surviving rats were randomized into one of the following 4 groups: 1 ) AMI control group (n =19), 2) losartan group (n= 22, 3 mg @ kg - 1 @ d - 1 ), 3 ) enalapril group (n = 20, 1 mg @ kg - 1 @ d - 1 ), 4) losartan - enalapril combinative group (n = 22, 3 and 1 mg @ kg- 1 @ d - 1 respectively). 5 ) sham-operated group ( n =10) and 6) normal rats group (n = 10) were selected randomly to serve as non-infarction controls. Losartan and enalapril were delivered by direct gastric gavage. After 4 weeks of medical therapy, hemodynamic studies were performed in each group, then the rat hearts were fixed with 10% formalin and pathologic analysis on them was performed. Complete experimental data was obtained in 56 rats, comprising 1 ) AMI controls (n = 11 ), 2) losartan group (n = 10), 3 ) enalapril group (n = 10), 4) the combination of losartan and enalapril group (n = 11 ),5) sham - operated group (n = 6) and 6) normal controls (n=8). Results. There were no significant differences among the 4 AMI groups in MI size (41.7% ~ 43.4%, all P> 0.05). Compared with sham group, the left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), volume (LVV), long and short axis length (L and D), as well as LV absolute and relative weight (LVAW and LVRW)in AMI group were all significantly increased ( P <0.05 ~ 0. 001 ); whereas the maximum left ventricular pressure rising and droping rates ( + dp/dt) and their corrected values by LV systolic pressure ( + dp/dt/LVSP)were significantly reduced (all P <0.001 ), indicating LVRM occurred and LV systolic and diastolic function impaired after AMI. Compared with AMI group , LVEDP, LVV, LVAW and LVRW were all significantly decreased (P

  2. Tong-xin-luo capsule inhibits left ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats by enhancing PPAR-γexpression and suppressing NF-κKB activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Pei-li; ZHAO Xue-qiang; WANG Li-ling; ZHAO Yu-xia; LI Chuan-bao; ZHANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Tong-xin-luo capsule(TXL),used as a traditional Chinese herb,offeres a therapeutic potential for treatment of cardiovascular diseases.It has been shown to exert a variety of pharmacological effects,including antihypertensiVe effects,and is able to improve ventricular remodeling.However,the mechanisms of its action are not completely understood.The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of Tong-xin-luo capsule on left ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods Sixteen eight-week-old SHRs were randomized into an SHR group(n=8)and a TXL group(n=8)that were given Tong-xin-luo capsule(1.5 mg·kg-1·d-1).Eight Wistar Kyoto(WKY)rats fed with 0.9%NaCl served as the control group(WKY group).Systolic blood pressure(BP),body weight and heart rate were monitored once every two weeks.Ventricular remodeling was detected by hjstopathological examination.Nuclear factor kappa B P65(NF-κB P65)and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ(PPAR-γ)protein and phosphorylated inhibitor kappa α(IκBα)protein were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot respectively.The physical interaction of the P65-P50 heterodimer with IκBα and NF-κB were measured by co-immunoprecipitation.PPAR-Y mRNA,collagen Ⅰ mRNA and collagenⅢ mHNA were measured by real-time PCR.Results TXL inhibited NF-κKB P65 expression and ventricular remodeling and suppressed the activation of NF-κB compared with the SHR group(P<0.01,P<0.05).TXL reduced IκBα phosphorylation,increased expression of PPAR-Yprotein and enhanced the physical interaction of the P65-P50 heterodimer with IκBα.The mRNA expression of PPAR-γwas enhanced but the mRNA expression of collagen Ⅰ mRNA and collagen Ⅲ mRNA were suppressed by TXL.Conclusions In spontaneously hypertensive rats,TXL could inhibit ventricular remodeling induced by hypertension,and the inhibitory effect might be associated with the process of TXL increasing the expression of PPAR-γ that

  3. Role of SERCA and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content on calcium waves propagation in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Cantú, Ayleen; Pérez-Treviño, Perla; Montalvo-Parra, Dolores; Balderas-Villalobos, Jaime; Gómez-Víquez, Norma L; García, Noemí; Altamirano, Julio

    2016-08-15

    In Ca(2+)-overloaded ventricular myocytes, SERCA is crucial to steadily achieve the critical sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) level to trigger and sustain Ca(2+) waves, that propagate at constant rate (ʋwave). High luminal Ca(2+) sensitizes RyR2, thereby increasing Ca(2+) sparks frequency, and the larger RyR2-mediated SR Ca(2+) flux (dF/dt) sequentially activates adjacent RyR2 clusters. Recently, it was proposed that rapid SERCA Ca(2+) reuptake, ahead of the wave front, further sensitizes RyR2, increasing ʋwave. Nevertheless, this is controversial because rapid cytosolic Ca(2+) removal could instead impair RyR2 activation. We assessed whether rapid SR Ca(2+) uptake enhances ʋwave by changing SERCA activity (ҡDecay) over a large range (∼175%). We used normal (Ctrl) and hyperthyroid rat (HT; reduced phospholamban by ∼80%) myocytes treated with thapsigargin or isoproterenol (ISO). We found that ʋwave and dF/dt had a non-linear dependency with ҡDecay, while Ca(2+) waves amplitude was largely unaffected. Furthermore, SR Ca(2+) also showed a non-linear dependency with ҡDecay, however, the relationships ʋwave vs. SR Ca(2+) and ʋwave vs. dF/dt were linear, suggesting that high steady state SR Ca(2+) determines ʋwave, while rapid SERCA Ca(2+) uptake does not. Finally, ISO did not increase ʋwave in HT cells, therefore, ISO-enhanced ʋwave in Ctrl depended on high SR Ca(2+). PMID:27242324

  4. Simultaneous recording of ATP-sensitive K+ current and intracellular Ca2+ in anoxic rat ventricular myocytes. Effects of glibenclamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, U; Englert, H; Schölkens, B A; Gögelein, H

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the temporal relationship between the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K current (KATP current), hypoxic shortening and Ca accumulation in cardiomyocytes exposed to anoxia or metabolic inhibition. Whole-cell, patch-clamp experiments were performed with nonstimulated isolated rat heart ventricular muscle cells loaded with the Ca-sensitive fluorescent dye 1-[2-(5-carboxyoxazol-2-yl)-6-aminobenzofuran-5-oxy]-2-(2'- amino-5'-methylphenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (fura-2) via the patch pipette. After approximately 8 min anoxia, the KATP current started to rise and reached a maximum of 21.3 +/- 3.7 nA (n = 5, recorded at 0 mV clamp potential) within 1-3 min. At that time hypoxic contracture also occurred. Resting cytoplasmic free calcium (Cai) did not change significantly before hypoxic shortening. After hypoxic contracture, the KATP current decreased and Cai started to rise, reaching about 1 micromol/l. The presence of glibenclamide (10 micromol/l) in the bath reduced the anoxia-induced KATP current by more than 50%, but did not significantly influence the time dependence of current, hypoxic shortening and Cai, or the magnitude of Cai. Metabolic inhibition with 1.5 mmol/l CN resulted in KATP current increase and hypoxic shortening, occurring somewhat earlier than under anoxia, but all other parameters were comparable. In non-patch-clamped cells loaded with fura-2 AM ester and field-stimulated with 1 Hz, 1 micronol/l glibenclamide had no significant effect on the magnitude of the Cai increase caused by exposure of the cells to 1.5 mmol/l CN-. After CN- wash-out in non-patch-clamped cells, Cai declined, oscillated and finally returned to control values. It can be concluded that glibenclamide inhibits anoxia-induced KATP currents only partially and has no significant effect on anoxia-induced rise in resting Cai.

  5. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2006-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for seven days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or...

  6. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  7. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  8. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  9. Intravenous glial growth factor 2 (GGF2 isoform of neuregulin-1β improves left ventricular function, gene and protein expression in rats after myocardial infarction.

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    Michael F Hill

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recombinant Neuregulin (NRG-1β has multiple beneficial effects on cardiac myocytes in culture, and has potential as a clinical therapy for heart failure (HF. A number of factors may influence the effect of NRG-1β on cardiac function via ErbB receptor coupling and expression. We examined the effect of the NRG-1β isoform, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2, in rats with myocardial infarction (MI and determined the impact of high-fat diet as well as chronicity of disease on GGF2 induced improvement in left ventricular systolic function. Potential mechanisms for GGF2 effects on the remote myocardium were explored using microarray and proteomic analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats with MI were randomized to receive vehicle, 0.625 mg/kg, or 3.25 mg/kg GGF2 in the presence and absence of high-fat feeding beginning at day 7 post-MI and continuing for 4 weeks. Residual left ventricular (LV function was improved in both of the GGF2 treatment groups compared with the vehicle treated MI group at 4 weeks of treatment as assessed by echocardiography. High-fat diet did not prevent the effects of high dose GGF2. In experiments where treatment was delayed until 8 weeks after MI, high but not low dose GGF2 treatment was associated with improved systolic function. mRNA and protein expression analysis of remote left ventricular tissue revealed a number of changes in myocardial gene and protein expression altered by MI that were normalized by GGF2 treatment, many of which are involved in energy production. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that in rats with MI induced systolic dysfunction, GGF2 treatment improves cardiac function. There are differences in sensitivity of the myocardium to GGF2 effects when administered early vs. late post-MI that may be important to consider in the development of GGF2 in humans.

  10. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats

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    Meng-meng LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of peripheraltissueinjury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats. Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28days after birth were selected in thepresent study(4litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter.Each litter of rats was randomly divided intoinjury group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venomand control group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline, with20 in each group, and then raised for 2 months to adulthood. The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTLand paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT, then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat, and the changesinpa in reaction and pain threshold were determined. Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at1,4,7and14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P0.05.Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult ratsinjected with normal saline4-21days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesiain adult rats compared with control group(P<0.01. Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivityin adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity. The 21st day maybe a key time point of nervous system development in rats.

  11. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  12. Pharmacological profile of the ATP-mediated increase in L-type calcium current amplitude and activation of a non-specific cationic current in rat ventricular cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Scamps, F.; Vassort, G

    1994-01-01

    1. The pharmacological profile of the ATP-induced increase in ICa amplitude and of ATP activation of a non-specific cationic current, IATP, was investigated in rat ventricular cells. 2. The EC50 values for ICa increase and IATP activation were 0.36 microM and 0.76 microM respectively. Suramin (10 microM) and cibacron blue (1 microM) competitively antagonized both effects of ATP. 3. The rank order of efficacy and potency of ATP analogues in increasing ICa amplitude was 2-methylthio-ATP approxi...

  13. Effects of Long-term Ramipril on Ventricular Remodeling, Cardiac Function and Survival in Rat Congestive Heart Failure after Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶则伟; 黄元伟

    2004-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term ramipril on ventricular remodeling, cardiac function and survival in rat congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction. Methods Myocardial infarction (MI) was caused by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in rats. 7 days after the surgery, the surviving rats were randomly assigned to the following treatment protocols: 1) MI rats with no therapy, 2) MI rats treated with ramipril 3 mg/kg per day, 3) Sham-operated control rats, and 4) Sham-operated rats treated with ramipril 3 mg/kg per day. At 22 weeks, cardiac hemodynamic parameters such as MAP, LVSP, ±dP/dtmax and LVEDP were measured,and cardiac morphometric parameters such as HW,LVW and LVCA were measured, mRNA of cardiacmolecule genes, such as βMHC, BNP, collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ, and TGF-β1, were quantified, and survival rates were calculated. Results Compared with sham-operated rats, MI rats without therapy showed significant increases in cardiac morphological parameters as well as in mRAN expressions of cardiac molecule genes (P<0.01); while their hemodynamic parameters were significantly impaired (P<0.01), and survival rate shortened (P<0.05). Compared with MI rats with no therapy, MI rats treated with ramipril showed significant attenuation of mRAN expressions of cardiac molecule genes (P<0.01); while their hemodynamic parameters were significantly impaired (P<0.01), and survival rate shortened (P<0.05). Compared with MI rats with no therapy, MI rats treated with ramipril showed significant attenuation of mRAN expressions of cardiac molecule genes (P<0.01); while their hemodynamic parameters were significantly improved (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and survival rates prolonged (P<0.05). Conclusions Treatment with long-term ramipril may improve LV remodeling, cardiac function and survival in rat congestive heart failure after MI.

  14. Computational analysis of the regulation of Ca2+ dynamics in rat ventricular myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugenhagen, Scott M.; Beard, Daniel A.

    2015-10-01

    Force-frequency relationships of isolated cardiac myocytes show complex behaviors that are thought to be specific to both the species and the conditions associated with the experimental preparation. Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in shaping the force-frequency relationship, and understanding the properties of the force-frequency relationship in vivo requires an understanding of Ca2+ dynamics under physiologically relevant conditions. Ca2+ signaling is itself a complicated process that is best understood on a quantitative level via biophysically based computational simulation. Although a large number of models are available in the literature, the models are often a conglomeration of components parameterized to data of incompatible species and/or experimental conditions. In addition, few models account for modulation of Ca2+ dynamics via β-adrenergic and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathways even though they are hypothesized to play an important regulatory role in vivo. Both protein-kinase-A and CaMKII are known to phosphorylate a variety of targets known to be involved in Ca2+ signaling, but the effects of these pathways on the frequency- and inotrope-dependence of Ca2+ dynamics are not currently well understood. In order to better understand Ca2+ dynamics under physiological conditions relevant to rat, a previous computational model is adapted and re-parameterized to a self-consistent dataset obtained under physiological temperature and pacing frequency and updated to include β-adrenergic and CaMKII regulatory pathways. The necessity of specific effector mechanisms of these pathways in capturing inotrope- and frequency-dependence of the data is tested by attempting to fit the data while including and/or excluding those effector components. We find that: (1) β-adrenergic-mediated phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel (LCC) (and not of phospholamban (PLB)) is sufficient to explain the inotrope-dependence; and (2) that

  15. High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulthinee Supaporn; Wyss J Michael; Jirakulsomchok Dusit; Roysommuti Sanya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine dep...

  16. Association of coronary to left ventricular microfistulae (vessels of Wearn) with atrial septal defect in an adult without cyanotic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Munem; Roberts, Elved Bryn

    2015-07-02

    Vessels of Wearn are rare findings during coronary angiography in adults. They are known to be associated with forms of cyanotic congenital heart disease in infants but we are not aware of any published cases of association with non-cyanotic left to right shunts in adults. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with angiographically evident vessels of Wearn draining from the left and right coronary arteries into the left ventricle associated with an asymptomatic atrial septal defect. We postulate a developmental phase association between atrial septal maturation and closure of perfusing microchannels from the ventricular cavities to the epicardial coronary arteries on the same spectrum as that which leads to more widespread defects in infants. We also highlight a common medication side effect that might have been mistaken as a manifestation of the congenital anomalies.

  17. Effect of Exercise Training and L-arginine on Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Function in the Post-ischemic Failing Rat Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Nazem, Farzad; Nazari, Afshin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training (ET) and L-arginine on oxidative stress and ventricular function in rat with myocardial infarction (MI). Four weeks after the surgical procedures, 40 Wistar male rats were randomized to the following groups: MI-sedentary (Sed); MI-exercise (Ex); MI-sedentary + L-arginine (Sed + LA); and MI-exercise + L-arginine (Ex + LA); the rats were subjected to aerobic training in the form of treadmill running. Rats in the L-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % L-arginine. Before and after the training program, all subjects underwent resting echocardiography. Catalase (CAT) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. Cardiac output, stroke volume and fractional shortening in Ex and Ex + LA groups significantly increased in comparison with the Sed group. Cardiac systolic function indices in Ex + LA group were significantly greater than Ex group. Also, GPx activity and MDA, respectively, increased and decreased in response to ET, but no change was observed in MPO and CAT. These results suggest that ET increased LV function by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant defense system in rats with MI. In addition in response to training, L-arginine appears to have additive effect on cardiac function, but have no effect on oxidative stress indices. PMID:25762197

  18. The Protective Effect of MicroRNA-320 on Left Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat Model

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    Chun-Li Song

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study investigated the role of microRNA-320 (miR-320 on left ventricular remodeling in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury, and we intended to explore the myocardial mechanism of miR-320-mediated myocardium protection. We collected 120 male Wistar rats (240–280 g in this study and then randomly divided them into three groups: (1 sham surgery group (sham group: n = 40; (2 ischemia-reperfusion model group (I/R group: n = 40; and (3 I/R model with antagomir-320 group (I/R + antagomir-320 group: n = 40. Value changes of heart function in transesophageal echocardiography were recorded at various time points (day 1, day 3, day 7, day 15 and day 30 after surgery in each group. Myocardial sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and examined with optical microscope. The degree of myocardial fibrosis was assessed by Sirius Red staining. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL and qRT-PCR methods were used to measure the apoptosis rate and to determine the miR-320 expression levels in myocardial tissues. Transesophageal echocardiography showed that the values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP and ±dp/dtmax in the I/R group were obviously lower than those in the sham group, while the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP value was higher than that in the sham group. The values of LVEF, LVFS, LVSP and ±dp/dtmax showed a gradual decrease in the I/R group, while the LVEDP value showed an up tendency along with the extension of reperfusion time. The H&E staining revealed that rat myocardial tissue in the I/R group presented extensive myocardial damage; for the I/R + antagomir-320 group, however, the degree of damage in myocardial cells was obviously better than that of the I/R group. The Sirius Red staining results showed that the degree of myocardial fibrosis in the I/R group was more

  19. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

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    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  20. Recombinant human growth hormone secreted from tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle improves left ventricular function in rat with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Shu-ling; WANG Yong-jin; WANG Xiao-lin; LU Yong-xin; CHANG Chao; WANG Feng-zhi; LIU Qi-yun; LIU Xiang-yang; GAO Yan-zhang; MI Shao-hua

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental studies and preliminary clinical studies have suggested that growth hormone (GH) treatment may improve cardiovascular parameters in chronic heart failure (CHF). Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been delivered by a recombinant protein, by plasmid DNA, and by genetically engineered cells with different pharmacokinetic and physiological properties. The present study aimed to examine a new method for delivery of rhGH using genetically modified bioartificial muscles (BAMs), and investigate whether the rhGH delivered by this technique improves left ventricular (LV) function in rats with CHF.Methods Primary skeletal myoblasts were isolated from several Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, cultured, purified, and retrovirally transduced to synthesize and secrete human rhGH, and tissue-engineered into implantable BAMs. Ligation of the left coronary artery or sham operation was performed. The rats that underwent ligation were randomly assigned to 2 groups: CHF control group (n=6) and CHF treatment group (n=6). The CHF control group received non-rhGH-secreting BAM (GFP-BAMs) transplantation, and the CHF treatment group received rhGH-secreting BAM (GH-BAMs) transplantation. Another group of rats served as the sham operation group, which was also randomly assigned to 2 subgroups: sham control group (n=6) and sham treatment group (n=6). The sham control group underwent GFP-BAM transplantation, and the sham treatment group underwent GH-BAM transplantation. GH-BAMs and GFP-BAMs were implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic rats with ligaUon of the left coronary artery or sham operation was performed. Eight weeks after the treatment,echocardiography was performed, hGH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and TNF-a levels in rat serum were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA, and then the rats were killed and ventricular samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry. Results Primary rat myoblasts were retrovirally transduced to secrete rhGH and tissue-engineered into

  1. The proteome of neural stem cells from adult rat hippocampus

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    Fütterer Carsten D

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hippocampal neural stem cells (HNSC play an important role in cerebral plasticity in the adult brain and may contribute to tissue repair in neurological disease. To describe their biological potential with regard to plasticity, proliferation, or differentiation, it is important to know the cellular composition of their proteins, subsumed by the term proteome. Results Here, we present for the first time a proteomic database for HNSC isolated from the brains of adult rats and cultured for 10 weeks. Cytosolic proteins were extracted and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification through mass spectrometry, database search, and gel matching. We could map about 1141 ± 209 (N = 5 protein spots for each gel, of which 266 could be identified. We could group the identified proteins into several functional categories including metabolism, protein folding, energy metabolism and cellular respiration, as well as cytoskeleton, Ca2+ signaling pathways, cell cycle regulation, proteasome and protein degradation. We also found proteins belonging to detoxification, neurotransmitter metabolism, intracellular signaling pathways, and regulation of DNA transcription and RNA processing. Conclusions The HNSC proteome database is a useful inventory which will allow to specify changes in the cellular protein expression pattern due to specific activated or suppressed pathways during differentiation or proliferation of neural stem cells. Several proteins could be identified in the HNSC proteome which are related to differentiation and plasticity, indicating activated functional pathways. Moreover, we found a protein for which no expression has been described in brain cells before.

  2. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  3. Primary culture of adult rat liver cells. I. Preparation of isolated cells from trypsin-perfused liver of adult rat

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    Miyazaki,Masahiro

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolated hepatic cells from adult rats were prepared by perfusing the livers with trypsin. The highest yield of viable cells was obtained by perfusing the liver with 0.1% trypsin, pH 7.0, at 37 degrees C for 30 min. Following this treatment about 70% of cells excluded trypan blue. The isolated cells contained many binucleate cells. Between 60 and 70% of DNA present originally in the liver was recovered from the isolated hepatic cells, which had higher glucose 6-phosphatase activity than the liver. Thus the resulting cell population seems to be rich in hepatocytes. The isolated hepatic cells, however, lost some of their cellular proteins such as alanine and tyrosine amino-transferases. It was suggested that the membranes of isolated hepatic cells might be damaged by both enzymatic digestion and mechanical destruction.

  4. Upregulation of the kappa opioidergic system in left ventricular rat myocardium in response to volume overload: Adaptive changes of the cardiac kappa opioid system in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskatsch, Sascha; Shaqura, Mohammed; Dehe, Lukas; Feldheiser, Aarne; Roepke, Torsten K; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Spies, Claudia D; Schäfer, Michael; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2015-12-01

    Opioids have long been known for their analgesic effects and are therefore widely used in anesthesia and intensive care medicine. However, in the last decade research has focused on the opioidergic influence on cardiovascular function. This project thus aimed to detect the precise cellular localization of kappa opioid receptors (KOR) in left ventricular cardiomyocytes and to investigate putative changes in KOR and its endogenous ligand precursor peptide prodynorphin (PDYN) in response to heart failure. After IRB approval, heart failure was induced using a modified infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF) in male Wistar rats. All rats of the control and ACF group were characterized by their morphometrics and hemodynamics. In addition, the existence and localization as well as adaptive changes of KOR and PDYN were investigated using radioligand binding, double immunofluorescence confocal analysis, RT-PCR and Western blot. Similar to the brain and spinal cord, [(3)H]U-69593 KOR selective binding sites were detected the left ventricle (LV). KOR colocalized with Cav1.2 of the outer plasma membrane and invaginated T-tubules and intracellular with the ryanodine receptor of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum. Interestingly, KOR could also be detected in mitochondria of rat LV cardiomyocytes. As a consequence of heart failure, KOR and PDYN were up-regulated on the mRNA and protein level in the LV. These findings suggest that the cardiac kappa opioidergic system might modulate rat cardiomyocyte function during heart failure.

  5. Padrão de remodelação e função ventricular em ratos expostos à fumaça do cigarro Estándar de remodelación y función ventricular en ratones expuestos al humo del cigarrillo Remodeling pattern and ventricular function in rats exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Azevedo

    2010-02-01

    concéntrica (índice de masa aumentado y espesor relativo aumentado y hipertrofia excéntrica (índice de masa aumentado y espesor relativo normal. RESULTADOS: Los ratos fumadores presentaron uno de los cuatro estándares de geometría: estándar normal, el 51%; hipertrofia excéntrica: el 32%; hipertrofia concéntrica, el 13% y remodelación concéntrica, el 4%. Los grupos normal e hipertrofia excéntrica presentaron menores valores de fracción de eyección y porcentaje de acortamiento que el grupo hipertrofia concéntrica. Trece animales (28% presentaron disfunción sistólica, detectada por la fracción de eyección y por el porcentaje de acortamiento. En el análisis de regresión univariado, los estándares de geometría y el índice de masa no fueron factor de predicción de disfunción ventricular (p > 0,05. Por otro lado, el aumento del espesor relativo de la pared fue factor de predicción de disfunción ventricular en el análisis univariado (p BACKGROUND: The relevance of the remodeling pattern in the model of rats exposed to cigarette smoke is not known. OBJECTIVE: Analyzing the presence of different remodeling patterns in this model and its relation with the ventricular function. METHODS: Smoking rats (n=47 have been divided according to the geometry pattern, analyzed by echocardiogram: normal (normal mass index and normal relative wall thickness, concentric remodeling (normal mass index and increased relative wall thickness, concentric hypertrophy (increased mass index and increased relative wall thickness and eccentric hypertrophy (increased mass index and normal relative wall thickness. RESULTS: Smoking rats presented one of the following geometry patterns: normal pattern, 51%; eccentric hypertrophy; 32%; concentric hypertrophy, 13% and concentric remodeling, 4%. The normal and eccentric hypertrophy groups presented smaller ejection fraction values and fractional shortening than the concentric hypertrophy group. Thirteen animals (28% presented

  6. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  7. Systemic physiology and neuroapoptotic profiles in young and adult rats exposed to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Rami Mossad; Krammer, Caspar Weel; Hansen, Tom Giedsing;

    2015-01-01

    neuroapoptosis as well as systemic homeostasis. Here we explored this possibility by performing dorsal skin flap surgery in young and adult rats under four distinct currently used anaesthesia regimens. METHODS: Young (21-days) and adult (2 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 150min exposure...... in experimental groups receiving dexmedetomidine, while propofol administration was associated with increased systemic lactate levels and metabolic acidosis. A substantial difference in anaesthesia/surgery-induced neuroapoptosis was found between young and adult rats in several brain regions. Combination...... and adult spontaneously breathing rats undergoing surgery. These observations further enlighten the need for detailed physiological monitoring under these experimental conditions. Although some statistically significant differences in activated caspase-3 profiles were detected between experimental groups...

  8. Influences of olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 陈燕涛; 程志安

    2002-01-01

    To observe whether olfactory ensheathing cells could be used to promote axonal regeneration in a spontaneously nonregenerating system. Methods: After laminectomy at the lower thoracic level, the spinal cords of adult rats were exposed and completely transected at T10. A suspension of ensheathing cells was injected into the lesion site in 12 adult rats, and control D/F-12 (1∶1 mixture of DMEM and Hams F-12) was injected in 12 adult rats. Six weeks and ten weeks after cell transplantation, the rats were evaluated by climbing test and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring. The samples were procured and studied with histologicl and immunohistochemical methods. Results: At the 6th week after cell transplantation, all the rats in both the transplanted and control groups were paraplegic and the MEPs could not be recorded. At the 10th week after cell transplantation, of 7 rats in the control group, 2 rats had muscles contraction of the lower extremities, 2 rats had hips and/or knees active movement; and 5 rats MEPs could be recorded in the hind limbs in the transplanted group (n=7). None of the rats in the control group had functional improvement and no MEPs recorded (n=7). Numerous regenerating axons were observed through the transplantation and continued to regenerate into the denervated host tract. Cell labelling using anti-Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (anti-NGFR) indicated that the regenerated axons were derived from the appropriate neuronal source and that donor cells migrated into the denervated host tract. But axonal degeneration existed and regenerating axons were not observed within the spinal cords of the adult rats with only D/F-12 injection. Conclusions: The axonal regeneration in the transected adult rat spinal cord is possible after ensheathing cells transplantation.

  9. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) presenting with ventricular fibrillation in an adult: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Helqvist, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly. The usual clinical course is severe left sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. However, in some cases collateral blood supply from...... the right coronary artery is sufficient and symptoms may be subtle or even absent. Arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death in adult life may be the first clinical presentation in patients with ALCAPA. We report a case, where a 39-year old woman presented with ventricular fibrillation during phycial exertion....... Coronary angiography and CT-angiography revealed an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery, and an aortic reimplantation of the left coronary artery was performed followed by ICD implantation. A review of the literature on ALCAPA is presented along with CT images before and after surgery...

  10. Isolation and characterization of progenitor cells in uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatos, Marie A; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin...

  11. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). I...

  12. Quantification of Coupled Stiffness and Fiber Orientation Remodeling in Hypertensive Rat Right-Ventricular Myocardium Using 3D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking with Biaxial Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo; Sebastiani, Andrea; Yap, Choon Hwai; Simon, Marc A.; Kim, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV) in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV) myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST). RV pressure overload was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by pulmonary artery (PA) banding. The second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensors and Green-Lagrangian strain tensors were computed in the RV myocardium using the biaxial testing combined with 3D-UST. A previously established non-linear curve-fitting algorithm was applied to fit experimental data to a Strain Energy Function (SEF) for computation of myofiber orientation. The fiber orientations obtained by the biaxial testing with 3D-UST compared well with the fiber orientations computed from the histology. In addition, the re-orientation of myofiber in the right ventricular free wall (RVFW) along longitudinal direction (apex-to-outflow-tract direction) was noticeable in response to PH. For normotensive RVFW samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test spiraled from 20° at the endo-cardium to -42° at the epi-cardium (Δ = 62°). For PHRV samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test had much less spiral across tissue thickness: 3° at endo-cardium to -7° at epi-cardium (Δ = 10°, P<0.005 compared to normotensive). PMID:27780271

  13. Influence of Endurance Exercise Overloading Patterns on the Levels of Left Ventricular Catechoamines After a Bout of Lactate Threshold Test in Male Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background It is well known that exercise training has positive effect on catecholamine response to a given work load. But in this regard, the effective method of training needs to be studied. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks endurance exercise with two overloading patterns on the left ventricular catecholamine levels. Materials and Methods 29 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (n = 9, daily sinusoidal overloading (n = 10 and weekly sinusoidal overloading (n = 10 groups. After the last exercise session, left ventricular blood samples were obtained immediately after lactate threshold test. Plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured by ELISA method. One way analysis of variance was used for analysis of the data. Results Immediately after lactate threshold test, adrenaline level was significantly (P 0.05 different between three study groups. Conclusions The results showed 8 weeks of endurance exercise with weekly sinusoidal overloading pattern could induce a lower adrenal medulla activity (reflection of physical and physiological improvement than daily sinusoidal loading pattern in response to the same absolute work load.

  14. 2,3-Butanedione monoxime attenuates the β-adrenergic response of the L-type Ca2+ current in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alvarez-Collazo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: 2,3-Butanedione monoxime (BDM, an uncoupler of cardiac contraction, is commonly used in enzymatic dissociations to prevent hypercontraction of cardiomyocytes and in cardioplegic solutions to decrease oxygen demand during surgery. However, BDM affects multiple cellular systems including the L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL. If its phosphatase activity is the mechanism underlying the decrease ICaL in cardiomyocytes is a still unresolved question. Aims: To study the effects of BDM on ICaL of rat ventricular cardiomyocytes focusing our attention on the response of ICaL to β-adrenergic stimulation. Methods: The whole-cell patch-clamp method was used to study ICaL in enzymatically dissociated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Results: Extracellular BDM (5 mM decreased peak ICaL by ≈45%, slowed its fast inactivation but accelerated its slow inactivation. Cardiomyocytes incubated in BDM (≥ 30 min; 5 mM perfused with normal extracellular solution, showed normal ICaL properties. However, extracellular BDM (in cardiomyocytes incubated in BDM or not markedly reduced the response of ICaL to isoproterenol (1 µM. BDM also strongly attenuated the increase of ICaL in cardiomyocytes intracellularly perfused with cyclic AMP (50 µM. Conclusions: The decrease of basal ICaL by BDM is not related to its dephosphorylation action. Its effect on the Ca2+ channel occurs most probably in a site in the extracellular side or within the sarcolemmal membrane. Due to its phosphatase action, BDM strongly attenuates the response of ICaL to β-adrenergic stimulation. These actions of BDM must be taken into account both for its use in the dissociation of cardiomyocytes and in cardioplegic solutions and myocardial preservation.

  15. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  16. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  17. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  18. Effects of acute adult and early-in-life bladder inflammation on bladder neuropeptides in adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ness Timothy J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to determine how acute adult and/or prior early-in life (EIL; P14-P16 exposure to bladder inflammation affects bladder content of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP. Estrous cycle influences were also studied in the adult-treatment conditions. Methods In Experiment 1, intravesical zymosan or isoflurane anesthesia alone was administered to adult female rats. Bladders and serum were collected 24 hours later during each phase of the estrous cycle. In Experiment 2, zymosan or anesthesia alone was administered EIL and as adults, with bladder tissue collection 24 h later. Results In general, Experiment 1 showed that bladder content of both CGRP and SP was increased by inflammation. This effect was significant when data were collapsed across all phases of the estrous cycle, but was only significant during proestrus when individual comparisons were made during each phase of estrous. Also, adult bladder inflammation significantly reduced estradiol levels. In Experiment 2, bladder content of CGRP and SP was significantly increased in rats receiving EIL and/or adult inflammation. Bladder weights were also significantly increased by inflammation. Conclusions These data indicate that bladder CGRP and SP are maximally increased during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle in inflamed adult female rats. EIL exposure to bladder inflammation alone can also produce an increase in CGRP and SP lasting into adulthood. Therefore, EIL experience with bladder inflammation may predispose an organism to experience a painful bladder disorder as an adult by increasing primary afferent content of CGRP and/or SP.

  19. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil. Electrophysiological...

  20. Utility of Global Longitudinal Strain by Echocardiography to Detect Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Long-Term Adult Survivors of Childhood Lymphoma and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jon R; Massey, Richard; Dalen, Håvard; Kanellopoulos, Adriani; Hamre, Hanne; Fosså, Sophie D; Ruud, Ellen; Kiserud, Cecilie E; Aakhus, Svend

    2016-08-01

    Measuring left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) is recommended in screening of long-term cancer survivors for cardiotoxicity. However, there are limited data on GLS in this setting, in particular in survivors with apparently normal LV function without risk factors of impaired GLS. In the present study, we measured GLS in 191 adult survivors of childhood lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with normal LV ejection fraction and fractional shortening (FS) and without known hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, or stroke. We compared GLS in the survivors with 180 controls. Mean GLS was -19.0 ± 2.2% in the survivor group and -21.4 ± 2.0% in the controls (p cancer treatment. Survivors treated with mediastinal radiotherapy had an odds ratio of impaired GLS of 5.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 12) compared with other survivors. Survivors treated with cumulative anthracycline doses >300 mg/m(2) had an odds ratio of 4.8 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 14) of impaired GLS. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a high proportion of LV dysfunction assessed by GLS in apparently healthy adult survivors of childhood cancer. Impaired GLS was associated with previous exposure to mediastinal radiotherapy and high doses of anthracyclines. The prognostic role of measuring GLS in this specific patient population should be examined in prospective studies. PMID:27296561

  1. Inhalation of the BK(Ca-opener NS1619 attenuates right ventricular pressure and improves oxygenation in the rat monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Revermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Right heart failure is a fatal consequence of chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH. The development of PH is characterized by increased proliferation of vascular cells, in particular pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs and pulmonary artery endothelial cells. In the course of PH, an escalated right ventricular (RV afterload occurs, which leads to increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. BK(Ca channels are ubiquitously expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and their opening induces cell membrane hyperpolarization followed by vasodilation. Moreover, BK activation induces anti-proliferative effects in a multitude of cell types. On this basis, we hypothesized that treatment with the nebulized BK channel opener NS1619 might be a therapy option for pulmonary hypertension and tested this in rats. METHODS: (1 Rats received monocrotaline injection for PH induction. Twenty-four days later, rats were anesthetized and NS1619 or the solvent was administered by inhalation. Systemic hemodynamic parameters, RV hemodynamic parameters, and blood gas analyses were measured before as well as 30 and 120 minutes after inhalation. (2 Rat PASMCs were stimulated with PDGF-BB in the presence and absence of NS1619. AKT, ERK1 and ERK2 activation were investigated by western blot analyses, and relative cell number was determined 48 hours after stimulation. RESULTS: Inhalation of a 12 µM and 100 µM NS1619 solution significantly reduced RV pressure without affecting systemic arterial pressure. Blood gas analyses demonstrated significantly reduced carbon dioxide and improved oxygenation in NS1619-treated animals pointing towards a considerable pulmonary shunt-reducing effect. In PASMC's, NS1619 (100 µM significantly attenuated PASMC proliferation by a pathway independent of AKT and ERK1/2 activation. CONCLUSION: NS1619 inhalation reduces RV pressure and improves oxygen supply and its application inhibits PASMC proliferation in vitro. Hence, BK

  2. Relationship between left ventricular mass and coronary artery disease in young adults: a single-center study using cardiac computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Yong; Sun, Joo Sung; Sur, Young Keun; Park, Jin Sun; Kang, Doo Kyoung

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular mass (LVM) as measured by cardiac computed tomography (CT) in young adults ≤40 years of age. We retrospectively enrolled 490 consecutive individuals (383 males; mean age, 35.2 ± 4.4 years) who underwent cardiac CT. CAD was defined by the presence of any plaque detected by coronary CT angiography. Left ventricular (LV) function, including LVM, was automatically measured by a dedicated workstation. LVM and LVM index (LVMi) in patients with CT-detected CAD were compared to those of patients without CT-detected CAD. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and CAD. Fifty-five individuals had CT-detected CAD (11.2 %, 53 males). LVM measured by cardiac CT was 126.9 ± 30.0 g for males and 93.6 ± 20.9 g for females. LVM was higher (117.8 ± 30.8 vs. 133.6 ± 33.1 g, P Obesity, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, LVM and LVMi were predictors of CT-detected CAD. Body mass index (r = 0.237, P < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.281, P < 0.001) were positively correlated with LVM. In the multivariate analysis, LVM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.016] and LVMi (OR = 1.026) remained independent predictors of CAD. LVM and LVMi in patients with CT-detected CAD were higher than that of patients without CT-detected CAD. LVM and LVMi measured by cardiac CT were independent predictors of CAD.

  3. Effects of Connexin 43 expression on ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias in aged rats%缝隙连接蛋白43在老年大鼠缺血性室性心律失常中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡笑容; 周晓亚; 徐昌武; 崔博; 温华知; 鲁志兵; 江洪

    2010-01-01

    tachyarrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia( MI )in aged rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats[Adult group ( ≤ 4 months) and Aged group ( ≥24 months)]:MI (n = 15 ):ligated left anterior descending coronary for 30 minutes; MI-vagal nerve stimulation(VNS) ( n = 15 ); MI-VNS-atropine (0. 5 mg/kg, n = 13 ); MI-VNS-carbenoxolone ( 10 mg/kg, n = 11 ); sham operation (SO, n = 10):without coronary ligation. Ventricular arrhythmias were monitored by an electrocardiogram. Cx43 protein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Results During the 30 minutes ligation,incidences of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation(VF) in aged rats increased significantly compared to those of adult rats ( P < 0. 05 ). VNS did not affect the occurrence of VT and VF ( both P > 0.05 ); however, VNS suppressed the occurrence of irreversible VF ( P < 0. 05 ); both atropine and carbenoxolone ( a gap junction inhibitor) could abolish the effect of VNS on ischemia-induced irreversible VF ( both P <0. 05). Ischemia did not result in changes of total Cx43 amount in adult and aged rats compared to that of SO group,respectively. The amount of nonphosphorylated Cx43 was increased markedly in adult and aged rats compared to that of SO group,respectively.Cx43 dephosphorylation induced by ischemia was significantly suppressed by VNS in adult and aged rats( P <0. 05 ). However,the amount of total Cx43 of SO group in aged rats was significantly decreased by 50% compared to that of SO group in adult rats ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The present study suggested that the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias increased markedly and the anti-arrhythmic effect of VNS was decreased significantly in aged rats, which may be associated with reduction of Cx43 protein of ventricle in aged rats.

  4. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  5. Reduction of prohibitin expression contributes to left ventricular hypertrophy via enhancement of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H; Lu, G M

    2015-02-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is characterized by thickening of myocardium and decrease in heart chamber volume in response to mechanical or pathological stress, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In this work, we investigate whether mitochondrial prohibitin (PHB) was involved in the progression of LVH in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). First, it was found that mitochondrial dysfunction occurred in left ventricles of SHR. Through analysis using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, it was found that PHB mRNA and mitochondrial PHB levels in left ventricles of SHR were significantly lower than that in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Furthermore, PHB mRNA levels were negatively correlated to left ventricles weight-to-body weight ratio in SHR. Knockdown of PHB led to increased formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced activities of complex I, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate generation and mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of PHB contributed to the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which could be attenuated by treatment with the Tempol. Angiotensin II (AngII) was increased in plasma and left ventricles of SHR. Incubation with AngII reduced mitochondrial PHB expression in cardiomyocytes, which was reversed when pretreated with losartan. In conclusion, reduction of PHB expression in left ventricles in SHR contributed to LVH, at least in part, through promoting mitochondrial ROS formation.

  6. Tribulosin suppresses apoptosis via PKC epsilon and ERK1/2 signaling pathway during hypoxia/reoxygenation in neonatal rat ventricular cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2011-12-01

    Tribulosin (tigogenin 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl (1-3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside), a component of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris, has been shown to produce cytoprotective effects in heart. Yet, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the mechanisms of tribulosin on myocardial protection. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from the heart of neonatal rats and were exposed to 3 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h reoxygenation. Apoptosis was induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), and the expression of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCϵ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes was detected. The results indicated that treatment with tribulosin in the culture medium protected cardiac myocytes against apoptosis induced by H/R. PKCϵ and ERK1/2 expression increased after pretreated with tribulosin. In the presence of PKCϵ inhibitor co-treated with tribulosin, the expression of ERK1/2 was decreased in H/R cardiac myocytes. While preconditioned with PD98059, ERK1/2 inhibitor, no effects on the expression of PKCϵ were detected. Tribulosin has protective effects on cardiac myocytes against apoptosis induced by H/R injury via PKCϵ and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:22115037

  7. MiR-139-3p is related to left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in many physiological and pathological processes. Previous studies have reported the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. However, its specific roles and functions in the heart undergoing hypertrophy have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, a significant upregulation of miR-139-3p expression was demonstrated in the left ventricular myocardium of two-kidney one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Based on computational analysis, we observed that miR-139-3p can control the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1 as a target gene, which is essential for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This study provides first information that the highly expressed miR-139-3p might be closely involved in MAPK1-mediated cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptotic processes in 2K1C rat.

  8. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  9. Differentiation of embryonic versus adult rat neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlong Ke; Baili Chen; Shaolei Guo; Chao Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the conversion of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro can be increased through specific cytokine combinations. Such neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons could be used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the differences in dopaminergic differentiation between neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats.OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of rat adult and embryonic-derived neural stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Surgical Laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-scn University (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from June to December 2007. Eight, adult, male,Sprague Dawley rats and eight, pregnant, Sprague Dawley rats (embryonic day 14 or 15) were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University.METHODS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were respectively cultivated in serum-free culture medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. After passaging, neural stem cells were differentiated in medium containing interleukin-1 ct, interleukin-11, human leukemia inhibition factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Six days later, cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alterations in cellular morphology after differentiation of neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats; and percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the differentiated cells.RESULTS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were cultivated in differentiation medium. Six days later, differentiated cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylasc. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons was (5.6 ± 2

  10. Malignant ventricular arrhythmia in a case of adult onset of spinal muscular atrophy (Kugelberg-Welander disease).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.; Sarkozy, A.; Chierchia, G.B.; Wilde, P.C.M. de; Schmedding, E.; Brugada, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient with adult onset of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). The patient first came to our attention with atrioventricular (AV) block. A dual-chamber pacemaker (DDD-PM) was implanted. Four years later, the PM data log showed occurrence of frequent episodes of no

  11. Effect of naringin on hemodynamic changes and left ventricular function in renal artery occluded renovascular hypertension in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asjad Visnagri; Mohammad Adil; Amit D Kandhare; Subhash L. Bodhankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal artery occlusion (RAO) induced hypertension is a major health problem associated with structural and functional variations of the renal and cardiac vasculature. Naringin a flavanone glycoside derived possesses metal-chelating, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive activity of naringin in RAO induced hypertension in rats. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were divided...

  12. Dose related effects of nicotine on oxidative injury in young, adult and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anshu; Flora, S J S

    2012-03-01

    Nicotine affects a variety of cellular process ranging from induction of gene expression to secretion of hormones and modulation of enzymatic activities. The objective of the present study was to study the dose dependent toxicity of nicotine on the oxidative stress in young, adult and old rats which were administered 0.75, 3 and 6 mg kg(-1) nicotine as nicotine hydrogen tartarate intraperitoneally for a period of seven days. No changes were observed in blood catalase (CAT) activity and level of blood reactive oxygen species (ROS) in any of the age group at the lowest dose of nicotine. However, at the highest dose (6 mg kg(-1) nicotine) ROS level increased significantly from 1.17 to 1.41 microM ml(-1) in young rats and from 1.13 to 1.40 microM ml(-1) in old rats. However, no change was observed in blood ROS levels of adult rats. Administration of 3 mg kg(-1) nicotine resulted in an increase in level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rats of all the age groups. The young animals were the most sensitive as a dose of 6 mg kg(-1) resulted in decline in the levels of reduced GSH to 0.89 mg ml(-1) as compared to normal control (1.03 mg ml(-1)). The antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were sensitive to a dose of 6 mg kg(-1) as it resulted in decline of the enzymatic activity in all age group animals. Also, administration of nicotine at a lower dose of 3 mg kg(-1) inhibited SOD activity from 1.48 to 1.20 units min(-1) mg(-1) protein in old rats. Catalase activity showed a similar trend at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1). Administration of nicotine also increased the blood lipid peroxidation levels at all three doses in young and old rats dose dependently. Nicotine exposure also increased ROS in brain at the doses of 3 and 6 mg kg(-1) in all the three age groups. Brain GSH decreased significantly at high dose of nicotine (6 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) in adult rats (4.27 mg g(-1)) and old rats (3.68 mg g(-1)) but in young rats level increased to 4.40 mg g(-1) at the lower dose (0.75 mg kg nicotine

  13. Intrauterine endotoxin-induced impairs pulmonary vascular function and right ventricular performance in infant rats and improvement with early vitamin D therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Erica; Powers, Kyle N; Harral, Julie W; Seedorf, Gregory J; Hunter, Kendall S; Abman, Steven H; Dodson, R Blair

    2015-12-15

    High pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), proximal pulmonary artery (PA) impedance, and right ventricular (RV) afterload due to remodeling contribute to the pathogenesis and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Intra-amniotic exposure to endotoxin (ETX) causes sustained PH and high mortality in rat pups at birth, which are associated with impaired vascular growth and RV hypertrophy in survivors. Treatment of ETX-exposed pups with antenatal vitamin D (vit D) improves survival and lung growth, but the effects of ETX exposure on RV-PA coupling in the neonatal lung are unknown. We hypothesized that intrauterine ETX impairs RV-PA coupling through sustained abnormalities of PA stiffening and RV performance that are attenuated with vit D therapy. Fetal rats were exposed to intra-amniotic injections of ETX, ETX+vit D, or saline at 20 days gestation (term = 22 days). At postnatal day 14, pups had pressure-volume measurements of the RV and isolated proximal PA, respectively. Lung homogenates were assayed for extracellular matrix (ECM) composition by Western blot. We found that ETX lungs contain decreased α-elastin, lysyl oxidase, collagen I, and collagen III proteins (P < 0.05) compared control and ETX+vit D lungs. ETX-exposed animals have increased RV mechanical stroke work (P < 0.05 vs. control and ETX+vit D) and elastic potential energy (P < 0.05 vs. control and ETX+vit D). Mechanical stiffness and ECM remodeling are increased in the PA (P < 0.05 vs. control and ETX+vit D). We conclude that intrauterine exposure of fetal rats to ETX during late gestation causes persistent impairment of RV-PA coupling throughout infancy that can be prevented with early vit D treatment.

  14. 17β-Estradiol mediates superior adaptation of right ventricular function to acute strenuous exercise in female rats with severe pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, Tim; Frump, Andrea L; Albrecht, Marjorie E; Fisher, Amanda J; Cook, Todd G; Jones, Thomas J; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Whitson, Jordan; Fuchs, Robyn K; Liu, Aiping; Chesler, Naomi C; Brown, M Beth

    2016-08-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects on right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Since acute exercise-induced increases in afterload may lead to RV dysfunction in PAH, we sought to determine whether E2 allows for superior RV adaptation after an acute exercise challenge. We studied echocardiographic, hemodynamic, structural, and biochemical markers of RV function in male and female rats with sugen/hypoxia (SuHx)-induced pulmonary hypertension, as well as in ovariectomized (OVX) SuHx females, with or without concomitant E2 repletion (75 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) immediately after 45 min of treadmill running at 75% of individually determined maximal aerobic capacity (75% aerobic capacity reserve). Compared with males, intact female rats exhibited higher stroke volume and cardiac indexes, a strong trend for better RV compliance, and less pronounced increases in indexed total pulmonary resistance. OVX abrogated favorable RV adaptations, whereas E2 repletion after OVX markedly improved RV function. E2's effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling were complex and less robust than its RV effects. Postexercise hemodynamics in females with endogenous or exogenous E2 were similar to hemodynamics in nonexercised controls, whereas OVX rats exhibited more severely altered postexercise hemodynamics. E2 mediated inhibitory effects on RV fibrosis and attenuated increases in RV collagen I/III ratio. Proapoptotic signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation, and autophagic flux markers were affected by E2 depletion and/or repletion. Markers of impaired autophagic flux correlated with endpoints of RV structure and function. Endogenous and exogenous E2 exerts protective effects on RV function measured immediately after an acute exercise challenge. Harnessing E2's mechanisms may lead to novel RV-directed therapies. PMID:27288487

  15. Ultrastructural characteristics of the formation and development of the intercalated disc in the rat left and right working ventricular myocardium on the postnatal ontogenetic stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruk N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maintenance of the normal distribution of intercellular contacts between cardiomyocytes and preservation of the correct geometry of the intercalated disc are essential conditions for the proper functioning of the heart. Objective. To provide complex ultrastructural evaluation of the mechanism of formation and development of the intercalated disc in rat ventricular myocardium on postnatal stages of development. Methods. Rats at the age of 1, 3, 7, 14, 30 days after birth and mature individuals were used as an object. Transmission electron microscopy, morphometric and statistical methods were applied. In particular, the convolution index was evaluated to characterize quantitative changes of the dynamics of configuration of intercalated disc. Results. It was found that the redistribution of adherens junctions from the lateral surface of cardiomyocytes occurs most rapidly from 3rd to 14th days after birth. The gap junctions trimming occurs due to their internalization with subsequent formation of the annular gap junction profile in the sarcoplasm; these profiles are inserted into the intercalated disc at the last turn. The process of complication of the geometry of intercalated disc is accompanied by the consistent increase of convolution index in the mature myocardium of the left and right ventricles up to 2,46±0,17 and 1,94±0,14, respectively. The predominance of the convolution index in the left ventricle over the levels in the right ventricle was the most prominent on the 14th day of postnatal development (38,1%; p<0,05 and in the mature myocardium – 26,8% (p<0,05. Conclusion. As the result of physiological hypertrophy and adaptive remodeling of cardiomyocyte in the postnatal rat cardiogenesis redistribution of diffusely located intercellular junctions from the periphery to the terminal areas of the cell occurs. The formation of a definitive pattern of distribution of intercellular junctions is completed at the puberty.

  16. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia de Souza Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta; Juliana Castro Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol,...

  17. Sex Differences and Laterality in Astrocyte Number and Complexity in the Adult Rat Medial Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, RYAN T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    The posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD) is sexually dimorphic in several rodent species. In several other brain nuclei, astrocytes change morphology in response to steroid hormones. We visualized MePD astrocytes using glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry. We compared the number and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to de...

  18. The effects of undernutrition on connectivity in the cerebellar cortex of adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, F; Warren, M. A.; Gumusburun, E

    1994-01-01

    The effects of a 30 d period of undernutrition, followed in some animals by nutritional rehabilitation, on neuronal connectivity in adult rat cerebellum were investigated using the disector method. There was no significant difference between well fed (719 +/- 74, mean +/- S.E.) and undernourished (709 +/- 53) synapse-to-neuron ratios in 134-d-old rat cerebellar cortex, nor was there a significant difference in synapse-to-neuron ratios between control animals (941 +/- 71) and previously undern...

  19. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  20. Effect of lindane on antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Chitra; R. Sujatha; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the changes induced by lindane on the antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats, Methods; Adult male rats were orally administered lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed. The epididymis was removed and weighed and sperm were collected for sperm count, motility and biochemical studies. A 1% homogenate of epididymis was prepared and used for biochemical estimations. Results: In lindane-treated rats, there were significant reductions in the epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motility compared with the controls. Significant decreases in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities and significant increases in the H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation were also observed in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane decreases the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats thereby inducing oxidative stress.

  1. Changes of arterial blood ketone body ratio following hypoperfusion in old and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YE; Shiwen WANG; Songtao YU; Wei CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of arterial ketone body ratio as an indicator for multiple organ failure.Materials and methods The experimental model of multiple organ failure was made in adult and old rats by hypoperfusion-induced hemorrhagic shock. After blood sampling, the arterial acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, total ketone body, ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine at 2, 4, 8 hr in hypoperfusion were examined to compare the differences of ketone body ratio and organ failure between adult and old rats. Hepatic and mitochondrial metabolism were assessed by comparing ketone body ratios (AcAc/β-OHB) and free NAD+/NADH ratios. Results Ketone body ratio in old rats at 2, 4, 8 hr after the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased from 0.68 to 0.31, 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. In adult rats, it decreased from 1.12 to 0.17, 0.12 and 0.09, respectively. Changes of ketone body ratio in the adult group were larger than in the elderly group ( P < 0.001). The development of multiple organ failure is associated with the time of hemorrhagic shock development. Conclusions There was a different ketone body ratio between multiple organ failure in the elderly (MOFE) and multiple organ failure (MOF) in general adults. Ketone body ratio is a better indicator than ALT and AST in reflecting hepatic function in the early status of MOF. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2) :125-128. )

  2. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats...... to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic...... exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant...

  3. Spontaneous inflammatory pelvic disease in adult non-castrated female rats treated with estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristóteles M G Ramos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response of the genital tract is under the control of sexual steroids; however, the influence of sex hormones on innate immune mechanisms of the genital mucosa are only beginning to be understood. We found that long-term estrogen treatment increases the risk for inflammatory pelvic diseases in adult non-castrated female rats. Female rats (110 g to 130 g received estrogen (10 rats; 17-beta estradiol, 50 mg pellet; 10 rats: subcutaneous weekly injection of estradiol valerate 0.166 mg/kg. Ten rats received a pellet of 17-beta estradiol and were treated with amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg after the 90th day of exposure to estrogen. Three control groups of ten rats were also used. The estrogen-treated rats developed an inflammatory pelvic disease, with abscess formation after the third month of hormonal treatment. All the surviving animals were killed after six months of hormonal exposure. Among 15 survivors of the two groups that received estrogen 13 animals presented tuboovarian abscesses. Among eight survivors of the group treated with amoxicillin, six had tuboovarian abscesses. None of the 30 control rats presented macro or microscopic signs of inflammatory disease in the uterus, tubes or ovaries. We conclude that estrogen impairs the defense mechanisms of the genital tract of non-castrated female rats, enhancing bacterial growth in the vagina and ascending infection to the uterus, tubes and ovaries.

  4. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  5. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  6. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  7. Differential effect of elevated blood pressure on left ventricular geometry types in black and white young adults in a community (from the Bogalusa Heart Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Ruan, Litao; Toprak, Ahmet; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2011-03-01

    Hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are both more common in blacks than in whites. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP) has a differential effect on the LV geometry types in black versus white asymptomatic young adults. As a part of the Bogalusa Heart Study, echocardiography and cardiovascular risk factor measurements were performed in 780 white and 343 black subjects (aged 24 to 47 years). Four LV geometry types were identified as normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric, and concentric hypertrophy. Compared to the white subjects, the black subjects had a greater prevalence of eccentric (15.7% vs 9.1%, p <0.001) and concentric (9.3% vs 4.1%, p <0.001) hypertrophy. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, lipids, and glucose, the black subjects showed a significantly stronger association of LV concentric hypertrophy with BP (systolic BP, odds ratio [OR] 3.74, p <0.001; diastolic BP, OR 2.86, p <0.001) than whites (systolic BP, OR 1.50, p = 0.037; and diastolic BP, OR 1.35, p = 0.167), with p values for the race difference of 0.007 for systolic BP and 0.026 for diastolic BP. LV eccentric hypertrophy showed similar trends for the race difference in the ORs; however, the association between eccentric hypertrophy and BP was not significant in the white subjects. With respect to LV concentric remodeling, its association with BP was not significant in either blacks or whites. In conclusion, elevated BP levels have a greater detrimental effect on LV hypertrophy patterns in the black versus white young adults. These findings suggest that blacks might be more susceptible than whites to BP-related adverse cardiac remodeling.

  8. Activation of pancreatic-duct-derived progenitor cells during pancreas regeneration in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wan-Chun; Rukstalis, J. Michael; Nishimura, Wataru; Tchipashvili, Vaja; Habener, Joel F.; Arun SHARMA; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The adult pancreas has considerable capacity to regenerate in response to injury. We hypothesized that after partial pancreatectomy (Px) in adult rats, pancreatic-duct cells serve as a source of regeneration by undergoing a reproducible dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. We support this hypothesis by the detection of an early loss of the ductal differentiation marker Hnf6 in the mature ducts, followed by the transient appearance of areas composed of proliferating ductules, called foci o...

  9. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Elliott, Kevin S.; Preston E. Garraghty

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reduction...

  10. Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Reul, J M; Stec, I; Wiegers, G J; Labeur, M S; Linthorst, A C; Arzt, E; Holsboer, F

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 ...

  11. Social instability stress differentially affects amygdalar neuron adaptations and memory performance in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Feng Tsai; Chia-Yuan Chang; Lung Yu; Yu-Min Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old) and adult (8-week-old) rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the a...

  12. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Saki; Fakher Rahim; Karim Alizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming s...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 μg/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 μg/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  14. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  15. Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

  16. Left Ventricular Gene Expression Profile of Healthy and Cardiovascular Compromised Rat Models Used in Air Pollution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The link between pollutant exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted mechanistic research with animal models of CVD. We hypothesized that the cardiac gene expression patterns of healthy and genetically compromised, CVD-prone rat models, with or without metabolic impa...

  17. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  18. EFFECTS OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL CONCIS ON CELL PROLIFERATION OF THE SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE IN ADULT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuelin; Qiu Shudong; Zhang Pengbo; Shi Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the proliferative response and time course of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells after cerebral cortical concis in the adult rats. Methods Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Cumulative BrdU labeling was employed to detect the proliferating cells. At 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d after cerebral cortical concis, the rats were killed for BrdU immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in the injured ipsilateral SVZ. Results Little BrdU immunoreactivity cells was present in SVZ of the control rats from day 7 to day 21 after sham operation. The number of BrdU immunoreactivity cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ increased at day 1 and peaked at day 7 after cerebral cortical concis. Conclusion After cerebral cortical concis of the adult rats, neural stem/progenitor cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ markedly proliferated with a peak at day 7. This finding may be important for manipulating SVZ cells to promote the recovery from cerebral cortical concis.

  19. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  20. Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional phase marked by a heightened vulnerability to substances of abuse. It has been hypothesized that both increased sensitivity to reward and decreased sensitivity to aversive events may drive drug-use liability during this phase. To investigate possible age-related differences in sensitivity to the aversive consequences of drug use, adolescent and adult rats were compared on self-administration of cocaine before, during, and after a 10-day period in which an aversive agent, histamine, was added to the cocaine solution. Adult and adolescent female rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) over 10 sessions (2 h/session; 2 sessions/day). Histamine (4 mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution for the next 10 sessions. Finally, the cocaine/histamine solution was replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and rats continued to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) for 20 sessions. Compared with adolescent rats, adult rats showed a greater decrease in cocaine self-administration when it was punished with intravenous histamine compared with their baseline cocaine self-administration rates. These results suggest that differences in the sensitivity to negative consequences of drug use may partially explain developmental differences in drug use vulnerability. PMID:25769092

  1. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  2. Positron emission tomography for serial imaging of the contused adult rat spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandoe, R.D.S.; Yu, J.; Seidel, J.; Rahiem, S.T.; Hurtado, A.; Tsui, B.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Pomper, M.G.; Oudega, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) could be used in combination with computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques for longitudinal monitoring of the injured spinal cord. In adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6), the ninth thoracic (T9) spinal cord segment was e

  3. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  4. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  5. Peripheral effect of NMDA receptor antagonists on adult rats exposed to neonatal colon pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunLin; ElieD.Al-Chaer

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Previous work done by Al-Chaer' s lab has shown that colon irritation (CI) in neonates can lead to chronic visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats, with characteristics of visceral allodynia and hyperalgesia, associated with central neuronal sensitization in the absence of identifiable peripheral pathology (Al-Chaer et al. 2000) . The pathogenesis of

  6. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  7. The role of apelin in the modulation of gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuschevich, H; Kapica, M; Krawczynska, A; Herman, A; Kato, I; Kuwahara, A; Zabielski, R

    2016-06-01

    Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior. Circulating apelin inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice through vagal- cholecystokinin-dependent mechanism and reduces local blood flow. Our study was aimed to determine the effect of fundectomy and intraperitoneal or intragastric administration of apelin-13 on pancreatic and gastric enzymes activities in adult rats. Fundectomy is a surgical removal of stomach fundus - maine site apelin synthesis. Three independent experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. In the first and second experiment apelin-13 was given by intragastric or intraperitoneal way twice a day for 10 days (100 nmol/kg b.w.). Control groups received the physiological saline respectively. In the third experiment the group of rats after fundectomy were used. Fundectomized rats did not receive apelin and the rats from control group were 'sham operated'. At the end of experiment rats were sacrificed and blood from rats was withdrawn for apelin and CCK (cholecystokinin) radioimmunoassay analysis and pancreas and stomach tissues were collected for enzyme activity analyses. Intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations of apelin-13 increased basal plasma CCK level and stimulated gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in rats. In animals after fundectomy decreased activity of studied enzymes was observed, as well as basal plasma apelin and CCK levels. In conclusion, apelin can effects on CCK release and stimulates some gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats while fudectomy suppresses those processes. Changes in the level of pancreatic lipase activity point out that apelin may occurs as a regulator of lipase secretion.

  8. Carbon Nanohorns Promote Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes and Inhibit Proliferation of Cardiac Fibroblasts: a Promising Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yujing; Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Yi; Tian, Lei; Bai, Rui; Wei, Yujie; Han, Dong; Liu, Huiliang; Xu, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) has developed rapidly, but a great challenge remains in finding practical scaffold materials for the construction of engineered cardiac tissues. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs) may be a potential candidate due to their special structure and properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CNHs on the biological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) for CTE applications. CNHs were incorporated into collagen to form growth substrates for NRVMs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that CNHs exhibited a good affinity to collagen. Moreover, it was found that CNH-embedded substrates enhanced adhesion and proliferation of NRVMs. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and intracellular calcium transient measurements indicated that the addition of CNHs significantly increased the expression and maturation of electrical and mechanical proteins (connexin-43 and N-cadherin). Bromodeoxyuridine staining and a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that CNHs have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CNHs can have a valuable effect on the construction of engineered cardiac tissues and may be a promising scaffold for CTE.

  9. Carbon Nanohorns Promote Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes and Inhibit Proliferation of Cardiac Fibroblasts: a Promising Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yujing; Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Yi; Tian, Lei; Bai, Rui; Wei, Yujie; Han, Dong; Liu, Huiliang; Xu, Jianxun

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) has developed rapidly, but a great challenge remains in finding practical scaffold materials for the construction of engineered cardiac tissues. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs) may be a potential candidate due to their special structure and properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CNHs on the biological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) for CTE applications. CNHs were incorporated into collagen to form growth substrates for NRVMs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that CNHs exhibited a good affinity to collagen. Moreover, it was found that CNH-embedded substrates enhanced adhesion and proliferation of NRVMs. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and intracellular calcium transient measurements indicated that the addition of CNHs significantly increased the expression and maturation of electrical and mechanical proteins (connexin-43 and N-cadherin). Bromodeoxyuridine staining and a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that CNHs have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CNHs can have a valuable effect on the construction of engineered cardiac tissues and may be a promising scaffold for CTE. PMID:27263018

  10. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  11. c-kitpos GATA-4 high rat cardiac stem cells foster adult cardiomyocyte survival through IGF-1 paracrine signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanako Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resident c-kit positive (c-kitpos cardiac stem cells (CSCs could be considered the most appropriate cell type for myocardial regeneration therapies. However, much is still unknown regarding their biological properties and potential. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We produced clones of high and low expressing GATA-4 CSCs from long-term bulk-cultured c-kitpos CSCs isolated from adult rat hearts. When c-kitpos GATA-4 high expressing clonal CSCs (cCSCs were co-cultured with adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, we observed increased survival and contractility of the cardiomyocytes, compared to cardiomyocytes cultured alone, co-cultured with fibroblasts or c-kitpos GATA-4 low expressing cCSCs. When analysed by ELISA, the concentration of IGF-1 was significantly increased in the c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSC/cardiomyocyte co-cultures and there was a significant correlation between IGF-1 concentration and cardiomyocyte survival. We showed the activation of the IGF-1 receptor and its downstream molecular targets in cardiomyocytes co-cultured with c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSCs but not in cardiomyocytes that were cultured alone, co-cultured with fibroblasts or c-kitpos GATA-4 low cCSCs. Addition of a blocking antibody specific to the IGF-1 receptor inhibited the survival of cardiomyocytes and prevented the activation of its signalling in cardiomyocytes in the c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSC/cardiomyocyte co-culture system. IGF-1 supplementation or IGF-1 high conditioned medium taken from the co-culture of c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSCs plus cardiomyocytes did extend the survival and contractility of cardiomyocytes cultured alone and cardiomyocytes co-cultured with c-kitpos GATA-4 low cCSCs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSCs exert a paracrine survival effect on cardiomyocytes through induction of the IGF-1R and signalling pathway.

  12. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  13. Effect of obesity on rat reproduction and on the development of their adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Campos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the reproductive parameters of obese Wistar rats and to determine the frequency of their obese adult offspring. Neonatal rats were divided into two groups: F1 generation, induced to obesity by monosodium glutamate (MSG; F1MSG, N = 30, and rats given saline (F1CON, N = 13. At 90 days of age all animals were mated, producing the F2 offspring (F2CON, N = 28; F2MSG, N = 15. Reproductive parameters (fertility, pregnancy, and delivery indexes were evaluated in F1 rats. F2 newborns were weighed, and the obesity parameter for F1 and F2 generations was determined from months 5 to 7 of life. At month 7, periovarian fat was weighed and no differences were found. Mean newborn weight also did not differ. The F1 and F2MSG groups presented approximately 90% of obese rats since month 5 of life, whereas F1 and F2CON groups presented only 33%. There was no difference in periovarian weight among groups. Although obesity did not affect reproductive parameters, obese dams (F1MSG were responsible for the appearance of obesity in the subsequent generation. Thus, obesity induced by neonatal MSG administration did not interfere with reproduction, but did provide a viable model for obesity in second-generation adult Wistar rats. This model might contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in transgenerational obesity.

  14. Effects of the Selective Stretch-Activated Channel Blocker GsMtx4 on Stretch-Induced Changes in Refractoriness in Isolated Rat Hearts and on Ventricular Premature Beats and Arrhythmias after Coronary Occlusion in Swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Barrabés

    Full Text Available Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP induced by left ventricular (LV dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending artery occlusion and 2-h reperfusion were blindly allocated to GsMtx4 (57 μg/kg iv. bolus and 3.8 μg/kg/min infusion, calculated to attain the above concentration in plasma or saline, starting 5-min before occlusion and continuing until after reflow. In rat hearts, LV distension induced progressive reductions in ERP (35±2, 32±2, and 29±2 ms at 0, 20, and 40 mmHg of LV end-diastolic pressure, respectively, P<0.001 that were prevented by GsMTx4 (33±2, 33±2, and 32±2 ms, respectively, P=0.002 for the interaction with LV end-diastolic pressure. Pigs receiving GsMtx4 had similar number of ventricular premature beats during the ischemic period as control pigs (110±28 vs. 103±21, respectively, P=0.842. There were not significant differences among treated and untreated animals in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (13.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, P=0.696 or tachycardia (36.4 vs. 50.0%, P=0.361 or in the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes during the occlusion period (1.8±0.7 vs. 5.5±2.6, P=0.323. Thus, GsMtx4 administered under these conditions does not suppress ventricular ectopy following coronary occlusion in swine. Whether it might protect against malignant arrhythmias should be tested in studies powered for these outcomes.

  15. Calcium-sensing receptor activation contributed to apoptosis stimulates TRPC6 channel in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capacitative calcium entry (CCE) refers to the influx of calcium through plasma membrane channels activated on depletion of endoplasmic sarcoplasmic/reticulum (ER/SR) Ca2+ stores, which is performed mainly by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and plays an important role in mediating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there are no data regarding the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart. In this study, in rat neonatal myocytes, by Ca2+ imaging, we found that the depletion of ER/SR Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin (TG) elicited a transient rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), followed by sustained increase depending on extracellular Ca2+. But, TRP channels inhibitor (SKF96365), not L-type channels or the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitors, inhibited [Ca2+]i relatively high. Then, we found that the stimulation of CaR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) or by an increased extracellular Ca2+([Ca2+]o) increased the concentration of intracelluar Ca2+, whereas, the sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i was reduced in the presence of SKF96365. Similarly, the duration of [Ca2+]i increase was also shortened in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Western blot analysis showed that GdCl3 increased the expression of TRPC6, which was reversed by SKF96365. Additionally, SKF96365 reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by GdCl3. Our results suggested that CCE exhibited in rat neonatal myocytes and CaR activation induced Ca2+-permeable cationic channels TRPCs to gate the CCE, for which TRPC6 was one of the most likely candidates. TRPC6 channel was functionally coupled with CaR to enhance the cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  16. Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen Erik J; Harper Mary-Ellen; Radziuk Jerry; Thackeray James T; Ascah Kathryn J; Beanlands Rob S; DaSilva Jean N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiovascular dysfunction, derived in part from impairment of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids are potent stimulants of sympathetic activity and norepinephrine (NE) release. We hypothesized that sustained hyperglycemia in the high fat diet-fed streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of sustained hyperglycemia with insulin resistance would exhibit progressive sympathetic nervous dysf...

  17. Dermal penetration of [14C]captan in young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H L; Hall, L L; Sumler, M R; Shah, P V

    1992-07-01

    Age dependence in dermal absorption has been a major concern in risk assessment. Captan, a chloroalkyl thio heterocyclic fungicide, was selected for study of age dependence as representative of this class of pesticides. Dermal penetration of [14C]captan applied at 0.286 mumol/cm2 was determined in young (33-d-old) and adult (82-d-old) female Fischer 344 rats in vivo and by two in vitro methods. Dermal penetration in vivo at 72 h was about 9% of the recovered dose in both young and adult rats. The percentage penetration was found to increase as dosage (0.1, 0.5, 2.7 mumol/cm2) decreased. Two in vitro methods gave variable dermal penetration values compared with in vivo results. A static system yielded twofold higher dermal penetration values compared with in vivo results for both young and adult rats. A flow system yielded higher dermal penetration values in young rats and lower penetration values in adults compared with in vivo results. Concentration in body, kidney, and liver was less in young than in adult rats given the same absorbed dosage. A physiological pharmacokinetic model was developed having a dual compartment for the treated skin and appeared to describe dermal absorption and disposition well. From this model, tissue/blood ratios of captan-derived radioactivity for organs were found to range from 0.35 to 3.4, indicating no large uptake or binding preferences by any organ. This preliminary pharmacokinetic model summarizes the experimental findings and could provide impetus for more complex and realistic models.

  18. Effect of prenatal programming and postnatal rearing on glomerular filtration rate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, German; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Salley, Jordan; Siddique, Khurrum; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined whether a prenatal low-protein diet programs a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in systolic blood pressure (BP). In addition, we examined whether altering the postnatal nutritional environment of nursing neonatal rats affected GFR and BP when rats were studied as adults. Pregnant rats were fed a normal (20%) protein diet or a low-protein diet (6%) during the last half of pregnancy until birth, when rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Mature adult rats from the prenatal low-protein group had systolic hypertension and a GFR of 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.57 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1) in the 20% group (P < 0.01). In cross-fostering experiments, mothers continued on the same prenatal diet until weaning. Prenatal 6% protein rats cross-fostered to a 20% mother on day 1 of life had a GFR of 0.53 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1), which was not different than the 20% group cross-fostered to a different 20% mother (0.45 ± 0.04 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1)). BP in the 6% to 20% group was comparable with the 20% to 20% group. Offspring of rats fed either 20% or 6% protein diets during pregnancy and cross-fostered to a 6% mother had elevated BP but a comparable GFR normalized to body weight as the 20% to 20% control group. Thus, a prenatal low-protein diet causes hypertension and a reduction in GFR in mature adult offspring, which can be modified by postnatal rearing.

  19. Environmental enrichment promotes plasticity and visual acuity recovery in adult monocular amblyopic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Tognini

    Full Text Available Loss of visual acuity caused by abnormal visual experience during development (amblyopia is an untreatable pathology in adults. In some occasions, amblyopic patients loose vision in their better eye owing to accidents or illnesses. While this condition is relevant both for its clinical importance and because it represents a case in which binocular interactions in the visual cortex are suppressed, it has scarcely been studied in animal models. We investigated whether exposure to environmental enrichment (EE is effective in triggering recovery of vision in adult amblyopic rats rendered monocular by optic nerve dissection in their normal eye. By employing both electrophysiological and behavioral assessments, we found a full recovery of visual acuity in enriched rats compared to controls reared in standard conditions. Moreover, we report that EE modulates the expression of GAD67 and BDNF. The non invasive nature of EE renders this paradigm promising for amblyopia therapy in adult monocular people.

  20. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  1. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  2. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia Overview What is arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia? Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (say: “uh-rith-mo-jen-ic right ven-trick- ...

  3. Distinct effects of pramipexole on the proliferation of adult mouse sub-ventricular zone-derived cells and the appearance of a neuronal phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Sara; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Sortino, Maria Angela

    2011-05-01

    Pramipexole (PPX) is a dopamine agonist with an 8-fold higher affinity for D3 than D2 receptor, whose efficacy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease is based on dopamine agonistic activity. PPX has also been recently shown to be endowed with neuroprotective activity and neurogenic potential. The aim of this study was a more detailed characterization of PPX-induced neurogenesis. Both D2 and D3 receptors are expressed in floating and differentiated neurospheres obtained from the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mice. Treatment of secondary neurospheres with 10 μM PPX causes a marked induction of cell proliferation, assessed by enhanced cell number and S phase population at cell cycle analysis. Stimulation of proliferation by PPX is still detectable in plated neurospheres before the onset of migration and differentiation, as by enhanced BrdU incorporation. This effect is sensitive to the selective D3 dopamine receptor antagonist U99194A, as well as to sulpiride. A 24 h treatment with PPX does not modify the morphology of neurosphere-derived cells, but causes an increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells, an effect sensitive to both D2 and D3 antagonism. Differentiation toward the neuronal lineage is increased by PPX as shown by enhancement of the cell population positive to the early neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) at 24 h and the mature neuronal marker microtubule associated protein (MAP2) at 72 h. This effect is not modified by treatment with U99194A and is mimicked by BDNF. Accordingly, PPX increases BDNF release with a mechanism involving D2 but not D3 receptors. PMID:21272591

  4. Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on the calcium transients and calcium handling proteins in ventricular myocytes from rats with heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-chun; ZENG Wu-tao; LIU Jun; DONG Yu-gang; TANG An-li; FENG Chong; MA Hong; HE Jian-gui; LIAO Xin-xue; CHEN Wen-fang; LENG Xiu-yu; MA Li; MAI Wei-yi; TAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with calcium transients and calcium handling proteins. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor has been demonstrated to have beneficial effect on CHF. Yet studies addressed to the relationship between ACE inhibitor and calcium transients in CHF are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ACE inhibitor (perindopril) on the contractility and calcium transients and calcium handling proteins in ventricular myocytes from rats with experimental heart failure.Results The fraction of cell shortening (FS%) and [Ca2+]imax (nmol/L) were significantly reduced in group CHF-C compared with group PS (FS%: 7.51±1.15 vs 13.21±1.49;[Ca2+]imax:330.85±50.05 vs 498.16±14.07; both P<0.01), and restored at least partially in CHF-T group. In CHF-C group, the left ventricular mRNA of NCX1 and PLB were significantly upregulated in comparing with PS group (RNCX1/β-Actin: 0.51±0.12 vs 0.19±0.06, P<0.01; RPLB/β-Actin: 0.26±0.12 vs 0.20±0.08, P<0.05), while SERCA2 mRNA was downregulated (0.48±0.10 vs 0.80±0.11, P<0.01). The mRNA levels of NCX1 and SERCA2 in CHF-T group were between the CHF-C and PS group, and the differences of the latter two groups were significant (all P<0.05). In CHF-C and CHF-T groups, the protein expression of NCX1 were 1.141±0.047 and 1.074±0.081 times of that in PS group respectively (both P<0.05), and SERCA2 protein levels were 0.803±0.100 and 0.893±0.084 times of that in PS group respectively (both P<0.05). The protein expression of NCX1 and SERCA2 in the CHF-C and CHF-T groups is significantly different (both P<0.05).Conclusion ACE inhibitor could improve cardiac function of failing heart through directly enhancing the contractility of single cardiomyocyte, and these effects are probably mediated by its roles in preventing the deleterious changes of calcium transients and calcium handling proteins in CHF.

  5. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is expressed in cardiac sympathetic ganglia of adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system plays a cardinal role in regulating cardiac function through releasing the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE). In comparison with central nervous system, the molecular mechanism of NE uptake in myocardium is not clear. In present study, we proved that in rat the CNS type of NE transporter (NET) was also expressed in middle cervical-stellate ganglion complex (MC-SG complex) which is considered to control the activity of heart, but not expressed in myocardium. The results also showed that NET expression level in right ganglion was significantly higher than in the left, rendering the greater capacity of NE uptake in right ventricle, a fact which may contribute to the maintenance of right ventricular function under pathologic state.

  6. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver toxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2009-10-01

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) is a notorious carcinogen, present in many environmental factors. DEN induces oxidative stress and cellular injury due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species; free radical scavengers protect the membranes from DEN-induced damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of bacoside A (the active principle isolated from Bacopa monniera Linn.) on carcinogen-induced damage in rat liver. Adult male albino rats were pretreated with 15 mg/kg body weight/day of bacoside A orally (for 14 days) and then intoxicated with single necrogenic dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (200 mg/kg bodyweight, intraperitonially) and maintained for 7 days. The liver weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and activity of serum marker enzymes (aspartate transaminases, alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were markedly increased in carcinogen-administered rats, whereas the activities of marker enzymes were near normal in bacoside A-pretreated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutatione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione) in liver also decreased in carcinogen-administered rats, which were significantly elevated in bacoside A-pretreated rats. It is concluded that pretreatment of bacoside A prevents the elevation of LPO and activity of serum marker enzymes and maintains the antioxidant system and thus protects the rats from DEN-induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  9. Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suuronen Erik J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiovascular dysfunction, derived in part from impairment of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids are potent stimulants of sympathetic activity and norepinephrine (NE release. We hypothesized that sustained hyperglycemia in the high fat diet-fed streptozotocin (STZ rat model of sustained hyperglycemia with insulin resistance would exhibit progressive sympathetic nervous dysfunction in parallel with deteriorating myocardial systolic and/or diastolic function. Methods Cardiac sympathetic nervous integrity was investigated in vivo via biodistribution of the positron emission tomography radiotracer and NE analogue [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]HED. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was evaluated by echocardiography. Plasma and cardiac NE levels and NE reuptake transporter (NET expression were evaluated as correlative measurements. Results The animal model displays insulin resistance, sustained hyperglycemia, and progressive hypoinsulinemia. After 8 weeks of persistent hyperglycemia, there was a significant 13-25% reduction in [11C]HED retention in myocardium of STZ-treated hyperglycemic but not euglycemic rats as compared to controls. There was a parallel 17% reduction in immunoblot density for NE reuptake transporter, a 1.2 fold and 2.5 fold elevation of cardiac and plasma NE respectively, and no change in sympathetic nerve density. No change in ejection fraction or fractional area change was detected by echocardiography. Reduced heart rate, prolonged mitral valve deceleration time, and elevated transmitral early to atrial flow velocity ratio measured by pulse-wave Doppler in hyperglycemic rats suggest diastolic impairment of the left ventricle. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that sustained hyperglycemia is associated with elevated myocardial NE content and dysregulation of sympathetic nervous system

  10. Usefulness of Left Ventricular Mass and Geometry for Determining 10-Year Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults Aged >65 Years (from the Cardiovascular Health Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chintan S; Bartz, Traci M; Gottdiener, John S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Gardin, Julius M

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine whether LV mass and geometry contribute to risk prediction for CVD in adults aged ≥65 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We indexed LV mass to body size, denoted as LV mass index (echo-LVMI), and we defined LV geometry as normal, concentric remodeling, and eccentric or concentric LV hypertrophy. We added echo-LVMI and LV geometry to separate 10-year risk prediction models containing traditional risk factors and determined the net reclassification improvement (NRI) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD (CHD, heart failure [HF], and stroke), and HF alone. Over 10 years of follow-up in 2,577 participants (64% women, 15% black, mean age 72 years) for CHD and CVD, the adjusted hazards ratios for a 1-SD higher echo-LVMI were 1.25 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.37), 1.24 (1.15 to 1.33), and 1.51 (1.40 to 1.62), respectively. Addition of echo-LVMI to the standard model for CHD resulted in an event NRI of -0.011 (95% CI -0.037 to 0.028) and nonevent NRI of 0.034 (95% CI 0.008 to 0.076). Addition of echo-LVMI and LV geometry to the standard model for CVD resulted in an event NRI of 0.013 (95% CI -0.0335 to 0.0311) and a nonevent NRI of 0.043 (95% CI 0.011 to 0.09). The nonevent NRI was also significant with addition of echo-LVMI for HF risk prediction (0.10, 95% CI 0.057 to 0.16). In conclusion, in adults aged ≥65 years, echo-LVMI improved risk prediction for CHD, CVD, and HF, driven primarily by improved reclassification of nonevents.

  11. Repair of acutely injured spinal cord through constructing tissue-engineered neural complex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Yu; GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WU Si-yu; XING Shu-xing; ZHANG Zhong-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct tissue-engineered neural complex in vitro and study its effect in repairing acutely injured spinal cord in adult rats. Methods: Neural stem cells were harvested from the spinal cord of embryo rats and propagated in vitro. Then the neural stem cells were seeded into polyglycolic acid scaffolds and co-cultured with extract of embryonic spinal cord in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the microstructure of this complex. Animal model of spine semi-transection was made and tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted by surgical intervention. Six weeks after transplantation, functional evaluation and histochemistry were applied to evaluate the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction. Results: The tissue-engineered neural complex had a distinct structure, which contained neonatal neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted into the injured spinal cord, the cell components such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, could survive and keep on developing. The adult rats suffering from spinal cord injury got an obvious neurological recovery in motor skills. Conclusions: The tissue-engineered neural complex appears to have therapeutic effects on the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction of the adult rats with spinal cord injury.

  12. Radiation Sterilization of Green Tea Has No Effect on Its Beneficial Activity in Adult Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effects of drinking green tea (GT) extract (made from non-irradiated or irradiated GT leaves) on certain physiological and biochemical parameters in adult rats were measured. Rats (n = 10 per treatment group) drank either water or GT extract (hot water extract of GT leaves that were either non-irradiated or irradiated at 10, 20 or 30 kGy) ad libitum for 5 week duration of the test. Neither control nor- irradiated GT extract had any effect on body wt, total body wt gain or relative internal organs wt. Both control and irradiated GT extract had beneficial effects on total plasma lipids. Consumption of GT extract (made from leaves irradiated to doses of 0, 10, 20 or 30 kGy) lowered blood glucose level by 24.3 %, 25.7 %, 24.3 % and 24.1 % respectively, compared to the control group that received only water (glucose in water control groups 107 mg dl ). The corresponding values for blood cholesterol were reduced by 23.0 %, 22.6 %, 21.3 % and 21.3 %, respectively, compared to the water control group (= 115.17 mg dl-1). The present study indicates that consumption of GT extract, either control or irradiated, raised the high density lipoprotein cholesterol in adult rats and subsequently lowered the atherogenic index. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that consumption of GT extracts, from either control or irradiated GT leaves, beneficially affects the heart risk factors of disease in adult rats

  13. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-hua; SHI Hong-mei; LIU Tong-tong; XUYing-chun; YE Kang-ping; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background As the widespread use of electric devices in modern life,human are exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) much more frequently than ever.Over the past decades,a substantial number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that ELF MF (50 Hz) exposure is associated with increased risk of various health effects.The present study examined the effects of chronic exposure to ELF MF on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats.Methods The 50-Hz ELF MF was used during the whole experimental procedures and the value of magnetic field (MF)was set to 2 mT.Adult rats were divided randomly to control,MF 1 hour and MF 4 hours group.Anxiety-related behaviors were examined in the open field test and the elevated plus maze; changes in spatial learning and memory were determined in Morris water maze after 4 weeks of daily exposure.Results Rats in MF 4 hours group had increased anxiety-like behaviors with unaltered locomotor activity.In the Morris water maze test,rats had reduced latency to find the hidden platform and improved long-term memory of former location of platform without changes in short-term memory and locomotor activity.Conclusion Chronic ELF MF exposure has anxiogenic effect on rats,and the promoting effects on spatial learning and long-term retention of spatial memory.

  14. Evaluating the Effect of Vitamins E and C on Sexual Cell Lineages in Adult Male Rats under Oxidative Stress Induced by Endosulfan Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    yazdan heydari; shirzad hosseini; mojtaba keshavarz; ahmad mozafar; mohammadhasaan meshkibaf; mohammadali takhshid

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Endosulfan is one of the strong insecticides used in agriculture. This toxin is absorbed by inhalation and skin. Endosulfan has side effects such as infertility in men. This study surveys the effect of vitamins E and C on  preventing the harmful effects of Endosulfan on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: Adult male rats (200-250 g) from Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats. Rats in the experimental group...

  15. Induction of abnormal oocyte division under the constant light in the young adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Fangxiong Shi

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of constant light on the ovary, 12 young adult female rats were exposed to constant light for 37 days and their estrous cycles were recorded by daily examination and the ovaries were examined histologically. The results showed that constant light induced in an abnormal and uncontrolled division of oocytes. In these divided-oocyte follicles (DOFs), two or more divided-oocytes shared one zona pellucida and usually floated freely in the follicular antrum. This fantastic phenomenon was discovered for the first time, and it was different from multioocyte follicles (MOFs) and polyovular follicles (POFs) founded in rats, humans, rabbits, mice and dogs.

  16. Comparison of airway measurements during influenza-induced tachypnea in infant and adult cotton rats

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    Prince Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected infant cotton rats. We hypothesized that age-dependent differences in lung mechanics result in differences in ventilatory characteristics following influenza infection. Methods Lung tidal volume, dynamic elastance, resistance, and pleural pressure were measured in a resistance and compliance system on mechanically-ventilated anesthestized young (14–28 day old and adult (6–12 week old cotton rats. Animals at the same age were infected with influenza virus, and breathing rates and other respiratory measurements were recorded using a whole body flow plethysmograph. Results Adult cotton rats had significantly greater tidal volume (TV, and lower resistance and elastance than young animals. To evaluate the impact of this increased lung capacity and stiffening on respiratory disease, young and adult animals were infected intra-nasally with influenza A/Wuhan/359/95. Both age groups had increased respiratory rate and enhanced pause (Penh during infection, suggesting lower airway obstruction. However, in spite of significant tachypnea, the infant (unlike the adult cotton rats maintained the same tidal volume, resulting in an increased minute volume. In addition, the parameters that contribute to Penh were different: while relaxation time between breaths and time of expiration was decreased in both age groups, a disproportionate increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flow contributed to the increase in Penh in infant animals. Conclusion While respiratory rate is increased in both adult and infant influenza-infected cotton rats, the volume of air exchanged per minute (minute volume is

  17. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes.

  18. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  19. Efeitos da administração de beta-bloqueador na remodelação ventricular induzida pelo tabagismo em ratos Efectos de la administración de betabloqueante en la remodelación ventricular inducida por el tabaquismo en ratas Effects of the administration of beta-blockers on ventricular remodeling induced by cigarette smoking in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella R. Duarte

    2009-06-01

    /kg/día. Tras dos meses, los animales fueron sometidos a estudio ecocardiográfico y morfométrico. Se empleó el análisis de varianza (ANOVA de una vía (promedio ± desviación estándar o Kruskal-Wallis (mediana e intervalo intercuartil. RESULTADOS: El Grupo BB presentó menor frecuencia cardiaca que el Grupo F (C = 358 ± 74 lpm, F = 374 ± 53 lpm, BB = 297 ± 30; P = 0,02. El Grupo F presentó mayores diámetros diastólicos (C = 18,6 ± 3,4 mm/kg, F = 22,8 ± 1,8 mm/kg, BB = 21,7 ± 1,8 mm/kg; P = 0,003 y sistólicos (C = 8,6 ± 2,1 mm/kg, F = 11,3 ± 1,3 mm/kg, BB = 9,9 ± 1,2 mm/kg; P = 0,004 del ventrículo izquierdo (VI, ajustado al peso corporal (PC y tendencia de menor fracción de eyección (C = 0,90 ± 0,03, F = 0,87 ± 0,03, BB =0,90 ± 0,02; P = 0,07 que el Grupo C. El Grupo BB presentó tendencia de menor relación VI/PC que el Grupo F (C = 1,94 (1,87 - 1,97, F = 2,03 (1,9-2,1 mg/g, BB = 1,89 (1,86-1,94; P = 0,09. CONCLUSIÓN: La administración de propranolol atenuó algunas variables de la remodelación ventricular inducida por la exposición al humo del cigarrillo en ratas.BACKGROUND: The role of the adrenergic system on ventricular remodeling induced by cigarette smoking is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of propranolol on ventricular remodeling induced by exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: 1 C, n=10 - control group; 2 F, n=10 - animals exposed to tobacco smoke; 3 BB, n=10 - animals receiving propranolol and exposed to tobacco smoke (40 mg/kg/day. After 2 months, the animals underwent echocardiographic and morphometric analyses. One-way ANOVA (mean ± standard deviation or the Kruskal-Wallis test (median and interquartile interval was used. RESULTS: Group BB showed a lower heart rate than group F (C = 358 ± 74 bpm, F = 374 ± 53 bpm, BB = 297 ± 30; P = 0.02. Group F showed greater end-diastolic diameters (C = 18.6 ± 3.4 mm/kg, F = 22.8 ± 1.8 mm/kg, BB = 21.7 ± 1.8 mm/kg; P = 0.003 and left

  20. A Method to Isolate Viable Schwann Cells from Adult Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction Schwann cells (SCs) are the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, which play an important role for repairing nerve injuries and demyelination diseases. The ability to generate large numbers of viable SCs in a short period of time from adult peripheral nerves makes them potential candidates for the clinical application of cell transplantation to enhance remyelination in human demyelinating disease and repair nerve damage. Previously most methods to isolate SCs are not clinically accept...

  1. Self-administration of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellner, Candice A; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-10-01

    Although smoking initiation typically occurs during adolescence, most preclinical studies of tobacco use involve adult animals. Furthermore, their focus is largely on nicotine alone, even though cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether aqueous constituents in cigarette smoke affect acquisition of nicotine self-administration during adolescence in rats. Adolescent and adult male rats, aged postnatal day (P) 25 and 85, respectively, were food trained on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule, then allowed to self-administer one of 5 doses of nicotine (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, or 30 μg/kg) or aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with equivalent nicotine content. Three progressively more difficult schedules of reinforcement, FR1, FR2, and FR5, were used. Both adolescent and adult rats acquired self-administration of nicotine and CSE. Nicotine and CSE similarly increased non-reinforced responding in adolescents, leading to enhanced overall drug intake as compared to adults. When data were corrected for age-dependent alterations in non-reinforced responding, adolescents responded more for low doses of nicotine and CSE than adults at the FR1 reinforcement schedule. No differences in adolescent responding for the two drugs were seen at this schedule, whereas adults had fewer responses for CSE than for nicotine. However, when the reinforcement schedule was increased to FR5, animals dose-dependently self-administered both nicotine and CSE, but no drug or age differences were observed. These data suggest that non-nicotine tobacco smoke constituents do not influence the reinforcing effect of nicotine in adolescents. PMID:27346207

  2. Ventricular dilation and elevated aqueductal pulsations in a new experimental model of communicating hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagshul, M.; Smith, S.; Wagshul, M.; McAllister, J.P.; Rashid, S.; Li, J.; Egnor, M.R.; Walker, M.L.; Yu, M.; Smith, S.D.; Zhang, G.; Chen, J.J.; Beneveniste, H.

    2009-03-01

    In communicating hydrocephalus (CH), explanations for the symptoms and clear-cut effective treatments remain elusive. Pulsatile flow through the cerebral aqueduct is often significantly elevated, but a clear link between abnormal pulsations and ventriculomegaly has yet to be identified. We sought to demonstrate measurement of pulsatile aqueductal flow of CSF in the rat, and to characterize the temporal changes in CSF pulsations in a new model of CH. Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the basal cisterns of adult rats (n = 18). Ventricular volume and aqueductal pulsations were measured on a 9.4 T MRI over a one month period. Half of the animals developed ventricular dilation, with increased ventricular volume and pulsations as early as one day post-induction, and marked chronic elevations compared to intact controls (volume: 130.15 {+-} 83.21 {mu}l vs. 15.52 {+-} 2.00 {mu}l; pulsations: 114.51 nl {+-} 106.29 vs. 0.72 {+-} 0.13 nl). Similar to the clinical presentation, the relationship between ventricular size and pulsations was quite variable. However, the pulsation time-course revealed two distinct sub-types of hydrocephalic animals: those with markedly elevated pulsations which persisted over time, and those with mildly elevated pulsations which returned to near normal levels after one week. These groups were associated with severe and mild ventriculomegaly respectively. Thus, aqueductal flow can be measured in the rat using high-field MRI and basal cistern-induced CH is associated with an immediate change in CSF pulsatility. At the same time, our results highlight the complex nature of aqueductal pulsation and its relationship to ventricular dilation.

  3. Impairment in Spatial Memory in adult Rats following developmental Low Lead Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Rao Barkur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of environmentally relevant levels of lead exposure during gestational and early postnatal period on hippocampal dependent spatial memory in rats during adulthood. The pregnant rats were allowed to drink either normal water (control group or 0.2% lead acetate solution (Leadtreated group during pregnancy and lactation. Thus rats pups of lead treated group where exposed to lead indirectly through their mothers during this period. At weaning pups of lead treated group were allowed to drink normal water till they attain the adult hood. Blood lead level was estimated on postnatal day 22 and 120. Birth weight and weight gain of the rat pups as they grew were measured at regular intervals. Both the control and lead treated groups of rats were subjected to water maze test on postnatal day 30 and 120. Results showed that lead treatment had no effect on birth weight or weight gain. Blood lead level on postnatal day 22 was significantly high in treated group compared to the control group and it was normalized by end of four months. The rats born to lead treated mothers showed impaired in spatial memory during water maze test both on postnatal day 36 and 126. These data suggests that exposure to environmentally relevant levels of lead during intrauterine and early postnatal period of brain development causes impairment in spatial memory not only during infancy but also lasts till adulthood.

  4. Temporal Expression of Mutant LRRK2 in Adult Rats Impairs Dopamine Reuptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Weimin C Hong, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu-Gang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2 gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2G2019S in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time.

  5. Differential effects of magnetic field exposure from domestic power supply on loco motor and exploratory behavior of an adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we have examined the low intense magnetic field exposed on adult rats to understand effect of several behavioral parameters. The rats are tested in the open field and spontaneous alternation task after either a single or chronic exposure to the magnetic field. We found that magnetic field exposure had no effect on locomotor behavior in the adult. However, the exploratory behavior of adult rats in the open field was significantly affected. Indeed, we found a consistent increase in behavior performance viz. exploration time and number of exploration events in rats exposed to magnetic field. Our results demonstrate behavioral changes after magnetic field exposure in adult subjects. This also suggests possible deleterious effects of magnetic field exposure in the brain. (author)

  6. Micro-CT analysis of myocardial blood supply in young and adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2009-02-01

    This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20μm on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320μm in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adult rats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.

  7. Retrograde Labeling of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells with the Flurogold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Huang; Yannian Hui; Miaoli Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the densities and distribution of retinal ganglion cells(RGC) in adult rat retinae with flurogold(FG) labeling retogradely.Methods: FG was injected to the superior colliculi(SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei (dLGN) in adult rats and the retinae were examined by fluorescence microscopy at various periods of time.Results: FG-labelled RGC were observed in the retina as early as 3 days after application of FG. The labelled cells gradually increased in density, reached 95% of the maximal number on days 7 and the maximal number on days 30. The density of labelled cells was higher in the posterior pole than in the peripheral area. The fluorescence intensity in labelled cells maintained up to 60 days.Conclusion: The FG retrograde labeling method is reliable and effective for quantity of RGC. Eye Science 2000; 16:29 ~ 33.

  8. Retrograde Labeling of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells with the Flurogold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiHuang; YannianHui; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To study the densities and distribution of retinal ganglion cells(RGC) in adult rat retinae with flurogold(FG) labeling retogradely.Methods:FG was injected to the superior colliculid(SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei(dLGN) in adult rats and the retinae were examined by fluorescence microscopy at various periods of time.Results:FG-labelled RGC were observed in the retina as early as 3 days after application of FG.The labeled cells gradually increased in density,reached 95% of the maximal number on days 7 and the maximal nuber on days 30.The density of labeled cells was higher in the posterior pole than in the peripheral area.The fluorescence intensity in labeled cells maintained up to 60 days.Conclusion:The FG retrograde labeling method is reliable and effective for quantity of RGC.Eye Science 2000;46:29-33.

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of glutamate transporter EAAC1 in the brainstem of adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-xing; LIU Tao; ZHAO Jing-wei; LI Jin-lian; DONG Yu-lin; LI Ji-shuo

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the distribution of EAAC1, a subtype of glutamate transporters, in the brainstem of adult rat. Methods: Immunocytochemical staining with avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method was employed. Results:EAAC1 was widely distributed throughout the brainstem. In many regions, the EAAC1-like immunoreactivity was primarily distributed in the neuropil. Cell body staining was observed in the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus, external cortex of the inferior colliculus, red nucleus, substantia nigra, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, ventral tegmental nucleus, superior olivary complex, nucleus of the trapezoid body, cochlear nucleus, sensory trigeminal complex, Barrington's nucleus,trigeminal motor nucleus, parabrachial nuclei, dorsal nucleus of vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, locus coeruleus, lateral and superior vestibular nuclei, lateral paragigantocellular nucleus and dorsal paragigantocellular nucleus. Conclusion: Glutamate transporter EAAC 1 is widely distributed throughout the brainstem of adult rat, which may play an important role in excitatory activities of the neurons induced by glutamate.

  10. Lactogenic and Cytogenetic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Adult Male Rats and Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid A. Abbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic and cytogenic effects were studied for Ochratoxin (OTA dosed daily orally throughout lactation period to four groups each consist of newly parturated female rats at doses (0, 60, 120, 180 µg/Kg. BW representing control, T1, T2, T3 group. Micronucleus test results indicated significant increase in number of fragmented and budding nuclei of T1, T2, T3 adult rat bone marrow in dose dependent manner in comparison with control group. The lactating results show no significant change in weekly pup group’s weight gain or length throughout lactating period. Alough there were no changes recorded in viability index of all pups groups, lactating index recorded considerable decline in T1, T2, T3 pups groups according with their adult OTA doses with maximum pups death at the third lactating week. Different histopathological lesions observed in pups liver, kidney and spleen that increase in severity proportionally with their OTA mother doses.

  11. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  12. Toxicity Induced after Subchronic Administration of the Synthetic Food Dye Tartrazine in Adult Rats, Role of Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Narges El Golli; Ines Bini-Dhouib; Aicha Jrad; Imene Boudali; Basma Nasri; Nadia Belhadjhmida; Saloua El Fazaa

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxic potential of tartrazine, a food color, in different tissues in adult rat: blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen. Tartrazine was administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight to adult male Wistar rats during a period of 30 days. Tartrazine treatment led to an increase in platelets count, a reduction in peripheral lymphocytes and in spleen T CD8-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tartrazine increased the activities of hepatocellular enzymes a...

  13. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure induces long-lasting learning impairment, less anxiety-like response and hippocampal injury in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kuo-Ching; Fan, Lir-Wan; Kaizaki, Asuka; Pang, Yi; Cai, Zhengwei; Tien, Lu-Tai

    2013-01-01

    Infection during early neonatal period has been shown to cause lasting neurological disabilities and is associated with the subsequent impairment in development of learning and memory ability and anxiety-related behavior in adults. We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in cognitive deficits in juvenile rats (P21); thus, the goal of the present study was to determine whether neonatal LPS exposure has long-lasting effects in adult rats. After an LP...

  14. Exposure to repeated maternal aggression induces depressive-like behavior and increases startle in adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2011-01-01

    The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adult female rats. Adult (pos...

  15. Differentiation of endogenous neural precursors following spinal cord injury in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhao; Hua Han; Shuanke Wang; Bingren Gao; Zhengyi Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that cell death can activate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and promote newly generated cells to migrate to a lesion site.OBJECTIVE:To observe regeneration and differentiation of neural cells following spinal cord injury in adult rats and to quantitatively analyze the newly differentiated cells.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A cell biology experiment was performed at the Institute of Orthopedics and Medical Experimental Center,Lanzhou University.between August 2005 and October 2007.MATERIALS:Fifty adult,Wistar rats of both sexes;5-bromodeoxyuridine(BrdU,Sigma,USA);antibodies against neuron-specific enolase,glial fibrillary acidic protein,and myelin basic protein(Chemicon,USA).METHODS:Twenty-five rats were assigned to the spinal cord injury group and received a spinal cord contusion injury.Materials were obtained at day 1,3,7,15,and 29 after injury,with 5 rats for each time point.Twenty-five rats were sham-treated by removing the lamina of the vertebral arch without performing a contusion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The phenotype of BrdU-labeled cells,i.e.,expression and distribution of surface markers for neurons(neuron-specific enolase),astrocytes(glial fibrillary acidic protein),and oligodendrocytes(myelin basic protein),were identified with immunofluorescence double-labeling.Confocal microscopy was used to detect double-labeled cells by immunofluorescence.Quantitative analysis of newly generated cells was performed with stereological counting methods.RESULTS:There was significant cell production and differentiation after adult rat spinal cord injury.The quantity of newly-generated BrdU-labeled cells in the spinal cord lesion was 75-fold greater than in the corresponding area of control animals.Endogenous neural precursor cells differentiated into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes,however spontaneous neuronal difierentiation was not detected.Between 7 and 29 d after spinal cord injury,newly generated cells expressed increasingly more

  16. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. ► Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. ► Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. ► Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P 0.05). Upstream of Bax substance parallel to down-regulation of PCNA demonstrate that ghrelin may prevent massive accumulation of germ cells during normal spermatogenesis. These observations also indicate that ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats and could be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors.

  17. Methylmercury chloride damage to the adult rat hippocampus cannot be detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyan Lu; Jinwei Wu; Guangyuan Cheng; Jianying Tian; Zeqing Lu; Yongyi Bi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that methylmercury can damage hippocampal neurons and accord-ingly cause cognitive dysfunction. However, a non-invasive, safe and accurate detection method for detecting hippocampal injury has yet to be developed. This study aimed to detect methylmer-cury-induced damage on hippocampal tissue using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats were given a subcutaneous injection of 4 and 2 mg/kg methylmercury into the neck for 50 consecutive days. Water maze and pathology tests confirmed that cognitive function had been impaired and that the ultrastructure of hippocampal tissue was altered after injection. The results of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-acetyl aspartate/creatine, choline complex/creatine and myoinositol/creatine ratio in rat hippocampal tissue were unchanged. Therefore, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can not be used to determine structural damage in the adult rat hippocampus caused by methylmercury chloride.

  18. Low-intensity treadmill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis in adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Jin Kwon; Jeongsook Park; So Yun Park; Kwang Seop Song; Sun Tae Jung; So Bong Jung; Ik Ryeul Park; Wan Sung Choi; Sun Ok Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region responsible for learning and memory functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise and bright light exposure on neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in adult rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, exercise, light, or exercise + light groups (n = 9 per group). The rats in the exercise group were subjected to treadmill exercise (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, over a 4-week period), the light group rats were irradiated (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, 10 000 lx, over a 4-week period), the exercise + light group rats were subjected to treadmill exercise in combination with bright light exposure, and the control group rats remained sedentary over a 4-week period. Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats in the exercise, light, and exercise + light groups. Moreover, the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly higher in the exercise group and light group than that in the control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression between the control group and exercise + light group. These results indicate that low-intensity treadmill exercise (first 5 minutes at a speed of 2 m/min, second 5 minutes at a speed of 5 m/min, and the last 20 minutes at a speed of 8 m/min) or bright-light exposure therapy induces positive biochemical changes in the brain. In view of these findings, we propose that moderate exercise or exposure to sunlight during childhood can be beneficial for neural development.

  19. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  20. Effects of Neonatal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure on Cognitive, Emotional, and Motor Function in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick A Forcelli; Kozlowski, Ryan; Snyder, Charles; Kondratyev, Alexei; Gale, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potent proapoptotic effect of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in developmental rodent models, little is known about the long-term impact of exposure during brain development. Clinically, this is of growing concern. To determine the behavioral consequences of such exposure, we examined phenobarbital, phenytoin, and lamotrigine for their effects on adult behaviors after administration to neonatal rats throughout the second postnatal week. AED treatment from postnatal days 7 to 13...

  1. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  2. Investigation of curcumin effects on liver tissue in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra khodaparast; ali reza yousofi; ameneh khoshvagti

    2014-01-01

     Background & Objective: Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic drug that has many clinical uses in cancer treatment, but it has toxic effects due to creation of free radicals. In this study, the effects of curcumin" as an antioxidant drug” on liver tissue was investigated. Materials & methods: 50 wistar adult male rats were selected randomly and were divided in to five groups including control, sham (receiving normal saline and olive oil), cyclophosp...

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bones in adult rats by repeated intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel (taxol) using radioisotope EDXRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Y. E-mail: yozdemir25@yahoo.com; Iyiguen, Ibrahim; Durak, Ridvan

    2003-05-15

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of right back leg bone samples taken from adult female rats administered paclitaxel (taxol) was carried out using standard addition method. Because qualitative and quantitative data analysis of rat bone samples is not found in the literature, comparison was not made with other experimental results. Our experimental results are presented and discussed in this study.

  4. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats : walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, [No Value; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the scia

  5. Effects of Estradiol and Methoxychlor on Leydig Cell Regeneration in the Adult Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2. Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control, 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7–15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms.

  6. Effects of estradiol and methoxychlor on Leydig cell regeneration in the adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingbing; Chen, Dongxin; Jiang, Zheli; Li, Jingyang; Liu, Shiwen; Dong, Yaoyao; Yao, Wenwen; Akingbemi, Benson; Ge, Renshan; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-05-06

    The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC) exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2). Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control), 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7-15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms.

  7. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  8. Basic fibroblast growth factor protects against excitotoxicity and chemical hypoxia in both neonatal and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, P B; Henshaw, R; Weise, J; Trubetskoy, V; Finklestein, S; Schulz, J B; Beal, M F

    1995-07-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a polypeptide growth factor that promotes neuronal survival. We recently found that systemic administration of bFGF protects against both excitotoxicity and hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal animals. In the present study, we examined whether systemically administered bFGF could prevent neuronal death induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or chemical hypoxia induced by intrastriatal injection of malonate in adult rats and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in neonatal rats. Systemic administration of bFGF (100 micrograms/kg) for three doses both before and after intrastriatal injection of either NMDA or malonate in adult rats produced a significant neuroprotective effect. In neonatal rats, bFGF produced dose-dependent significant neuroprotective effects against MPP+ neurotoxicity, with a maximal protection of approximately 50% seen with either a single dose of bFGF of 300 micrograms/kg or three doses of 100 micrograms/kg. These results show that systemic administration of bFGF is effective in preventing neuronal injury under circumstances in which the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, raising the possibility that this strategy could be effective in stroke.

  9. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bockeria O.L.; Lе T.G.

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a hereditary cardiomyopathy characterized by structural and functional disorders in the right ventricle, which results in ventricular arrhythmias. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is one of the important causes of sudden cardiac death in young people and athletes. Structural disorders in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia are associated with fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the right ventricular myocardium. These changes lead t...

  10. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers’ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  11. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers′ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  12. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on thyrotropin secretion in adult and old female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones have been implicated in the modulation of TSH secretion; however, there are few and controversial data regarding the effect of progesterone (Pg on TSH secretion. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA is a synthetic alpha-hydroxyprogesterone analog that has been extensively employed in therapeutics for its Pg-like actions, but that also has some glucocorticoid and androgen activity. Both hormones have been shown to interfere with TSH secretion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of MPA or Pg administration to ovariectomized (OVX rats on in vivo and in vitro TSH release and pituitary TSH content. The treatment of adult OVX rats with MPA (0.25 mg/100 g body weight, sc, daily for 9 days induced a significant (P<0.05 increase in the pituitary TSH content, which was not observed when the same treatment was used with a 10 times higher MPA dose or with Pg doses similar to those of MPA. Serum TSH was similar for all groups. MPA administered to OVX rats at the lower dose also had a stimulatory effect on the in vitro basal and TRH-induced TSH release. The in vitro basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release was not significantly affected by Pg treatment. Conversely, MPA had no effect on old OVX rats. However, in these old rats, ovariectomy alone significantly reduced (P<0.05 basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release in vitro, as well as pituitary TSH content. The results suggest that in adult, but not in old OVX rats, MPA but not Pg has a stimulatory effect on TSH stores and on the response to TRH in vitro.

  13. Bi-layered polyurethane - Extracellular matrix cardiac patch improves ischemic ventricular wall remodeling in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, Antonio; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Luketich, Samuel K; Wolf, Matthew T; Gu, Xinzhu; Cammarata, Marcello; Hoff, Richard; Badylak, Stephen F; Wagner, William R

    2016-11-01

    As an intervention to abrogate ischemic cardiomyopathy, the concept of applying a temporary, local patch to the surface of the recently infarcted ventricle has been explored from a number of design perspectives. Two important features considered for such a cardiac patch include the provision of appropriate mechanical support and the capacity to influence the remodeling pathway by providing cellular or biomolecule delivery. The objective of this report was to focus on these two features by first evaluating the incorporation of a cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) component, and second by evaluating the impact of patch anisotropy on the pathological remodeling process initiated by myocardial infarction. The functional outcomes of microfibrous, elastomeric, biodegradable cardiac patches have been evaluated in a rat chronic infarction model. Ten weeks after infarction and 8 wk after patch epicardial placement, echocardiographic function, tissue-level structural remodeling (e.g., biaxial mechanical response and microstructural analysis), and cellular level remodeling were assessed. The results showed that the incorporation of a cardiac ECM altered the progression of several keys aspects of maladaptive remodeling following myocardial infarction. This included decreasing LV global mechanical compliance, inhibiting echocardiographically-measured functional deterioration, mitigating scar formation and LV wall thinning, and promoting angiogenesis. In evaluating the impact of patch anisotropy, no effects from the altered patch mechanics were detected after 8 wk, possibly due to patch fibrous encapsulation. Overall, this study demonstrates the benefit of a cardiac patch design that combines both ventricle mechanical support, through a biodegradable, fibrillary elastomeric component, and the incorporation of ECM-based hydrogel components. PMID:27579776

  14. Experimental Study on Anti Rat Ventricular Arrhythmia Effect of Bupleurum plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell Cardioversion Decoction%柴胡加龙牡复律汤抗大鼠室性心律失常的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏程远; 陈云; 刘云云; 程丑夫

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy of Bupleurum plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell Cardioversion Decoction on drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias in rats, and to study its functional mechanism. Methods: WiStar rats were randomly divided into control group, propafenone positive control group and Bupleurum plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell Cardioversion Decoction group, 10 rats in each, with preventive treatments for a week, and after 30 minutes of the last administration, rat models experimental arrhythmia was induced by barium chloride; the time when the rats appeared ventricular arrhythmias in-cluding of ventricular pacing (VPB), ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF), and the survival time of rats were record. Results: Compared with the blank control group, propafenone positive control group and Bupleurum plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell Cardioversion Decoction group could prolong rats VPB and VT (or VF) time (P0.05); and Bupleurum plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell Car-dioversion Decoction group could reduce the arrhythmia duration and survival time and extend the rats had significant differ-ence (P0.05);与普罗帕酮阳性对照组比较,柴胡加龙牡复律汤组可降低心律失常持续时间和延长大鼠的存活时间,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:柴胡加龙牡复律汤对氯化钡诱发实验性大鼠室性心律失常具有较好的拮抗作用;可推迟氯化钡致大鼠发生VPB和VT(或VF)的时间并缩短大鼠心律失常的持续时间。

  15. Ω3 Supplementation and Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Induce Cardioprotection Enhancing Antioxidant Mechanisms in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Herrera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH is linked with oxidative stress, impairing cardiac function. However, early IH also activate cardio-protective mechanisms. Omega 3 fatty acids (Ω3 induce cardioprotection by reducing infarct size and reinforcing antioxidant defenses. The aim of this work was to determine the combined effects of IH and Ω3 on cardiac function; oxidative balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups: normobaric normoxia (N; N + Ω3 (0.3 g·kg−1·day−1; IH; and IH + Ω3. IH was induced by 4 intercalate periods of hypoxia (4 days—normoxia (4 days in a hypobaric chamber during 32 days. At the end of the exposure, hearts were mounted in a Langendorff system and subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In addition, we determined HIF-1α and ATP levels, as well as oxidative stress by malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine quantification. Further, the expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was determined. NF-kappaB and myeloperoxidase levels were assessed in the hearts. Relative to N hearts, IH improved left ventricular function (Left ventricular developed pressure: N; 21.8 ± 3.4 vs. IH; 42.8 ± 7.1 mmHg; p < 0.05; reduced oxidative stress (Malondialdehyde: N; 14.4 ± 1.8 vs. IH; 7.3 ± 2.1 μmol/mg prot.; p < 0.05; and increased antioxidant enzymes expression. Supplementation with Ω3 induces similar responses as IH group. Our findings suggest that both, IH and Ω3 in an independent manner, induce functional improvement by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, establishing cardio-protection.

  16. Differential expression of TRPM7 in rat hepatoma and embryonic and adult hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, D Hung; Grant, Caroline E; Hill, Ceredwyn E

    2012-04-01

    TRPM7 channels are implicated in cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. However, a profile of TRPM7 activity in a specific cell type has not been determined from embryonic to terminally differentiated state. Here, we characterized TRPM7 expression in a spectrum of rat liver cells at different developmental stages. Using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, TRPM7-like Na(+) currents were identified in RLC-18 cells, a differentiated, proliferating hepatocellular line derived from day 17 embryonic rat liver. Currents were outwardly rectifying, enhanced in divalent-free solutions, and inhibited by intracellular Mg(2+). Reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that RLC-18 cells express both TRPM6 and TRPM7. However, mean currents were reduced almost 80% by 1 mmol/L 2-aminoethoxyphenylborate (2-APB) and were abolished in RLC-18 cells heterologously expressing a dominant negative TRPM7 construct, suggesting that TRPM7 is the major current carrier in these cells. Functional comparison showed that relative to terminally differentiated adult rat hepatocytes, currents were 1.8 and 3.9 times higher in, respectively, RLC-18 and WIF-B cells, a rat hepatoma - human fibroblast cross. Our results demonstrate that plasma membrane TRPM7 channels are more highly expressed in proliferating cells as compared with terminally differentiated and nondividing rat hepatocytes and suggest that downregulation of this channel is associated with hepatocellular differentiation. PMID:22429021

  17. Avaliação ecocardiográfica evolutiva do infarto do miocárdio em ratos jovens e adultos Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial infarction evolution in young and adult rats

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    Francisco Cesar Pabis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A regeneração dos cardiomiócitos após o infarto do miocárdio (IM é mais evidente em animais jovens; entretanto, não se sabe se é acompanhada de melhora funcional. OBJETIVO: Realizar a análise funcional pela ecocardiografia (eco de ratos jovens e adultos submetidos a IM. MÉTODOS: Setenta e dois animais foram incluídos no estudo: 35 ratos jovens (grupo J com 28 dias, e 37 ratos adultos (grupo A com 153 dias. Os ratos foram subdivididos em dois subgrupos: infartado (JI e AI e controle (JC e AC. Os animais foram avaliados por meio de ecocardiograma no 7º e 30º dias de pós-operatório para análise da fração de ejeção (FE e dos volumes sistólico (VSF e diastólico (VDF finais do ventrículo esquerdo. Foram incluídos no grupo de estudo somente animais com FE menor que 40%. RESULTADOS: Na comparação dos VDF e VSF entre infartados e controles, observou-se aumento significativo nos animais adultos infartados nas duas fases analisadas. Nos animais jovens, apenas o VSF, no 7º dia, foi significativamente maior. Na evolução intragrupo, observou-se aumento do VDF e do VSF nos dois subgrupos jovens, proporcional ao crescimento, e somente aumento do VDF no grupo adulto infartado. Houve melhora da FE nos ratos jovens, enquanto nos ratos adultos a FE permaneceu diminuída em relação aos controles. CONCLUSÃO: Os ratos jovens infartados apresentaram melhora da função sistólica e dos volumes ventriculares após 30 dias do infarto, enquanto nos ratos adultos houve aumento do VDF sem melhora da função sistólica.BACKGROUND: The regeneration of cardiomyocytes after a myocardial infarction (MI is more evident in young animals; however, it is not known whether it is associated with functional improvement. OBJECTIVE: To perform the functional analysis by echocardiography (echo of young adult rats submitted to MI. METHODS: Seventy-two animals were included in the study: 35 young rats (group Y that were 28 days old and 37 adult

  18. The time course of denervation-induced changes is similar in soleus muscles of adult and old rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Kosar, S.N.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Haan, A. de

    2008-01-01

    Muscle denervation is accompanied by atrophy and a decline in oxidative capacity. We investigated whether the time course of adaptations following denervation of the soleus muscle differs in adult (5 months old) and older adult (25 months old) rats. We denervated the soleus muscle of the left leg, w

  19. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  20. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  1. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert;

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain...... days after irradiation, the animals with blocked neurogenesis performed poorer than controls in a hippocampus-dependent place-recognition task, indicating that the presence of newly generated neurons may be necessary for the normal function of this brain area. The animals were never impaired...... irradiation blocked the formation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. At different time points after the termination of the irradiation procedure, the animals were tested in two tests of short-term memory that differ with respect to their dependence on hippocampal function. Eight and 21...

  2. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on peripheral nerve regeneration in adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhe-yu; LI Jian-hong; ZHENG Xing-dong; LU Chang-lin; HE Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic (GDNF) on adult peripheral nerve regeneration. Methods: Transectioned sciatic nerve in adult rats was sutured into silicone channel. GDNF or SAL solution was injected into the silicone channels during operation. Four weeks later, the effect of GDNF on axonal regeneration was evaluated by degenerative neurofiber staining and HRP retrograde tracing. Results: Compared with SAL group, the percentage of degenerative neurofiber areas decreased from 17.3% to 1.9% ( P<0.01 ) and the ratio of labeled spinal somas number was significantly increased from 43.5% to 68.3% ( P<0.01 ) in GDNF group. Conclusion: The results suggest that exogenous GDNF can obviously enhance adult peripheral nerve regeneration.

  3. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeff.davidson@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  4. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (pinfrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:21946944

  5. Influence of cryopreserved olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 殷德振; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 程志安; 杨睿; 黄霖

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cryopreserved olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) transplantation on axonal regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord injury in adult rats.Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into experimental and control groups, each group having 12 rats. The spinal cord injury was established by transecting the spinal cord at T10 level with microsurgery scissors.OECs were purified from SD rat olfactory bulb and cultured in DMEM ( Dulbecco's minimum essential medium) and cryopreserved (-120℃) for two weeks.OECs suspension[(1-1.4)×105/ul] was transplanted into transected spinal cord, while the DMEM solution was injected instead in the control group. At 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation, the rats were evaluated with climbing test and MEP ( moter evoked potentials) monitoring. The samples of spinal cord were procured and studied with histological and immunohisto chemical stainings.Results: At 6 weeks after transplantation, all of the rats in both transplanted and control groups were paraplegic, and MEPs could not be recorded. Morphology of transplanted OECs was normal, and OECs were interfused with host well. Axons could regrow into gap tissue between the spinal cords. Both OECs and regrown axons were immunoreactive for MBP. No regrown axons were found in the control group. At 12 weeks after transplantation, 2 rats (2/7) had lower extremities muscle contraction, 2 rats (2/7) had hip and/or knee active movement, and MEP of 5 rats (5/7) could be recorded in the calf in the transplantation group. None of the rats (7/ 7) in the control group had functional improvement, and none had MEPs recorded. In the transplanted group,histological and immunohistochemical methods showed the number of transplanted OECs reduced and some regrown axons had reached the end of transected spinal cord.However, no regrown axons could be seen except scar formation in the control group.Conclusions: Cryopreserved OECs could integrated with the host and

  6. Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Okesina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR, the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group. The control group A received phosphate buffered saline orally, with the aid of a cannula. 1 mL of 50% ethanol was administered orally, by a cannula, to produce the gastric lesion in group B (n = 8. And in the group C, 500 mg/kg body weight of paw paw leaf extract was administered orally, with a cannula, twelve hours after ethanol administration to the rats. This experiment lasted for twenty one consecutive days. The result showed that TBARS in gastric mucosa as an index for oxidative stress level was significantly increased after ethanol administration. CPL did not reduce significantly the levels of TBARS in the gastric mucosa. G-6-PDH activity was significantly increased in gastric mucosa after ethanol administration, but in rats treated with CPL, a reverse of G-6-PDH activity was observed. Ethanol induced a remarkable and significant decrease of GPx activity in gastric mucosa, whereas CPL induced a significant reversion of ethanol’s effect on the enzyme. The results therefore demonstrate that CPL treatment exerts antioxidant effects on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats.

  7. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  8. Ventricular torsional relation to ventricular fiber arrangement

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular torsion from helically oriented myofibers is a key parameter of cardiac performance. Physicians observing heart motion on echocardiograms, during cardiac catheterization, or in the operating room, are impressed by the twisting or rotary motion of the left ventricle during systole. Conceptually, the heart has been treated as a pressure chamber. The rotary or torsional deformation has been poorly understood by basic scientists and has lacked clinical relevance. The aim of this paper attempts to discuss about this question: Is ventricular twisting related to ventricular fiber arrangement? That is dependent to an assumed model of the left ventricular structure.

  9. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  10. Atrial – Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Panagiotopoulos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atrial and ventricular septal defect constitute the most common congenital heart disease.Aim: Τhe aim of the present retrospective study was to record data and factors that affect atrial and ventricular septal defect.Method and material: The sample study included patients of both sexes who were hospitalized with diagnosis atrial and ventricular septal defect in a Cardiac Surgery hospital of Athens. A specially constructed printed form was used for data collection, where were recorded the demographic and personal variables, the pathological, surgical, cardiology and obstetric history, the habits of adults, as well as the personal characteristics of mothers. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistical analysis.Results: The sample study consisted of 101 individuals with diagnosis atrial or ventricular Septal Defect, of which 40% were boys and 60% girls. The 70% of the sample study suffered from atrial Septal Defect and the 30% suffered from ventricular Septal Defect. Regarding age, 12% of the sample study was 0-1 years old, 35% was >1 years old, 8% was >12-18 years old and 45% over than 18 years old. Regarding educational status of the adult participants, 9% was of 0-6 years education, 22%>6 -12 years, 13%>12 years. 14% of the adult paticipants smoked, 4% consumed alcohol and 5% smoked in conjunction with alcohol. In terms of the obstetric history of the sample studied, 32% of the cases had normal birth, 4% had a twin birth and 1% had a triplet one. According to the variables related to mothers, the mean age of the mother was 30 years and 3 months, 10% were smokers at pregnancy and 3% used chemical substance and mainly hair color. Also, the results of the present study showed that individuals of 12-18 and >18 years old did not suffer from ventricular Septal Defect, whereas the infants 0-1 years old did not suffer from Atrial Septal Defect. The mean value of age at the admission in intensive care unit was 7 months (12% for the infants

  11. Application of Luxol Fast Blue staining in locating the corticospinal tract in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Guangyu Shen; Guangming Lü; Xiaosong Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for myelin staining,mordant,or the special reaction of osmic acid with lipoid is used according to different principles.The commonly used methods are classic Well staining ,classic lithium carbonate-haematine staining,fast green staining,silver staining ,etc.Luxol Fast Blue can brightly stain myelin sheath,and has certain specificity .The background can be very clean if there is proper differentiation,whereas Luxol Fast Blue is cheap and convenient to operate,thus it is an ideal staining reagent for routine myelin sheath.OBJECTIVE: To show the coricospinal tract of normal adult rats with Luxol Fast Blue shaining method.DESIGN:A repetitive measurement design.SETTINGS: Institute of Nuerobiology,Nantong University;Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University.MATERIALS: Six healthy adult male SD rats of clean dergree,weighing averagely 300 g.were provided by the experimental animal center of Nantong University.1 g/L Luxol Fast Blue solution was provided by Sigma Company;Leica CM1900 cryostat microtome by Leica Company;Leica DMR microscope by Leica Company.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Staff Room of Human Anatomy,Nantong University in May 2005.The rats were given intraperitoneal injection of combined anesthetic(2 mL/kg),then the chest was open for perfusing saline and phosphate buffer containing formamint via heart. Brain and spinal cord were removed after 1 hour then fixed,then changed to phosphate buffer(pH 7.4)containing 300 g/L saccharu at 4 ℃.and stayed overnight,tissue blocks at pyramid,decussation of pyramid and cervical,thoracic,lumbar and sacral segments of spinal cord were removed to prepare continuous horizontal frozen sections(30 μm) after sedimentation,the sections were dried at room temperature.The corticospinal tract of normal adult rats were shown with Luxol Fast Blue staining method,and observed under Leica DMR microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Positive fibers in

  12. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, Arash, E-mail: arashkheradmand@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dezfoulian, Omid [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alirezaei, Masoud [Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulian, Bahram [Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P < 0.01) in the ghrelin-treated group on day 10, while despite of 30% increment in the Bax level of spermatocytes in the treated rats on day 30, however, it was not statistically significant. During the experimental period, only a few spermatogonia represented Bax expression and the changes of Bax immunolabling cells were negligible upon ghrelin treatment. Likewise, there were immunostaining cells against Bcl-2 in each germ cell neither in the control nor in the treated animals. In fact

  13. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats.

  14. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  15. Early life stress enhancement of limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats: mechanistic insights.

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    Gaurav Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2-14 to either maternal separation stress (MS or control brief early handling (EH, underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU. Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts and dentate gyrus (DG (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting. As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05, with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p = 0.002. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life

  16. Protective effects of vitamin E and selenium on spermatogenesis in adult male rat insulin-resistant

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    Alireza Zakerabasali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease and is a multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion and insulin factional or both. In this study, the protective role of vitamin E and sodium selenite in preventing the harmful effects of insulin resistance (diabetes type 2 on spermatogenesis was studied.   Materials & Methods: Male adults (180-200 g of Wistar rats were divided into five groups, each containing 7 rats (control, sham, and three experimental groups. The rats were fed daily with water-soluble fructose (10%, mg/kg 200 of vitamin E (gavage, and 5/0 mg/kg of sodium selenite (intraperitoneal injection or both for 110 days. Subsequently, sperm parameters, levels of testosterone, LH, and daily sperm production (DSP were checked. Additionally, testicular histopathology and malondialdehyde (MDA in the testis were examined.   Results: Sperm count, sperm motility and viability, and insulin resistance in the rats decreased DSP. A significant decrease was observed in the number of Leydig cells, spermatogonia, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa in the testis of the insulin-resistant animals, whereas MDA and testosterone rose in the insulin-resistant rats. Vitamin E and sodium selenite intake reduced the levels of MDA and harmful effects of fructose on testicles, as well as sperm parameters and testicular pathology. A simultaneous intake of vitamin E and sodium selenite conferred the highest level of protection.   Conclusion: These findings suggest that vitamin E and sodium selenite can have a protective role in the testes of rats against oxidative stress induced by diabetes type 2.

  17. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  18. Ventricular septal defect (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventricular septal defect is a congenital defect of the heart, that occurs as an abnormal opening in ... wall that separates the right and left ventricles. Ventricular septal defect may also be associated with other ...

  19. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10, 100mg/kg (S100, and 260 mg/kg (S260 while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.

  20. Sugar overconsumption during adolescence selectively alters motivation and reward function in adult rats.

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    Leandro F Vendruscolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been a dramatic escalation in sugar intake in the last few decades, most strikingly observed in the adolescent population. Sugar overconsumption has been associated with several adverse health consequences, including obesity and diabetes. Very little is known, however, about the impact of sugar overconsumption on mental health in general, and on reward-related behavioral disorders in particular. This study examined in rats the effects of unlimited access to sucrose during adolescence on the motivation for natural and pharmacological rewards in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adolescent rats had free access to 5% sucrose or water from postnatal day 30 to 46. The control group had access to water only. In adulthood, rats were tested for self-administration of saccharin (sweet, maltodextrin (non-sweet, and cocaine (a potent drug of abuse using fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules, and a concentration-response curve for each substance. Adult rats, exposed or not exposed to sucrose, were tested for saccharin self-administration later in life to verify the specificity of adolescence for the sugar effects. Sugar overconsumption during adolescence, but not during adulthood, reduced the subsequent motivation for saccharin and maltodextrin, but not cocaine. This selective decrease in motivation is more likely due to changes in brain reward processing than changes in gustatory perception. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sugar overconsumption induces a developmental stage-specific chronic depression in reward processing that may contribute to an increase in the vulnerability to reward-related psychiatric disorders.

  1. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  2. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

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    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  3. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  4. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  5. Left ventricular thrombus associated with arteriovenous extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Makdisi, George; Hashmi, Zubair A; Wozniak, Thomas C.; Wang, I-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has remarkably progressed over the recent years. It has become an invaluable tool in the care of adults and pediatric patients with severe cardiogenic shock. At the initiation of ECMO support, the left ventricular contractility is profoundly impaired. Inadequate right ventricular drainage and bronchial circulation can lead to left ventricular distension, with potential deleterious consequences, ranging from inadequate myocardial rest, pulmonary edem...

  6. Gender and estrous cycle influences on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adult rats neonatally administered ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célia Moreira Borella, Vládia; Seeman, Mary V; Carneiro Cordeiro, Rafaela; Vieira dos Santos, Júnia; Romário Matos de Souza, Marcos; Nunes de Sousa Fernandes, Ethel; Santos Monte, Aline; Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Silvânia; Quinn, John P; de Lucena, David F; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in rodents triggers schizophrenia (SCZ)-like alterations during adult life. SCZ is influenced by gender in age of onset, premorbid functioning, and course. Estrogen, the hormone potentially driving the gender differences in SCZ, is known to present neuroprotective effects such as regulate oxidative pathways and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, the aim of this study was to verify if differences in gender and/or estrous cycle phase during adulthood would influence the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations in animals neonatally administered ketamine. The results showed that ketamine-treated male (KT-male) and female-in-diestrus (KTF-diestrus, the low estrogen phase) presented significant deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and spatial working memory, two behavioral SCZ endophenotypes. On the contrary, female ketamine-treated rats during proestrus (KTF-proestrus, the high estradiol phase) had no behavioral alterations. This correlated with an oxidative imbalance in the hippocampus (HC) of both male and KTF-diestrus female rats, that is, decreased levels of GSH and increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite. Similarly, BDNF was decreased in the KTF-diestrus rats while no alterations were observed in KTF-proestrus and male animals. The changes in the HC were in contrast to those in the prefrontal cortex in which only increased levels of nitrite in all groups studied were observed. Thus, there is a gender difference in the adult rat HC in response to ketamine neonatal administration, which is based on the estrous cycle. This is discussed in relation to neuropsychiatric conditions and in particular SCZ. PMID:26215537

  7. Effect of agomelatine on adult hippocampus apoptosis and neurogenesis using the stress model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Atakan; Yucel, Nermin; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Polat, Elif; Kara, Adem; Ozcan, Halil; Gulec, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Agomelatine (AG) is an agonist of melatonin receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2C-receptor subtype. The chronobiotic properties of AG are of significant interest due to the disorganization of internal rhythms, which might play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study was designed to assess the effects of the antidepressant-like activity of AG, a new antidepressant drug, on adult neurogenesis and apoptosis using stress-exposed rat brains. Over the period of 1 week, the rats were exposed to light stress twice a day for 1h. After a period of 1 week, the rats were given AG treatment at a dose of either 10mg/kg or 40mg/kg for 15 days. The animals were then scarified, and the obtained tissue sections were stained with immuno-histochemical anti-BrdU, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2 antibodies. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations were measured biochemically using a BDNF Elisa kit. Biochemical BDNF analysis revealed a high concentration of BDNF in the serum of the stress-exposed group, but the concentrations of BDNF were much lower those of the AG-treated groups. Immuno-histochemical analysis revealed that AG treatment decreased the BrdU-positive and Bcl-2-positive cell densities and increased the Caspase-3-positive cell density in the hippocampus of stress-induced rats as compared to those of the stress group. The results of the study demonstrated that AG treatment ameliorated the hippocampal apoptotic cells and increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These results also strengthen the possible relationship between depression and adult neurogenesis, which must be studied further. PMID:26970810

  8. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  9. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

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    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  10. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  11. Hemodynamic, morphometric and autonomic patterns in hypertensive rats - renin-angiotensin system modulation

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    Fernanda S. Zamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. AIMS: To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1 hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate; 2 left ventricular hypertrophy; and 3 local and systemic Renin-angiotensin system of the spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomized into two groups: young (n=13 and adult (n=12. Hemodynamic signals (blood pressure, heart rate, blood pressure variability (BPV and spectral analysis of the autonomic components of blood pressure were analyzed. LEFT ventricular hypertrophy was measured by the ratio of LV mass to body weight (mg/g, by myocyte diameter (μm and by relative fibrosis area (RFA, %. ACE and ACE2 activities were measured by fluorometry (UF/min, and plasma renin activity (PRA was assessed by a radioimmunoassay (ng/mL/h. Cardiac gene expressions of Agt, Ace and Ace2 were quantified by RT-PCR (AU. RESULTS: The time-course of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats increased BPV and reduced the alpha index in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Adult rats showed increases in left ventricular hypertrophy and in RFA. Compared to young spontaneously hypertensive rats, adult spontaneously hypertensive rats had lower cardiac ACE and ACE2 activities, and high levels of PRA. No change was observed in gene expression of Renin-angiotensin system components. CONCLUSIONS: The observed autonomic dysfunction and modulation of Renin-angiotensin system activity are contributing factors to end-organ damage in hypertension and could be interacting. Our findings suggest that the management of hypertensive disease must start before blood pressure reaches the highest stable levels and the consequent

  12. Impairment on sperm quality and fertility of adult rats after antiandrogen exposure during prepuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; Alves, Thaís Regina; de Toledo, Fabíola Choqueta; Fernandez, Carla Dal Bianco; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Klinefelter, Gary R; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of antiandrogen exposure during the prepubertal period on reproductive development and reproductive competence in adults. Male rats were divided into two groups: flutamide, receiving 25 mg/kg/day of flutamide by oral gavage and control, receiving vehicle daily. Dosing continued from PND 21 to 44, and animals were killed on PND 50 or PND 75-80. The epididymis, prostate, vas deferens and seminal vesicle weights were lower in Flutamide group on PND 50, while on PND 80 only seminal vesicle weight was reduced. Fertility assessed by IUI revealed a decrease in the fertility potential in the flutamide-treated adults. Flutamide accelerated sperm transit time through the epididymis, impairing sperm motility and storage. A quantitative analysis of the cauda sperm membrane proteome revealed a few significant changes in protein expression. Thus, exposure to flutamide during the prepubertal period compromises the function of the epididymis along with epididymal sperm quality at adulthood.

  13. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

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    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  14. Immunohistochemical distribution of Plexin A4 in the adult rat central nervous system

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    Claire-Anne Gutekunst

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available PlexinA4 is the latest member to be identified of the plexin A subfamily, critical transducers of class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilins 1 and 2. Despite functional information regarding the role of PlexinA4 in development and guidance of specific neuronal pathways, little is known about its distribution in the adult central nervous system (CNS. Here we report an in depth immunohistochemical analysis of PlexinA4 expression in the adult rat CNS. PlexinA4 staining was present in neurons and fibers throughout the brain and spinal cord, including neocortex, hippocampus, lateral hypothalamus, red nucleus, facial nucleus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. PlexinA4 antibodies labeled fibers in the lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, several thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, pontine reticular region, as well as in several cranial nerve nuclei. This constitutes the first detailed description of the topographic distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult CNS and will set the basis for future studies on the functional implications of PlexinA4 in adult brain physiology.

  15. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  16. Influence of Endurance Exercise Overloading Patterns on the Levels of Left Ventricular Catechoamines After a Bout of Lactate Threshold Test in Male Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Azad; Ghasemi; MR Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that exercise training has positive effect on catecholamine response to a given work load. But in this regard, the effective method of training needs to be studied. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks endurance exercise with two overloading patterns on the left ventricular catecholamine levels. Materials and Methods 29 ...

  17. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  18. Tei index in evaluation on left ventricular dysfunction in early phase acute myocardial infarction in rats%Tei指数评价大鼠超急性期心肌梗死左心功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蔚; 白旭东; 刘美佳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Tei指数对评价大鼠超急性期心肌梗死后左心功能的作用.方法 将健康雄性Wistar大鼠23只随机分为两组:13只予垂体后叶素腹腔注射(实验组),10只予等量生理盐水腹腔注射(对照组).建模后分别记录两组大鼠心电图,用超声心动图检测获取左心室射血分数(EF)、等容收缩时间(ICT)、射血时间(ET)及等容舒张时间(IRT),然后取心肌组织行病理检查.结果 实验组ICT、Tei指数较对照组显著增加(P<0.01).Pearson相关分析显示,ICT及Tei指数与心电图ST段抬高程度、EF相关性良好(P<0.01).结论 Tei指数及其相关参数能客观评价大鼠超急性期心肌梗死的左心功能,可作为基础研究中判断该期心功能异常的良好指标.%Objective To observe the value of Tei index in evaluation on left ventricular dysfunction in early stage of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rat. Methods A total of 23 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly classified into experimental group (n=13) and control group (n=10) , and intraperitoneal injecting of Pituitrin or saline was performed, respectively. Parameters were measured with electrocardiography, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) , isovolumetric contraction time (ICT) , ejection time (ET) and isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) were obtained with echocardiography after modeling. Then pathological examination was performed in myocardium tissue sections. Results Compared with control group, ICT and Tei index of experimental group significantly increased (P<0. 01). Pearson correlation analysis showed ICT and Tei index were well correlated with ST segment elevation and EF (P<0. 01). Conclusion Tei index and the related parameters are efficient enough to evaluate left ventricular function after rat AMI in super early period, which can be used for basic research in evaluation of cardiac function.

  19. The H{sub 1}–H{sub 2} domain of the α{sub 1} isoform of Na{sup +}–K{sup +}–ATPase is involved in ouabain toxicity in rat ventricular myocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Chen; Li, Jun-xia; Guo, Hui-cai; Zhang, Li-nan; Guo, Wei; Meng, Jing; Wang, Yong-li, E-mail: wangyongli@gmail.com

    2012-07-01

    The composition of different isoforms of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA, Na/K pump) in ventricular myocytes is an important factor in determining the therapeutic effect and toxicity of cardiac glycosides (CGs) on heart failure. The mechanism whereby CGs cause these effects is still not completely clear. In the present study, we prepared two site-specific antibodies (SSA78 and WJS) against the H{sub 1}–H{sub 2} domain of α{sub 1} and α{sub 2} isoforms of NKA in rat heart, respectively, and compared their influences on the effect of ouabain (OUA) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. SSA78 or WJS, which can specifically bind with the α{sub 1} or α{sub 2} isoform, were assessed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot and immunofluorescent staining methods. Preincubation of myocytes with SSA78 inhibited low OUA affinity pump current but not high OUA affinity pump current, reduced the rise in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), attenuated mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, and delayed the decrease of the myocardial contractile force as well as the occurrence of arrhythmic contraction induced by high concentrations (1 mM) but not low concentrations (1 μM) of OUA. Similarly, preincubation of myocytes with WJS inhibited high OUA affinity pump current, reduced the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and the contractility induced by 1 μM but not that induced by 1 mM OUA. These results indicate that the H{sub 1}–H{sub 2} domain of the NKA α{sub 1} isoform mediates OUA-induced cardiac toxicity in rat ventricular myocytes, and inhibitors for this binding site may be used as an adjunct to CGs treatment for cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► We prepared two antibodies against the H{sub 1}-H{sub 2} domain of α{sub 1} and α{sub 2} isoforms of NKA. ► The H{sub 1}-H{sub 2} domain of the NKA α{sub 1} isoform mediates OUA-induced cardiac toxicity. ► The H{sub 1}-H{sub 2

  20. Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Cavalheiro, Gabriela Finoto; de Souza, Alexsandra Vila Maior; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide.

  1. Extracellular space diffusion analysis in the infant and adult rat striatum using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuangfeng; Wang, Yan; Li, Kai; Tang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Kuo; Shi, Chunyan; Han, Hongbin; Peng, Yun

    2016-10-01

    The extracellular space (ECS) in the brain provides an extrasynaptic transfer channel among neurons, axons and glial cells. It is particularly important in the early stage after birth, when angiogenesis is not yet complete and the ECS may provide the main pathway for metabolite transport. However, the characteristics of extracellular transport remain unclear. In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was used to perform real-time visualization and quantification of diffusion in the brain ECS of infant (postnatal day 10 (P10)) and adult rats. Using a modified diffusion equation and the linear relationship between the signal intensity and the gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) concentration, diffusion parameters were obtained; these parameters include the effective diffusion coefficient (D*), clearance rate (k'), tortuosity (λ) and the volume fraction of distribution (Vd%). There were significant differences in the diffusion parameters between P10 and adult rats. This finding provides a reference for future treatment of brain diseases using drugs administered via interstitial pathways. PMID:27296518

  2. Cortical neurogenesis in adult rats after ischemic brain injury:most new neurons fail to mature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-quan Li; Guan-qun Qiao; Jun Ma; Hong-wei Fan; Ying-bin Li

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that endogenous neural progenitor cells isolated from the neocortex of ischemic brain can differentiate into neurons or glial cells and contribute to neural regeneration. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion to establish a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the cortex 1, 3, 7, 14 or 28 days after injury revealed that neural progenitor cells double-positive for nestin and sox-2 appeared in the injured cortex 1 and 3 days post-injury, and were also positive for glial ifbrillary acidic protein. New neurons were labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and different stages of maturity were identiifed using doublecortin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neuronal nuclei antigen immunohistochemistry. Immature new neurons coexpressing doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the cortex at 3 and 7 days post-injury, and semi-mature and mature new neurons double-positive for microtubule-associated protein 2 and bromode-oxyuridine were found at 14 days post-injury. A few mature new neurons coexpressing neuronal nuclei antigen and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the injured cortex 28 days post-injury. Glial ifbrillary acidic protein/bromodeoxyuridine double-positive astrocytes were also found in the injured cortex. Our ifndings suggest that neural progenitor cells are present in the damaged cortex of adult rats with cerebral ischemic brain injury, and that they differentiate into astrocytes and immature neurons, but most neurons fail to reach the mature stage.

  3. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  4. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

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    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  5. Renoprotective effects of moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats

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    Ezejindu D. N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is one of several nutritional supplements giving wide spread popularity in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats. 24 apparently healthy adult wistar rats weighing between190- 230kg were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.3ml of distilled water orally. The experimental groups B, C & D received 0.5ml, 0.6ml &0.7ml of Moringa oleifera extract orally respectively. The administration lasted for twenty one days. The animals were weighed, sacrificed using chloroform vapour. The kidney tissue were removed, weighed and trimmed down for histological studies. Result of this study showed non-distortion of the kidney cells. The findings of this study suggest that chronic Moringa oleifera consumption may not put the kidneys at risk of adverse histopathological conditions.

  6. Chronic effect of gabapentin on liver function in adult male rats.

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    Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GPN is a new antiepileptic agent currently in used as add-on therapy in adult patients suffering from partial seizures. The extent of liver damage at different dosage and long term treatment with GPN is not yet clear. Therefore this study was undertaken to find out the possibility of liver damage by this drug. Adult male (Wistar rats of 180-220 g were administered intraperitoneally with GPN (20 or 100 mg/kg for 45 days. After the experimental period, the liver function tests were carried out in control and experimental groups. The activity of liver enzymes, with 20 mg/kg of GPN were not significantly different from the control group but, the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin were enhanced significantly with 100 mg/kg of GPN. Total protein and albumin decreased in this group as compared with control animals. The histopathology of the liver parenchymal cells also showed minute foci of necrosis in a few rats treated with high dose of GPN, whereas, at therapeutic dose the histopathology and biochemical indices showed almost normal values. At therapeutic dose GPN is a safer drug with regards to liver function and hepatocellular damage as compared with other antiepileptic drugs.

  7. Effect of IL-17 expression on ventricular arrhythmias in post-myocardial infarction rats%白细胞介素-17对大鼠心肌梗死后室性心律失常的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昭喆; 赵宁; 陈志坚; 曾秋棠; 刘学刚; 张青; 刘立新; 朱云涛; 钱程; 杜以梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of IL-17 expression on ventricular arrhythmias in rats with myo-cardial infarction (MI). Method:Liquid nitrogen cryoinjury method was used in rats to establish MI model. The MI model rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, MI group, IgG group and IL-17 antibady group. Then each group was randomly divided into 3 sub-groups: 2 week, 4 week and 8 week group. Sham group was established. The first day after operation, PBS solution were intraperitoneally injected to sham group and MI group, mouse isotype IgGl and PBS to IgG group, monoclonal human IL-17 antibody and PBS to IL-17 antibady group, 5 times every 2 days. Programmed electrical stimulus was imposed on the rat hearts to induce ventricular arrhythmia (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation). The evoked electrocardiograms and evoked rates were recorded. The protein expression of IL-17 was examined by Western blot and LSCM. Result: Compared to sham group, expression of IL-17 in myocardium in MI group, IgG group and IL-17 antibody group increased obviously (P< 0. 05) at 2 weeks.,4 weeks and 8 weeks after operation. The evoked rates of ventricular arrhythmia also increased (P<0. 05). Compared to MI group and IgG group, expression of IL-17 in IL-17 group was lower (P<0. 05) , and the evoked rates decreased too (P<0. 05). While, obvious differences were not found between MI group and IgG group. Statistic analysis showed that there was a positive linear correlation between expression of IL-17 and the evoked rate (r=+0. 88, P<0. 05). Conclusion;IL-17 expression significantly increased after MI. There is a relationship between a large number of IL-17 expression and ventricular arrhythmias in rats with MI. High expression of IL-17 may induce or promote the formation of the reentrant circuit of ventricular arrhythmias in post-myocardial infarction rats.%目的:探讨大鼠心肌梗死(MI)后白细胞介素-17(IL-17)在室性心律失常发生中的作用.方法:采用液

  8. Special function of nestin+ neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuhong; Guo, Kaihua; Li, Dongpei; Yuan, Qunfang; Yao, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Nestin+ neurons have been shown to express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats. This study explored the projection of nestin+ neurons to the olfactory bulb and the time course of nestin+ neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats during injury recovery after olfactory nerve transection. This study observed that all nestin+ neurons were double-labeled with ChAT in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Approximate...

  9. A exposição crônica à fumaça do cigarro resulta em remodelação cardíaca e prejuízo da função ventricular em ratos Chronic cigarette smoke exposure results in cardiac remodeling and impaired ventricular function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édson Castardeli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as alterações cardíacas estruturais e funcionais causadas pela exposição à fumaça do cigarro em ratos. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em dois grupos: fumante (F, composto por 10 animais, expostos à fumaça do cigarro, na taxa de 40 cigarros/dia e controle (C, constituído por 10 animais não submetidos à exposição. Após 4 meses, os animais foram submetidos a estudo morfológico e funcional por meio do ecocardiograma. As variáveis estudadas foram analisadas pelo teste t ou pelo teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Os ratos fumantes apresentaram maior átrio esquerdo (F=4,2± 0,7mm; C=3,5±0,6mm; pOBJECTIVE: To determine the cardiac structural and functional alterations caused by cigarette smoke exposure in rats. METHODS: The animals were randomly distributed into the following 2 groups: 1 smokers (S, comprising 10 animals exposed to cigarette smoke at a rate of 40 cigarettes/day; and 2 control (C, comprising 10 animals not exposed to cigarette smoke. After 4 months, the animals underwent morphological and functional study with echocardiography. The variables studied were analyzed by use of the t test or the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The smoking rats had a greater left atrium (S=4.2±0.7mm; C=3.5±0.6mm; P<0.05, and greater left ventricular diastolic (S=7.9±0.7mm; C=7.2±0.5mm; P<0.05 and systolic (S=4.1±0.5; C=3.4±0.5; P<0.05 diameters. The left ventricular mass index was greater in the smoking animals (S=1.5mg/kg±0.2; C=1.3mg/kg±0.2; P<0.05, and the ejection fraction (S=0.85±0.03; C=0.89±0.03; P<0.05 and the shortening fraction (S=47.8%±3.7; C=52.7%±4.6; P<0.05 were greater in the control group. No differences were observed in the diastolic transmitral flow variables (E wave, A wave, and E/A ratio. CONCLUSION: Chronic cigarette smoke exposure results in cardiac remodeling with a decrease in ventricular functional capacity.

  10. Relation Between Parameters of Myocardial Mechanics and Ventricular Arterial Coupling: A Three-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Study in Healthy Adults

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    Esmaeilzadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the relation between ventricular-arterial coupling (VAC and myocardial mechanical parameters could offer an adjunctive perspective on left ventricular function. Objectives Our aim was to study the relation between VAC and the parameters of myocardial mechanics using three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE. Patients and Methods We studied 68 normal participants (mean age, 35 ± 12.2 y; 36 [53%] males. VAC was measured by the ratio of arterial elastance (Ea to ventricular elastance (Ees. The peak systolic value of longitudinal strain (LS, circumferential strain (CS, radial strain, three-dimensional global strain (3DGS, apical rotation, torsion, and twist and their time to peak were calculated. Results Almost all deformation indices were higher in the women than in the men. LS (r = -0.41, P < 0.01, twist (r = 0.26, P < 0.03, rotation (r = 0.41, P < 0.01, and 3DGS (r = - 0.39, P < 0.01 were associated with age. Although significant associations were found between VAC and Ea or Ees in the men and women, no relation was found between Ea and Ees in both sexes (r = 0.07 in men and r = 0.08 in women. Indeed, VAC had a stronger association with Ea than with Ees (r = 0.708 vs. r = -0.537. Ees and VAC were related to torsion (r = 0.30 vs. r = -0.37; both P < 0.05; and Ea, Ees, and VAC were also associated with CS (r = 0.64, r = -0.45, and r = 0.79; all P < 0.05 and 3DGS (r = -0.55, r = 0.38, and r = -0.64; all P < 0.01. Conclusions Amongst all myocardial mechanical parameters, VAC was related to CS and 3DGS as well as torsion.

  11. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin-induced sympathectomy in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lonce, S.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin (DHIT) is an antibody-targeted noradrenergic lesioning tool comprised of a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, conjugated to saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Noradrenergic-neuron specificity and completeness and functionality of sympathectomy were assessed. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 28.5, 85.7, 142 or 285 micrograms/kg DHIT i.v. Three days after injection, a 6% to 73% decrease in the neurons was found in the superior cervical ganglia of the animals. No loss of sensory, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, neurons was observed at the highest dose of DHIT. In contrast, the immunotoxin, 192-saporin (142 micrograms/kg), lesioned all three ganglia. To assess the sympathectomy, 2 wk after treatment (285 micrograms/kg), rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) and cannulated in the femoral artery and vein. DHIT-treated animals' basal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower than controls. Basal plasma norepinephrine levels were 41% lower in DHIT-treated animals than controls. Tyramine-stimulated release of norepinephrine in DHIT-treated rats was 27% of controls. Plasma epinephrine levels of DHIT animals were not reduced. DHIT-treated animals exhibited a 2-fold hypersensitivity to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. We conclude that DHIT selectively delivered saporin to noradrenergic neurons resulting in destruction of these neurons. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin administration produces a rapid, irreversible sympathectomy.

  12. Reduction of intraspecific aggression in adult rats by neonatal treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhães de Castro R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory control on the aggression process. According to experimental evidence, this amine also influences growth and development of the nervous tissue including serotoninergic neurons. Thus, the possibility exists that increased serotonin availability in young animals facilitates a long-lasting effect on aggressive responses. The present study aimed to investigate the aggressive behavior of adult rats (90-120 days treated from the 1st to the 19th postnatal day with citalopram (CIT, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (20 mg/kg, sc, every 3 days. Aggressive behavior was induced by placing a pair of rats (matched by weight in a box (20 x 20 x 20 cm, and submitting them to a 20-min session of electric footshocks (five 1.6-mA - 2-s current pulses, separated by a 4-min intershock interval. When compared to the control group (rats treated for the same period with equivalent volumes of saline solution, the CIT group presented a 41.4% reduction in the duration of aggressive response. The results indicate that the repeated administration of CIT early in life reduces the aggressive behavior in adulthood and suggest that the increased brain serotoninergic activity could play a role in this effect.

  13. D-methionine protects against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus of the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sneha; Kraus, Kari Suzanne; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in memory, mood, and spatial navigation. In the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus, in the subgranular zone (SGZ), new cells are generated, which differentiate and mature into new neurons. Cisplatin, a highly effective antineoplastic drug with nephrotoxic and ototoxic side effects, induces apoptosis and suppresses neurogenesis in the hippocampus leading to memory impairment. Previous studies have shown that the antioxidant D-methionine protects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity suggesting that it might also prevent neurogenesis from being suppressed by cisplatin treatment. To test this hypothesis, rats were treated with cisplatin, D-methionine, cisplatin plus D-methionine, or saline (controls). Seven days after treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and hippocampal sections immunolabeled for doublecortin (DCX) to identify neuronal precursor cells and maturing neurons in the SGZ. Cisplatin significantly reduced the number of DCX-labeled cells (~80 %) relative to controls. In contrast, DCX cell counts in rats treated with D-methionine prior to cisplatin were similar to controls. The treatment with D-methionine alone did not affect the number of DCX cells. These results indicate that D-methionine prevents the dramatic cisplatin-induced decrease of neurogenesis.

  14. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale; Osonuga Ifabunmi Oduyemi; Osonuga Ayokunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats.Methods:moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum.Result:Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.Conclusion:Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  16. PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEURAL STEM CELLS IN ADULT RATS AFTER CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Ren-zhi Wang; Yong Yao; Zhi-hai Liu; Zhi-gang Lian; Yu-jie Zou; Yu-kui Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in adult rats after cerebral infarction.Methods Models of cerebral infarction in rats were made and the time-course expression of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Musashil, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. BrdU and Musashil were used to mark dividing neural stem cells. GFAP and NeuN were used to mark differentiating neural stem cells.Results Compared with controls, the number of BrdU-labeled and BrdU-labeled with Musashil-positive cells increased strikingly 1 day after cerebral infarction; approximately 6 fold with a peak 7 days later; markedly decreased 14 days later, but was still elevated compared with that of controls; decling to the control level 28 days later. The number of BrdU-labeled with GFAP-positive cells nearly remained unchanged in the hippocampus after cerebral infarction. The number of BrdU-labeled with NeuN-positive cells increased strikingly 14 days after cerebral infarction, reached maximum peak in the hippocampus 28 days after cerebral infarction in rats.Conclusion Cerebral infarction stimulate proliferation of inherent neural stem cells and most proliferated neural stem cells differentiate into neurons.

  17. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:23683528

  18. Rehabilitation of masticatory function improves the alveolar bone architecture of the mandible in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavropoulos, Anestis; Odman, Anna; Ammann, Patrick; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2010-09-01

    Masticatory functional changes have been shown to influence the quantity and quality of the alveolar bone during growth. This study was designed to investigate the effect of masticatory function rehabilitation on the morphology and the trabecular architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone after cessation of growth. Forty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats received soft diet in order to develop masticatory muscle hypofunction. After 21 weeks, after cessation of growth, the animals were divided into two groups: the first group continued receiving soft diet for six more weeks (hypofunction group), while the second group changed to ordinary (hard) diet with the aim to restore a normal masticatory function (rehabilitation group). A third group of 16 male rats (normal group) received ordinary (hard) diet during the whole experimental period and served as control. Micro-tomographic histomorphometry was used to evaluate the architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone (e.g. bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, etc.) at the end of the experiment (27 weeks). The height and width of the alveolar process were measured as well. The alveolar process trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) was lower for the animals of the hypofunctional group as compared to those of the normal (pTV was lower in comparison to the normal group (pled to a significant improvement of alveolar bone architecture in adult rats, although the negative effects of hypofunction were not totally reversed during the period under study. PMID:20601301

  19. Prenatal Rosiglitazone Administration to Neonatal Rat Pups Does Not Alter the Adult Metabolic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatally administered rosiglitazone (RGZ is effective in enhancing lung maturity; however, its long-term safety remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of prenatally administered RGZ on the metabolic phenotype of adult rats. Methods. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams were administered either placebo or RGZ at embryonic days 18 and 19. Between 12 and 20 weeks of age, the rats underwent glucose and insulin tolerance tests and de novo fatty acid synthesis assays. The lungs, liver, skeletal muscle, and fat tissue were processed by Western hybridization for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP, and surfactant proteins B (SPB and C (SPC. Plasma was assayed for triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, and troponin-I levels. Lungs were also morphometrically analyzed. Results. Insulin and glucose challenges, de novo fatty acid synthesis, and all serum assays revealed no differences among all groups. Western hybridization for PPARγ, ADRP, SPB, and SPC in lung, liver, muscle, and fat tissue showed equal levels. Histologic analyses showed a similar number of alveoli and septal thickness in all experimental groups. Conclusions. When administered prenatally, RGZ does not affect long-term fetal programming and may be safe for enhancing fetal lung maturation.

  20. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 μg/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 μg/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  1. Differential Mechanisms of Ang (1-7)-Mediated Vasodepressor Effect in Adult and Aged Candesartan-Treated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, E S; K. M. Denton; Widdop, R. E.; Bosnyak, S.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7)) causes vasodilator effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) via angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT2R). However, the role of vascular AT2R in aging is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of aging on Ang (1-7)-mediated vasodepressor effects and vascular angiotensin receptor localization in aging. Blood pressure was measured in conscious adult (~17 weeks) and aged (~19 months) normotensive rats that received drug combinati...

  2. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100.......3% lower), this difference was not found to be statistically significant. In conclusion, a combination of PHA and AKG treatment (AKG+PHA 100%) stimulates proliferation of GI-tract crypt depth and tunica mucosa thickness cf. that of Control rats, findings that would be of benefit to the elderly and to...

  3. Subculture of proliferating adult rat hepatocytes in medium supplemented with nicotinamide and EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, T; Kojima, T; Mizuguchi, T; Mochizuki, Y

    1996-09-01

    To establish parenchymal hepatocyte cell lines, we tried to subculture the primary hepatocytes isolated from adult rats. The hepatocytes were cultured in serum-free modified Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10 mM nicotinamide and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor. When 6 x 10(5) cells were plated on 35-mm dishes coated with rat tail collagen, the cells proliferated and reached confluence at Day 6 to Day 8. The first subculture was carried out at Day 8 using 0.005% collagenase and gentle pipettings. Most cells were recovered and plated on the new dishes coated with the collagen (first passage). The attached cells could proliferate and reached near confluence when the cells occupied more than two-thirds of the dish surface. About a week after the first subculture, the second one was conducted. Although the number of the recovered cells was smaller than at the first passage, the cells could attach and proliferate to a certain extent. Thereafter, they were maintained for more than 2 mo, but they never overgrew. Albumin secretion into the culture medium was confirmed in the subcultured cells. Ultrastructurally, these subcultured cells possessed hepatic characteristics such as peroxisomes with a crystalline nucleiod and bile-canaliculus structures. When 10% fetal bovine serum and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate were added to the cells of the second passage, they began to proliferate very slowly. These proliferating cells were mainly mononucleate and had a small cytoplasm. In addition, some of them could differentitate into typical mature hepatocytes by forming a three-dimensional structure interacting with nonparenchymal cells. In this experiment, we showed the successful subculturing of parenchymal hepatocytes isolated from adult rats and provided evidence that the subcultured cells still have the potential to proliferate and to differentiate.

  4. Effects of H2S on the central regulation of respiration in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hou, Xuefei; Ding, Yan; Nie, Lihong; Zhou, Hua; Nie, Zheng; Tang, Yuhong; Chen, Li; Zheng, Yu

    2014-04-16

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter synthesized from cysteine (Cys) by pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. We investigated the potential roles of H2S in the regulation of central rhythmic respiration in adult rats in vivo. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS: 2.5 mM, 10 mM, and 5 mM) as a source of exogenous H2S, Cys (2.5 mM, 10 mM and 5 mM) as a source of endogenous H2S, 2.5 mM Cys+10 mM hydroxylamine (NH2OH), and 10 mM NH2OH, respectively, were intracerebroventricularly injected into rats. The rhythmic discharge of the diaphragm, including burst duration (BD), burst interval (BI), burst frequency (BF), and integrated amplitude (IA), and arterial blood pressure (BP) were measured at different time points. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance. A total of 2.5 mM NaHS did not significantly affect changes in BD, BI, BF, IA, or BP (P>0.05), whereas 2.5 mM Cys significantly altered BD, BI, and BF (P0.05). A concentration of 5 mM Cys had effects similar to those of 5 mM NaHS; both induced biphasic respiratory responses and changed the BF (P0.05) except for BD was temporarily decreased (P<0.05) in the 2.5 mM Cys+10 mM NH2OH group. These results suggest that exogenous and endogenous H2S may participate in the regulation of respiratory activity in adult rats.

  5. Left ventricular thrombus associated with arteriovenous extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, George; Hashmi, Zubair A.; Wozniak, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has remarkably progressed over the recent years. It has become an invaluable tool in the care of adults and pediatric patients with severe cardiogenic shock. At the initiation of ECMO support, the left ventricular contractility is profoundly impaired. Inadequate right ventricular drainage and bronchial circulation can lead to left ventricular distension, with potential deleterious consequences, ranging from inadequate myocardial rest, pulmonary edema, or intracardiac clot formation. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to ensure an adequate left ventricular drainage. Here we present a case of LV thrombus developed while the patient is on central venoarterial (VA) ECMO. PMID:26716054

  6. Left ventricular thrombus associated with arteriovenous extra corporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, George; Hashmi, Zubair A; Wozniak, Thomas C; Wang, I-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has remarkably progressed over the recent years. It has become an invaluable tool in the care of adults and pediatric patients with severe cardiogenic shock. At the initiation of ECMO support, the left ventricular contractility is profoundly impaired. Inadequate right ventricular drainage and bronchial circulation can lead to left ventricular distension, with potential deleterious consequences, ranging from inadequate myocardial rest, pulmonary edema, or intracardiac clot formation. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to ensure an adequate left ventricular drainage. Here we present a case of LV thrombus developed while the patient is on central venoarterial (VA) ECMO. PMID:26716054

  7. Localization of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 in lipid rafts and modulation of outward K+ currents by membrane cholesterol content in rat left ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakova, Elena; Wagner, Michael; Frank, Magdalena; Volk, Tilmann

    2015-02-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains of the cell membrane. Here we investigate the localization of the pore forming K(+)-channel α-subunit Kv4.2 and the β-subunit KChIP2, underlying the transient outward K(+) current (I to), in lipid rafts in left ventricular myocytes. Furthermore, we explored the impact of membrane cholesterol depletion (using 20 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD)) on K(+) outward currents. Cholesterol-saturated MBCD (20 mM) served as control. Myocytes were isolated from the left ventricular free wall of Wistar rats. The Triton X-100 (4 °C) insoluble fraction of whole cell protein was analyzed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation followed by Western blot. Kv4.2 and KChIP2 were partially detected in low-density fractions (lipid rafts). MBCD treatment (5 min) resulted in a shift of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 towards high-density fractions. K(+) currents were assessed by whole-cell patch-clamp. MBCD treatment resulted in a 29 ± 3 % decrease in I to (20.0 ± 1.6pApF(-1) vs. 28.5 ± 2.0pApF(-1), n = 15, p lipid rafts. Membrane cholesterol depletion results in ~12 % net reduction of I to, a redistribution of the channel proteins Kv4.2 and KChIP2 and an increased delayed rectifier current.

  8. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O.Eweka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups.The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the medial geniculate body showed some cellular degenerative changes, autophagic vacuoles with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections. These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the medial geniculate body (MGB. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the MGB of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  9. Hormone responsiveness of cultured Sertoli cells obtained from adult rats after their rapid isolation under less harsh conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M; Bhattacharya, I; Devi, Y S; Arya, S P; Majumdar, S S

    2016-05-01

    During adulthood, testicular Sertoli cells (Sc) coordinate all stages of germ cell (Gc) development involved in sperm production. However, our understanding about the functions of adult Sc is limited because of the difficulties involved in the process of isolating these cells from the adult testis, mainly because of the presence of large number of advanced Gc which interfere with Sc isolation at this age. Most of our knowledge about Sc function are derived from studies which used pre-pubertal rat Sc (18 ± 2-day old) as it is easy to isolate and culture Sc at this age. To this end, we established a less time consuming and less harsh procedure of isolating Sc from adult (60 days of age) rat testis for facilitating research on Sc-mediated regulation of spermatogenesis during adulthood. The cells were isolated using collagenase digestion at higher temperature, reducing the exposure time of cells to the enzyme. Step-wise digestion with intermittent removal of small clusters of tissue helped in increasing the yield of Sc. Isolated Sc were cultured and treated with FSH and testosterone (T) to evaluate their hormone responsiveness in terms of lactate, E2 , cAMP production. Adult Sc were found to be active and produced high amounts of lactate in a FSH-independent manner. FSH-mediated augmentation of cAMP and E2 production by adult Sc was less as compared with that by pre-pubertal Sc obtained from 18-day-old rats. Androgen-binding ability of adult Sc was significantly higher than pre-pubertal Sc. Although T treatment remarkably augmented expression of Claudin 11, it failed to augment lactate production by adult Sc. This efficient and rapid procedure for isolation and culture of functionally viable adult rat Sertoli cells may pave the way for determining their role in regulation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. PMID:26991307

  10. A rare case of isolated non-compaction right ventricular myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-juan; ZHI Guang; HOU Hai-jun; ZHOU Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Isolated right ventricular noncompaction (IRNC) is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy resulting from an arrest in normal endomyocardial embryogenesis. The clinical syndrome includes systolic and diastolic dysfunction; some cases may have ventricular arrhythmias. We report a case of a female with the diagnosis of right ventricular non-compaction myocardium (RVNC) with normal left ventricular systolic function. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of isolated ventricular non-compaction involving only the right ventricular before 2008, and there have only been described in very few cases of newborns and adult patients.

  11. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  12. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; Phypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  13. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; P<0.05), and this difference could be normalized by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester treatment. In conclusion, perinatal maternal Resv supplementation mitigated the development of hypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats. PMID:26928803

  14. 拉西地平对内质网应激导致左室重塑的保护作用%Protective effects of Lacidipine against left ventricular remodeling caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡中伟; 赵连友; 郑强荪; 刘沙沙; 丁璐; 尚福军; 艾永飞

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究在高温高湿应激状态下拉西地平对葡萄糖调节蛋白(glucose-regulated protein 78,GRP78)和C/EBP环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合转录因子同源蛋白(C/EBP-homologous protein,CHOP)在大鼠心肌中表达及对心室重塑的影响.方法:将30只雄性Sprague-Dawly(SD)大鼠随机分为对照组、高温高湿组、拉西地平干预组,每组10只.喂养6周后颈动脉插管测定平均动脉压及心率.B超检测左室形态结构.免疫组化法检测大鼠心肌GRP78及CHOP蛋白及表达水平.结果:高温高湿组的大鼠平均动脉压(MBP)、隔厚度(IVST)、左室后壁厚度(LPWT)、左室重量指数(LVWI),GRP78及CHOP蛋白表达水平与对照组相比均有显著升高(p<0.01),拉西地平干预组能显著降低大鼠平均动脉压(MBP)、室间隔厚度(ⅣST)、左室重量指数(LVWI),GRP78及CHOP蛋白的表达水平(p<0.05).结论:内质网应激可能参与了高温高湿诱导的左室重构;拉西地平可能通过降低GRP78及CHOP的表达干预了ERS介导的心肌肥厚通路,从而改善心脏功能.%Objective: To investigate the influence of Lacidipine on the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) in rat cardiomyocytes and the effects of it against left ventricular remodeling under the high temper ature and humidity conditions. Methods: 30 male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, high temperature and humidity group and high temperature and humidity + Lacidipine group (0.5 mg·kg-1 ·d-1 per gavage, n=10). 6 weeks later, the MBP and HR were measured through carotid artery incubation, and the morphology of left ventricular was monitored by B- Ultrasound. The expression of GRP78 and CHOP in rat cardiomyocyte were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: The (mean arterial pressure) MBP, (inter ventricularsteptal thickness)IVST,( Left ventricular thick wall thickness)LPWT, (Left entricular mass index)LVWI, as well as the expression of

  15. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  16. Characterization and enrichment of hepatic progenitor cells in adult rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Lan Qin; Xia-Qiu Zhou; Wei Zhang; Hong Yu; Qin Xie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To detect the markers of oval cells in adult rat liver and to enrich them for further analysis of characterization in vitro.METHODS: Rat model for hepatic oval cell proliferation was established with 2-acetylaminofluorene and two third partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH). Paraffin embedded rat liver sections from model (11 d after hepatectomy) and control groups were stained with HE and OV6, cytokeratin19 (CK19),albumin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), connexin43, and c-kit antibodies by immunohistochemistry. Oval cell proliferation was measured with BrdU incorporation test. C-kit positive oval cells were enriched by using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) .The sorted oval cells were cultured in a low density to observe colony formation and to examine their characterization in vitroby immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. RESULTS: A 2-AAF/PH model was successfully established to activate the oval cell compartment in rat liver. BrdU incorporation test of oval cell was positive. The hepatic oval cells coexpressed oval cell specific marker OV6, hepatocytemarker albumin and cholangiocyte-marker CK19. They also expressed AFP and connexin 43. C-kit, one hematopoietic stem cell receptor, was expressed in hepatic oval cells at high levels. By using c-kit antibody in conjunction with MACS,we developed a rapid oval cell isolation protocol. The sorted cells formed colony when cultured in vitro. Cells in the colony expressed albumin or CK19 or coexpressed both and BrdU incorporation test was positive. RT-PCR on colony showed expression of albumin and CK19 gene.CONCLUSION: Hepatic oval cells in the 2-AAF/PH model had the properties of hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Using MACS, we established a method to isolate oval cells. The sorted hepatic oval cells can form colony in vitro which expresses different combinations of phenotypic markers and genes from both hepatocytes and cholangiocyte lineage.

  17. Maternal protein restriction impairs the transcriptional metabolic flexibility of skeletal muscle in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Pérez-García, Georgina; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2014-08-14

    Skeletal muscle exhibits a remarkable flexibility in the usage of fuel in response to the nutrient intake and energy demands of the organism. In fact, increased physical activity and fasting trigger a transcriptional programme in skeletal muscle cells leading to a switch from carbohydrate to lipid oxidation. Impaired metabolic flexibility has been reported to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, but it is not known whether the disability to adapt to metabolic demands is a cause or a consequence of these pathological conditions. Inasmuch as a poor nutritional environment during early life is a predisposing factor for the development of metabolic diseases in adulthood, in the present study, we aimed to determine the long-term effects of maternal malnutrition on the metabolic flexibility of offspring skeletal muscle. To this end, the transcriptional responses of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles to fasting were evaluated in adult rats born to dams fed a control (17 % protein) or a low-protein (8 % protein, protein restricted (PR)) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. With the exception of reduced body weight and reduced plasma concentrations of TAG, PR rats exhibited a metabolic profile that was the same as that of the control rats. In the fed state, PR rats exhibited an enhanced expression of key regulatory genes of fatty acid oxidation including CPT1a, PGC-1α, UCP3 and PPARα and an impaired expression of genes that increase the capacity for fat oxidation in response to fasting. These results suggest that impaired metabolic inflexibility precedes and may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders associated with early malnutrition. PMID:24823946

  18. Parenteral magnesium load testing with 28Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency

  19. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  20. Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug.

  1. TIME COURSE OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL CARBOFURAN, FORMETANATE, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL ON PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); ...

  2. EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE. 1. THE PROXIMAL ALVEOLAR REGION OF JUVENILE AND ADULT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques were devised to isolate tissue from the epithelium of terminal airways and the alveoli proximal to the airways. One day old juveniles and six week old adult rats were exposed to either room air or 0.5 ppm NO2 for 23 hrs per day seven days per week. An additional group ...

  3. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  4. Effect of light-dark changes on the locomotor activity in open field in adult rats and opossums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejbor, I; Ludkiewicz, B; Turlejski, K

    2013-11-01

    There have been no reports on how the light-dark changes determine the locomotor activity of animals in the group of high reactivity (HR) and low reactivity (LR). In the present study we have compared selected parameters of the locomotor activity of the HR and the LR groups of the laboratory opossums and Wistar rats during consecutive, light and dark phases in the open field test. Sixty male Wistar adult rats, at an average weight of 350 g each, and 24 adult Monodelphis opossums of both sexes at an average weight of 120 g each were used. The animals' activity for 2 h daily between the hours of 17:30 and 19:30, in line with the natural light-dark cycle were recorded and then analysed using VideoTrack ver.2.0 (Vievpoint France). According to our results, we noted that a change of the experimental conditions from light to dark involves an increase in the locomotor activity in rats and opossums of the HR group, while there is no effect on the activity of the rats and opossums in the LR group. Locomotor activity in the HR rats, both in the light and dark conditions is characterised by a consistent pattern of change - higher activity in the first stage of the recording and a slowdown (habituation) in the second phase of the observation. The locomotor activity of the opossum, during both light and dark conditions, was observed to be at a consistently high level compared to the rats.

  5. Expression of nestin by neural cells in the adult rat and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Neurons and glial cells in the developing brain arise from neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, is thought to be expressed exclusively by NPCs in the normal brain, and is replaced by the expression of proteins specific for neurons or glia in differentiated cells. Nestin expressing NPCs are found in the adult brain in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus. While significant attention has been paid to studying NPCs in the SVZ and SGZ in the adult brain, relatively little attention has been paid to determining whether nestin-expressing neural cells (NECs exist outside of the SVZ and SGZ. We therefore stained sections immunocytochemically from the adult rat and human brain for NECs, observed four distinct classes of these cells, and present here the first comprehensive report on these cells. Class I cells are among the smallest neural cells in the brain and are widely distributed. Class II cells are located in the walls of the aqueduct and third ventricle. Class IV cells are found throughout the forebrain and typically reside immediately adjacent to a neuron. Class III cells are observed only in the basal forebrain and closely related areas such as the hippocampus and corpus striatum. Class III cells resemble neurons structurally and co-express markers associated exclusively with neurons. Cell proliferation experiments demonstrate that Class III cells are not recently born. Instead, these cells appear to be mature neurons in the adult brain that express nestin. Neurons that express nestin are not supposed to exist in the brain at any stage of development. That these unique neurons are found only in brain regions involved in higher order cognitive function suggests that they may be remodeling their cytoskeleton in supporting the neural plasticity required for these functions.

  6. Effects of Zhenwu decoction on rats with pressure-overloaded left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy XIE%真武汤冲剂对压力负荷性心肌肥厚的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志翔; 王舒茵; 梁子敬; 曾量波

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Zhenwu decoction (a herbal preparation made in a form of instant granules readily soluble into decoction to administer) on rats with chronic pressure-overloaded left ven-tricular hypertrophy. Method All the male SD rats were randomly(random number) divided into 3 groups: sham operation group (n= 8), operation group (n= 15) and herbal medicine group (n= 15). The model of myocar-dial hypertrophy was made by gradually constricting the abdominal aorta. After 16 weeks, cardiac ultrasonography was used in rats of all groups to ascertain the post-operational left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy established. And the Zhenwu decoction was added in the herbal medicine group in a dose of 12 g/kg mixed in feedstuff fed for 8 weeks. After 24 weeks, the weight and structure as well as function of the heart of rats in each group were mea-sured by high-frequency ultrasonography, and Massion stain was performed on cardiac muscles. Meanwhile, both the total collagen volume fraction (CVF-T) and non-coronary vessel collagen volume fraction (CVF-NV) were ana-lyzed. Results There was an increase in the weight of the heart with a predominance of the left ventricle in the operation group (P < 0.05) . The heart was enlarged with diastolic interventricular septum thickness (IVSt) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWt) increased predominantly (P < 0.01). There was a significant decrease in cardiac function (P < 0.05). In herbal medicine group, both the weight and volume of heart were lower than those in operation group with predominance of IVSt and systolic left ventricular wall (P < 0.01 both).And the cardiac function of rats in herbal group was better (P < 0.05). Interstitial and collagen hyperplasia increased significantly in the rats of operation group found by pathological analysis. In herbal medicine group, the pathological changes were blunted in varied magnitude with significant decrease in CVF-T and CVF-NV in compari

  7. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 μm thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 μm) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques

  8. ACQUISITION OF FREEZING RESPONSE IN RATS: SEX DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vargas-Irwin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian fear conditioning is one of the most popular preclinical models in the studyof Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The aim of the present research wasexplore the sex differences that characterize PTSD by means of this experimentalparadigm, as well as to offer a preliminary description of how these sex differencesbehave throughout development. Forty five naïve rats, of Wistar descent were usedas subjects, with 18 males and 27 females approximately balanced by litter acrossthe two experimental groups: adolescents and adults. The results show significantdifferences in the second measurement of the conditioned stimulus in the interactionbetween sex and age and to compare the tree measurements of the conditionedstimulus. Results are discussed regarding the discrepancies in the literature regardingthe effect of the variables evaluated in the acquisition of Conditioned fear.

  9. Dispase rapidly and effectively purifies Schwann cells from newborn mice and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxue Zhu; Jinbao Qin; Zunli Shen; James D. Kretlow; Xiaopan Wang; Zhangyin Liu; Yuqing Jin

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerve of neonatal mice and purified using dispase and collagenase. Results showed that after the first round of purification with dispase, most of the Schwann cells appeared round in shape and floated in culture solution after 15 minutes. In addition, cell yield and cell purity were higher when compared to the collagenase group. After the second round of purification, the final cell yield for the dispase group was higher than that for the collagenase group, but no significant difference was found in cell purity. Moreover, similar results in cell quantity and purity were observed in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. These findings indicate that purification with dispase can result in the rapid isolation of Schwann cells with a high yield and purity.

  10. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied methods that are state of the art in regard to stereological cell counting methods. Using a validated rat model of depression in combination with a clinically relevant schedule of electroconvulsive stimulation, we estimated the total number......The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... induces depression-like behavior, without significantly changing neurogenesis, the total number of neurons or the volume of the hippocampus. Further, electroconvulsive stimulation prevents stress-induced depression-like behavior and increases neurogenesis. The total number of neurons and the granule cell...

  11. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Ch. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: meinecke@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 {mu}m thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 {mu}m) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques.

  12. Effects of Chronic Lead Acetate Intoxication on Blood Indices of Male Adult Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosein Noori Mugahi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead as one of the environmental pollutants can threats the life of living creatures in many ways. In this study, hematological effects of chronic toxicity of the lead acetate in adult male rats through measurement of the lead concentration in the blood of animal’s heart by atomic absorption as well as hematological analyses and differential cell count were investigated. Results showed that lead concentration in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control groups (P<0.001, and basophilic stippling, Howell-Jolly bodies, decreased RBC count (anemia, increased leukocyte count (leukocytosis, monocytosis, eosinopenia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis were observed in the test group (P<0.001. It is concluded that microcytic hypochromic anemia can be attributed to the interaction of lead with iron and copper metabolism and increased leukocyte count may be linked to the inflammatory effects of lead on lymphatic organs.

  13. Ventricular hypertrophy--physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan Williams, E M

    1986-01-01

    Adult cardiac myocytes are incapable of mitosis. Dead cells are replaced by connective tissue so that after myocardial infarction (MI), function can only be restored by compensatory hypertrophy of the surviving myocardium. In physiological hypertrophy in response to exercise, high altitude, or mild hypertension, additional myoplasm expands cell diameter in an orderly fashion; Z-lines are in register and the normal ratio of volume densities of contractile elements, mitochondria, and capillaries is conserved. In hypertrophy induced by aortic or pulmonary artery banding or by experimental or congenital hypertension, the borderline between physiological and pathological hypertrophy may be crossed, causing disorganization of fibers and an unfavourable contractile element to capillary ratio. There was, therefore, a need for a graded model of hypertrophy, which involves simulating an altitude of 6,000 m at sea level by supplying rabbits with appropriate nitrogen/oxygen mixtures. In this environment, 50% right ventricular hypertrophy can be achieved without alteration of left ventricular weight or hematocrit. Longer exposures produced 100% right ventricular hypertrophy, with only moderate increases in hematocrit and left ventricular weight. It is well known that adrenergic stimulation causes cardiac hypertrophy, and it has been suggested that release of a trophic factor from sympathetic nerves, either noradrenaline or a protein, might be a necessary stimulus for growth. If so, long-term treatment of post-MI patients with beta-adrenergic blocking agents could inhibit a desirable compensatory hypertrophy of the surviving myocardium. In the above model it has been found, however, that neither beta-blockade nor chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine or 6-hydroxydopamine had any effect on the hypertrophy, nor did treatment with verapamil or nifedipine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  15. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenti, AnnMarie E; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 microg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P<0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P<0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor beta was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P<0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P<0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  16. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters progenitor cell markers in the subventricular zone of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhyanesh Arvind; Booze, Rosemarie M.; Mactutus, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term consequences of early developmental exposure to drugs of abuse may have deleterious effects on the proliferative plasticity of the brain. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine, using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, on the proliferative cell types of the subventricular zones (SVZ) in the adult (180 days-old) rat brain. Employing immunocytochemistry, the expression of GFAP+ (type B cells) and nestin+(GFAP−) (Type C and A cells) staining was quantified in the subcallosal area of the SVZ. GFAP+ expression was significantly different between the prenatal cocaine treated group and the vehicle (saline) control group. The prenatal cocaine treated group possessed significantly lower GFAP+ expression relative to the vehicle control group, suggesting that prenatal cocaine exposure significantly reduced the expression of type B neural stem cells of the SVZ. In addition, there was a significant sex difference in nestin+ expression with females showing approximately 8–13% higher nestin+ expression compared to the males. More importantly, a significant prenatal treatment condition (prenatal cocaine, control) by sex interaction in nestin+ expression was confirmed, indicating different effects of cocaine based on sex of the animal. Specifically, prenatal cocaine exposure eliminated the basal difference between the sexes. Collectively, the present findings suggest that prenatal exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, can selectively alter the major proliferative cell types in the subcallosal area of the SVZ in an adult rat brain, and does so differently for males and females. PMID:22119286

  17. 辛伐他汀对大鼠心肌梗死后心室电重构及室颤阈值的影响%Effects of simvastatin on ventricular electrical remodeling and ventricular fibrillation threshold in rats with myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅; 李京波; 朱伟; 余涛; 顾北音; 魏盟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of simvastatin on ventricular electrical remodeling and ventricular fibrillation threshold after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods MI was induced by ligation of the anterior descending coronary arteries in rats, and the rats survived were randomized to MI group ( n = 8), medium dose simvastatin group ( M-SIM group, n = 8) and high dose simvastatin group ( H-SIM group, n = 8). Another eight rats were served as sham operation controls( sham group). Twenty-four hours after MI, 1 mg· kg - 1· d -1 and 10 mg· kg- 1 · d - 1 simvastatin was dissolved in distilled water and given by gavage to M-SIM group and H-SIM group for 4 weeks, respectively. Isovolume distilled water was given by garage to MI group and Sham group, respectively. Four weeks after MI, echocardiography was conducted, and in vivo electrophysiological examinations were performed. Results There was no significant difference in QTc intervals in each group before MI (P > 0.05). Four weeks after operation, compared with Sham group, QTc intervals was significantly prolonged in MI group ( P < O. 05), effective refractory period (ERP) was shortened in MI group, resulting in downward shifting of ERP-frequency curves (P < 0.05). The incidence of inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmias (IVT) was higher in MI group (P < O. 05), with lower threshold of ventricular fibrillation ( P < 0.05). In M1 group, ERP was significantly prolonged at S1 S1 intervals of 90 ms and 80 ms compared with that at S1 S1 interval of 120 ms ( P < O. 05). QTc intervals in M-SIM group and H-SIM group were significantly shorter than those in MI group (P < 0.05), resulting in upward shifting of ERP-frequency curves, with no significant difference in ERP between S1S1 intervals (P > 0.05). The incidences of IVT in M-SIM group and H-SIM group were also significantly decreased, with significantly higher thresholds of ventricular fibrillation ( P < O. 05). There was no significant difference

  18. Expression and role of PAK6 after spinal cord injury in adult rat

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    CHEN Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To observe p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6 expression and its possible role after spinal cord injury (SCI in adult rat. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to spinal cord injury. To explore the pathological and physiological significance of PAK6, the expression patterns and distribution of PAK6 were observed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Western blot analysis showed PAK6 protein level was significantly up-regulated on day 2 and day 4, then reduced and had no up-regulation till day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the expression of PAK6 was significantly increased on day 4 compared with the control group. Besides, double immunofluorescence staining showed PAK6 was primarily expressed in the neurons and astrocytes in the control group. While after injury, the expression of PAK6 was increased significantly in the astrocytes and neurons, and the astrocytes were largely proliferated. We also examined the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and found its change was correlated with the expression of PAK6. Importantly, double immunofluorescence staining revealed that cell proliferation evaluated by PCNA appeared in many PAK6-expressing cells on day 4 after injury. Conclusion: The up-regulation of PAK6 in the injured spinal cord may be associated with glial proliferation. Key words: PAK6 protein, human; p21-activated kinases; Spinal cord injury; Astrocytes

  19. Adult-age inflammatory pain experience enhances long-term pain vigilance in rats.

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    Sheng-Guang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous animal studies have illustrated a modulatory effect of neonatal pain experience on subsequent pain-related behaviors. However, the relationship between chronic pain status in adulthood and future pain perception remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we investigated the effects of inflammatory pain experience on subsequent formalin-evoked pain behaviors and fear conditioning induced by noxious stimulation in adult rats. Our results demonstrated an increase of the second but not the first phase of formalin-induced pain behaviors in animals with a history of inflammatory pain that have recovered. Similarly, rats with persistent pain experience displayed facilitated acquisition and prolonged retention of pain-related conditioning. These effects of prior pain experience on subsequent behavior were prevented by repeated morphine administration at an early stage of inflammatory pain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that chronic pain diseases, if not properly and promptly treated, may have a long-lasting impact on processing and perception of environmental threats. This may increase the susceptibility of patients to subsequent pain-related disorders, even when chronic pain develops in adulthood. These data highlight the importance of treatment of chronic pain at an early stage.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PLASTICITY OF PROLIFERATED NEURAL STEM CELLS IN ADULT RATS AFTER CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Ren-zhi Wang; Zhi-gang Lian; Yang Song; Yong Yao

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there is endogenous neural stem cell proliferation and whether these proliferated neural stem cells represent neural plasticity in the adult rats after cerebral infarction.Methods Cerebral infarction models of rats were established and the dynamic expression of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), BrdU/polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. BrdU was used to mark dividing neural stem cells. PSA-NCAM was used to mark the plasticity of neural stem cells.Results Compared with controls, the number of BrdU-positive cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampus increased significantly at 1st day after cerebral infarction (P<0.05), reached maximum at 7th day, decreased markedly at 14th day, but it was still elevated compared with that of the controls (P<0.05). The number of BrdU-labeled with PSA-NCAM-positive cells increased significantly at 7th day (P<0.05 ), reached maximum at 14th day,markedly decreased at 28th day, but it was still elevated compared with that of the controls (P<0.05). It was equal to 60% of the number of BrdU-positive cells in the same period.Conclusion Cerebral infarction may stimulate the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in situ and most proliferated neural stem cells represent neural plasticity.

  1. Methoxychlor induced biochemical alterations and disruption of spermatogenesis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Azhar, Ahmad S

    2013-09-01

    Adult male albino rats were treated orally with methoxychlor at doses of 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 15 consecutive days. Testicular weight, sperm count and motility were significantly decreased. Methoxychlor at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity, while plasma testosterone was significantly decrease by the three dose levels in a dose-related pattern. Testicular activities of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, SDH were significantly decreased, while ACP, ALP (except for 50 mg/kg), and LDH were significantly increased. H2O2 production and LPO were significantly increased while the enzymic (SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymic antioxidants (thiol content) were significantly decreased. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in a dose related manner. The findings of this study indicate that methoxychlor induces oxidative stress associated with impairment of spermatogenesis, in addition to apoptosis. These data provide insight into the mode of action of methoxychlor-induced toxicity in the rat testis.

  2. PDX-1 Expression in Pancreatic Ductal Cells after Partial Pancreatectomy in Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 王春友; 万赤丹; 熊炯忻; 许逸卿; 周峰

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the protein and mRNA expression of pancreas/duodenal homeobox-1(PDX-1), a transcription factor as a marker for pancreatic stem cells, in pancreatic ductal cells of rats after partial (90 %) pancreatectomy and evaluated the significance of the PDX-1 expression.Western blot and Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of PDX-1 protein and mRNA respectively. PDX-1 protein was only faintly detected in pancreatic ductal cells on the day 1 after partial pancreatectomy. On the day 2 and 3 after operation in operation group, a 2-3 fold increased PDX-1 protein was observed, corresponding to the characteristic 42-kD protein in Western blot. There was significant difference between operation group and sham-operation group (P<0.05). PDX-1 protein expression on the day 5 and 7 after operation had already been no difference from control group (P>0.05). RT-PCR revealed the PDX-1mRNA expression showed no significant difference between operation group at various time points and sham-operation group (P>0.05). These results indicate that there was overexpression of PDX-1 in the cells of pancreatic epithelium during the regeneration of remnant pancreas after partial pancreatectomy in adult rats, suggesting the pancreatic stem cells in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells are involved in the regeneration of remnant pancreas and the expression of PDX-1 in ductal cells was regulated posttranscription.

  3. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  4. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  5. Recombinant adeno-associated virus vector expressing angiostatin inhibits preretinal neovascularization in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Chun; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Show-Li; Sun, Ming-Hui; Xiao, Xiao; Ma, Lih; Lin, Keng-Kuo; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Clinically, preretinal neovascularization (PNV) induced by vessel occlusion is one of the leading causes to induce blindness. The present study was designed to determine if a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing mouse angiostatin (rAAV-angiostatin) can inhibit experimental PNV in an adult Sprague-Dawley rat model. rAAV-angiostatin and rAAV-lacZ were delivered by intravitreal injections to the right and left eyes of rats. Transgenetic expression of angiostatin in the retina was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PNV was established by rose-bengal-assisted laser-induced retinal vein occlusion 21 days after the viral injections. The total number and sizes of the neovascular tufts were analyzed 14 days after venous occlusion using retinal flat mount by fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran angiography. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to study any possibility of retinal toxicity of rAAV-angiostatin 3 months after the injections. Angiostatin gene expression in the retina was detectable by RT-PCR, and ERG analysis showed no reduction of b-waves in the rAAV-angiostatin-injected eyes. The number and size of neovascular tufts were significantly lower in rAAV-angiostatin-injected eyes (p = 0.001) than controls. These findings indicated that rAAV-angiostatin successfully suppressed experimental PNV, and no retinal toxicity of the rAAV-angiostatin injection was observed according to ERG recordings. PMID:15637422

  6. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  7. Methoxychlor induces apoptosis via mitochondria- and FasL-mediated pathways in adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithinathan, S; Saradha, B; Mathur, P P

    2010-04-29

    In the past few years, there has been much concern about the adverse health effects of environmental contaminants in general and organochlorine in particular. Studies have shown the repro-toxic effects of long-term exposure to methoxychlor, a member of the organochlorine family. However, the insight into the mechanisms of gonadal toxicity induced by methoxychlor is not well known. In the present study we sought to elucidate the mechanism(s) underpinning the gonadal effects within hours of exposure to methoxychlor. Experimental rats were divided into six groups of four each. Animals were orally administered with a single dose of methoxychlor (50mg/kg body weight) and killed at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72h post-treatment. The levels and time-course of induction of apoptosis-related proteins like cytochorome C, caspase 3 and procaspase 9, Fas-FasL and NF-kappaB were determined to assess sequential induction of apoptosis in the rat testis. DNA damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and flowcytometry. Administration of methoxychlor resulted in a significant increase in the levels of cytosolic cytochrome c and procaspase 9 as early as 6h following exposure. Time-dependent elevations in the levels of Fas, FasL, pro- and cleaved caspase 3 were observed. The DNA damage was measured and showed time-dependent increase in the TUNEL positive cells, and also by flowcytometry of testicular cells. The study demonstrates induction of testicular apoptosis in adult rats following exposure to a single dose of methoxychlor.

  8. 大豆异黄酮对心肌梗死大鼠心室重构的影响%Effect of soybean isoflavones on ventricular remodeling induced by myocardial infarction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玥; 姚明辉; 鲁映青; 贡沁燕

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of soybean isoflavones (SI) on ventricular remodeling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD)rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: shamThree hours after the operation, the drugs or solvent were administrated ig qd for 35 d. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), peak systolic left ventricular pressure (Peak), maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rising (+dp/dtmax), maximal rate of left ventricular pressure declining (-dp/dtmax) and myocardial maximal shortening velocity (Vmax) were measured. After above hemodynamic parameters were measured, hearts were extracted. The ratio of total ventricle weight to body weight(TVW/BW) was calculated. Myocardial collagen was shown with the collagen-specific picrosirius red stain,myocardial interstitial collagen volume fraction(ICVF), perivascular collagen volume fraction(PCVF), infarct size,septal thickness (ST) and left ventricular diameter (LVD) were measured by image analysis system. RESULTS:(31 ± 5) %, respectively, all of which were significantly smaller than that in MI group (( 38.9 ± 2.9) %, P < 0.01 ).In MI group, TVW/BW, LVD, ICVF and PCVF were remarkably increased compared with those in sham group (P < 0.01 ). The increased TVW/BW, LVD, ICVF and PCVF were significantly reduced by treatment with eaprats in MI group was significantly decreased than that in sham group (P < 0.01 ). The reduced ST could be in-dp/dtmax and Vmax were decreased (P < 0.01 ), while LVEDP was increased (P < 0.01 ), significantly. The reSION: SI can improve cardiac function and ventricular remodeling induced by myocardial infarction in the rat.%目的:观察大豆异黄酮对心肌梗死大鼠心室重构的影响.方法:雄性SD大鼠,结扎冠状动脉左前降支,造

  9. Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angio- tensin II type I receptor blocker and their combination on postinfarcted ventricular remodeling in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor (TGF) β1-Smads signal plays an important role in cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, both angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) can effectively prevent left ventricular remodeling. The current study focused on whether the combination of ACEI and ARB is more beneficial for preventing ventricular remodeling and whether Smad proteins mediate this beneficial effect.Results VW/BW significantly increased in the placebo groups compared with that in the control group (P<0.01). This increase was limited in ACEI, ARB, and combined groups (P<0.01 compared with placebo group). There was no significant difference among the three actively treated groups. Collagen was increased in placebo group (5.68±0.5)% compared with that in control group (P<0.01). ACEI, ARB and combined treatment attenuated this increase of collagen [(4.3±0.5)%, (3.5±0.5)%, (3.2±0.4)%] in comparison with that in placebo group (P<0.01 respectively). Combined treatment showed more significant effect on collagen deposition. EF and FS significantly decreased, LVDd and E/A significantly increased in placebo group compared with that in control group (P<0.01 respectively). ACEI, ARB and combined treatment ameliorated these indexes (P<0.01 compared with placebo group). The mRNA expression of TGFβ1, Smad 2, and Smad 3 (0.700±0.045, 0.959±0.037 and 0.850±0.051) increased in placebo group compared with that in control group (P<0.01). ACEI, ARB and combined treatment normalized the increase (P<0.01). Furthermore, ARB and combined treatment proved to be more effective in decreasing TGF β1 and Smad mRNA expression than ACEI treatment (P<0.01). The expression of Smad 2 and Smad 3 protein increased in placebo group compared with that in control group (P<0.01). ACEI, ARB and combined treatment normalized the increase (P<0.01). Furthermore, ARB and combined treatment proved to be more

  10. Ventricular tachycardia in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Miguel A; Pachón, Marta; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis

    2011-02-01

    Cases of sudden cardiac death have been reported in patients with acromegaly. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias may play an important role in this fatal complication, but the exact mechanisms are not well understood. We report on an acromegalic patient presenting with documented recurrent syncopal ventricular tachycardia.

  11. The effects of early-life predator stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  12. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  13. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  14. EFFECTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ON LIVER FUNCTION OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    Ezeuko Vitalis C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the hepatotoxic effect of mercury chloride and effects of zingiber officinale on this hepatotoxicity. These were carried out via estimation of liver function tests. Fifteen adult wistar rats were used for the experimental investigations. They were grouped into three: groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Animals in group 1 served as the control group. Group 2 consists of rats administered with mercuric chloride (5mg/kg body weight through intraperitoneal injection. Group three consists of rats administered with mercuric chloride (5mg/ kg body weight through intraperitoneal injection and fed with diet supplemented with ginger. The experimental period lasted for twenty days. The rats were sacrificed on the twentieth day after being starved for twelve hours. The blood samples collected by cardiac puncture and placed in appropriately labeled bottles for the various assays.The data obtained was analyzed using the students' t-test distribution. Means of the data was obtained and recorded as mean + standard deviation. There was an increase in the weight of the rats in the control group. There was a decrease in the mean weight of the rats treated with mercury only while in the rats treated with mercury and ginger, there was an increase in the mean weight. The bilirubin level of the rats treated with mercury is significantly higher (P0.05 between the rats in the control group and the rats treated with mercury and ginger. The aspartate aminotransaminase level, alanine aminotransferase level and alkaline phosphatase level are significantly lower (P<0.05 in the rats of the control group than both the rats treated with mercury only and the ones treated with mercury and ginger. These were lower in the rats treated with ginger than the rats treated with mercuric chloride alone. These reduction is however not statistically significant and it presents that these could be dosage related.These results indicate that mercuric

  15. Extensive neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cell grafts in adult rat spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective treatments for degenerative and traumatic diseases of the nervous system are not currently available. The support or replacement of injured neurons with neural grafts, already an established approach in experimental therapeutics, has been recently invigorated with the addition of neural and embryonic stem-derived precursors as inexhaustible, self-propagating alternatives to fetal tissues. The adult spinal cord, i.e., the site of common devastating injuries and motor neuron disease, has been an especially challenging target for stem cell therapies. In most cases, neural stem cell (NSC transplants have shown either poor differentiation or a preferential choice of glial lineages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present investigation, we grafted NSCs from human fetal spinal cord grown in monolayer into the lumbar cord of normal or injured adult nude rats and observed large-scale differentiation of these cells into neurons that formed axons and synapses and established extensive contacts with host motor neurons. Spinal cord microenvironment appeared to influence fate choice, with centrally located cells taking on a predominant neuronal path, and cells located under the pia membrane persisting as NSCs or presenting with astrocytic phenotypes. Slightly fewer than one-tenth of grafted neurons differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The presence of lesions increased the frequency of astrocytic phenotypes in the white matter. CONCLUSIONS: NSC grafts can show substantial neuronal differentiation in the normal and injured adult spinal cord with good potential of integration into host neural circuits. In view of recent similar findings from other laboratories, the extent of neuronal differentiation observed here disputes the notion of a spinal cord that is constitutively unfavorable to neuronal repair. Restoration of spinal cord circuitry in traumatic and degenerative diseases may be more realistic than previously thought, although major

  16. Susceptibility to Inhaled Flame-Generated Ultrafine Soot in Neonatal and Adult Rat Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Anderson, Donald S.; Abid, Aamir D.; Wallis, Christopher D.; Dickinson, Dale A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    Over a quarter of the U.S. population is exposed to harmful levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution, which has been linked to development and exacerbation of respiratory diseases leading to morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Young children are especially susceptible to PM and can experience altered anatomic, physiologic, and biological responses. Current studies of ambient PM are confounded by the complex mixture of soot, metals, allergens, and organics present in the complex mixture as well as seasonal and temporal variance. We have developed a laboratory-based PM devoid of metals and allergens that can be replicated to study health effects of specific PM components in animal models. We exposed 7-day-old postnatal and adult rats to a single 6-h exposure of fuel-rich ultrafine premixed flame particles (PFPs) or filtered air. These particles are high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content. Pulmonary cytotoxicity, gene, and protein expression were evaluated at 2 and 24 h postexposure. Neonates were more susceptible to PFP, exhibiting increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and ethidium homodimer-1 cellular staining in the lung in situ as an index of cytotoxicity. Basal gene expression between neonates and adults differed for a significant number of antioxidant, oxidative stress, and proliferation genes and was further altered by PFP exposure. PFP diminishes proliferation marker PCNA gene and protein expression in neonates but not adults. We conclude that neonates have an impaired ability to respond to environmental exposures that increases lung cytotoxicity and results in enhanced susceptibility to PFP, which may lead to abnormal airway growth. PMID:21914721

  17. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. PMID:26238258

  18. Beneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Reduction of Testicular Tissue Alteration Following Induction of Diabetes in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various types of infertility are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and diabetes. Development of oxidative stress is one the most important factors in the alteration of spermatogenesis in diabetic conditions. Consequently, the reduction of oxidative stress with antioxidant compounds can be effective in the reduction of tissue alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in improvement of spermatogenesis in adult diabetic rats. Material and Methods: 32 adult rats were divided into four groups of control and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg body weight - b.w. was administrated to one control and one diabetic (intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of Streptozotocin groups. Blood concentrations of FSH, LH and Testosterone were measured. Histology of testicular tissue and sperm analysis were considered for evaluation of spermatogenesis. Results: Administration of Coenzyme Q10 led to increase of pituitary gonadotropins levels in diabetic rats. Testosterone levels were not changed significantly. Testicular morphology, spermatogenic indices and sperm analysis were improved in treated diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the use of Coenzyme Q10 has positive effects in reduction of spermatogenic alterations following induction of experimental diabetes in rats.

  19. The protective effect of vitamin E against oxidative damage caused by formaldehyde in the testes of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dang-Xia Zhou; Shu-Dong Qiu; Jie Zhang; Hong Tian; Hai-Xue Wang

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of formaldehyde (FA) on testes and the protective effect of vitamin E (VE) against oxidative damage by FA in the testes of adult rats. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1)control; (2) FA treatment group (Fat); and (3) Fat + VE group. Fat and Fat + VE groups were exposed to FA by inhalation at a concentration of 10 mg/m3 for 2 weeks. In addition, Fat + VE group were orally administered VE during the 2-week FA treatment. After the treatment, the histopathological and biochemical changes in testes, as well as the quantity and quality of sperm, were observed. Results: The testicular weight, the quantity and quality of sperm, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione (GSH) were significantly decreased whereas the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased in testes of rats in Fat group compared with those in the control group. VE treatment restored these parameters in Fat + VE group. In addition,microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed that seminiferous tubules atrophied, seminiferous epithelial cells disintegrated and shed in rats in Fat group and VE treatment significantly improved the testicular structure in Fat + VE group. Conclusion: FA destroys the testicular structure and function in adult rats by inducing oxidative stress,and this damage could be partially reversed by VE.

  20. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  1. Tolerância ao esforço em ratos com estenose aórtica e disfunção ventricular diastólica e/ou sistólica Exercise tolerance in rats with aortic stenosis and ventricular diastolic and/or systolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Castro Mendes

    2013-01-01

    although there is no data available on this parameter in animals with ventricular dysfunction and no signs of HF. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate ST in rats with ventricular diastolic dysfunction isolated or associated with systolic dysfunction induced by ascending aortic stenosis (AoS. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (20-30 days old, divided in: control group (CG, n=11 and AoSG group, (n=12. Animals were assessed at 6 and 18 weeks after AoS surgery. Treadmill exercise test was until exhaustion and evaluated treadmill speed and lactate concentration [LAC] at lactate threshold, treadmill speed and [LAC] at exhaustion, and total testing time. RESULTS: Echocardiography data revealed remodeling of the left atrium and left ventricular concentric hypertrophy at 6 and 18 weeks. Endocardial fractional shortening was greater in AoSG than CG at 6 and 18 weeks. Midwall fractional shortening was greater in AoSG than in CG only 6 week. Cardiac index was similar in CG and AoSG at 6 and 18 weeks and decreased between from 6 to 18 weeks in both groups. The E wave to A wave ratio was greater in CG than in AoSG at both periods and did not change in both groups between week 6 and 18. Treadmill stress testing parameters were similar in both groups at 6 or 18 weeks. CONCLUSION: Although AoS promotes isolated diastolic dysfunction or associated with systolic dysfunction at 6 or 18 weeks, it is not sufficient to modify physical stress tolerance.

  2. Tolerância ao esforço em ratos com estenose aórtica e disfunção ventricular diastólica e/ou sistólica Exercise tolerance in rats with aortic stenosis and ventricular diastolic and/or systolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Castro Mendes

    2012-01-01

    although there is no data available on this parameter in animals with ventricular dysfunction and no signs of HF. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate ST in rats with ventricular diastolic dysfunction isolated or associated with systolic dysfunction induced by ascending aortic stenosis (AoS. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (20-30 days old, divided in: control group (CG, n=11 and AoSG group, (n=12. Animals were assessed at 6 and 18 weeks after AoS surgery. Treadmill exercise test was until exhaustion and evaluated treadmill speed and lactate concentration [LAC] at lactate threshold, treadmill speed and [LAC] at exhaustion, and total testing time. RESULTS: Echocardiography data revealed remodeling of the left atrium and left ventricular concentric hypertrophy at 6 and 18 weeks. Endocardial fractional shortening was greater in AoSG than CG at 6 and 18 weeks. Midwall fractional shortening was greater in AoSG than in CG only 6 week. Cardiac index was similar in CG and AoSG at 6 and 18 weeks and decreased between from 6 to 18 weeks in both groups. The E wave to A wave ratio was greater in CG than in AoSG at both periods and did not change in both groups between week 6 and 18. Treadmill stress testing parameters were similar in both groups at 6 or 18 weeks. CONCLUSION: Although AoS promotes isolated diastolic dysfunction or associated with systolic dysfunction at 6 or 18 weeks, it is not sufficient to modify physical stress tolerance.

  3. Temperament moderates the influence of periadolescent social experience on behavior and adrenocortical activity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, M J; McClintock, M K; Cavigelli, S A

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant behavioral and physiological maturation, particularly related to stress responses. Animal studies that have tested the influence of adolescent social experiences on stress-related behavioral and physiological development have led to complex results. We used a rodent model of neophobia to test the hypothesis that the influence of adolescent social experience on adult behavior and adrenocortical function is modulated by pre-adolescent temperament. Exploratory activity was assessed in 53 male Sprague-Dawley rats to classify temperament and then they were housed in one of the three conditions during postnatal days (PND) 28-46: (1) with familiar kin, (2) with novel social partners, or (3) individually with no social partners. Effects on adult adrenocortical function were evaluated from fecal samples collected while rats were individually-housed and exposed to a 1-hour novel social challenge during PND 110-114. Adolescent-housing with novel or no social partners led to reduced adult glucocorticoid production compared to adolescent-housing with familiar littermates. Additionally, highly-exploratory pre-weanling rats that were housed with novel social partners during adolescence exhibited increased exploratory behavior and a more rapid return to basal glucocorticoid production in adulthood compared to those housed with familiar or no social partners during adolescence and compared to low-exploratory rats exposed to novel social partners. In sum, relatively short-term adolescent social experiences can cause transient changes in temperament and potentially longer-term changes in recovery of glucocorticoid production in response to adult social challenges. Furthermore, early temperament may modulate the influence of adolescent experiences on adult behavioral and adrenocortical function.

  4. Genetic loci for ventricular dilatation in the LEW/Jms rat with fetal-onset hydrocephalus are influenced by gender and genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga David A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LEW/Jms rat strain has inherited hydrocephalus, with more males affected than females and an overall expression rate of 28%. This study aimed to determine chromosomal positions for genetic loci causing the hydrocephalus. Methods An F1 backcross was made to the parental LEW/Jms strain from a cross with non-hydrocephalic Fischer 344 rats. BC1 rats were generated for two specific crosses: the first with a male LEW/Jms rat as parent and grandparent, [(F × L × L], designated B group, and the second with a female LEW/Jms rat as the parent and grandparent [L × (L × F], designated C group. All hydrocephalic and a similar number of non-hydrocephalic rats from these two groups were genotyped with microsatellite markers and the data was analyzed separately for each sex by MAPMAKER. Results The frequency of hydrocephalus was not significantly different between the two groups (18.2 and 19.9 %, but there was a significant excess of males in the B group. The mean severity of hydrocephalus, measured as the ventricle-to-brain width ratio, was ranked as B group Conclusion Phenotypic expression of hydrocephalus in Lew/Jms, although not X-linked, has a strong male bias. One, and possibly two chromosomal regions are associated with the hydrocephalus.

  5. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  6. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi; Farhad Soltanalinejad; Gholamreza Najafi; Leila Roshangar

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin ...

  7. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) -α and -β transcripts in the neonatal and adult rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the present study expression of estrogen receptor subtype -α (ERα) and -β (ERβ) in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb was investigated and compared between neonatal (1~ 3-days-old) and adult (250~350g) rats, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No ERα transcripts were detectable in the adult cerebellum and olfactory bulb, whereas very weak expression of ERα was present in the adult cerebral cortex. No significant difference in ERβ transcripts was detectable between the neonatal and adult rats. While transcripts for both ER subtypes were co-expressed in these brain areas of neonatal rats, although ERα expression was significantly weaker than ERβ. Even in the cerebral cortex known to contain both ER subtypes in adult rats, ERα transcripts in neonatal rats were much higher than in adult. These observations provide evidence for the existence of different expression patterns of ERα/ERβ transcripts in these three brain areas between the neonatal and adult rats, suggesting that each ER subtype may play a distinct role in the regulation of differentiation, development, and functions of the brain by estrogen.

  8. Altered dendritic arborization of amygdala neurons in young adult rats orally intubated with Clitorea ternatea aqueous root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kiranmai S; Murthy, K Dilip; Rao, Muddanna S; Karanth, K Sudhakar

    2005-07-01

    Young adult (60 day old) Wistar rats of either sex were orally intubated with 50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days, along with age-matched saline controls. These rats were then subjected to passive avoidance tests and the results from these studies showed a significant increase in passive avoidance learning and retention. Subsequent to the passive avoidance tests, these rats were killed by decapitation. The amygdala was processed for Golgi staining and the stained neurons were traced using a camera lucida and analysed. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic intersections, branching points and dendritic processes arising from the soma of amygdaloid neurons in CTR treated rats especially in the 100 mg/kg group of rats, compared with age-matched saline controls. This improved dendritic arborization of amygdaloid neurons correlates with the increased passive avoidance learning and memory in the CTR treated rats as reported earlier. The results suggest that Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract enhances memory by increasing the functional growth of neurons of the amygdala. PMID:16161034

  9. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  10. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  11. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F0) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F1) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  12. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas Del Rio, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200-300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0-5, 5-24, 24-48, and 48-72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5-24, 24-48, and 48-72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  13. Anxiety-like behaviour in adult rats perinatally exposed to maternal calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Paolini, Antonio G; Govic, Antonina; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen

    2008-08-22

    Environmental stimuli such as caloric availability during the perinatal period exert a profound influence on the development of an organism. Studies in this domain have focused on the effects of under- and malnutrition while the effects of more mild levels of restriction have not been delineated. Rat dams and their offspring were subjected to one of five dietary regimens: control, CR50% for 3 days preconception, CR25% during gestation, CR25% during lactation, and CR25% during gestation, lactation, and post-weaning (lifelong). The pup retrieval test and maternal observations were conducted during lactation to quantify maternal care. In the pup retrieval test, dams that were concurrently experiencing CR (i.e., from the lactation and lifelong groups) displayed shorter latencies to retrieve all pups than the control and preconception groups and the lactation group constructed better nests than all groups. Adult offspring were tested in three tests of anxiety: the elevated plus maze, open field, and emergence test. No differences were observed in the elevated plus maze; however, in the open field preconception animals made fewer entries and spent more time in the central zone than controls. In addition, preconception offspring exhibited longer latencies to full body emergence, spent less time fully emerged, and spent more time engaged in risk assessment behaviours than all other groups. Offspring from the preconception group were also on average 11% heavier than control rats throughout life and displayed 37% higher serum leptin concentrations than controls. A potential role for leptin in the anxiogenic effect of preconception CR is discussed.

  14. The influence of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on the brain iron metabolism in adult Sprague dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qiong; Li Yaru; Chang Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Iron is an essential element in all living organisms and is required as a cofactor for oxygen-binding proteins. Iron metabolism, oxygen homeostasis and erythropoiesis are consequently strongly inter-connected. In mammalian cells, exposure to a low-oxygen environment triggers a hypoxic response pathway cen-tered on the regulated expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ( HIF) . Hypoxia has been shown to increase the expression of a variety of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. However, little is known about brain iron metabolism after intermittent hypobaric hypoxia ( IHH) treatment. In this study, adult Sprague dawley ( SD) rats were treated with IHH for 28 days, 8h per day and then we detected iron homeostasis in different brain areas of SD rats. Results:The protein level of hippocampus transferrin receptor 1 ( TfR1 ) , divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) with IRE, DMT1 (-IRE), ferritin-H, iron regulatory protein (IRP) 2 and ceruloplasmin (CP) is ele-vated significantly while ferritin-L decreased. We have also found the down regulation of IRP1. We observe the same results in the cerebral cortex in the brain. Conclusions:We first discover that IHH has an influence on the brain iron homeostasis and the decreased ferritin-L corresponds to the down regulation of IRP1 indicating hypoxia can affect the expression of ferritin-L through IRE/IRP system. Although there is a marked increase in TfR1 ex-pression that would lead to the raised level of LIP in cells. It can finally result in the higher ROS which can damage the cells. The concerned mechanisms involved in it remain to be deliberated.

  15. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboma, Yibala .I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26 adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6 and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal injection of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sacrifice was carried out on 24hrs, 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. Tissues collected were prepared for histology using heamatoxylin and eosin staining techniques while serum lipid profile, glucose level, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde (MDA and liver enzymes were analyze using Selectra and micro Elisa. RESULT: High doses (500mg/kg and prolonged exposure to the extract resulted in spectrum effects. Prolonged and increase concentration of extract administration causes increase in body weight and is statistically significant at P<0.05, t=35 and df=8, decrease in lipid profile, creatine kinase (CK-MB, malondialdehyde (MDA, liver enzymes and glucose at both higher and lower doses of 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively. Photomicrograph with magnification of x400, show normal histology of the heart and liver. CONCLUSION: Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera show a potential anti-hyperglycemia and antilipidemic properties with no notable hepatotoxicity and cardiac injury. This study supports the popular sayings about the tradomedicinal use of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  16. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  17. Exposure to Hyperoxia Decreases the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Receptors in Adult Rat Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Klekamp, Jessica G.; Jarzecka, Kasia; Perkett, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of inspired oxygen leads to respiratory failure and death in many animal models. Endothelial cell death is an early finding, before the onset of respiratory failure. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in the lungs of adult animals. In the present study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to >95% FiO2 for 24 or 48 hours. Northern blot analysis revealed a marked reduction in VEGF mRNA abundance by 24 hours, which decreased to less than 50% ...

  18. Myocardium-derived conditioned medium improves left ventricular function in rodent acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Kuo-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether myocardium-derived conditioned medium (MDCM is effective in preserving left ventricular (LV function in a rat acute myocardial infarction (AMI model. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 36 randomized to receive either left coronary artery ligation (AMI induction or thoracotomy only (sham procedure were grouped as follows (n = 6 per group: Group I, II, and III were sham-controls treated by fresh medium, normal rat MDCM, and infarct-related MDCM, respectively. Group IV, V, and VI were AMI rats treated by fresh medium, normal MDCM, and infarct-related MDCM, respectively. Either 75 μL MDCM or fresh medium was administered into infarct myocardium, followed by intravenous injection (3 mL at postoperative 1, 12, and 24 h. Results In vitro studies showed higher phosphorylated MMP-2 and MMP-9, but lower α-smooth muscle actin and collagen expressions in neonatal cardiac fibroblasts treated with MDCM compared with those in the cardiac fibroblasts treated with fresh medium (all p Conclusion MDCM therapy reduced cardiac fibrosis and oxidative stress, enhanced angiogenesis, and preserved 90-day LV function in a rat AMI model.

  19. A 9-wk docosahexaenoic acid-enriched supplementation improves endurance exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Marie; Chaté, Valérie; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Morio, Béatrice; Pieroni, Gérard; Schlattner, Uwe; Pison, Christophe; Dubouchaud, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Decline in skeletal muscle mass and function starts during adulthood. Among the causes, modifications of the mitochondrial function could be of major importance. Polyunsaturated fatty (ω-3) acids have been shown to play a role in intracellular functions. We hypothesize that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation could improve muscle mitochondrial function that could contribute to limit the early consequences of aging on adult muscle. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-polyunsaturated fat diet and were given DHA (DHA group) or placebo (control group) for 9 wk. Rats from the DHA group showed a higher endurance capacity (+56%, P supplementation could be of potential interest for the muscle function in adults and for fighting the decline in exercise tolerance with age that could imply energy-sensing pathway, as suggested by changes in phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio. PMID:26646102

  20. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nozhat; Sanaz Alaee; Khodabakhsh Behzadi; Najmeh Azadi Chegini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C) and three experimental groups (I, II and III) received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility an...

  1. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  2. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  3. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  4. Methylphenidate treatment leads to abnormalities on krebs cycle enzymes in the brain of young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Scaini, Giselli; Furlanetto, Camila B; Morais, Meline O S; Jeremias, Isabela C; Mello-Santos, Lis Mairá; Freitas, Karolina V; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between energy metabolism and methylphenidate (MPH); however, there are no studies evaluating the effects of MPH in Krebs cycle. So, we investigated if MPH treatment could alter the activity of citrate synthase (CS), malate dehydrogenase (MD), and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ID) in the brain of young and adult Wistar rats. Our results showed that MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg) reduced CS in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PF), with MPH at all doses in the cerebellum and hippocampus after chronic treatment in young rats. In adult rats the CS was reduced in the cerebellum after acute treatment with MPH at all doses, and after chronic treatment in the PF and cerebellum with MPH (10 mg/kg), and in the hippocampus with MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg). The ID decreased in the hippocampus and striatum with MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg), and in the cortex (10 mg/kg) after acute treatment in young rats. In adult rats acute treatment with MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg) reduced ID in the cerebellum, and with MPH (10 mg/kg) in the cortex; chronic treatment with MPH (10 mg/kg) decreased ID in the PF; with MPH (2 and 10 mg/kg) in the cerebellum, and with MPH at all doses in the hippocampus. The MD did not alter. In conclusion, our results suggest that MPH can alter enzymes of Krebs cycle in brain areas involved with circuits related with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; however, such effects depend on age of animal and treatment regime.

  5. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  6. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: Comparison of aged and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ozbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7 and aged (24 mo, n = 7 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14 fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrified and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  7. Nursing experience of Beta blocker in treating perioperative malignant ventricular arrhythmia in adult rheumatic valves patients%心脏瓣膜病围术期恶性室性心律失常应用β-受体阻滞剂的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To Retrospectively assess the nursing experience of β- receptor blockers in treating perioperative malignant ventricular arrhythmias of adult rheumatic valves patients. Methods The data of 52 adult rheumatic valves patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmias from the first week before surgery to 1 month after the operation was collected. Ventricular arrhythmias were detected by bedside monitor. Once malignant ventricular arrhythmia was found, β - receptor blocker injection was used. Nurses monitored the haemodynamics and electrolyte strictly, paying close attention to effects of pharmaceutical drugs. Results Malignant ventricular arrhythmias were effectively controlled. All 52 patients recovered.%目的 回顾性评估心脏瓣膜病围术期并发恶性室性心律失常,应用β-受体阻滞剂治疗的护理体会.方法 收集本科风湿性心脏瓣膜病术前1周-术后1月出现恶性室性心律失常的患者52例,均用床边心电监测,一旦发现恶性室性心律失常,予β-受体阻滞剂静脉注射,严密监测血流动力学及电解质变化,重视用药护理.结果 恶性室性心律失常得到有效控制,52例患者均治愈.结论 发生室性心律失常的患者使用β受体阻滞剂治疗,配合良好的护理和监测可使药物疗效更加满意.

  8. Gender-Related Differences in Sensitivity to Diazinon in Gonads of Adult Rats and the Protective Effect of Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Sargazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diazinon (DZN is an organophosphate pesticide which is known to induce oxidative stress in the target tissues such as the reproductive system. The aim of present study was to compare and evaluate the effects of DZN on Malondialdehyde (MDA and Glutathione (GSH levels in testis and ovary of rats and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 adult Wistar rats including 30 male and 30 female rats. Each of male and female groups included 30 rats and were divided into 5 groups: control (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure olive oil daily, treatment group 1 (received DZN+olive oil daily, 60 mg/kg, treatment group 2 (received DZN, 60 mg/kg + vitamin E, 200 mg/kg daily and treatment group 3 (received vitamin E daily, 200 mg/kg. MDA and GSH levels were determined in gonads. Results: In both genders, due to administration of DZN, we found significant reduction in GSH content and increase in MDA level. The use of vitamin E plus DZN increased GSH content while decreased MDA level of ovary and testis compared with DZN treated rats. Gonad of female rats compared with male rats showed more increase in MDA level and further decline in GSH content in treatment groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: Oxidative stress contributes to DZN-induced sexual organ toxicity. Our results concluded that vitamin E may have a protective role in this toxicity. Female rats are likely more vulnerable to oxidative stress and its damages.

  9. ERK Is Involved in the Reorganization of Somatosensory Cortical Maps in Adult Rats Submitted to Hindlimb Unloading

    OpenAIRE

    Erwan Dupont; Laurence Stevens; Laetitia Cochon; Maurice Falempin; Bruno Bastide; Marie-Hélène Canu

    2011-01-01

    Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU) in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical ...

  10. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Puran Badkoobeh; Kazem Parivar; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Seyed Davood Hosseini; Alireza Salabat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including...

  11. Effect of Pistacia Vera Oil on Pituitary Gonad Axis and Histological Testis Changes in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    f Porhemmat; M Shariati; L Sepehrara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Pistachio oil contains the chemical compounds such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids can inhibit 5-α- reductase enzyme and unsaturated fatty acids increase cholesterol levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of pistachio oil on adult male rats’ reproductive status. Methods: In the present experimental study, 40 male Wistar rat were divided into five groups of eight. The control group received ...

  12. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,29,3,4,49,5,59- Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 ...

  13. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...

  14. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-jing Chen; Bing-qing Shen; Dan-dan Liu; Sheng-tian Li

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spont...

  15. Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Fuentes, Sílvia; Gagliano, Humberto; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Armario, Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Nadal, Roser

    2011-10-01

    Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.

  16. ERK is involved in the reorganization of somatosensory cortical maps in adult rats submitted to hindlimb unloading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Dupont

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity in adult rats submitted to a sensorimotor restriction, we analyzed the time-course of ERK1/2 activation by immunoblot and of cortical reorganization by electrophysiological recordings, on rats submitted to hindlimb unloading over four weeks. Immunohistochemistry analysis provided evidence that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in layer III neurons of the somatosensory cortex. This increase was transient, and parallel to the changes in hindpaw cortical map area (layer IV. By contrast, receptive fields were progressively enlarged from 7 to 28 days of hindlimb unloading. To determine whether ERK1/2 was involved in cortical remapping, we administered a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD-98059 through osmotic mini-pump in rats hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Results demonstrate that focal inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway prevents cortical reorganization, but had no effect on receptive fields. These results suggest that ERK1/2 plays a role in the induction of cortical plasticity during hindlimb unloading.

  17. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Expression of a Novel Intergenic Long Noncoding RNA in Adult rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-02-01

    Around 90% of the mammalian genome undergoes pervasive transcription into various types of small and long regulatory noncoding RNAs, whereas only ∼ 1.5% codes for proteins. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute diverse classes of sense- and antisense transcripts that are abundantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) in cell type- and developmental stage-specific manners. They are implicated in brain development, differentiation, neuronal plasticity, and other cognitive functions. Mammalian brain requires the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) for its normal development, differentiation, and cell-fate determination. However, its role in adult brain function is less understood. Here, we report atRA-mediated transcriptional upregulation of endogenous expression of a novel long intergenic noncoding RNA-rat brain expressed (LINC-RBE) in cultured primary hippocampal neurons from adult rat. We have previously reported LINC-RBE as an intergenic, simple repeat sequence containing lncRNA highly expressed in the rat brain. This is a first-time report of involvement of atRA in transcriptional upregulation of lncRNA expression in rat hippocampal neurons. Therefore, it may be involved in regulation of brain function and disease. PMID:26572536

  18. Environmental Circadian Disruption Worsens Neurologic Impairment and Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpeng; Ma, Shanshan; Guo, Dewei; Cheng, Tian; Li, Hongwei; Tian, Yi; Li, Jianbin; Guan, Fangxia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Circadian rhythms modulate many physiologic processes and behaviors. Therefore, their disruption causes a variety of potential adverse effects in humans and animals. Circadian disruption induced by constant light exposure has been discovered to produce pathophysiologic consequences after brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to more severe impairment and disruption of neurophysiologic processes are not well understood. Here, we evaluated the effect of constant light exposure on the neurobehavioral impairment and survival of neurons in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a weight-drop model of TBI and then exposed to either a standard 12-/12-h light/dark cycle or a constant 24-h light/light cycle for 14 days. Our results showed that 14 days of constant light exposure after TBI significantly worsened the sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which were associated with decreased body weight, impaired water and food intake, increased cortical lesion volume, and decreased neuronal survival. Furthermore, environmental circadian disruption inhibited cell proliferation and newborn cell survival and decreased immature cell production in rats subjected to the TBI model. We conclude that circadian disruption induced by constant light exposure worsens histologic and neurobehavioral impairment and inhibits neurogenesis in adult TBI rats. Our novel findings suggest that light exposure should be decreased and circadian rhythm reestablished in hospitalized TBI patients and that drugs and strategies that maintain circadian rhythm would offer a novel therapeutic option. PMID:26886755

  19. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  20. Microarray analysis of thyroid hormone-induced changes in mRNA expression in the adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Mreyoud, Amjad; Fishman, Miriam; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2004-07-15

    To determine which genes in the adult rat brain are regulated by thyroid hormone (TH), we used microarrays to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on neuron-specific gene expression. Four-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were rendered hyperthyroid by intraperitoneal injection of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3, 15 microg/100 g body weight) for 10 consecutive days. To minimize interindividual variability, pooled cerebral tissue RNA from four-control and five-hyperthyroi